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Sample records for reduce co2 emissions

  1. Researchers Uncover Copper's Potential for Reducing CO2 Emissions in

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Chemical Looping | Department of Energy Researchers Uncover Copper's Potential for Reducing CO2 Emissions in Chemical Looping Researchers Uncover Copper's Potential for Reducing CO2 Emissions in Chemical Looping February 18, 2016 - 11:33am Addthis Researchers Uncover Copper’s Potential for Reducing CO2 Emissions in Chemical Looping Copper. It's been used in wires, pipes, and pennies for decades. Ancient Egyptians used it to sterilize wounds and clean drinking water. Today some hospitals

  2. Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

    2002-01-01

    Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

  3. Review of cost estimates for reducing CO2 emissions. Final report, Task 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Since the ground breaking work of William Nordhaus in 1977, cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions have been developed by numerous groups. The various studies have reported sometimes widely divergent cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Some recent analyses have indicated that large reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved at zero or negative costs (e.g. Rocky Mountain Institute 1989). In contrast, a recent study by Alan Manne of Stanford and Richard Richels of the Electric Power Research Institute (Manne-Richels 1989) concluded that in the US the total discounted costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 20 percent below the 1990 level could be as much as 3.6 trillion dollars over the period from 1990 to 2100. Costs of this order of magnitude would represent about 5 percent of US GNP. The purpose of this briefing paper is to summarize the different cost estimates for CO{sub 2} emission reduction and to identify the key issues and assumptions that underlie these cost estimates.

  4. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

  5. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

  6. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

    2003-01-20

    An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

  7. Reduced Regeneration Energy CO2 Adsorbent | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Reduced Regeneration Energy CO2 Adsorbent

  8. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information" Excel Spreadsheet References "CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion" Retrieved from "http:...

  9. High Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms And Implications For Flux Measurement And Fractionation Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  10. Tool for calculation of CO2 emissions from organisations | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map Language: English Tool for calculation of CO2 emissions from organisations Screenshot...

  11. NETL - World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends Tool | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to look at both total and power sector CO2 emissions from the use of coal, oil, or natural gas, over the period 1990 to 2030. One can use the tool to compare five of the larger...

  12. Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance Cost effective reduction of legislated emissions...

  13. Modeling global atmospheric CO2 with improved emission inventories and CO2 production from the oxidation of other carbon species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, Ray; Jones, DBA; Suntharalingam, P; Chen, j.; Andres, Robert Joseph; Wecht, K. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Kulawik, SS; Bowman, K; Worden, JR; Machida, T; Matsueda, H

    2010-01-01

    The use of global three-dimensional (3-D) models with satellite observations of CO2 in inverse modeling studies is an area of growing importance for understanding Earth s carbon cycle. Here we use the GEOS-Chem model (version 8-02-01) CO2 mode with multiple modifications in order to assess their impact on CO2 forward simulations. Modifications include CO2 surface emissions from shipping (0.19 PgC yr 1), 3-D spatially-distributed emissions from aviation (0.16 PgC yr 1), and 3-D chemical production of CO2 (1.05 PgC yr 1). Although CO2 chemical production from the oxidation of CO, CH4 and other carbon gases is recognized as an important contribution to global CO2, it is typically accounted for by conversion from its precursors at the surface rather than in the free troposphere. We base our model 3-D spatial distribution of CO2 chemical production on monthly-averaged loss rates of CO (a key precursor and intermediate in the oxidation of organic carbon) and apply an associated surface correction for inventories that have counted emissions of CO2 precursors as CO2. We also explore the benefit of assimilating satellite observations of CO into GEOS-Chem to obtain an observation-based estimate of the CO2 chemical source. The CO assimilation corrects for an underestimate of atmospheric CO abundances in the model, resulting in increases of as much as 24% in the chemical source during May June 2006, and increasing the global annual estimate of CO2 chemical production from 1.05 to 1.18 Pg C. Comparisons of model CO2 with measurements are carried out in order to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions that result when these new sources are added. Inclusion of CO2 emissions from shipping and aviation are shown to increase the global CO2 latitudinal gradient by just over 0.10 ppm (3%), while the inclusion of CO2 chemical production (and the surface correction) is shown to decrease the latitudinal gradient by about 0.40 ppm (10%) with a complex spatial structure generally resulting in decreased CO2 over land and increased CO2 over the oceans. Since these CO2 emissions are omitted or misrepresented in most inverse modeling work to date, their implementation in forward simulations should lead to improved inverse modeling estimates of terrestrial biospheric fluxes.

  14. Misrepresentation of the IPCC CO2 emission scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manning, Martin; Edmonds, James A.; Emori, S.; Grubler, Arnulf; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Joos, Fortunat; Kainuma, M.; Keeling, Ralph; Kram, Tom; Manning, Andrew; Meinhausen, Malte; Moss, Richard H.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Riahi, Keywan; Rose, Steven K.; Smith, Steven J.; Swart, Robert; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2010-06-01

    Estimates of recent fossil fuel CO2 emissions have been compared with the IPCC SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) emission scenarios that had been developed for analysis of future climate change, impacts and mitigation. In some cases this comparison uses averages across subgroups of SRES scenarios and for one category of greenhouse gases (industrial sources of CO2). That approach can be misleading and cause confusion as it is inconsistent with many of the papers on future climate change projections that are based on a specific subset of closely scrutinized SRES scenarios, known as illustrative marker scenarios. Here, we show that comparison between recent estimates of fossil fuel emissions trends and the SRES illustrative marker scenarios leads to the conclusion that recent trends are not outside the SRES range. Furthermore, the recent economic downturn appears to have brought actual emission back toward the middle of the SRES illustrative marker scenarios. We also note that SRES emission scenarios are designed to reflect potential alternative long-term trends in a world without climate policy intervention and the trend in the resulting climate change is not sensitive to short-term fluctuations.

  15. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Xiang; Chen, Wenying; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Kyle, G. Page

    2015-07-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment modelGlobal Change Assessment Model (GCAM)to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products.

  16. Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Flotillas Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy...

  17. Analysis of Strategies for Multiple Emissions from Electric Power SO2, NOX, CO2, Mercury and RPS

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the Subcommittee, the Energy Information Administration prepared an initial report that focused on the impacts of reducing power sector NOx, SO2, and CO2 emissions. The current report extends the earlier analysis to add the impacts of reducing power sector mercury emissions and introducing renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements.

  18. Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Sources into Useful Products | Department of Energy Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products July 22, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today the selections of six projects that aim to find ways of converting captured carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial

  19. Spatial Relationships of Sector-Specific Fossil-fuel CO2 Emissions in the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    United States (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Spatial Relationships of Sector-Specific Fossil-fuel CO2 Emissions in the United States Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial Relationships of Sector-Specific Fossil-fuel CO2 Emissions in the United States Quantification of the spatial distribution of sector-specific fossil fuel CO2 emissions provides strategic information to public and private decision-makers on climate change mitigation options and can provide critical

  20. Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Industrial Sources into Useful Products | Department of Energy Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products July 22, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today the selections of six projects that aim to find ways of converting captured carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial

  1. Midwest Has Potential to Store Hundreds of Years of CO2 Emissions |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Midwest Has Potential to Store Hundreds of Years of CO2 Emissions Midwest Has Potential to Store Hundreds of Years of CO2 Emissions November 16, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Geologic capacity exists to permanently store hundreds of years of regional carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in nine states stretching from Indiana to New Jersey, according to injection field tests conducted by the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). MRCSP's

  2. Game-Changing Process Mitigates CO2 Emissions Using Renewable Energy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Game-Changing Process Mitigates CO2 Emissions Using Renewable Energy Game-Changing Process Mitigates CO2 Emissions Using Renewable Energy October 21, 2015 - 7:58am Addthis Game-Changing Process Mitigates CO2 Emissions Using Renewable Energy Gold nanoparticles are at the heart of a new process conceived and developed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) that can efficiently convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into usable

  3. NETL-Developed Process for Capturing CO2 Emissions Wins National Award for

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Excellence in Technology Transfer | Department of Energy NETL-Developed Process for Capturing CO2 Emissions Wins National Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer NETL-Developed Process for Capturing CO2 Emissions Wins National Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer February 3, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A process developed by researchers at the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) that improves the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2)

  4. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David G.; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-05-01

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic growth and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study focuses on a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. In the past years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced the China End-Use Energy Model based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not likely be the case because of saturation effects in appliances, residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that the 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency improvements will play in carbon mitigation along with a decarbonized power supply through greater renewable and non-fossil fuel generation.

  5. Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Flotillas | Department of Energy CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Flotillas Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Flotillas Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)

  6. Research Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions to Useful Products |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Research Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions to Useful Products Research Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions to Useful Products July 6, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Research to help find ways of converting into useful products CO2 captured from emissions of power plants and industrial facilities will be conducted by six projects announced today by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The projects are located in North Carolina, New Jersey,

  7. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

    2008-06-11

    This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel dominating in other counties.The CO2 emissions data by county and source are available upon request.

  8. Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cost effective reduction of legislated emissions (including CO2) is a major issue. NOx control must not be a limiting factor to the long term success of Diesel engines.

  9. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO 2 concentration data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ogle, Stephen; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Schuh, Andrew E.; Cooley, Dan; West, Tristram O.; Heath, L.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Breidt, F. Jay; et al

    2015-03-10

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Verification could include a variety of evidence, but arguably the most convincing verification would be confirmation of a change in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere that is consistent with reported emissions to the UNFCCC. We report here on a case study evaluating this option based on a prototype atmospheric CO2 measurement network deployed in the Mid-Continent Region of themore » conterminous United States. We found that the atmospheric CO2 measurement data did verify the accuracy of the emissions inventory within the confidence limits of the emissions estimates, suggesting that this technology could be further developed and deployed more widely in the future for verifying reported emissions.« less

  10. CO2 Utilization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 Utilization CO2 Utilization Carbon dioxide (CO2) use and reuse efforts focus on the conversion of CO2 to useable products and fuels that will reduce CO2 emissions in areas where geologic storage may not be an optimal solution. These include: Enhanced Oil/Gas Recovery - Injecting CO2 into depleting oil or gas bearing fields to maximize the amount of CO2 that could be stored as well as maximize hydrocarbon production. View the latest projects selected in FY 2014. CO2 as Feedstock - Use CO2 as

  11. China: Emissions pattern of the world leader in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg, J; Andres, Robert Joseph; Marland, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    Release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. Our best estimate is that China became the largest national source of CO2 emissions during 2006. Previously, the United States (US) had occupied that position. However, the annual emission rate in the US has remained relatively stable between 2001-2006 while the emission rate in China has more than doubled, apparently eclipsing that of the US in late 2006. Here we present the seasonal and spatial pattern of CO2 emissions in China, as well as the sectoral breakdown of emissions. Though our best point estimate places China in the lead position in terms of CO2 emissions, we qualify this statement in a discussion of the uncertainty in the underlying data (3-5% for the US; 15-20% for China). Finally, we comment briefly on the implications of China's new position with respect to international agreements to mitigate climate change.

  12. Energy use and CO2 emissions of Chinas industrial sector from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick W.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-07-10

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of Chinas final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of Chinas per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095.

  13. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02

    Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nations CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

  14. CO2 Capture and Regeneration at Low Temperatures: Novel Non-Aqueous CO2 Solvents and Capture Process with Substantially Reduced Energy Penalties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: RTI is developing a solvent and process that could significantly reduce the temperature associated with regenerating solvent and CO2 captured from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants. Traditional CO2 removal processes using water-based solvents require significant amount of steam from power plants in order to regenerate the solvent so it can be reused after each reaction. RTIs solvents can be better at absorbing CO2 than many water-based solvents, and are regenerated at lower temperatures using less steam. Thus, industrial heat that is normally too cool to re-use can be deployed for regeneration, rather than using high-value steam. This saves the power plant money, which results in increased cost savings for consumers.

  15. Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known signal-to-noise problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

  16. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the labs total carbon footprint.

  17. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

    2009-01-09

    In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

  18. Origin of the patchy emission pattern at the ZERT CO2 Release Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Pan, L.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-10-15

    A numerical experiment was carried out to test whether the patchy CO{sub 2} emission patterns observed at the ZERT release facility are caused by the presence of packers that divide the horizontal injection well into six CO2-injection zones. A three-dimensional model of the horizontal well and cobble-soil system was developed and simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7CA were carried out. Simulation results show patchy emissions for the seven-packer (six-injection-zone) configuration of the field test. Numerical experiments were then conducted for the cases of 24 packers (23 injection zones) and an effectively infinite number of packers. The time to surface breakthrough and the number of patches increased as the number of packers increased suggesting that packers and associated along pipe flow are the origin of the patchy emissions. In addition, it was observed that early breakthrough occurs at locations where the horizontal well pipe is shallow and installed mostly in soil rather than the deeper cobble. In the cases where the pipe is installed at shallow depths and directly in the soil, higher pipe gas saturations occur than where the pipe is installed slightly deeper in the cobble. It is believed this is an effect mostly relevant to the model rather than the field system and arises through the influence of capillarity, permeability, and pipe elevation of the soil compared to the cobble adjacent to the pipe.

  19. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions across end-use sectors. Adjustments for the China-specific conventions of reporting foreign bunkers and domestic bunkers fueling abroad are made following IPCC definitions of international bunkers and EIA reporting conventions, while the sequestration of carbon in carbon steel is included as an additional adjustment. Under the sectoral approach, fuel consumption of bunkers and other transformation losses as well as gasoline consumption are reallocated to conform to EIA sectoral reporting conventions. To the extent possible, this study relies on official energy data from primary sources. A limited number of secondary sources were consulted to provide insight into the nature of consumption of some products and to guide the analysis of carbon sequestered in steel. Beyond these, however, the study avoided trying to estimate figures where directly unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, the basic calculations should be repeatable for other years with the core set of data from National Bureau of Statistics and Sinopec (or a similarly authoritative source of oil product data). This study estimates China's total energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2008 to be 6666 Mt CO{sub 2}, including 234.6 Mt of non-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions and 154 Mt of sequestered CO{sub 2}. Bunker fuel emissions in 2008 totaled 15.9 Mt CO{sub 2}, but this figure is underestimated because fuel use by Chinese ship and planes for international transportation and military bunkers are not included. Of emissions related to energy consumption, 82% is from coal consumption, 15% from petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the sectoral approach, industry had the largest share of China's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions with 72%, followed by residential at 11%, transport and telecommunications at 8%, and the other four (commerce, agriculture, construction and other public) sectors having a combined share of 9%. Thermal electricity and (purchased) heat (to a lesser degree) are major sources of fuel consumption behind sectoral emissions, responsible for 2533 Mt CO2 and 321 Mt CO{sub 2}, respec

  20. sparse-msrf:A package for sparse modeling and estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emission fields

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-06

    The software is used to fit models of emission fields (e.g., fossil-fuel CO2 emissions) to sparse measurements of gaseous concentrations. Its primary aim is to provide an implementation and a demonstration for the algorithms and models developed in J. Ray, V. Yadav, A. M. Michalak, B. van Bloemen Waanders and S. A. McKenna, "A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions", accepted, Geoscientific Model Development, 2014. The softwaremore » can be used to estimate emissions of non-reactive gases such as fossil-fuel CO2, methane etc. The software uses a proxy of the emission field being estimated (e.g., for fossil-fuel CO2, a population density map is a good proxy) to construct a wavelet model for the emission field. It then uses a shrinkage regression algorithm called Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP) to fit the wavelet model to concentration measurements, using an atmospheric transport model to relate emission and concentration fields. Algorithmic novelties described in the paper above (1) ensure that the estimated emission fields are non-negative, (2) allow the use of guesses for emission fields to accelerate the estimation processes and (3) ensure that under/overestimates in the guesses do not skew the estimation.« less

  1. sparse-msrf:A package for sparse modeling and estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emission fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-06

    The software is used to fit models of emission fields (e.g., fossil-fuel CO2 emissions) to sparse measurements of gaseous concentrations. Its primary aim is to provide an implementation and a demonstration for the algorithms and models developed in J. Ray, V. Yadav, A. M. Michalak, B. van Bloemen Waanders and S. A. McKenna, "A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions", accepted, Geoscientific Model Development, 2014. The software can be used to estimate emissions of non-reactive gases such as fossil-fuel CO2, methane etc. The software uses a proxy of the emission field being estimated (e.g., for fossil-fuel CO2, a population density map is a good proxy) to construct a wavelet model for the emission field. It then uses a shrinkage regression algorithm called Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP) to fit the wavelet model to concentration measurements, using an atmospheric transport model to relate emission and concentration fields. Algorithmic novelties described in the paper above (1) ensure that the estimated emission fields are non-negative, (2) allow the use of guesses for emission fields to accelerate the estimation processes and (3) ensure that under/overestimates in the guesses do not skew the estimation.

  2. Consumption, Not CO2 emissions: Reframing Perspectives on Climate Change and Sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harriss, Robert; Shui, Bin

    2010-12-01

    A stunning documentary film titled Mardi Gras: Made in China provides an insightful and engaging perspective on the globalization of desire for material consumption. Tracing the life cycle of Mardi Gras beads from a small factory in Fuzhou, China to the streets of the Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans the viewer grasps the near universal human desire to strive for an affluent lifestyle. David Redmon, an independent film maker, follows the beads' genealogy back to the industrial town of Fuzhou, China, to the factory that is the world's largest producer of Mardi Gras beads and related party trinkets. He explores how these frivolous and toxic products affect the people who make them and those who consume them. Redmon captures the daily reality of a Chinese manufacturing facility. Its workforce of approximately 500 teenage girls, and a handful of boys, live like prisoners in a fenced-in compound. These young people, often working 16-hour days, are constantly exposed to styrene, a chemical known to cause cancer all for about 10 cents an hour. In addition to indoor pollution, the decrepit coal-fired manufacturing facilities are symbolic of Chinas fast rise to the worlds top producer of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.1 The process of industrialization and modernization in China is happening at an unprecedented rate and scale.

  3. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine, including economic benefits, CO2 emissions reductions, and water conservation.

  4. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arizona, including economic benefits, CO2 emissions reductions, and water conservation.

  5. REDUCING UNCERTAINTIES IN MODEL PREDICTIONS VIA HISTORY MATCHING OF CO2 MIGRATION AND REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING OF CO2 FATE AT THE SLEIPNER PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Chen

    2015-03-31

    An important question for the Carbon Capture, Storage, and Utility program is “can we adequately predict the CO2 plume migration?” For tracking CO2 plume development, the Sleipner project in the Norwegian North Sea provides more time-lapse seismic monitoring data than any other sites, but significant uncertainties still exist for some of the reservoir parameters. In Part I, we assessed model uncertainties by applying two multi-phase compositional simulators to the Sleipner Benchmark model for the uppermost layer (Layer 9) of the Utsira Sand and calibrated our model against the time-lapsed seismic monitoring data for the site from 1999 to 2010. Approximate match with the observed plume was achieved by introducing lateral permeability anisotropy, adding CH4 into the CO2 stream, and adjusting the reservoir temperatures. Model-predicted gas saturation, CO2 accumulation thickness, and CO2 solubility in brine—none were used as calibration metrics—were all comparable with the interpretations of the seismic data in the literature. In Part II & III, we evaluated the uncertainties of predicted long-term CO2 fate up to 10,000 years, due to uncertain reaction kinetics. Under four scenarios of the kinetic rate laws, the temporal and spatial evolution of CO2 partitioning into the four trapping mechanisms (hydrodynamic/structural, solubility, residual/capillary, and mineral) was simulated with ToughReact, taking into account the CO2-brine-rock reactions and the multi-phase reactive flow and mass transport. Modeling results show that different rate laws for mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions resulted in different predicted amounts of trapped CO2 by carbonate minerals, with scenarios of the conventional linear rate law for feldspar dissolution having twice as much mineral trapping (21% of the injected CO2) as scenarios with a Burch-type or Alekseyev et al.–type rate law for feldspar dissolution (11%). So far, most reactive transport modeling (RTM) studies for CCUS have used the conventional rate law and therefore simulated the upper bound of mineral trapping. However, neglecting the regional flow after injection, as most previous RTM studies have done, artificially limits the extent of geochemical reactions as if it were in a batch system. By replenishing undersaturated groundwater from upstream, the Utsira Sand is reactive over a time scale of 10,000 years. The results from this project have been communicated via five peer-reviewed journal articles, four conference proceeding papers, and 19 invited and contributed presentations at conferences and seminars.

  6. Benchmarking the energy efficiency of Dutch industry: An assessment of the expected effect on energy consumption and CO2 emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phylipsen, Dian; Blok, Kornelis; Worrell, Ernst; De Beer, Jeroen

    2002-06-01

    As part of its energy and climate policy the Dutch government has reached an agreement with the Dutch energy-intensive industry that is explicitly based on industry's relative energy efficiency performance. The energy efficiency of the Dutch industry is benchmarked against that of comparable industries in countries world-wide. In the agreement, industry is required to belong to the top-of-the-world in terms of energy efficiency. In return, the government refrains from implementing additional climate policies.This article assesses the potential effects of this agreement on energy consumption and CO2 emissions by comparing the current level of energy efficiency of the Dutch industry - including electricity production - to that of the most efficient countries and regions. At the current structure achieving the regional best practice level for the selected energy-intensive industries would result in a 5plus or minus 2 percent lower current primary energy consumption than the actual level. Most of the savings are expected in the petrochemical industry and in electricity generation. Avoided CO2 emissions would amount to 4 Mt CO2. A first estimate of the effect of the benchmarking agreement in 2012 suggests primary energy savings of 50-130 PJ or 5-10 Mt CO2 avoided compared to the estimated Business as Usual development (5-15 percent). This saving is smaller than what a continuation of the existing policies of Long Term Agreements would probably deliver.

  7. CENIT CO2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and develop new solutions to reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion during electricity generation. References: CENIT-CO21 This article is a stub. You can help...

  8. PASSIVE WIRELESS SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE SENSORS FOR MONITORING SEQUESTRATION SITES CO2 EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yizhong; Chyu, Minking; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2012-11-30

    University of Pittsburgh’s Transducer lab has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient CO2 measuring technologies for geological sequestration sites leakage monitoring. A passive wireless CO2 sensing system based on surface acoustic wave technology and carbon nanotube nanocomposite was developed. Surface acoustic wave device was studied to determine the optimum parameters. Delay line structure was adopted as basic sensor structure. CNT polymer nanocomposite was fabricated and tested under different temperature and strain condition for natural environment impact evaluation. Nanocomposite resistance increased for 5 times under pure strain, while the temperature dependence of resistance for CNT solely was -1375ppm/℃. The overall effect of temperature on nanocomposite resistance was -1000ppm/℃. The gas response of the nanocomposite was about 10% resistance increase under pure CO2. The sensor frequency change was around 300ppm for pure CO2. With paralyne packaging, the sensor frequency change from relative humidity of 0% to 100% at room temperature decreased from over 1000ppm to less than 100ppm. The lowest detection limit of the sensor is 1% gas concentration, with 36ppm frequency change. Wireless module was tested and showed over one foot transmission distance at preferred parallel orientation.

  9. CO2 emissions mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wada, Kenichi; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher and decrease with mitigation. A first deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes global emission targets until 2030, in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges and regionally-specific low-carbon technology targets. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger - twice and more - than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because leakage and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  10. MINIMIZING NET CO2 EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL / BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Lang; Robert Hurt

    2001-12-23

    This study presents a set of thermodynamic calculations on the optimal mode of solid fuel utilization considering a wide range of fuel types and processing technologies. The technologies include stand-alone combustion, biomass/coal cofiring, oxidative pyrolysis, and straight carbonization with no energy recovery but with elemental carbon storage. The results show that the thermodynamically optimal way to process solid fuels depends strongly on the specific fuels and technologies available, the local demand for heat or for electricity, and the local baseline energy-production method. Burning renewable fuels reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions as widely recognized. In certain cases, however, other processing methods are equally or more effective, including the simple carbonization or oxidative pyrolysis of biomass fuels.

  11. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

  12. A New Method for Production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment - Eliminating CO2 Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2013-11-05

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the potential of a new process technology to reduce the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission from the production of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) pigment. TiO{sub 2} is one of the most commonly used minerals in the chemical manufacturing industry. It has been commercially processed as a pigment since the early 1900's, and has a wide variety of domestic and industrial applications. TiO{sub 2} pigment is currently produced primarily by the use of the so called ?chloride process?. A key step of the chloride process relies on high temperature carbo-chlorination of TiO{sub 2} bearing raw materials, hence producing large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The new method uses a chemical/metallurgical sequential extraction methodology to produce pigment grade TiO{sub 2} from high-TiO{sub 2} slag. The specific project objectives were to 1) study and prove the scientific validity of the concept, 2) understand the primary chemical reactions and the efficiency of sequential extraction schemes, 3) determine the properties of TiO{sub 2} produced using the technology, and 4) model the energy consumptions and environmental benefits of the technology. These objectives were successfully met and a new process for producing commercial quality TiO{sub 2} pigment was developed and experimentally validated. The process features a unique combination of established metallurgical processes, including alkaline roasting of titania slag followed by leaching, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and calcination. The caustic, acidic, and organic streams in the process will also be regenerated and reused in the process, greatly reducing environmental waste. The purpose and effect of each of these steps in producing purified TiO{sub 2} is detailed in the report. The levels of impurities in our pigment meet the requirements for commercial pigment, and are nearly equivalent to those of two commercial pigments. Solvent extraction with an amine extractant proved to be extremely effective in achieving these targets. A model plant producing 100,000 tons TiO{sub 2} per year was designed that would employ the new method of pigment manufacture. A flow sheet was developed and a mass and energy balance was performed. A comparison of the new process and the chloride process indicate that implementation of the new process in the US would result in a 21% decrease in energy consumption, an annual energy savings of 42.7 million GJ. The new process would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% in comparison to the chloride process, an annual reduction of 2.70 million tons of CO{sub 2}. Since the process equipment employed in the new process is well established in other industrial processes and the raw materials for the two processes are identical we believe the capital, labor and materials cost of production of pigment grade TiO{sub 2} using the new method would be at least equivalent to that of the chloride process. Additionally, it is likely that the operating costs will be lower by using the new process because of the reduced energy consumption. Although the new process technology is logical and feasible based on its chemistry, thermodynamic principles, and experimental results, its development and refinement through more rigorous and comprehensive research at the kilogram scale is needed to establish it as a competitive industrial process. The effect of the recycling of process streams on the final product quality should also be investigated. Further development would also help determine if the energy efficiency and the environmental benefits of the new process are indeed significantly better than current commercial methods of pigment manufacture.

  13. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; T. Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-07-01

    After rapid growth in economic development and energy demand over the last three decades, China has undertaken energy efficiency improvement efforts to reduce its energy intensity under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). Since becoming the world's largest annual CO{sub 2} emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities and committed to meeting 15% of its total 2020 energy demand with non-fossil fuel. Despite having achieved important savings in 11th FYP efficiency programs, rising per capita income and the continued economic importance of trade will drive demand for transport activity and fuel use. At the same time, an increasingly 'electrified' economy will drive rapid power demand growth. Greater analysis is therefore needed to understand the underlying drivers, possible trajectories and mitigation potential in the growing industrial, transport and power sectors. This study uses scenario analysis to understand the likely trajectory of China's energy and carbon emissions to 2030 in light of the current and planned portfolio of programs, policies and technology development and ongoing urbanization and demographic trends. It evaluates the potential impacts of alternative transportation and power sector development using two key scenarios, Continued Improvement Scenario (CIS) and Accelerated Improvement Scenario (AIS). CIS represents the most likely path of growth based on continuation of current policies and meeting announced targets and goals, including meeting planned appliance efficiency standard revisions, fuel economy standards, and industrial targets and moderate phase-out of subcritical coal-fired generation with additional non-fossil generation. AIS represents a more aggressive trajectory of accelerated improvement in energy intensity and decarbonized power and transport sectors. A range of sensitivity analysis and power technology scenarios are tested to evaluate the impact of additional actions such as carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and integrated mine-mouth generation. The CIS and AIS results are also contextualized and compared to model scenarios in other published studies. The results of this study show that China's energy and CO{sub 2} emissions will not likely peak before 2030, although growth is expected to slow after 2020. Moreover, China will be able to meet its 2020 carbon intensity reduction target of 40 to 45% under both CIS and AIS, but only meet its 15% non-fossil fuel target by 2020 under AIS. Under both scenarios, efficiency remains a key resource and has the same, if not greater, mitigation potential as new technologies in transport and power sectors. In the transport sector, electrification will be closely linked the degree of decarbonization in the power sector and EV deployment has little or no impact on China's crude oil import demand. Rather, power generation improvements have the largest sector potential for overall emission mitigation while mine-mouth power generation and CCS have limited mitigation potential compared to fuel switching and efficiency improvements. Comparisons of this study's results with other published studies reveal that CIS and AIS are within the range of other national energy projections but alternative studies rely much more heavily on CCS for carbon reduction. The McKinsey study, in particular, has more optimistic assumptions for reductions in crude oil imports and coal demand in its abatement scenario and has much higher gasoline reduction potential for the same level of EV deployment. Despite these differences, this study's scenario analysis of both transport and power sectors illustrate the necessity for continued efficiency improvements and aggressive power sector decarbonization in flattening China's CO{sub 2} emissions.

  14. Long-Term US Industrial Energy Use and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Sinha, Paramita; Smith, Steven J.; Lurz, Joshua P.

    2007-12-03

    We present a description and scenario results from our recently-developed long-term model of United States industrial sector energy consumption, which we have incorporated as a module within the ObjECTS-MiniCAM integrated assessment model. This new industrial model focuses on energy technology and fuel choices over a 100 year period and allows examination of the industrial sector response to climate policies within a global modeling framework. A key challenge was to define a level of aggregation that would be able to represent the dynamics of industrial energy demand responses to prices and policies, but at a level that remains tractable over a long time frame. In our initial results, we find that electrification is an important response to a climate policy, although there are services where there are practical and economic limits to electrification, and the ability to switch to a low-carbon fuel becomes key. Cogeneration of heat and power using biomass may also play a role in reducing carbon emissions under a policy constraint.

  15. Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the 2008-2009 global financial crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Glen P.; Marland, Gregg; Le Quere, Corinne; Boden, Thomas A; Canadell, Josep; Raupach, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production grew 5.9% in 2010, surpassed 9 Pg of carbon (Pg C) for the first time, and more than offset the 1.4% decrease in 2009. The impact of the 2008 2009 global financial crisis (GFC) on emissions has been short-lived owing to strong emissions growth in emerging economies, a return to emissions growth in developed economies, and an increase in the fossil-fuel intensity of the world economy.

  16. On Leakage from Geologic Storage Reservoirs of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-14

    Large amounts of CO2 would need to be injected underground to achieve a significant reduction of atmospheric emissions. The large areal extent expected for CO2 plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered, such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape from the primary storage reservoir. Leakage of CO2 could also occur along wellbores. Concerns with escape of CO2 from a primary geologic storage reservoir include (1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard when leaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy, eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In order to gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address these issues and demonstrate that CO2 can be injected and stored safely in geologic formations.

  17. Reduction of Non-CO2 Gas Emissions Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane emissions, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that anaerobic methane oxidizing (AOM) microorganisms are predominantly found in marine habitats and grow poorly under most laboratory conditions. One path for future research would be to use a small rotary rig to collect samples from deeper soil horizons, possibly adjacent to the coal-bearing horizons that may be more anaerobic.

  18. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the associated environmental risks are acceptable or not to the public.

  19. CO2 exposure at pressure impacts metabolism and stress responses in the model sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Hoyt, David W.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Alderson, Paul A.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Tucker, Abigail E.; Walter, Eric D.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Taylor, Ronald C.

    2014-09-01

    Geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration drives physical and geochemical changes in deep subsurface environments that impact indigenous microbial activities. The combined effects of pressurized CO2 on a model sulfate-reducing microorganism, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, have been assessed using a suite of genomic and kinetic measurements. Novel high-pressure NMR time-series measurements using 13C-lactate were used to track D. vulgaris metabolism. We identified cessation of respiration at CO2 pressures of 10 bar, 25 bar, 50 bar, and 80 bar. Concurrent experiments using N2 as the pressurizing phase had no negative effect on microbial respiration, as inferred from reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Complementary pressurized batch incubations and fluorescence microscopy measurements supported NMR observations, and indicated that non-respiring cells were mostly viable at 50 bar CO2 for at least four hours, and at 80 bar CO2 for two hours. The fraction of dead cells increased rapidly after four hours at 80 bar CO2. Transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) measurements on mRNA transcripts from CO2-incubated biomass indicated that cells up-regulated the production of certain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine) following CO2 exposure at elevated pressures, likely as part of a general stress response. Evidence for other poorly understood stress responses were also identified within RNA-Seq data, suggesting that while pressurized CO2 severely limits the growth and respiration of D. vulgaris cells, biomass retains intact cell membranes at pressures up to 80 bar CO2. Together, these data show that geologic sequestration of CO2 may have significant impacts on rates of sulfate reduction in many deep subsurface environments where this metabolism is a key respiratory process.

  20. Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: MVA Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, John; Sims, Kenneth

    2014-09-30

    An integrated field-laboratory program evaluated the use of radon and CO2 flux measurements to constrain source and timescale of CO2 fluxes in environments proximate to CO2 storage reservoirs. By understanding the type and depth of the gas source, the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir can be assessed and monitored. The concept is based on correlations of radon and CO2 fluxes observed in volcanic systems. This fundamental research is designed to advance the science of Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) and to address the Carbon Storage Program goal of developing and validating technologies to ensure 99 percent storage performance. Graduate and undergraduate students conducted the research under the guidance of the Principal Investigators; in doing so they were provided with training opportunities in skills required for implementing and deploying CCS technologies. Although a final method or tool was not developed, significant progress was made. The field program identified issues with measuring radon in environments rich in CO2. Laboratory experiments determined a correction factor to apply to radon measurements made in CO2-bearing environments. The field program also identified issues with radon and CO2-flux measurements in soil gases at a natural CO2 analog. A systematic survey of radon and CO2 flux in soil gases at the LaBarge CO2 Field in Southwest Wyoming indicates that measurements of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and CO2 flux may not be a robust method for monitoring the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The field program was also not able to correlate radon and CO2 flux in the CO2-charged springs of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system. However, this part of the program helped to motivate the aforementioned laboratory experiments that determined correction factors for measuring radon in CO2-rich environments. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; she is currently employed with a geologic consulting company. Measurement of radon in springs has improved significantly since the field program first began; however, in situ measurement of 222Rn and particularly 220Rn in springs is problematic. Future refinements include simultaneous salinity measurements and systematic corrections, or adjustments to the partition coefficient as needed for more accurate radon concentration determination. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; he is currently employed with a geologic consulting company. Both graduate students are poised to begin work in a CCS technology area. Laboratory experiments evaluated important process-level fundamentals that effect measurements of radon and CO2. Laboratory tests established that fine-grained source minerals yield higher radon emissivity compared to coarser-sized source minerals; subtleties in the dataset suggest that grain size alone is not fully representative of all the processes controlling the ability of radon to escape its mineral host. Emissivity for both 222Rn and 220Rn increases linearly with temperature due to reaction of rocks with water, consistent with faster diffusion and enhanced mineral dissolution at higher temperatures. The presence of CO2 changes the relative importance of the factors that control release of radon. Emissivity for both 222Rn and 220Rn in CO2-bearing experiments is greater at all temperatures compared to the experiments without CO2, but emissivity does not increase as a simple function of temperature. Governing processes may include a balance between enhanced dissolution versus carbonate mineral formation in CO2-rich waters.

  1. Two-Stage, Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: An Approach for Sustainable Energy Production, CO2-Sequestration Security, and Reduced Environmental Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, T A; Chen, M; Sun, Y; Hao, Y; Elliot, T R

    2012-02-02

    We introduce a hybrid two-stage energy-recovery approach to sequester CO{sub 2} and produce geothermal energy at low environmental risk and low cost by integrating geothermal production with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in saline, sedimentary formations. Our approach combines the benefits of the approach proposed by Buscheck et al. (2011b), which uses brine as the working fluid, with those of the approach first suggested by Brown (2000) and analyzed by Pruess (2006), using CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, and then extended to saline-formation CCS by Randolph and Saar (2011a). During stage one of our hybrid approach, formation brine, which is extracted to provide pressure relief for CO{sub 2} injection, is the working fluid for energy recovery. Produced brine is applied to a consumptive beneficial use: feedstock for fresh water production through desalination, saline cooling water, or make-up water to be injected into a neighboring reservoir operation, such as in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), where there is often a shortage of a working fluid. For stage one, it is important to find economically feasible disposition options to reduce the volume of brine requiring reinjection in the integrated geothermal-CCS reservoir (Buscheck et al. 2012a). During stage two, which begins as CO{sub 2} reaches the production wells; coproduced brine and CO{sub 2} are the working fluids. We present preliminary reservoir engineering analyses of this approach, using a simple conceptual model of a homogeneous, permeable CO{sub 2} storage formation/geothermal reservoir, bounded by relatively impermeable sealing units. We assess both the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity and geothermal energy production potential as a function of well spacing between CO{sub 2} injectors and brine/CO{sub 2} producers for various well patterns and for a range of subsurface conditions.

  2. Deployment of CCS Technologies across the Load Curve for a Competitive Electricity Market as a Function of CO2 Emissions Permit Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.

    2011-04-18

    Consistent with other published studies, the modelling presented here reveals that baseload power plants are the first aspects of the electricity sector to decarbonize and are essentially decarbonized once CO2 permit prices exceed a certain threshold ($90/ton CO2 in this study). The decarbonization of baseload electricity is met by significant expansions of nuclear power and renewable energy generation technologies as well as the application of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies applied to both coal and natural gas fired power plants. Relatively little attention has been paid thus far to whether intermediate and peaking units would respond the same way to a climate policy given the very different operational and economic context that these kinds of electricity generation units operate under. In this paper, the authors discuss key aspects of the load segmentation methodology used to imbed a varying electricity demand within the GCAM (a state-of-the-art Integrated Assessment Model) energy and economic modelling framework and present key results on the role CCS technologies could play in decarbonizng subpeak and peak generation (encompassing only the top 10% of the load) and under what conditions. To do this, the authors have modelled two hypothetical climate policies that require 50% and 80% reductions in US emissions from business as usual by the middle of this century. Intermediate electricity generation is virtually decarbonized once carbon prices exceed approximately $150/tonCO2. When CO2 permit prices exceed $160/tonCO2, natural gas power plants with CCS have roughly the same marketshare as conventional gas plants in serving subpeak loads. The penetration of CCS into peak load (upper 6% here) is minimal under the scenarios modeled here suggesting that CO2 emissions from this aspect of the U.S. electricity sector would persist well into the future even with stringent CO2 emission control policies in place.

  3. Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energys Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. land use water use CO2 emissions radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

  4. NETL CO2 Storage Frequently Asked Questions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Storage Frequently Asked Questions faq-header-big.jpg A combined portfolio of carbon management options for fossil fuel use can be implemented to manage current emission levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) while enhancing energy security and building the technologies and knowledge base for export to other countries faced with reducing emissions. The U.S. portfolio includes Use of fuels with reduced carbon intensity: renewables, nuclear, and natural gas. Adoption of more efficient technologies

  5. Capturing CO2 via reactions in nanopores.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Kevin; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Tang, Z; Dong, J. H.

    2008-10-01

    This one-year exploratory LDRD aims to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanism of CO2 scrubbing platforms that will reduce green house gas emission and mitigate the effect of climate change. The project builds on the team member's expertise developed in previous LDRD projects to study the capture or preferential retention of CO2 in nanoporous membranes and on metal oxide surfaces. We apply Density Functional Theory and ab initio molecular dynamics techniques to model the binding of CO2 on MgO and CaO (100) surfaces and inside water-filled, amine group functionalized silica nanopores. The results elucidate the mechanisms of CO2 trapping and clarify some confusion in the literature. Our work identifies key future calculations that will have the greatest impact on CO2 capture technologies, and provides guidance to science-based design of platforms that can separate the green house gas CO2 from power plant exhaust or even from the atmosphere. Experimentally, we modify commercial MFI zeolite membranes and find that they preferentially transmit H2 over CO2 by a factor of 34. Since zeolite has potential catalytic capability to crack hydrocarbons into CO2 and H2, this finding paves the way for zeolite membranes that can convert biofuel into H2 and separate the products all in one step.

  6. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arizona (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arizona. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arizona to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 818 million gallons.

  7. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reduction, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Georgia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Georgia. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Georgia to be $2.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,628 million gallons.

  8. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

    2011-04-01

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

  9. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by ...

  10. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  11. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Delicious

  13. Capturing Fugitives to Reduce DOE’s GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experts are hunting down fugitive carbon emissions from across 20 Energy Department laboratories, sites and program offices — and they’ve already prevented the release of more than 600,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent since 2009 -- equal to taking 140,000 cars off the road for a year.

  14. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Maine to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.8 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,387 million gallons.

  15. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in North Carolina. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in North Carolina to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,558 million gallons.

  16. DOE Selects Eight Projects to Receive Funding for Reducing the Cost of CO2 Capture and Compression

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has selected eight projects to receive funding to construct small- and large-scale pilots for reducing the cost of...

  17. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  18. CO2 Tech | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    produces and installs equipment for controlling and measuring atmospheric emissions and greenhouse gases for a wide variety of industries. References: CO2 Tech1 This article is...

  19. SIMPLIFIED PREDICTIVE MODELS FOR CO2 SEQUESTRATION PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH TOPICAL REPORT ON TASK #4 REDUCED-ORDER METHOD (ROM) BASED MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Srikanta; Jin, Larry; He, Jincong; Durlofsky, Louis

    2015-06-30

    Reduced-order models provide a means for greatly accelerating the detailed simulations that will be required to manage CO2 storage operations. In this work, we investigate the use of one such method, POD-TPWL, which has previously been shown to be effective in oil reservoir simulation problems. This method combines trajectory piecewise linearization (TPWL), in which the solution to a new (test) problem is represented through a linearization around the solution to a previously-simulated (training) problem, with proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which enables solution states to be expressed in terms of a relatively small number of parameters. We describe the application of POD-TPWL for CO2-water systems simulated using a compositional procedure. Stanford’s Automatic Differentiation-based General Purpose Research Simulator (AD-GPRS) performs the full-order training simulations and provides the output (derivative matrices and system states) required by the POD-TPWL method. A new POD-TPWL capability introduced in this work is the use of horizontal injection wells that operate under rate (rather than bottom-hole pressure) control. Simulation results are presented for CO2 injection into a synthetic aquifer and into a simplified model of the Mount Simon formation. Test cases involve the use of time-varying well controls that differ from those used in training runs. Results of reasonable accuracy are consistently achieved for relevant well quantities. Runtime speedups of around a factor of 370 relative to full- order AD-GPRS simulations are achieved, though the preprocessing needed for POD-TPWL model construction corresponds to the computational requirements for about 2.3 full-order simulation runs. A preliminary treatment for POD-TPWL modeling in which test cases differ from training runs in terms of geological parameters (rather than well controls) is also presented. Results in this case involve only small differences between training and test runs, though they do demonstrate that the approach is able to capture basic solution trends. The impact of some of the detailed numerical treatments within the POD-TPWL formulation is considered in an Appendix. ii

  20. FT-IR Study of CO2 Interaction with Na-rich Montmorillonite (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect FT-IR Study of CO2 Interaction with Na-rich Montmorillonite Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FT-IR Study of CO2 Interaction with Na-rich Montmorillonite Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) in saline reservoirs in sedimentary formations has the potential to reduce the impact of fossil fuel combustion on climate change by reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and storing the CO2 in geologic formations in perpetuity. At pressure and temperature

  1. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted...

  2. Policies to Reduce Emissions from the Transportation Sector ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Highlights This guide provides information on policy choices that can drive sustainability. Notes References "Policies To Reduce Emissions From The Transportation...

  3. Cleantech: Innovative Lab Partnership Reduces Emissions from Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how the National Energy Technology Laboratory is working to reduce the emission of pollutants from existing coal-fired power plants.

  4. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted to existing engines Significantly reduces NOx emissions (as much as 70%) with just a 2% nitrogen enrichment of intake air PDF icon air_separation_membranes

  5. Microsoft Word - CO2 Supplement.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding the Decline in Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2009 1 EIA projects carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels in 2009 to be 5.9 percent below the 2008 level in the Short-Term Energy Outlook, October 2009 (STEO) (Table 1). Projected coal CO2 emissions fall by 10.1 percent in 2009, primarily because of lower consumption for electricity generation. Coal accounts for 63 percent of the total decline in CO2 emissions from fossil fuels this year. Forecast lower natural gas and petroleum

  6. Northern California CO2 Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hymes, Edward

    2010-06-16

    C6 Resources LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Oil Company, worked with the US Department of Energy (DOE) under a Cooperative Agreement to develop the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project. The objective of the Project is to demonstrate the viability of using Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) to reduce existing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources on a large-scale. The Project will capture more than 700,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, which is currently being vented to the atmosphere from the Shell Martinez Refinery in Contra Costa County. The CO2 will be compressed and dehydrated at the refinery and then transported via pipeline to a sequestration site in a rural area in neighboring Solano County. The CO2 will be sequestered into a deep saline formation (more than two miles underground) and will be monitored to assure secure, long-term containment. The pipeline will be designed to carry as much as 1,400,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, so additional capacity will be available to accommodate CO2 captured from other industrial sources. The Project is expected to begin operation in 2015. The Project has two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive design basis for the Project. The Cooperative Agreement with the DOE provided cost sharing for Phase 1 and the opportunity to apply for additional DOE cost sharing for Phase 2, comprising the design, construction and operation of the Project. Phase 1 has been completed. DOE co-funding is provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. As prescribed by ARRA, the Project will stimulate the local economy by creating manufacturing, transportation, construction, operations, and management jobs while addressing the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at an accelerated pace. The Project, which will also assist in meeting the CO2 reduction requirements set forth in California?s Climate Change law, presents a major opportunity for both the environment as well as the region. C6 Resources is conducting the Project in collaboration with federally-funded research centers, such as Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab. C6 Resources and Shell have identified CCS as one of the critical pathways toward a worldwide goal of providing cleaner energy. C6 Resources, in conjunction with the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), has conducted an extensive and ongoing public outreach and CCS education program for local, regional and state-wide stakeholders. As part of a long term relationship, C6 Resources will continue to engage directly with community leaders and residents to ensure public input and transparency. This topical report summarizes the technical work from Phase 1 of the Project in the following areas: ? Surface Facility Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the preliminary engineering work performed for CO2 capture, CO2 compression and dehydration at the refinery, and surface facilities at the sequestration site ? Pipeline Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the pipeline routing study and preliminary engineering design ? Geologic Sequestration: summarizes the work to characterize, model and evaluate the sequestration site ? Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (MVA): summarizes the MVA plan to assure long-term containment of the sequestered CO2

  7. DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    through Deployment of Advanced Technology | Department of Energy Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology September 22, 2005 - 10:45am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy today released for public review and comment a plan for accelerating the development and reducing the cost of new and advanced

  8. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  9. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-11-10

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  10. Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines Formation of droplets was minimized through optimization of fuel vaporization and distribution avoiding air/fuel zones richer than stoichiometric and temperatures that promote particle formation PDF icon deer10_klindt.pdf More Documents & Publications Bosch Powertrain Technologies Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and

  11. Low-Cost and Lightweight: Strongest titanium alloy aims at improving vehicle fuel economy and reducing CO2 emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An improved titanium alloy — stronger than any commercial titanium alloy currently on the market — gets its strength from the novel way atoms are arranged to form a special nanostructure. For the first time, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been able to see this alignment and then manipulate it to make the strongest titanium alloy ever developed, and with a lower cost process to boot.

  12. Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA Study shows clean diesel programs slashed black carbon, a powerful short-term contributor to global warming June 13, 2013 Jon Weiner 510-486-4014 jrweiner@lbl.gov CA-BC-graphic.jpg Sacramento - Reductions in emissions of black carbon since the late 1980s, mostly from diesel engines as a result of air quality programs, have resulted in a measurable reduction of concentrations of

  13. CO2 | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cities CO2 emissions OpenEI suburbs US New research from the University of California-Berkeley shows that those who live in cities in the United States have significantly smaller...

  14. Monitoring CO2 Storage at Cranfield, Mississippi with Time-Lapse Offset VSP – Using Integration and Modeling to Reduce Uncertainty

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daley, Thomas M.; Hendrickson, Joel; Queen, John H.

    2014-12-31

    A time-lapse Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (OVSP) data set was acquired as part of a subsurface monitoring program for geologic sequestration of CO2. The storage site at Cranfield, near Natchez, Mississippi, is part of a detailed area study (DAS) site for geologic carbon sequestration operated by the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). The DAS site includes three boreholes, an injection well and two monitoring wells. The project team selected the DAS site to examine CO2 sequestration multiphase fluid flow and pressure at the interwell scale in a brine reservoir. The time-lapse (TL) OVSP was partmore » of an integrated monitoring program that included well logs, crosswell seismic, electrical resistance tomography and 4D surface seismic. The goals of the OVSP were to detect the CO2 induced change in seismic response, give information about the spatial distribution of CO2 near the injection well and to help tie the high-resolution borehole monitoring to the 4D surface data. The VSP data were acquired in well CFU 31-F1, which is the ~3200 m deep CO2 injection well at the DAS site. A preinjection survey was recorded in late 2009 with injection beginning in December 2009, and a post injection survey was conducted in Nov 2010 following injection of about 250 kT of CO2. The sensor array for both surveys was a 50-level, 3-component, Sercel MaxiWave system with 15 m (49 ft) spacing between levels. The source for both surveys was an accelerated weight drop, with different source trucks used for the two surveys. Consistent time-lapse processing was applied to both data sets. Time-lapse processing generated difference corridor stacks to investigate CO2 induced reflection amplitude changes from each source point. Corridor stacks were used for amplitude analysis to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for each shot point. Spatial variation in reflectivity (used to ‘map’ the plume) was similar in magnitude to the corridor stacks but, due to relatively lower S/N, the results were less consistent and more sensitive to processing and therefore are not presented. We examined the overall time-lapse repeatability of the OVSP data using three methods, the NRMS and Predictability (Pred) measures of Kragh and Christie (2002) and the signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) method of Cantillo (2011). Because time-lapse noise was comparable to the observed change, multiple methods were used to analyze data reliability. The reflections from the top and base reservoir were identified on the corridor stacks by correlation with a synthetic response generated from the well logs. A consistent change in the corridor stack amplitudes from pre- to post-CO2 injection was found for both the top and base reservoir reflections on all ten shot locations analyzed. In addition to the well-log synthetic response, a finite-difference elastic wave propagation model was built based on rock/fluid properties obtained from well logs, with CO2 induced changes guided by time-lapse crosswell seismic tomography (Ajo-Franklin, et al., 2013) acquired at the DAS site. Time-lapse seismic tomography indicated that two reservoir zones were affected by the flood. The modeling established that interpretation of the VSP trough and peak event amplitudes as reflectivity from the top and bottom of reservoir is appropriate even with possible tuning effects. Importantly, this top/base change gives confidence in an interpretation that these changes arise from within the reservoir, not from bounding lithology. The modeled time-lapse change and the observed field data change from 10 shotpoints are in agreement for both magnitude and polarity of amplitude change for top and base of reservoir. Therefore, we conclude the stored CO2 has been successfully detected and, furthermore, the observed seismic reflection change can be applied to Cranfield’s 4D surface seismic for spatially delineating the CO2/brine interface.« less

  15. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

  16. CantorCO2e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CantorCO2e Jump to: navigation, search Name: CantorCO2e Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: E14 5RD Product: London-headquartered emissions broker and fund manager...

  17. CO2 utilization and storage in shale gas reservoirs: Experimental results and economic impacts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Owen, Antionette Toni; Miller, Quin R. S.; Loring, John S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-12-31

    Natural gas is considered a cleaner and lower-emission fuel than coal, and its high abundance from advanced drilling techniques has positioned natural gas as a major alternative energy source for the U.S. However, each ton of CO2 emitted from any type of fossil fuel combustion will continue to increase global atmospheric concentrations. One unique approach to reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions involves coupling CO2 based enhanced gas recovery (EGR) operations in depleted shale gas reservoirs with long-term CO2 storage operations. In this paper, we report unique findings about the interactions between important shale minerals and sorbing gases (CH4 and CO2) andmore » associated economic consequences. Where enhanced condensation of CO2 followed by desorption on clay surface is observed under supercritical conditions, a linear sorption profile emerges for CH4. Volumetric changes to montmorillonites occur during exposure to CO2. Theory-based simulations identify interactions with interlayer cations as energetically favorable for CO2 intercalation. Thus, experimental evidence suggests CH4 does not occupy the interlayer and has only the propensity for surface adsorption. Mixed CH4:CO2 gas systems, where CH4 concentrations prevail, indicate preferential CO2 sorption as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Collectively, these laboratory studies combined with a cost-based economic analysis provide a basis for identifying favorable CO2-EOR opportunities in previously fractured shale gas reservoirs approaching final stages of primary gas production. Moreover, utilization of site-specific laboratory measurements in reservoir simulators provides insight into optimum injection strategies for maximizing CH4/CO2 exchange rates to obtain peak natural gas production.« less

  18. A Review of the CO2 Pipeline Infrastructure in the U.S.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper provides summary descriptions of the U.S. carbon dioxide (CO2) pipeline system and future scenarios for expansion. Spanning across more than a dozen U.S. states and into Canada, a safe and regionally extensive network of pipelines has been constructed over the past four decades. These pipelines represent an essential building block for linking the capture of CO2 from electric power plants and other industrial sources with its productive use in oilfields and its safe storage in saline formations. The vast majority of the CO2 pipeline system is dedicated to CO2- Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), connecting natural and industrial sources of CO2 with EOR projects in oil fields. Roughly 80 percent of CO2 traveling through U.S. pipelines is from natural (geologic) sources; however, if currently planned industrial CO2 capture facilities and new pipelines are built, by 2020 the portion of CO2 from industrial sources could nearly match the portion from natural sources. A national carbon policy could significantly increase the scale of CO2 infrastructure by creating incentives for electric power plants and other industrial facilities to reduce CO2 emissions through carbon capture technologies and improving the economics for oil production through EOR. Low-carbon cases modeled for this report project that construction through 2030 could more than triple the size of current U.S. CO2 pipeline infrastructure. The development of an expanded national CO2 pipeline network capable of meeting U.S. GHG emission goals may require regulatory changes, incentives and a more concerted federal policy, involving closer cooperation among federal, state, and local governments.

  19. Iowa: Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community Iowa: Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community November 6, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Utilizing funding from EERE and cost shares from other federal agencies, the City of West Union, Iowa, drilled geothermal wells in order to install a closed-loop geothermal heating and cooling system. The system is designed to serve 330,000 square feet of mixed used space in the downtown area,

  20. Iowa: Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community Iowa: Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community November 6, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Utilizing funding from EERE and cost shares from other federal agencies, the City of West Union, Iowa, drilled geothermal wells in order to install a closed-loop geothermal heating and cooling system. The system is designed to serve 330,000 square feet of mixed used space in the downtown area,

  1. Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal-Organic Frameworks?A Fixed Bed Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-05-03

    It is important to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas which is considered to be the main reason to cause global warming. CO2/N2 separation by novel adsorbents is a promising method to reduce CO2 emission but effect of water and CO2/N2 selectivity is critical to apply the adsorbents into practical applications. A very well known, Metal Organic Framework, NiDOBDC (Ni-MOF-74 or CPO-27-Ni) was synthesized through a solvothermal reaction and the sample (500 to 800 microns) was used in a fixed bed CO2/N2 breakthrough study with and without H2O. The Ni/DOBDC pellet has a high CO2 capacity of 3.74 mol/kg at 0.15 bar and a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 38, which is much higher than those of reported MOFs and zeolites under dry condition. Trace amount of water can impact CO2 adsorption capacity as well as CO2/N2 selectivity for the Ni/DOBDC. However, Ni/DOBDC can retain a significant CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity at 0.15 bar CO2 with 3% RH water. These results indicate a promising future to use the Ni/DOBDC in CO2 capture from flue gas.

  2. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  3. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  4. FT-IR Study of CO2 Interaction with Na-rich Montmorillonite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krukowski, Elizabeth G; Goodman, Angela; Rother, Gernot; Ilton, Eugene; Guthrie, George; Bodnar, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) in saline reservoirs in sedimentary formations has the potential to reduce the impact of fossil fuel combustion on climate change by reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and storing the CO2 in geologic formations in perpetuity. At pressure and temperature (PT) conditions relevant to CCUS, CO2 is less dense than the pre-existing brine in the formation, and the more buoyant CO2 will migrate to the top of the formation where it will be in contact with cap rock. Interactions between clay-rich shale cap rocks and CO2 are poorly understood at PT conditions appropriate formore » CCUS in saline formations. In this study, the interaction of CO2 with clay minerals in the cap rock overlying a saline formation has been examined using Na+ exchanged montmorillonite (Mt) (Na+-STx-1) (Na+ Mt) as an analog for clay-rich shale. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to discern mechanistic information for CO2 interaction with hydrated (both one- and two-water layers) and relatively dehydrated (both dehydrated layers and one-water layers) Na+-STx-1 at 35 C and 50 C and CO2 pressure from 0 5.9 MPa. CO2-induced perturbations associated with the water layer and Na+-STx-1 vibrational modes such as AlAlOH and AlMgOH were examined. Data indicate that CO2 is preferentially incorporated into the interlayer space, with relatively dehydrated Na+-STx-1 capable of incorporating more CO2 compared to hydrated Na+-STx-1. Spectroscopic data provide no evidence of formation of carbonate minerals or the interaction of CO2 with sodium cations in the Na+-STx-1 structure.« less

  5. Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases

  6. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  7. Secretary Chu Announces Two New Projects to Reduce Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by adding CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) to Basin Electric's existing Antelope ... from Coal Plants DOE Advances Innovative CCS Polygeneration Plant Through NEPA Process ...

  8. Near-Surface Co2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are predominantly controlled by...

  9. Geological Sequestration of CO2 by Hydrous Carbonate Formation with Reclaimed Slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von L. Richards; Kent Peaslee; Jeffrey Smith

    2008-02-06

    The concept of this project is to develop a process that improves the kinetics of the hydrous carbonate formation reaction enabling steelmakers to directly remove CO2 from their furnace exhaust gas. It is proposed to bring the furnace exhaust stream containing CO2 in contact with reclaimed steelmaking slag in a reactor that has an environment near the unit activity of water resulting in the production of carbonates. The CO2 emissions from the plant would be reduced by the amount sequestered in the formation of carbonates. The main raw materials for the process are furnace exhaust gases and specially prepared slag.

  10. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the worlds roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the worlds roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the worlds roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  11. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions Alternative to Exhaust Gas Recirculation that involves the nitrogen enrichment of intake air. Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Schematic representation of the air separation process through a membrane module</p> Schematic representation of the air separation process through

  13. Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Vehicles Reduce Tailpipe Emissions While

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maintaining Fuel Economy - News Releases | NREL Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Vehicles Reduce Tailpipe Emissions While Maintaining Fuel Economy February 23, 2011 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently completed a yearlong technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric (gHEV) trucks compared with conventional diesel vehicles. A report released this week details NREL's efforts to determine the impact of hybridization on performance,

  14. Six-Week Time Series Of Eddy Covariance CO2 Flux At Mammoth Mountain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    high, spatially heterogeneous CO2 emission rates. EC CO2 fluxes ranged from 218 to 3500 g m- 2 d- 1 (mean 1346 g m- 2 d- 1). Using footprint modeling, EC CO2 fluxes were...

  15. Reducing cold-start emissions by catalytic converter thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, S D; Potter, T F; Keyser, M A; Brady, M J; Michaels, K F

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m{sup 2}K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. Although exhaust temperatures during the preconditioning were not hot enough to melt the phase-change material, the vacuum insulation performed well, resulting in a converter temperature of 146{degrees}C after the 23-hour cold soak at 27{degrees}C. Compared to the same converter at ambient conditions, overall emissions of CO and HC were reduced by 52 % and 29 %, to 0.27 and 0.037 g/mile, respectively. The maximum converter temperature during the FTP cycle was 720{degrees}C. This limited testing was performed with a nearly-fresh palladium-only catalyst, but demonstrates the potential of this vacuum insulation approach for emissions reduction and thermal control. Further testing is ongoing. An initial assessment of several production issues is made, including high-volume fabrication challenges, durability, and cost.

  16. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  17. Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

    2011-01-01

    Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

  18. Two-phase convective CO2 dissolution in saline aquifers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martinez, Mario J.; Hesse, Marc A.

    2016-01-30

    Geologic carbon storage in deep saline aquifers is a promising technology for reducing anthropogenic emissions into the atmosphere. Dissolution of injected CO2 into resident brines is one of the primary trapping mechanisms generally considered necessary to provide long-term storage security. Given that diffusion of CO2 in brine is woefully slow, convective dissolution, driven by a small increase in brine density with CO2 saturation, is considered to be the primary mechanism of dissolution trapping. Previous studies of convective dissolution have typically only considered the convective process in the single-phase region below the capillary transition zone and have either ignored the overlyingmore » two-phase region where dissolution actually takes place or replaced it with a virtual region with reduced or enhanced constant permeability. Our objective is to improve estimates of the long-term dissolution flux of CO2 into brine by including the capillary transition zone in two-phase model simulations. In the fully two-phase model, there is a capillary transition zone above the brine-saturated region over which the brine saturation decreases with increasing elevation. Our two-phase simulations show that the dissolution flux obtained by assuming a brine-saturated, single-phase porous region with a closed upper boundary is recovered in the limit of vanishing entry pressure and capillary transition zone. For typical finite entry pressures and capillary transition zone, however, convection currents penetrate into the two-phase region. As a result, this removes the mass transfer limitation of the diffusive boundary layer and enhances the convective dissolution flux of CO2 more than 3 times above the rate assuming single-phase conditions.« less

  19. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P.; Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2 concentration resulted in incremental loss in IAS performance and revealed progressive degrees of staining upon testing. Adsorption of SO2 by the IAS necessitates upstream removal of SO2 prior to CO2 capture.

  20. Early opportunities of CO2 geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2014-11-12

    Abstract: Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO2 emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO2 sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation or in late planning stages. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO2 per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO2 (CO2 concentration >80% and >99% respectively).Four typical source-sink pairs are studied by a techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and experienced economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO2 capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO2. When a 15USD/t CO2 tax and 15USD/t for CO2 sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a net economic benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  1. CO2-driven Enhanced Oil Recovery as a Stepping Stone to What?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2010-07-14

    This paper draws heavily on the authors’ previously published research to explore the extent to which near term carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) can be “a stepping stone to a long term sequestration program of a scale to be material in climate change risk mitigation.” The paper examines the historical evolution of CO2-EOR in the United States and concludes that estimates of the cost of CO2-EOR production or the extent of CO2 pipeline networks based upon this energy security-driven promotion of CO2-EOR do not provide a robust platform for spurring the commercial deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (CCS) as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The paper notes that the evolving regulatory framework for CCS makes a clear distinction between CO2-EOR and CCS and the authors examine arguments in the technical literature about the ability for CO2-EOR to generate offsetting revenue to accelerate the commercial deployment of CCS systems in the electric power and industrial sectors of the economy. The authors conclude that the past 35 years of CO2-EOR in the U.S. have been important for boosting domestic oil production and delivering proven system components for future CCS systems. However, though there is no reason to suggest that CO2-EOR will cease to deliver these benefits, there is also little to suggest that CO2-EOR is a necessary or significantly beneficial step towards the commercial deployment of CCS as a means of addressing climate change.

  2. Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 5:07pm Addthis...

  3. Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 5:07pm Addthis ...

  4. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 Cummins Power Generation, in collaboration with Cummins Engine Business Unit, is developing a flexible, packaged CHP system that produces 330 kW of electrical power output and 410 kW of thermal output while increasing efficiency and reducing emissions and cost. The project will result in the highest-efficiency and lowest-emissions system

  5. ARM - Instrument - co2flx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsco2flx Documentation CO2FLX : Handbook ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2FLX) Instrument Categories Atmospheric Carbon General Overview The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The fluxes are obtained by the eddy

  6. Supercritical CO2-Brayton Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  7. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

  8. CO2 Sequestration short course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaolo, Donald J.; Cole, David R; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Bourg, Ian C

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  9. Trinity CO2 LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CO2 LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trinity CO2 LLC Place: Texas Product: String representation "Trinity CO2 LLC ... smission lines." is too long. References: Trinity CO2...

  10. Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in the Cement Sector |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    similar analyses of the iron and steel, electric power, and aluminum industries in China, Brazil and Mexico." References "CCAP-Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in...

  11. Low-Cost Packaged Combined Heat and Power System with Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Fact sheet overviewing how this project will develop a flexible, packaged CHP system that increases efficiency and reduces emissions and cost.

  12. Mapping Subsurface CO2 Migration | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    the information content from time-lapse seismic data at CO2 geologic storage sites. ... Removal of CO2 from the emissions of fossil fuel plants is a priority for clean energy. ...

  13. Watch Our CO2 Drop | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Watch Our CO2 Drop Watch Our CO2 Drop

  14. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-15

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  15. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-27

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  16. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-06-29

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond tomore » conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient to power larger-scale, tonne per day CO2 conversion systems.« less

  17. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Bacon, Diana H.; Engel, David W.; Lin, Guang; Fang, Yilin; Ren, Huiying; Fang, Zhufeng

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we apply an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to CO2 sequestration problems. In one scenario, we look at the risk of wellbore leakage of CO2 into a shallow unconfined aquifer in an urban area; in another scenario, we study the effects of reservoir heterogeneity on CO2 migration. We combine various sampling approaches (quasi-Monte Carlo, probabilistic collocation, and adaptive sampling) in order to reduce the number of forward calculations while trying to fully explore the input parameter space and quantify the input uncertainty. The CO2 migration is simulated using the PNNL-developed simulator STOMP-CO2e (the water-salt-CO2 module). For computationally demanding simulations with 3D heterogeneity fields, we combined the framework with a scalable version module, eSTOMP, as the forward modeling simulator. We built response curves and response surfaces of model outputs with respect to input parameters, to look at the individual and combined effects, and identify and rank the significance of the input parameters.

  18. Vietnam-Integrated Action Plan to Reduce Vehicle Emissions |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and reduce air pollution. Furthermore, they are required to ensure that Viet Nam's air quality meets the average standards set by the Association of Southeast Asian Nation...

  19. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plahn, Paul; Keene, Kevin; Pendray, John

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  20. The Need to Reduce Mobile Source Emissions in the South Coast Air Basin |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Need to Reduce Mobile Source Emissions in the South Coast Air Basin The Need to Reduce Mobile Source Emissions in the South Coast Air Basin 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: South Coast Air Quality Management District PDF icon 2004_deer_liu.pdf More Documents & Publications South Coast AQMD Clean Transportation Programs Overview of South Coast AQMD Incentive Programs and Their Funding Structure Cleaning Up Diesel Engines

  1. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  2. CO2 | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home CO2 CO2 'Underground battery' could store renewable energy, sequester CO2 This integrated system would store carbon dioxide in an...

  3. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Santa Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  4. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-10-27

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  5. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Keene - Cummins Power Generation Kevin.Keene@cummins.com 763-574-5966 U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  Increase the adoption rate for high-efficiency small- scale Combined Heat and Power systems via development of a flexible, containerized 330 kWe unit.  Simplifies installation  Reduces total cost of ownership

  6. Co2balance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    balance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Co2balance Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon offset provider based in Somerset, UK. References: Co2balance1 This...

  7. Factor CO2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Factor CO2 Jump to: navigation, search Name: Factor CO2 Place: Bilbao, Spain Zip: 48008 Product: Spain-based consultancy specializing in climate change projects. References: Factor...

  8. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 | Department of Energy Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Presentation on a 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions, given by John Pendray of Cummins Power Generation, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2,

  9. CO2e Capital Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    e Capital Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: CO2e Capital Limited Place: New York City, New York Zip: 10022 Product: New York based merchant bank focused on reducing global...

  10. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  11. Secretary Chu Announces Two New Projects to Reduce Emissions from Coal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants | Department of Energy New Projects to Reduce Emissions from Coal Plants Secretary Chu Announces Two New Projects to Reduce Emissions from Coal Plants July 1, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today that projects by Basin Electric Power Cooperative and Hydrogen Energy International LLC have been selected for up to $408 million in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The two projects selected -- an

  12. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    through region-specific crop selection (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air

  13. A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems July 29, 2014 - 3:33pm Addthis A researcher evaluates methane produced in a unique conservation process. Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and valuable energy resource.| Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. A researcher evaluates methane produced in a unique conservation process. Methane is both a potent greenhouse gas and valuable energy resource.| Photo courtesy of the Energy

  14. Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 5:07pm Addthis Developed jointly by Da Vinci Emissions Services Ltd., Cummins Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil (DAFIO(tm)) technology uses a fiber optic probe to obtain real-time measurements of oil in an operating engine to quantify the fuel dissolved in the lubricant

  15. EERE Success Story-Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Wins R&D 100 Award | Department of Energy Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award EERE Success Story-Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 5:07pm Addthis Developed jointly by Da Vinci Emissions Services Ltd., Cummins Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil (DAFIO(tm)) technology uses a fiber optic probe to obtain real-time measurements of oil in an operating engine to

  16. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

  17. Stragegies to Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Based on Monitoringand Analysis of CO2 in the Near-Surface Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-03-29

    We investigate the potential for CO2 monitoring in thenear-surface environment as an approach to exploration for hiddengeothermal systems. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration from a modelhidden geothermal system show that CO2 concentrations can reach highlevels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low CO2 fluxes.Therefore, subsurface measurements offer an advantage over above-groundmeasurements which are affected by winds that rapidly disperse CO2. Tomeet the challenge of detecting geothermal CO2 emissions within thenatural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach thatintegrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statisticalanalysis and modeling.

  18. co2-transport | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transport Cost Model FENETL CO2 Transport Cost Model About the model: This model was developed to estimate the cost of transporting a user-specified mass rate of CO2 by pipeline...

  19. 11,970,363 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 23, 2016 | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy 11,970,363 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 23, 2016 11,970,363 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 23, 2016 This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions from 210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program

  20. 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015 This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions from 210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program

  1. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  2. Reducing GHG emissions by co-utilization of coal with natural gas or biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, I.M.

    2004-07-01

    Energy reserves price and security of supply issues are discussed in the context of the prospects for coal and policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coal is projected to remain a major source of energy, with most of the demand growth in developing countries. Currently available power-generating technologies, deploying coal with natural gas or biomass, are examined. Examples of successful, partial substitution of coal by other fuels in power stations are highlighted, including the GHG emissions reductions achieved as well as the costs where available. Among various options, hybrid gasification and parallel cofiring of coal with biomass and natural gas appear to have the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions. Much may also be achieved by cofiring, reburning, and repowering with gas turbines. The best method differs between different power systems. Co-utilization of biomass with coal is a least-cost option to reduce GHG emissions where the fuel prices are comparable, usually due to subsidies or taxes. The role of biomass is likely to increase due to greater use of subsidies, carbon taxes, and emissions trading within the context of the Kyoto Protocol. This should provide opportunities for clean coal technology transfer and diffusion, including biomass co-utilization. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. CO2 Compression | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Compression CO2 Compression The CO2 captured from a power plant must be compressed from near atmospheric pressure to a pressure between 1,500 and 2,200 psi to be transported via pipeline and then injected into an underground storage site. The compression of CO2 represents a potentially large auxiliary power load on the overall power plant system. For example, in an August 2007 study conducted for NETL, CO2 compression was accomplished using a six-stage centrifugal compressor with interstage

  4. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  5. Assessment of the feasibility of reducing emissions from gasoline and LPG industrial equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekken, M.; Wood, M.S.

    1997-12-31

    In 1994, the California Air Resources Board (ARB) approved a State Implementation Plan (SIP) to bring California`s South Coast Air Basin into compliance with federal ozone standards. The plan includes the adoption of emission controls for previously un(der)regulated off-road vehicles and equipment. Off-road industrial equipment in the 25 to 175 horsepower range has been designed to meet power and fuel economy priorities, with little effort going to emission reductions. California`s plan requires substantial emission reductions for such equipment. The application of catalysts or other emission control technologies to spark-ignited industrial equipment can feasibly and cost-effectively achieve the emission reductions required in the SIP. The paper discusses off-road catalyst application, availability, and packaging. In addition, other technologies to reduce emissions are addressed, including engine, fuel system, and exhaust system modifications, and the use of alternate fuels. Anticipated costs are also discussed. There is good reason to presume that spark-ignited industrial equipment will be able to achieve the required emission reductions in the time frame indicated in the SIP.

  6. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Drive Smarter, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Clean Cities' Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

  7. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Clean Cities Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

  8. International potential of IGCC technology for use in reducing global warming and climate change emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, F.S.

    1996-12-31

    High efficiency advanced coal-based technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) that can assist in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions which contribute to Global Warming and Climate Change are becoming commercially available. U-GAS is an advanced gasification technology that can be used in many applications to convert coal in a high efficiency manner that will reduce the total amount of CO{sub 2} produced by requiring less coal-based fuel per unit of energy output. This paper will focus on the status of the installation and performance of the IGT U-GAS gasifiers which were installed at the Shanghai Cooking and Chemical Plant General located in Shanghai, China. Its use in future IGCC project for the production of power and the benefits of IGCC in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through its high efficiency operation will be discussed.

  9. DOE-Sponsored Drilling Projects Demonstrate Significant CO2 Storage at

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Three Sites | Department of Energy Drilling Projects Demonstrate Significant CO2 Storage at Three Sites DOE-Sponsored Drilling Projects Demonstrate Significant CO2 Storage at Three Sites May 3, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Evaluation-related test drilling at geologic sites in three states that could store a combined 64 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions - an important component of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology development - has been

  10. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system developed to meet EPA 2010 and final Tier 4 emission regulations show substantial improvements in system performance while reducing system cost

  11. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  12. CO2 Europipe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.co2europipe.eu Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentco2-europipe Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations,Financial Incentives" is not in...

  13. CO2 Conference Presentation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CO2 Conference Presentation More Documents & Publications POWER-GEN Conference Presentation U.S. Energy Association Presentation EEI Environment Meetings Presentation...

  14. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondaryaccumulation at shallow depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    2007-05-31

    Geologic storage of CO2 can be a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases only if it can bedemonstrated that leakage from proposed storage reservoirs and associatedhazards are small or can be mitigated. Risk assessment must evaluatepotential leakage scenarios and develop a rational, mechanisticunderstanding of CO2 behavior during leakage. Flow of CO2 may be subjectto positive feedbacks that could amplify leakage risks and hazards,placing a premium on identifying and avoiding adverse conditions andmechanisms. A scenario that is unfavorable in terms of leakage behavioris formation of a secondary CO2 accumulation at shallow depth. This paperdevelops a detailed numerical simulation model to investigate CO2discharge from a secondary accumulation, and evaluates the role ofdifferent thermodynamic and hydrogeologic conditions. Our simulationsdemonstrate self-enhancing as well as self-limiting feedbacks.Condensation of gaseous CO2, 3-phase flow of aqueous phase -- liquid CO2-- gaseous CO2, and cooling from Joule-Thomson expansion and boiling ofliquid CO2 are found to play important roles in the behavior of a CO2leakage system. We find no evidence that a subsurface accumulation of CO2at ambient temperatures could give rise to a high-energy discharge, aso-called "pneumatic eruption."

  15. A quantitative comparison of the cost of employing EOR-coupled CSS supplemented with secondary DSF storage for two large CO2 point sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.

    2011-04-18

    This paper explores the impact of the temporally dynamic demand for CO2 for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery with CO2 storage. Previous evaluations of economy-wide CO2 capture and geologic storage (CCS) deployment have typically applied a simplifying assumption that 100% of the potential storage capacity for a given formation is available on the first day of the analysis, and that the injection rate impacts only the number of wells required to inject a given volume of fluid per year, making it a cost driver rather than a technical one. However, as discussed by Dahowski and Bachu [1], storing CO2 in a field undergoing CO2 flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is subject to a set of constraints to which storage in DSFs is not, and these constraints combined with variable demand for CO2 may strongly influence the ability of an EOR field to serve as a baseload storage formation for commercial scale CCS projects undertaken as a means of addressing climate change mitigation targets. This analysis assumes that CCS is being undertaken in order to reduce CO2 emissions from the industrial sources evaluated and that there is enough of a disincentive associated with venting CO2 to the atmosphere that any CO2 not used within the EOR field will be stored in a suitable nearby deep saline formation (DSF). The authors have applied a CO2 demand profile to two cases chosen to illustrate the differences in cost impacts of employing EOR-based CCS as a part of a given sources CCS portfolio. The first scenario is a less-than-ideal case in which a single EOR field is used for storage and all CO2 not demanded by the EOR project is stored in a DSF; the second scenario is designed to optimize costs by minimizing storage in the DSF and maximizing lower-cost EOR-based storage. Both scenarios are evaluated for two facilities emitting 3 and 6 MtCO2/y, corresponding to a natural gas processing facility and an IGCC electric power plant, respectively. Annual and lifetime average CO2 transport and storage costs are presented, and the impact of added capture and compression costs on overall project economics is examined.

  16. System and method for making metallic iron with reduced CO.sub.2 emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiesel, Richard F; Englund, David J; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for making metallic iron nodules with reduced CO.sub.2 emissions is disclosed. The method includes: assembling a linear hearth furnace having entry and exit portions, at least a conversion zone and a fusion zone, and a moving hearth adapted to move reducible iron bearing material through the furnace on contiguous hearth sections; assembling a shrouded return substantially free of air ingress extending adjacent at least the conversion and fusion zones of the furnace through which hearth sections can move from adjacent the exit portion to adjacent the entry portion of the furnace; transferring the hearth sections from the furnace to the shrouded return adjacent the exit portion; reducing reducible material in the linear hearth furnace to metallic iron nodules; and transporting gases from at least the fusion zone to the shrouded return to heat the hearth sections while in the shrouded return.

  17. Comparing large scale CCS deployment potential in the USA and China: a detailed analysis based on country-specific CO2 transport & storage cost curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Dooley, James J.

    2011-04-18

    The United States and China are the two largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world and their projected continued growth and reliance on fossil fuels, especially coal, make them strong candidates for CCS. Previous work has revealed that both nations have over 1600 large electric utility and other industrial point CO2 sources as well as very large CO2 storage resources on the order of 2,000 billion metric tons (Gt) of onshore storage capacity. In each case, the vast majority of this capacity is found in deep saline formations. In both the USA and China, candidate storage reservoirs are likely to be accessible by most sources with over 80% of these large industrial CO2 sources having a CO2 storage option within just 80 km. This suggests a strong potential for CCS deployment as a meaningful option to efforts to reduce CO2 emissions from these large, vibrant economies. However, while the USA and China possess many similarities with regards to the potential value that CCS might provide, including the range of costs at which CCS may be available to most large CO2 sources in each nation, there are a number of more subtle differences that may help us to understand the ways in which CCS deployment may differ between these two countries in order for the USA and China to work together - and in step with the rest of the world - to most efficiently reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper details the first ever analysis of CCS deployment costs in these two countries based on methodologically comparable CO2 source and sink inventories, economic analysis, geospatial source-sink matching and cost curve modeling. This type of analysis provides a valuable insight into the degree to which early and sustained opportunities for climate change mitigation via commercial-scale CCS are available to the two countries, and could facilitate greater collaboration in areas where those opportunities overlap.

  18. An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2-EOR

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sites (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2-EOR Sites Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2-EOR Sites An integrated framework for CO2 accounting and risk analysis of CO2-EOR Authors: Dai, Zhenxue [1] ; Viswanathan, Hari S. [1] ; Middleton, Richard Stephen [1] ; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna Eileen [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Lab.

  19. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    leakage into aquifers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers In this study, we apply an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to CO2 sequestration problems. In one scenario, we look at the risk of wellbore leakage of CO2 into a shallow unconfined aquifer in an urban area; in

  20. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no specific Hg controls) ranged from 5.7 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest to 2 x 10{sup -5} in the Southeast. Reducing emissions from coal plants by 90% reduced the estimated range in risk to 5 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest and 1.5 x 10{sup -5} in Southeast, respectively. The population risk for the subsistence fisher using the Southeast regional fish Hg levels was 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, a factor of 200 greater than the general population risk. For the subsistence fishers and the Savannah River Hg levels, the population risk was 4.3 x 10{sup -5}, a factor of 2 greater than for the general population. The estimated risk reductions from a 90% reduction in coal plant Hg emissions ranged from 25%-68%, which is greater than the assumed reduction in Hg levels in fish, (15.5%). To place this risk in perspective, there are approximately 4 x 10{sup 6} births/year in the U.S (National Vital Statistics Report, 2000). Assuming that the Southeast risk level (the highest of the regions) is appropriate for the entire U.S., an estimate of 80 newborn children per year have a 5% chance of realizing any of the 16 adverse effects used to generate the DRF. If Hg emissions from power plants are reduced 90%, the number of children at risk is reduced to 60.

  1. Watch Our CO2 Drop | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Our CO2 Drop Watch Our CO2 Drop January 14, 2016 - 4:55pm Addthis Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Learn More About Climate Change If you want to learn more about the importance of reducing our carbon pollution, read our recent report about how climate change threatens our energy infrastructure. Curious about the total amount of carbon we emit into the atmosphere? Compare countries from around the globe using this tool. On Tuesday,

  2. Reducing emissions from the electricity sector: the costs and benefits nationwide and for the Empire State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen Palmer; Dallas Butraw; Jhih-Shyang Shih

    2005-06-15

    Using four models, this study looks at EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as originally proposed, which differs in only small ways from the final rule issued in March 2005, coupled with several approaches to reducing emissions of mercury including one that differs in only small ways from the final rule also issued in March 2005. This study analyzes what costs and benefits each would incur to New York State and to the nation at large. Benefits to the nation and to New York State significantly outweigh the costs associated with reductions in SO{sub 2}, NOx and mercury, and all policies show dramatic net benefits. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications for the cost of the regulation and for emission levels for SO{sub 2} and NOx and where those emissions are located. Contrary to EPA's findings, CAIR as originally proposed by itself would not keep summer emissions of NOx from electricity generators in the SIP region below the current SIP seasonal NOx cap. In the final CAIR, EPA added a seasonal NOx cap to address seasonal ozone problems. The CAIR with the seasonal NOx cap produces higher net benefits. The effect of the different policies on the mix of fuels used to supply electricity is fairly modest under scenarios similar to the EPA's final rules. A maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach, compared to a trading approach as the way to achieve tighter mercury targets (beyond EPA's proposal), would preserve the role of coal in electricity generation. The evaluation of scenarios with tighter mercury emission controls shows that the net benefits of a maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach exceed the net benefits of a cap and trade approach. 39 refs., 10 figs., 30 figs., 5 apps.

  3. Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored CO2 in Organic Rocks Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, Vivak

    2014-06-30

    The USA is embarking upon tackling the serious environmental challenges posed to the world by greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). The dimension of the problem is daunting. In fact, according to the Energy Information Agency, nearly 6 billion metric tons of CO2 were produced in the USA in 2007 with coal-burning power plants contributing about 2 billion metric tons. To mitigate the concerns associated with CO2 emission, geological sequestration holds promise. Among the potential geological storage sites, unmineable coal seams and shale formations in particular show promise because of the probability of methane recovery while sequestering the CO2. However. the success of large-scale sequestration of CO2 in coal and shale would hinge on a thorough understanding of CO2's interactions with host reservoirs. An important parameter for successful storage of CO2 reservoirs would be whether the pressurized CO2 would remain invariant in coal and shale formations under reasonable internal and/or external perturbations. Recent research has brought to the fore the potential of induced seismicity, which may result in caprock compromise. Therefore, to evaluate the potential risks involved in sequestering CO2 in Illinois bituminous coal seams and shale, we studied: (i) the mechanical behavior of Murphysboro (Illinois) and Houchin Creek (Illinois) coals, (ii) thermodynamic behavior of Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ≤ T ≤ 300oC, (iii) how high pressure CO2 (up to 20.7 MPa) modifies the viscosity of the host, (iv) the rate of emission of CO2 from Illinois bituminous coal and shale cores if the cores, which were pressurized with high pressure (≤ 20.7 MPa) CO2, were exposed to an atmospheric pressure, simulating the development of leakage pathways, (v) whether there are any fractions of CO2 stored in these hosts which are resistance to emission by simply exposing the cores to atmospheric pressure, and (vi) how compressive shockwaves applied to the coal and shale cores, which were pressurized with high pressure CO2, determine the fate of sequestered CO2 in these cores. Our results suggested that Illinois bituminous coal in its unperturbed state, i.e., when not pressurized with CO2, showed large variations in the mechanical properties. Modulus varied from 0.7 GPa to 3.4 GPa even though samples were extracted from a single large chunk of coal. We did not observe any glass transition for Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ≤ T ≤ 300oC, however, when the coal was pressurized with CO2 at ambient ≤ P ≤ 20.7 MPa, the viscosity of the coal decreased and inversely scaled with the CO2 pressure. The decrease in viscosity as a function of pressure could pose CO2 injection problems for coal as lower viscosity would allow the solid coal to flow to plug the fractures, fissures, and cleats. Our experiments also showed a very small fraction of CO2 was absorbed in coal; and when CO2 pressurized coals were exposed to atmospheric conditions, the loss of CO2 from coals was massive. Half of the sequestered gas from the coal cores was lost in less than 20 minutes. Our shockwave experiments on Illinois bituminous coal, New Albany shale (Illinois), Devonian shale (Ohio), and Utica shale (Ohio) presented clear evidence that the significant emission of the sequestered CO2 from these formations cannot be discounted during seismic activity, especially if caprock is compromised. It is argued that additional shockwave studies, both compressive and transverse, would be required for successfully mapping the risks associated with sequestering high pressure CO2 in coal and shale formations.

  4. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  5. Near-Surface CO2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-01-19

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are systems devoid of obvious surface hydrothermal manifestations. Emissions of moderate-to-low solubility gases may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. We investigate the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring below and above ground in the near-surface environment as an approach to exploration targeting hidden geothermal systems. We focus on CO2 because it is the dominant noncondensible gas species in most geothermal systems and has moderate solubility in water. We carried out numerical simulations of a CO2 migration scenario to calculate the magnitude of expected fluxes and concentrations. Our results show that CO2 concentrations can reach high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are predominantly controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include the infrared gas analyzer, the accumulation chamber method, the eddy covariance method, hyperspectral imaging, and light detection and ranging. To meet the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. The proposed monitoring plan initially focuses on rapid, economical, reliable measurements of CO2 subsurface concentrations and surface fluxes and statistical analysis of the collected data. Based on this analysis, are as with a high probability of containing geothermal CO2 anomalies can be further sampled and analyzed using more expensive chemical and isotopic methods. Integrated analysis of all measurements will determine definitively if CO2 derived from a deep geothermal source is present, and if so, the spatial extent of the anomaly. The suitability of further geophysical measurements, installation of deep wells, and geochemical analyses of deep fluids can then be determined based on the results of the near surface CO2 monitoring program.

  6. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  7. ARM - Campaign Instrument - co2air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Airborne Carbon Dioxide Analyzer System (CO2AIR) Instrument Categories...

  8. ARM - Campaign Instrument - co2flx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2FLX) Instrument Categories...

  9. CO2-Based Glue - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search CO2-Based Glue An environmentally friendly epoxy that utilizes CO2 as a starting material National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Weights suspended by plates that are held together with the adhesive Weights suspended by plates that are held together with the adhesive Plates held together by adhesive. Weights were suspended from the

  10. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S.

    2011-10-04

    Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

  11. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

    2011-05-25

    Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorological simulations in this study indicated that a reduction of 2C in air temperature in the Hyderabad area would be likely if a combination of increased surface albedo and vegetative cover are used as urban heat-island control strategies. In addition, air-temperature reductions on the order of 2.5-3.5C could be achieved if moderate and aggressive heat-island mitigation measures are adopted, respectively. A large-scale deployment of mitigation measures can bring additional indirect benefit to the urban area. For example, cooling outside air can improve the efficiency of cooling systems, reduce smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and indirectly reduce pollution from power plants - all improving environmental health quality. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of cool-roof technology as one of the urban heat-island control strategies for the Indian industrial and scientific communities and has provided an estimate of the national energy savings potential of cool roofs in India. These outcomes can be used for developing cool-roof building standards and related policies in India. Additional field studies, built upon the successes and lessons learned from this project, may be helpful to further confirm the scale of potential energy savings from the application of cooler roofs in various regions of India. In the future, a more rigorous meteorological simulation using urbanized (meso-urban) meteorological models should be conducted, which may produce a more accurate estimate of the air-temperature reductions for the entire urban area.

  12. Phase-Changing Ionic Liquids: CO2 Capture with Ionic Liquids Involving Phase Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Notre Dame is developing a new CO2 capture process that uses special ionic liquids (ILs) to remove CO2 from the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. ILs are salts that are normally liquid at room temperature, but Notre Dame has discovered a new class of ILs that are solid at room temperature and change to liquid when they bind to CO2. Upon heating, the CO2 is released for storage, and the ILs re-solidify and donate some of the heat generated in the process to facilitate further CO2 release. These new ILs can reduce the energy required to capture CO2 from the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant when compared to state-ofthe- art technology.

  13. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650C in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late in Phase 1 an opportunity arose to collaborate with another turbine-development team to construct a shared s-CO2 test facility. The synergy of the combined effort would result in greater facility capabilities than either separate project could produce and would allow for testing of both turbine designs within the combined budgets of the two projects. The project team requested a no-cost extension to Phase 1 to modify the subsequent work based on this collaborative approach. DOE authorized a brief extension, but ultimately opted not to pursue the collaborative facility and terminated the project.

  14. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in another scenario, we study the effects of reservoir heterogeneity on CO2 migration. ... The CO2 migration is simulated using the PNNL-developed simulator STOMP-CO2e (the ...

  15. An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2-EOR Sites Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk...

  16. Hopewell Beneficial CO2 Capture for Production of Fuels, Fertilizer and Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UOP; Honeywell Resins & Chemicals; Honeywell Process Solutions; Aquaflow Bionomics Ltd

    2010-09-30

    For Phase 1 of this project, the Hopewell team developed a detailed design for the Small Scale Pilot-Scale Algal CO2 Sequestration System. This pilot consisted of six (6) x 135 gallon cultivation tanks including systems for CO2 delivery and control, algal cultivation, and algal harvesting. A feed tank supplied Hopewell wastewater to the tanks and a receiver tank collected the effluent from the algal cultivation system. The effect of environmental parameters and nutrient loading on CO2 uptake and sequestration into biomass were determined. Additionally the cost of capturing CO2 from an industrial stack emission at both pilot and full-scale was determined. The engineering estimate evaluated Amine Guard technology for capture of pure CO2 and direct stack gas capture and compression. The study concluded that Amine Guard technology has lower lifecycle cost at commercial scale, although the cost of direct stack gas capture is lower at the pilot scale. Experiments conducted under high concentrations of dissolved CO2 did not demonstrate enhanced algae growth rate. This result suggests that the dissolved CO2 concentration at neutral pH was already above the limiting value. Even though dissolved CO2 did not show a positive effect on biomass growth, controlling its value at a constant set-point during daylight hours can be beneficial in an algae cultivation stage with high algae biomass concentration to maximize the rate of CO2 uptake. The limited enhancement of algal growth by CO2 addition to Hopewell wastewater was due at least in part to the high endogenous CO2 evolution from bacterial degradation of dissolved organic carbon present at high levels in the wastewater. It was found that the high level of bacterial activity was somewhat inhibitory to algal growth in the Hopewell wastewater. The project demonstrated that the Honeywell automation and control system, in combination with the accuracy of the online pH, dissolved O2, dissolved CO2, turbidity, Chlorophyll A and conductivity sensors is suitable for process control of algae cultivation in an open pond systems. This project concluded that the Hopewell wastewater is very suitable for algal cultivation but the potential for significant CO2 sequestration from the plant stack gas emissions was minimal due to the high endogenous CO2 generation in the wastewater from the organic wastewater content. Algae cultivation was found to be promising, however, for nitrogen remediation in the Hopewell wastewater.

  17. Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy gains, and overall energy savings with propane injection in a diesel engine. PDF icon p-18_servati.pdf More Documents & Publications Active DPF for Off-Road Particulate Matter (PM) Control Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology DPF for a Tractor Auxiliary Power Unit

  18. Composition and Method for Rapid and Equimolar CO2 Capture - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Composition and Method for Rapid and Equimolar CO2 Capture Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00233_ID2434.pdf (627 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryThe emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from burning of fossil fuels has received worldwide attention because of its implication in

  19. Porous Hexacyanometalates for CO2 capture applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2013-07-30

    Prussian blue analogues of M3[Fe(CN)6]2 x H2O (where M=Fe, Mn and Ni) were synthesized, characterized and tested for their gas sorption capabilities. The sorption studies reveal that, these Prussian blue materials preferentially sorb CO2 over N2 and CH4 at low pressure (1bar).

  20. 2015 CO2 Capture Technology Meeting | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Capture Technology Meeting 2015 NETL CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY MEETING June 23-26, 2015 Meeting Summary Previous Proceedings 2014: NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting 2013: NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting 2012: NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Proceedings of the 2015 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Table of Contents Presentations Tuesday, June 23, 2015 Opening/Overview Systems Studies and Modeling Post-Combustion Membrane-Based Capture Wednesday, June 24, 2015 Post-Combustion

  1. An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Environmental Sciences(54) Environmental Protection; CO2 Accounting, Risk Analysis, CO2 Sequestration, Sensitivity...

  2. Underground CO2 Storage, Natural Gas Recovery Targeted by Virginia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of an NETL-sponsored CO2 storage research project ... teamed with the National Energy Technology Laboratory ... of CO2 into a coalbed methane field in Buchanan County, ...

  3. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse...

  4. Grangemouth Advanced CO2 Capture Project GRACE | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grangemouth Advanced CO2 Capture Project GRACE Jump to: navigation, search Name: Grangemouth Advanced CO2 Capture Project (GRACE) Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product:...

  5. CO2 Global Solutions International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Solutions International Jump to: navigation, search Name: CO2 Global Solutions International Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28001 Sector: Carbon Product: CO2 Global Solutions is...

  6. EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water saturated with Supercritical CO2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: EGS rock reactions ...

  7. Meeting the CO2 Challenge DEER 2002 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the CO2 Challenge DEER 2002 Meeting the CO2 Challenge DEER 2002 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Ricardo PDF icon 2002deergraham.pdf More Documents & Publications Application...

  8. Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture...

  9. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated ...

  10. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  11. Calculating CO2 Emissions from Mobile Sources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization: GHG Protocol Initiative Sector: Energy Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development, Industry, Transportation Topics: GHG inventory, Potentials &...

  12. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None listed

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  13. 10-MW Supercritical-CO2 Turbine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a 10-megawatt supercritical carbon dioxide turbine project, awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The research team, led by NREL, intends to showcase the turbomachinery for a new cycle—the supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton cycle. The cycle is being optimized and tested at conditions representing dry cooling in desert environments, thereby accurately simulating real-world concentrating solar power system operating conditions.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration The amount of carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas, per unit of volume. Categories Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all

  15. ARM - Campaign Instrument - co2lidar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lidar Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Carbon Dioxide Doppler Lidar (CO2LIDAR) Instrument Categories Cloud Properties Campaigns Remote Cloud Sensing (RCS) Field Evaluation [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 1994.04.01 - 1994.05.31 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers for the list of all available

  16. DOE Launches Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D Program Enhancing Pipeline and Distribution System Operational Efficiency, Reducing Methane Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Following the White House and the Department of Energy Capstone Methane Stakeholder Roundtable on July 29th, DOE announced a series of actions, partnerships, and stakeholder commitments to help modernize the nation’s natural gas transmission and distribution systems and reduce methane emissions. Through common-sense standards, smart investments, and innovative research, DOE seeks to advance the state of the art in natural gas system performance. DOE’s effort is part of the larger Administration’s Climate Action Plan Interagency Strategy to Reduce Methane Emissions.

  17. Capture and Sequestration of CO2 at the Boise White Paper Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.P. McGrail; C.J. Freeman; G.H. Beeman; E.C. Sullivan; S.K. Wurstner; C.F. Brown; R.D. Garber; D. Tobin E.J. Steffensen; S. Reddy; J.P. Gilmartin

    2010-06-16

    This report documents the efforts taken to develop a preliminary design for the first commercial-scale CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) project associated with biomass power integrated into a pulp and paper operation. The Boise Wallula paper mill is located near the township of Wallula in Southeastern Washington State. Infrastructure at the paper mill will be upgraded such that current steam needs and a significant portion of the current mill electric power are supplied from a 100% biomass power source. A new biomass power system will be constructed with an integrated amine-based CO2 capture plant to capture approximately 550,000 tons of CO2 per year for geologic sequestration. A customized version of Fluor Corporations Econamine Plus carbon capture technology will be designed to accommodate the specific chemical composition of exhaust gases from the biomass boiler. Due to the use of biomass for fuel, employing CCS technology represents a unique opportunity to generate a net negative carbon emissions footprint, which on an equivalent emissions reduction basis is 1.8X greater than from equivalent fossil fuel sources (SPATH and MANN, 2004). Furthermore, the proposed project will offset a significant amount of current natural gas use at the mill, equating to an additional 200,000 tons of avoided CO2 emissions. Hence, the total net emissions avoided through this project equates to 1,100,000 tons of CO2 per year. Successful execution of this project will provide a clear path forward for similar kinds of emissions reduction that can be replicated at other energy-intensive industrial facilities where the geology is suitable for sequestration. This project also represents a first opportunity for commercial development of geologic storage of CO2 in deep flood basalt formations. The Boise paper mill site is host to a Phase II pilot study being carried out under DOEs Regional Carbon Partnership Program. Lessons learned from this pilot study and other separately funded projects studying CO2 sequestration in basalts will be heavily leveraged in developing a suitable site characterization program and system design for permanent sequestration of captured CO2. The areal extent, very large thickness, high permeability in portions of the flows, and presence of multiple very low permeability flow interior seals combine to produce a robust sequestration target. Moreover, basalt formations are quite reactive with water-rich supercritical CO2 and formation water that contains dissolved CO2 to generate carbonate minerals, providing for long-term assurance of permanent sequestration. Sub-basalt sediments also exist at the site providing alternative or supplemental storage capacity.

  18. Non-Incineration Treatment to Reduce Benzene and VOC Emissions from Green Sand Molding Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred S. Cannon; Robert C. Voigt

    2002-06-28

    Final report describing laboratory, pilot scale and production scale evaluation of advanced oxidation systems for emissions and cost reduction in metal casting green sand systems.

  19. Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies.

  20. DOE and NNSA labs work with CTBTO to reduce medical isotope emissions...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    monitoring. IRE is a major worldwide producer of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and its emissions - while safe from a health perspective - contribute to regional...

  1. Particle-scale CO2 adsorption kinetics modeling considering three reaction mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, Dong-Myung; Sun, Xin

    2013-09-01

    In the presence of water (H2O), dry and wet adsorptions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and physical adsorption of H2O happen concurrently in a sorbent particle. The three reactions depend on each other and have a complicated, but important, effect on CO2 capturing via a solid sorbent. In this study, transport phenomena in the sorbent were modeled, including the tree reactions, and a numerical solving procedure for the model also was explained. The reaction variable distribution in the sorbent and their average values were calculated, and simulation results were compared with experimental data to validate the proposed model. Some differences, caused by thermodynamic parameters, were observed between them. However, the developed model reasonably simulated the adsorption behaviors of a sorbent. The weight gained by each adsorbed species, CO2 and H2O, is difficult to determine experimentally. It is known that more CO2 can be captured in the presence of water. Still, it is not yet known quantitatively how much more CO2 the sorbent can capture, nor is it known how much dry and wet adsorptions separately account for CO2 capture. This study addresses those questions by modeling CO2 adsorption in a particle and simulating the adsorption process using the model. As adsorption temperature changed into several values, the adsorbed amount of each species was calculated. The captured CO2 in the sorbent particle was compared quantitatively between dry and wet conditions. As the adsorption temperature decreased, wet adsorption increased. However, dry adsorption was reduced.

  2. Supercritical CO2 Tech Team | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercritical CO2 Tech Team Supercritical CO2 Tech Team Supercritical CO2 Tech Team The purpose of the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (sCO2) Technology Team is to use a collaborative approach to develop and facilitate commercialization of sCO2 energy conversion technology. Within the Department of Energy (DOE), SCO2 Brayton Cycle energy conversion could benefit research and development efforts in the offices of Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Tech Team

  3. Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Parks, II, James E; Wagner, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

  4. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-06

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O₃) and fine particulate matter (PM₂̣₅) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth Systemmore » Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O₃ increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM₂̣₅ increases of up to 2 μgm⁻³. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.« less

  5. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two advanced cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced double matrix stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  6. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  7. International CO2 Power Cycles Symposium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International CO2 Power Cycles Symposium March 29-31, 2016 Accommodations Hilton Palacio Del Rio 200 South Alamo Street San Antonio, TX 78205 (210) 222-1400 The Hilton Palacio Del Rio Hotel is set on the banks of San Antonio's River Walk, this city center hotel is within close walking distance of a number of great San Antonio attractions. The overnight room rate for federal employees with a valid government ID is $120.00 plus 16.75% tax (prevailing government per diem), for non-government

  8. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Evaporator Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline: Start date: Oct 1, 2009 Planned end date: Sep 30, 2015 Key Milestones 1. Optimize wrap-around coil; Dec 2013 2. Achieve EF>2.0; March 2014 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $2,147k Total future DOE $: $200k Target Market/Audience: Residential electric water heating Key Partners: GE Appliances CRADA partner Project Goal:

  9. Dissecting the steps of CO2 reduction: 2. The interaction of CO and CO2 with Pd/?-Al2O3: an in situ FTIR study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2014-08-07

    Alumina supported Pd catalysts with metal loadings of 0.5, 2.5 and 10 wt% were investigated by in situ FTIR spectroscopy in order to understand the nature of adsorbed species formed during their exposure to CO2 and CO. Exposing the annealed samples to CO2 at 295 K resulted in the formation of alumina support-bound surface species only: linear adsorbed CO2, bidentate carbonates and bicarbonates. Room temperature exposure of all three samples to CO produced IR features characteristic of both ionic and metallic Pd, as well as bands we observed upon CO2 adsorption (alumina support-bound species). Low temperature (100 K) adsorption of CO on the three samples provided information about the state of Pd after oxidation and reduction. Oxidized samples contained exclusively ionic Pd, while mostly metallic Pd was present in the reduced samples. Subsequent annealing of the CO-saturated samples revealed the facile (low temperature) reduction of PdOx species by adsorbed CO. This process was evidenced by the variations in IR bands characteristic of ionic and metallic Pd-bound CO, as well as by the appearance of IR bands associated with CO2 adsorption as a function of annealing temperature. Samples containing oxidized Pd species (oxidized, annealed or reduced) always produced CO2 upon their exposure to CO, while CO2-related surface entities were observed on samples having only fully reduced (metallic) Pd. Acknowledgements: The catalyst preparation was supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. JHK also acknowledges the support of this work by the 2013 Research Fund of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea).

  10. High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNLs sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

  11. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Novel CO 2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO 2 from Flue Gas Extended Abstract # 2007-A-504-AWMA Daniel J. Fauth 1 , Thomas P. Filburn 2 , McMahan L. Gray 1 , Sheila W. Hedges 1 , James S. Hoffman 1 , and Henry W. Pennline 1 1 United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 626 Cochrans Mill Road, P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236-0940 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, 200 Bloomfield Avenue, University of Hartford, West Hartford, Connecticut 06117-1599

  12. Elucidating geochemical response of shallow heterogeneous aquifers to CO2 leakage using high-performance computing: Implications for monitoring of CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Siirila, Erica R.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2013-03-01

    Predicting and quantifying impacts of potential carbon dioxide (CO2) leakage into shallow aquifers that overlie geologic CO2 storage formations is an important part of developing reliable carbon storage techniques. Leakage of CO2 through fractures, faults or faulty wellbores can reduce groundwater pH, inducing geochemical reactions that release solutes into the groundwater and pose a risk of degrading groundwater quality. In order to help quantify this risk, predictions of metal concentrations are needed during geologic storage of CO2. Here, we present regional-scale reactive transport simulations, at relatively fine-scale, of CO2 leakage into shallow aquifers run on the PFLOTRAN platform using high-performance computing. Multiple realizations of heterogeneous permeability distributions were generated using standard geostatistical methods. Increased statistical anisotropy of the permeability field resulted in more lateral and vertical spreading of the plume of impacted water, leading to increased Pb2+ (lead) concentrations and lower pH at a well down gradient of the CO2 leak. Pb2+ concentrations were higher in simulations where calcite was the source of Pb2+ compared to galena. The low solubility of galena effectively buffered the Pb2+ concentrations as galena reached saturation under reducing conditions along the flow path. In all cases, Pb2+ concentrations remained below the maximum contaminant level set by the EPA. Results from this study, compared to natural variability observed in aquifers, suggest that bicarbonate (HCO3) concentrations may be a better geochemical indicator of a CO2 leak under the conditions simulated here.

  13. The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

  14. CO2 Capture and Storage Project, Education and Training Center...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of CO2 each year. When operations begin in 2013, the CO2 will be captured from Archer Daniels Midland's ethanol plant in Decatur, transported via a mile-long pipeline, and...

  15. Shell Future Fuels and CO2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shell Future Fuels and CO2 Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shell Future Fuels and CO2 Place: Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: G1 9BG Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product:...

  16. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Wednesday, 03 December 2014 00:00 Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that...

  17. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    up with a net reduction in the CO2 emitted. Thus, effective catalysts that can lower the energy requirements for CO2 chemical reactions are an important part of the equation....

  18. Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Novomer's novel catalyst technology enables CO2 to react with petrochemical epoxides to create a family of thermoplastic polymers that are up to 50 percent by weight CO2. The ...

  19. CO2 Capture Poject CCP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CO2 Capture Poject CCP Jump to: navigation, search Name: CO2 Capture Poject (CCP) Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: CCP is a partnership of energy companies and...

  20. Post-Combustion CO2 Control | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compressing captured CO2 from atmospheric pressure to pipeline pressure (1,200-2,200 ... NETL's post-combustion CO2 control technology R&D program includes projects directed at ...

  1. CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    One such option is to store at least some emitted CO2 underground. In this NETL-sponsored CO2 sequestration project, the Colorado School of Mines and our partners at the University ...

  2. CO2ReMoVe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of industrial, research and service organizations with experience in CO2 geological storage. References: CO2ReMoVe1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  3. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990-2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or...

  4. CO2 Injection Begins in Illinois | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CO2 Injection Begins in Illinois CO2 Injection Begins in Illinois November 17, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), one of seven regional partnerships created by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to advance carbon storage technologies nationwide, has begun injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) for their large-scale CO2 injection test in Decatur, Illinois. The test is part of the development phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration

  5. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants with Advanced Technology

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request of Senators James M. Jeffords and Joseph I. Lieberman. This report describes the impacts of technology improvements and other market-based opportunities on the costs of emissions reductions from electricity generators, including nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury, and carbon dioxide.

  6. White House Announces New Executive Order To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Federal Government

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The White House today announced that President Obama will issue a new executive order that will cut the federal government's greenhouse gas emissions 40% over the next decade (from 2008 levels) and increase the share of electricity the federal government consumes from renewable sources to 30%.

  7. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  8. Ancient Lava Flows Trap CO2 for Long-Term Storage in Big Sky Injection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How can a prehistoric volcanic eruption help us reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere today? The answer is found in the basalt formations created by the lava – formations that can be used as sites for injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) captured from industrial sources in a process called carbon capture and storage. The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership recently injected 1,000 metric tons of CO2 into the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation in eastern Washington. This first-of-its kind injection is part of research meant to determine if basalt formations could provide a long-term solution for storing CO2, a potent greenhouse gas.

  9. Comparative soil CO2 flux measurements and geostatisticalestimation methods on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Bergfeld, D.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Granieri, D.; Varley, N.; Werner, C.

    2004-04-27

    We present a comparative study of soil CO{sub 2} flux (F{sub CO2}) measured by five groups (Groups 1-5) at the IAVCEI-CCVG Eighth Workshop on Volcanic Gases on Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Groups 1-5 measured F{sub CO2} using the accumulation chamber method at 5-m spacing within a 900 m{sup 2} grid during a morning (AM) period. These measurements were repeated by Groups 1-3 during an afternoon (PM) period. All measured F{sub CO2} ranged from 218 to 14,719 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}. Arithmetic means and associated CO{sub 2} emission rate estimates for the AM data sets varied between groups by {+-}22%. The variability of the five measurements made at each grid point ranged from {+-}5 to 167% and increased with the arithmetic mean. Based on a comparison of measurements made by Groups 1-3 during AM and PM times, this variability is likely due in large part to natural temporal variability of gas flow, rather than to measurement error. We compared six geostatistical methods (arithmetic and minimum variance unbiased estimator means of uninterpolated data, and arithmetic means of data interpolated by the multiquadric radial basis function, ordinary kriging, multi-Gaussian kriging, and sequential Gaussian simulation methods) to estimate the mean and associated CO{sub 2} emission rate of one data set and to map the spatial F{sub CO2} distribution. While the CO{sub 2} emission rates estimated using the different techniques only varied by {+-}1.1%, the F{sub CO2} maps showed important differences. We suggest that the sequential Gaussian simulation method yields the most realistic representation of the spatial distribution of F{sub CO2} and is most appropriate for volcano monitoring applications.

  10. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Lee, Doh-Won; Huff, Shean P; Storey, John Morse; Swartz, Matthew M; Wagner, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  11. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: General Electric Appliances - Louisville, KY DOE Funding: $2,147,000 Cost Share: Provided by CRADA partner Project Term: 10/1/2009 - 9/30/2015 Project Objective This project is developing a carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water

  12. Modelling the deployment of CO2 storage in U.S. gas-bearing shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-10-23

    The proliferation of commercial development in U.S. gas-bearing shales helped to drive a twelve-fold increase in domestic gas production between 2000 and 2010, and the nations gas production rates continue to grow. While shales have long been regarded as a desirable caprock for CCS operations because of their low permeability and porosity, there is increasing interest in the feasibility of injecting CO2 into shales to enhance methane recovery and augment CO2 storage. Laboratory work published in recent years observes that shales with adsorbed methane appear to exhibit a stronger affinity for CO2 adsorption, offering the potential to drive additional CH4 recovery beyond primary production and perhaps the potential to store a larger volume of CO2 than the volume of methane displaced. Recent research by the authors on the revenues associated with CO2-enhanced gas recovery (CO2-EGR) in gas-bearing shales estimates that, based on a range of EGR response rates, the average revenue per ton of CO2 for projects managed over both EGR and subsequent storage-only phases could range from $0.50 to $18/tCO2. While perhaps not as profitable as EOR, for regions where lower-cost storage options may be limited, shales could represent another early opportunity storage option if proven feasible for reliable EGR and CO2 storage. Significant storage potential exists in gas shales, with theoretical CO2 storage resources estimated at approximately 30-50 GtCO2. However, an analysis of the comprehensive cost competitiveness of these various options is necessary to understand the degree to which they might meaningfully impact U.S. CCS deployment or costs. This preliminary analysis shows that the degree to which EGR-based CO2 storage could play a role in commercial-scale deployment is heavily dependent upon the offsetting revenues associated with incremental recovery; modeling the low revenue case resulted in only five shale-based projects, while under the high revenue case, shales accounted for as much as 20 percent of total U.S. storage in the first 20 years of deployment. Interestingly, even in this highest revenue case, there appear to be no negative-cost projects that would be profitable in a no-policy environment as modeled under the assumptions employed. While this reflects a very first look at the potential for shales, it is clear that more laboratory and experimental work are needed to reduce uncertainty in key variables and begin to differentiate and identify high-potential shales for early pilot study.

  13. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded the direct value of the energy savings. Commissioning also improves worker comfort, mitigates indoor air quality problems

  14. A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

  15. EERE Success Story-Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-in-Oil (DAFIO(tm)) technology uses a fiber optic probe to obtain real-time ... National Laboratory Optimizes Carbon Fiber Production, Reduces Carbon Fiber Costs by ...

  16. Supersonic Technology for CO2 Capture: A High Efficiency Inertial CO2 Extraction System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Researchers at ATK and ACENT Laboratories are developing a device that relies on aerospace wind-tunnel technologies to turn CO2 into a condensed solid for collection and capture. ATKs design incorporates a special nozzle that converges and diverges to expand flue gas, thereby cooling it off and turning the CO2 into solid particles which are removed from the system by a cyclonic separator. This technology is mechanically simple, contains no moving parts and generates no chemical waste, making it inexpensive to construct and operate, readily scalable, and easily integrated into existing facilities. The increase in the cost to coal-fired power plants associated with introduction of this system would be 50% less than current technologies.

  17. Cooling the greenhouse effect: Options and costs for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from the American Electric Power Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helme, N.; Popovich, M.G.; Gille, J.

    1993-05-01

    A recent report from the National Academy of Sciences concludes that the earth is likely to face a doubling of preindustrial greenhouse gases in the next half century. This doubling could be expected to push average global temperatures. up from between 1.8 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit. Much of the potential for human impacts on the global climate is linked to fossil fuel consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption in the US totals about one-quarter of the world`s total emissions from energy consumption. Global warming is different from other environmental problems because CO{sub 2} emissions can be captured naturally by trees, grasses, soil, and other plants. In contrast, acid rain emissions reductions can only be accomplished through switching to lower-polluting fuels, conserving energy, or installing costly retrofit technologies. Terrestrial biota, such as trees, plants, grasses and soils, directly affect the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the atmosphere. A number of reports have concluded that forestry and land-use practices can increase CO{sub 2} sequestration and can help reduce or delay the threat of global warming.

  18. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  19. Model Selection for Monitoring CO2 Plume during Sequestration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-31

    The model selection method developed as part of this project mainly includes four steps: (1) assessing the connectivity/dynamic characteristics of a large prior ensemble of models, (2) model clustering using multidimensional scaling coupled with k-mean clustering, (3) model selection using the Bayes' rule in the reduced model space, (4) model expansion using iterative resampling of the posterior models. The fourth step expresses one of the advantages of the method: it provides a built-in means ofmore » quantifying the uncertainty in predictions made with the selected models. In our application to plume monitoring, by expanding the posterior space of models, the final ensemble of representations of geological model can be used to assess the uncertainty in predicting the future displacement of the CO2 plume. The software implementation of this approach is attached here.« less

  20. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ‹ Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview Diagram Notes [a] CO2 emissions related to petroleum consumption (includes 64 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [b] CO2 emissions related to coal consumption (includes 0.3 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [c] CO2 emissions related to natural gas consumption (includes 13 MMTCO2 of

  1. Plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    To eliminate the harmful effects of greenhouse gases, especially that of CO2, future coalfired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture. The loss in efficiency for CO2 capture is less in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant compared to other conventional coal combustion processes. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. With this objective in mind, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture has been developed. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of about 96 mol% of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. The clean syngas is sent to a gas turbine (GT) followed by a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. A 5 % ramp increase in the flowrate of coal is introduced to study the system dynamics. To control the conversion of CO at a desired level in the WGS reactors, the steam/CO ratio is manipulated. This strategy is found to be efficient for this operating condition. In the absence of an efficient control strategy in the AGR process, the environmental emissions exceeded the limits by a great extent.

  2. Dual fuel Russian urban transit buses: Economical reduced emissions. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This study, conducted by Caterpillar, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The scope of this project was to examine the financial and environmental aspects of introducing new alternative fuel engines to the buses of Russia`s public transportation system. The report consists of the following: (1) executive summary; (2) background/overview; (3) 3306 design, development, test; (4) electronic governed engines; (5) Moscow bus testing; (6) conclusions; (7) appendices. The appendices include: (1) Caterpillar emissions lab report; (2) dyno tests -- dual fuel data sheets; (3) 3360 horizontal engine lub tilt test; (4) 1000 hour endurance test -- engine operator sheets; (5) 1000 hour endurance test -- 250 hour check; (6) Caterpillar dual fuel electronic engines; (7) product description -- dual fuel electronic governed engines; (8) California Environmental Protection Agency -- certification of caterpillar electronic governed engines; (9) annual payback data.

  3. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  4. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lopscience iopscience.iop.org Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My lOPscience Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region- specific crop selection This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Download details: IP Address: 192.107.175.131 This content was downloaded on 30/07/2015 at 20:46 Please note that terms

  5. Is the northern high latitude land-based CO2 sink weakening?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcguire, David; Kicklighter, David W.; Gurney, Kevin R; Burnside, Todd; Melillo, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that, historically, terrestrial ecosystems of the northern high latitude region may have been responsible for up to 60% of the global net land-based sink for atmospheric CO2. However, these regions have recently experienced remarkable modification of the major driving forces of the carbon cycle, including surface air temperature warming that is significantly greater than the global average and associated increases in the frequency and severity of disturbances. Whether arctic tundra and boreal forest ecosystems will continue to sequester atmospheric CO2 in the face of these dramatic changes is unknown. Here we show the results of model simulations that estimate a 41 Tg C yr-1 sink in the boreal land regions from 1997 to 2006, which represents a 73% reduction in the strength of the sink estimated for previous decades in the late 20th Century. Our results suggest that CO2 uptake by the region in previous decades may not be as strong as previously estimated. The recent decline in sink strength is the combined result of 1) weakening sinks due to warming-induced increases in soil organic matter decomposition and 2) strengthening sources from pyrogenic CO2 emissions as a result of the substantial area of boreal forest burned in wildfires across the region in recent years. Such changes create positive feedbacks to the climate system that accelerate global warming, putting further pressure on emission reductions to achieve atmospheric stabilization targets.

  6. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Project 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Project This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_turchi.pdf More Documents & Publications 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine - FY13 Q2 10-MW Supercritical-CO2 Turbine Degradation Mechanisms and Development of Protective Coatings for TES and HTF Containment Materials

  7. Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage In September 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy announced the award of 11 projects with a total project value of $75.5 million* to conduct site characterization of promising geologic formations for CO2 storage. These Recovery Act projects will increase our understanding of the potential for these formations to safely and

  8. Optimizing Techology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-01-31

    More than 56,000 coal quality data records from five public data sets have been selected for use in this project. These data will be used to create maps showing where coals with low mercury and acid-gas emissions might be found for power plants classified by air-pollution controls. Average coal quality values, calculated for 51,156 commercial coals by U.S. county-of-origin, are listed in the appendix. Coal moisture values are calculated for commercially shipped coal from 163 U.S. counties, where the raw assay data (including mercury and chlorine values) are reported on a dry basis. The calculated moisture values are verified by comparison with observed moisture values in commercial coal. Moisture in commercial U.S. coal shows provincial variation. For example, high volatile C bituminous rank coal from the Interior province has 3% to 4% more moisture than equivalent Rocky Mountain province coal. Mott-Spooner difference values are calculated for 4,957 data records for coals collected from coal mines and exploration drill holes. About 90% of the records have Mott-Spooner difference values within {+-}250 Btu/lb.

  9. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Stork, Kevin C. (Chicago, IL)

    1997-01-01

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  10. co2 capture meeting | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting July 8-11, 2013 Previous Proceedings 2012: NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Proceedings of the 2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Table of Contents Presentations Monday, July 8 Opening/Overview Post-Combustion Sorbent-Based Capture Tuesday, July 9 Post-Combustion Solvent-Based Capture CO2 Compression Wednesday, July 10 Post-Combustion Membrane-Based Capture Pre-Combustion Capture Projects Thursday, July 11 ARPA-E Capture Projects System Studies

  11. EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fractures, and the lower portion of the fracture will contain connate water that will interact with the rock and the injected CO2. Dissolutionprecipitation reactions in the...

  12. Pre-Combustion CO2 Control | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... pipeline, and injected into the Weyburn oilfield in Saskatchewan, Canada. NETL's pre-combustion CO2 control technology R&D includes internal and external research projects ...

  13. Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing For Co2 Storage Monitoring...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing For Co2 Storage Monitoring Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote...

  14. Underground CO2 Storage, Natural Gas Recovery Targeted by Virginia

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tech/NETL Research | Department of Energy Underground CO2 Storage, Natural Gas Recovery Targeted by Virginia Tech/NETL Research Underground CO2 Storage, Natural Gas Recovery Targeted by Virginia Tech/NETL Research October 20, 2015 - 8:14am Addthis Researchers from Virginia Tech are injecting CO2 into coal seams in three locations in Buchanan County, Va., as part of an NETL-sponsored CO2 storage research project associated with enhanced gas recovery. Researchers from Virginia Tech are

  15. Covalent Organic Frameworks Comprising Cobalt Porphyrins for Catalytic CO2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduction | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Covalent Organic Frameworks Comprising Cobalt Porphyrins for Catalytic CO2 Reduction

  16. Photosynthetic Conversion of CO2 to Fuels and Chemicals using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photosynthetic Conversion of CO 2 to Fuels and Chemicals using Cyanobacteria Accelerating Innovation Webinar August 8, 2012 Jianping Yu, Ph.D., Senior Scientist * Many eukaryotic ...

  17. Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications* Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid...

  18. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  19. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchers have discovered that nanoparticles of cerium oxide (ceria) in contact with copper will form metal-oxide interfaces that allow the adsorption and activation of CO2,...

  20. Regenerable Sorbent Technique for Capturing CO2 Using Immobilized...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary This technology allows for optimal CO2 removal capacity for a given absorption and regeneration reactor size. Management of water loading in this manner allows...

  1. Enhanced practical photosynthetic CO2 mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayless, David J.; Vis-Chiasson, Morgan L.; Kremer, Gregory G.

    2003-12-23

    This process is unique in photosynthetic carbon sequestration. An on-site biological sequestration system directly decreases the concentration of carbon-containing compounds in the emissions of fossil generation units. In this process, photosynthetic microbes are attached to a growth surface arranged in a containment chamber that is lit by solar photons. A harvesting system ensures maximum organism growth and rate of CO.sub.2 uptake. Soluble carbon and nitrogen concentrations delivered to the cyanobacteria are enhanced, further increasing growth rate and carbon utilization.

  2. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  3. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  4. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990–2009

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, Anthony W.; Andres, Robert; Davis, Kenneth J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, Werner; McGuire, A. David; Vargas, Rodrigo; et al

    2015-01-21

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land–atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990–2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North Americanmore » land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, \\"best\\" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 1990–2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr-1 and assuming the estimate of -472 Tg C yr-1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was 1720:472, or nearly 4:1.« less

  5. Molecular Simulation Studies of Separation of CO2/N2, CO2/CH4, and CH4/N2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by ZIFs | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Molecular Simulation Studies of Separation of CO2/N2, CO2/CH4, and CH4/N2 by ZIFs Previous Next List Bei Liu and Berend Smit, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2010, 114 (18), pp 8515-8522 DOI: 10.1021/jp101531m Abstract Image Abstract In this work, molecular simulations were performed to evaluate the separation performance of two typical zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), ZIF-68 and ZIF-69, for CO2/N2, CO2/CH4,

  6. Leak Detection/Fugitive Emissions Monitoring and Advanced Sensors, Controls, Models and Platforms Panel

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Methane Emissions Mitigation Workshop Leak Detection/Fugitive Emissions Monitoring and Advanced Sensors, Controls, Models and Platforms Panel November 12, 2014 POUND FOR POUND METHANE TRAPS 84X MORE HEAT OVER 20 YEARS CO2 CH4 Methane is Money $1,800,000,000 Current technologies - economic and effective * Economic cost benefit analysis * Industry input included * Main finding: Cut emissions 40% at $0.01/McF reduced * OGI provides reliable and proven means of detecting leaks * EPA White Paper

  7. Global Sampling for Integrating Physics-Specific Subsystems and Quantifying Uncertainties of CO2 Geological Sequestration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Y.; Tong, C.; Trainor-Guitten, W. J.; Lu, C.; Mansoor, K.; Carroll, S. A.

    2012-12-20

    The risk of CO2 leakage from a deep storage reservoir into a shallow aquifer through a fault is assessed and studied using physics-specific computer models. The hypothetical CO2 geological sequestration system is composed of three subsystems: a deep storage reservoir, a fault in caprock, and a shallow aquifer, which are modeled respectively by considering sub-domain-specific physics. Supercritical CO2 is injected into the reservoir subsystem with uncertain permeabilities of reservoir, caprock, and aquifer, uncertain fault location, and injection rate (as a decision variable). The simulated pressure and CO2/brine saturation are connected to the fault-leakage model as a boundary condition. CO2 andmore » brine fluxes from the fault-leakage model at the fault outlet are then imposed in the aquifer model as a source term. Moreover, uncertainties are propagated from the deep reservoir model, to the fault-leakage model, and eventually to the geochemical model in the shallow aquifer, thus contributing to risk profiles. To quantify the uncertainties and assess leakage-relevant risk, we propose a global sampling-based method to allocate sub-dimensions of uncertain parameters to sub-models. The risk profiles are defined and related to CO2 plume development for pH value and total dissolved solids (TDS) below the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) for drinking water quality. A global sensitivity analysis is conducted to select the most sensitive parameters to the risk profiles. The resulting uncertainty of pH- and TDS-defined aquifer volume, which is impacted by CO2 and brine leakage, mainly results from the uncertainty of fault permeability. Subsequently, high-resolution, reduced-order models of risk profiles are developed as functions of all the decision variables and uncertain parameters in all three subsystems.« less

  8. Chemical Impact of Elevated CO2on Geothermal Energy Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is a two phase project to assess the geochemical impact of CO2on geothermal energy production by: analyzing the geochemistry of existing geothermal fields with elevated natural CO2; measuring realistic rock-water rates for geothermal systems using laboratory and field-based experiments to simulate production scale impacts.

  9. Observational determination of surface radiative forcing by CO2 from 2000 to 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Collins, William D.; Gero, P. Johnathan; Torn, Margaret S.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Shippert, Timothy R.

    2015-02-25

    The climatic impact of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is usually quantified in terms of radiative forcing1, calculated as the difference between estimates of the Earth’s radiation field from pre-industrial and present-day concentrations of these gases. Radiative transfer models calculate that the increase in CO2 since 1750 corresponds to a global annual-mean radiative forcing at the tropopause of 1.82 ± 0.19 W m-2 (ref. 2). However, despite widespread scientific discussion and modelling of the climate impacts of well-mixed greenhouse gases, there is little direct observational evidence of the radiative impact of increasing atmospheric CO2. Here we present observationally based evidence of clear-sky CO2 surface radiative forcing that is directly attributable to the increase, between 2000 and 2010, of 22 parts per million atmospheric CO2. The time series of this forcing at the two locations—the Southern Great Plains and the North Slope of Alaska—are derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer spectra3 together with ancillary measurements and thoroughly corroborated radiative transfer calculations4. The time series both show statistically significant trends of 0.2 W m-2 per decade (with respective uncertainties of ±0.06 W m-2 per decade and ±0.07 W m-2 per decade) and have seasonal ranges of 0.1–0.2 W m-2. This is approximately ten per cent of the trend in downwelling longwave radiation5, 6, 7. These results confirm theoretical predictions of the atmospheric greenhouse effect due to anthropogenic emissions, and provide empirical evidence of how rising CO2 levels, mediated by temporal variations due to photosynthesis and respiration, are affecting the surface energy balance.

  10. Exsolution Enhanced Oil Recovery with Concurrent CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel EOR method using carbonated water injection followed by depressurization is introduced. Results from micromodel experiments are presented to demonstrate the fundamental principles of this oil recovery method. A depressurization process (1 MPa/hr) was applied to a micromodel following carbonated water injection (Ca ? 10-5). The exsolved CO2 in water-filled pores blocked water flow in swiped portions and displaced water into oil-filled pores. Trapped oil after the carbonated water injection was mobilized by sequentially invading water. This method's self-distributed mobility control and local clogging was tested in a sandstone sample under reservoir conditions. A 10% incremental oil recovery was achieved by lowering the pressure 2 MPa below the CO2 liberation pressure. Additionally, exsolved CO2 resides in the pores of a reservoir as an immobile phase with a high residual saturation after oil production, exhibiting a potential synergy opportunity between CO2 EOR and CO2 sequestration

  11. Estimating the supply and demand for deep geologic CO2 storage capacity over the course of the 21st Century: A meta-analysis of the literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.

    2013-08-05

    Whether there is sufficient geologic CO2 storage capacity to allow CCS to play a significant role in mitigating climate change has been the subject of debate since the 1990s. This paper presents a meta- analysis of a large body of recently published literature to derive updated estimates of the global deep geologic storage resource as well as the potential demand for this geologic CO2 storage resource over the course of this century. This analysis reveals that, for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation scenarios that have end-of-century atmospheric CO2 concentrations of between 350 ppmv and 725 ppmv, the average demand for deep geologic CO2 storage over the course of this century is between 410 GtCO2 and 1,670 GtCO2. The literature summarized here suggests that -- depending on the stringency of criteria applied to calculate storage capacity global geologic CO2 storage capacity could be: 35,300 GtCO2 of theoretical capacity; 13,500 GtCO2 of effective capacity; 3,900 GtCO2, of practical capacity; and 290 GtCO2 of matched capacity for the few regions where this narrow definition of capacity has been calculated. The cumulative demand for geologic CO2 storage is likely quite small compared to global estimates of the deep geologic CO2 storage capacity, and therefore, a lack of deep geologic CO2 storage capacity is unlikely to be an impediment for the commercial adoption of CCS technologies in this century.

  12. CO2 Capture Using Electrical Energy: Electrochemically Mediated Separation for Carbon Capture and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-16

    IMPACCT Project: MIT and Siemens Corporation are developing a process to separate CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants by using electrical energy to chemically activate and deactivate sorbents, or materials that absorb gases. The team found that certain sorbents bond to CO2 when they are activated by electrical energy and then transported through a specialized separator that deactivates the molecule and releases it for storage. This method directly uses the electricity from the power plant, which is a more efficient but more expensive form of energy than heat, though the ease and simplicity of integrating it into existing coal-fired power plants reduces the overall cost of the technology. This process could cost as low as $31 per ton of CO2 stored.

  13. Does elevated CO2 alter silica uptake in trees?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fulweiler, Robinson W.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Carey, Joanna C.; Finzi, Adrien C.

    2015-01-13

    Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global CO2 fertilization, longterm free-air CO2 enrichment experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si) in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine), and five hardwoodmore » species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20 and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.« less

  14. Metal Organic Framework Research: High Throughput Discovery of Robust Metal Organic Framework for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-08-01

    IMPACCT Project: LBNL is developing a method for identifying the best metal organic frameworks for use in capturing CO2 from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Metal organic frameworks are porous, crystalline compounds that, based on their chemical structure, vary considerably in terms of their capacity to grab hold of passing CO2 molecules and their ability to withstand the harsh conditions found in the gas exhaust of coal-fired power plants. Owing primarily to their high tunability, metal organic frameworks can have an incredibly wide range of different chemical and physical properties, so identifying the best to use for CO2 capture and storage can be a difficult task. LBNL uses high-throughput instrumentation to analyze nearly 100 materials at a time, screening them for the characteristics that optimize their ability to selectively adsorb CO2 from coal exhaust. Their work will identify the most promising frameworks and accelerate their large-scale commercial development to benefit further research into reducing the cost of CO2 capture and storage.

  15. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  16. Dynamic coupling of volcanic CO2 flow and wind at the HorseshoeLake tree kill, Mammoth Mountain, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Tosha, T.; Aoyagi, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Benson, S.M.

    2006-11-20

    We investigate spatio-temporal relationships between soilCO2 flux (FCO2), meteorological variables, and topography over a ten-dayperiod (09/12/2006 to 09/21/2006) at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill,Mammoth Mountain, CA. Total CO2 discharge varied from 16 to 52 t d-1,suggesting a decline in CO2 emissions over decadal timescales. Weobserved systematic changes in FCO2 in space and time in association witha weather front with relatively high wind speeds from the west and lowatmospheric pressures. The largest FCO2 changes were observed inrelatively high elevation areas. The variations in FCO2 may be due todynamic coupling of wind-driven airflow through the subsurface and flowof source CO2 at depth. Our results highlight the influence of weatherfronts on volcanic gas flow in the near-surface environment and how thisinfluence can vary spatially within a study area.

  17. CO2 Capture with Liquid-to-Solid Absorbents: CO2 Capture Process Using Phase-Changing Absorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    IMPACCT Project: GE and the University of Pittsburgh are developing a unique CO2 capture process in which a liquid absorbent, upon contact with CO2, changes into a solid phase. Once in solid form, the material can be separated and the CO2 can be released for storage by heating. Upon heating, the absorbent returns to its liquid form, where it can be reused to capture more CO2. The approach is more efficient than other solventbased processes because it avoids the heating of extraneous solvents such as water. This ultimately leads to a lower cost of CO2 capture and will lower the additional cost to produce electricity for coal-fired power plants that retrofit their facilities to include this technology.

  18. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams

    2000-08-23

    The specific objective of our project on CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration is to investigate its technical feasibility and to improve the understanding of any associated environmental impacts. Our ultimate goal is to minimize any impacts associated with the eventual use of ocean carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2001 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. At GHGT-4 in Interlaken, we presented a paper detailing our plans. The purpose of this paper is to present an update on our progress to date and our plans to complete the project. The co-authors of this paper are members of the project's Technical Committee, which has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project.

  19. Evaluating the Suitability for CO2 Storage at the FutureGen 2.0 Site, Morgan County, Illinois, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonneville, Alain; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Sullivan, E. C.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Kelley, Mark E.; White, Signe K.; Appriou, Delphine; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gerst, Jacqueline L.; Gupta, Neeraj; Horner, Jacob A.; McNeil, Caitlin; Moody, Mark A.; Rike, William M.; Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Zeller, Evan R.; Zhang, Z. F.; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Humphreys, Kenneth K.

    2013-08-05

    FutureGen 2.0 site will be the first near-zero emission power plant with fully integrated long-term storage in a deep, non-potable saline aquifer in the United States. The proposed FutureGen 2.0 CO2 storage site is located in northeast Morgan County, Illinois, U.S.A., forty-eight kilometres from the Meredosia Energy Center where a large-scale oxy-combustion demonstration will be conducted. The demonstration will involve > 90% carbon capture, which will produce more than one million metric tons (MMT) of CO2 per year. The CO2 will be compressed at the power plant and transported via pipeline to the storage site. To examine CO2 storage potential of the site, a 1,467m characterization well (FGA#1) was completed in December 2011. The target reservoir for CO2 storage is the Mt. Simon Sandstone and Elmhurst Sandstone Member of the lower Eau Claire Formation for a combined thickness of 176 m. Confining beds of the overlying Lombard and Proviso Members (upper Eau Claire Formation) reach a thickness of 126 m. Characterization of the target injection zone and the overlying confining zone was based on wellbore data, cores, and geophysical logs, along with surface geophysical (2-D seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity), and structural data collected during the initial stage of the project . Based on this geological model, 3D simulations of CO2 injection and redistribution were conducted using STOMP-CO2, a multiphase flow and transport simulator. After this characterization stage, it appears that the injection site is a suitable geologic system for CO2 sequestration and that the injection zone is sufficient to receive up to 33 MMT of CO2 at a rate of 1.1 MMT/yr. GHGT-11 conference

  20. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Wednesday, 03 December 2014 00:00 Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse gas-into methanol (CH3OH)-a key commodity used to produce numerous industrial chemicals and fuels. With the help of ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at the ALS, researchers have discovered that nanoparticles of cerium

  1. Methanogenic Conversion of CO2 Into CH4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, S.H., Ferry, J.G., Schoell, M.

    2012-05-06

    This SBIR project evaluated the potential to remediate geologic CO2 sequestration sites into useful methane gas fields by application of methanogenic bacteria. Such methanogens are present in a wide variety of natural environments, converting CO2 into CH4 under natural conditions. We conclude that the process is generally feasible to apply within many of the proposed CO2 storage reservoir settings. However, extensive further basic R&D still is needed to define the precise species, environments, nutrient growth accelerants, and economics of the methanogenic process. Consequently, the study team does not recommend Phase III commercial application of the technology at this early phase.

  2. Direct s-CO2 Reciever Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Direct s-CO2 Reciever Development Direct s-CO2 Reciever Development This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_wagner.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Low-Cost Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Temperature Solar Thermoelectric Generators (STEG) Near-Blackbody Enclosed Particle Receiver

  3. The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2007-07-11

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents dangerous anthropogenic interference with the planets climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

  4. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams

    1999-08-23

    The ocean represents the largest potential sink for anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. In order to better understand this potential, Japan, Norway, and the United States signed a Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration in December 1997; since that time, Canada and ABB (Switzerland) have joined the project. The objective of the project is to investigate the technical feasibility of, and improve understanding of the environmental impacts from, CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration in order to minimize the impacts associated with the eventual use of this technique to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2000 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. The implementing research organizations are the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (Japan), the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (Norway), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA). The general contractor for the project will be the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research in Hawaii. A Technical Committee has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project. The members of this committee are the co-authors of this paper. In this paper we discuss key issues involved with the design, ocean engineering, measurements, siting, and costs of this experiment.

  5. Predicting long-term carbon sequestration in response to CO2 enrichment: How and why do current ecosystem models differ?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Walker, Anthony P.; Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Asao, Shinichi; Hickler, Thomas; Parton, William; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wang, Ying -Ping; Wårlind, David; et al

    2015-04-27

    Large uncertainty exists in model projections of the land carbon (C) sink response to increasing atmospheric CO2. Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments lasting a decade or more have investigated ecosystem responses to a step change in atmospheric CO2 concentration. To interpret FACE results in the context of gradual increases in atmospheric CO2 over decades to centuries, we used a suite of seven models to simulate the Duke and Oak Ridge FACE experiments extended for 300 years of CO2 enrichment. We also determine key modeling assumptions that drive divergent projections of terrestrial C uptake and evaluate whether these assumptions can bemore » constrained by experimental evidence. All models simulated increased terrestrial C pools resulting from CO2 enrichment, though there was substantial variability in quasi-equilibrium C sequestration and rates of change. In two of two models that assume that plant nitrogen (N) uptake is solely a function of soil N supply, the net primary production response to elevated CO2 became progressively N limited. In four of five models that assume that N uptake is a function of both soil N supply and plant N demand, elevated CO2 led to reduced ecosystem N losses and thus progressively relaxed nitrogen limitation. Many allocation assumptions resulted in increased wood allocation relative to leaves and roots which reduced the vegetation turnover rate and increased C sequestration. Additionally, self-thinning assumptions had a substantial impact on C sequestration in two models. As a result, accurate representation of N process dynamics (in particular N uptake), allocation, and forest self-thinning is key to minimizing uncertainty in projections of future C sequestration in response to elevated atmospheric CO2.« less

  6. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. Based on a range of well schemes, techno-economic analyses of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are conducted to determine the economic benefits of integrating GCS with geothermal energy production. In addition to considering CO2 injection, reservoir analyses are conducted for nitrogen (N2) injection to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating N2 injection with integrated geothermal-GCS, as well as the use of N2 injection as a potential pressure-support and working-fluid option. Phase 1 includes preliminary environmental risk assessments of integrated geothermal-GCS, with the focus on managing reservoir overpressure. Phase 1 also includes an economic survey of pipeline costs, which will be applied in Phase 2 to the analysis of CO2 conveyance costs for techno-economics analyses of integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites. Phase 1 also includes a geospatial GIS survey of potential integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites, which will be used in Phase 2 to conduct sweet-spot analyses that determine where promising geothermal resources are co-located in sedimentary settings conducive to safe CO2 storage, as well as being in adequate proximity to large stationary CO2 sources.

  7. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. Based on a range of well schemes, techno-economic analyses of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are conducted to determine the economic benefits of integrating GCS with geothermal energy production. In addition to considering CO2 injection, reservoir analyses are conducted for nitrogen (N2) injection to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating N2 injection with integrated geothermal-GCS, as well as the use of N2 injection as a potential pressure-support and working-fluid option. Phase 1 includes preliminary environmental risk assessments of integrated geothermal-GCS, with the focus on managing reservoir overpressure. Phase 1 also includes an economic survey of pipeline costs, which will be applied in Phase 2 to the analysis of CO2 conveyance costs for techno-economics analyses of integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites. Phase 1 also includes a geospatial GIS survey of potential integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites, which will be used in Phase 2 to conduct sweet-spot analyses that determine where promising geothermal resources are co-located in sedimentary settings conducive to safe CO2 storage, as well as being in adequate proximity to large stationary CO2 sources.

  8. DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    begun injecting CO2 into a deep lignite coal seam in Burke County, North Dakota, to ... indicated that the region's low-rank coal seams have the capacity to store up to 8 ...

  9. Oxy-Combustion CO2 Control | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (N2) found in air from the combustion process, resulting in flue gas composed of CO2, water (H2O), contaminants from the fuel (including coal ash), and other gases that...

  10. Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses of the CO2 chemisorption mechanism...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Na2TiO3 structure and microstructure were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption. Then, the CO2 chemisorption ...

  11. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from mixtures of H2 and CO (or sometimes CO2) at elevated pressures (50 to 100 atm) and temperatures (450 to 600 K) using catalysts containing copper and zinc oxide. The...

  12. Evaluating a new approach to CO2 capture and storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sector to continue generating electricity at coal-fired and natural-gas power plants. The strategy involves capturing and compressing CO2 at large, stationary sources, such as...

  13. Co2 Deep Store Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Deep Store Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Co2 Deep Store Ltd Place: Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: AB11 7LH Sector: Carbon Product: UK based organization focused on the...

  14. Novel CO2-Thickeners for Improved Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2002-01-15

    The objective of this contract was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO2.

  15. 43029CO2Prod | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... problem for small-scale tests using liquid but not for commercial-scale projects using pipeline CO2. Power oil pumps of the type currently in use in the Citronelle Field need ...

  16. DOE Manual Studies 11 Major CO2 Geologic Storage Formations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A comprehensive study of 11 geologic formations suitable for permanent underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage is contained in a new manual issued by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.

    2003-03-10

    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  18. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxide (ceria) in contact with copper will form metal-oxide interfaces that allow the adsorption and activation of CO2, opening a new reaction pathway for the synthesis of methanol....

  19. Predicting Large CO2 Adsorption in Aluminosilicate Zeolites for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Postcombustion Carbon Dioxide Capture | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Predicting Large CO2 Adsorption in Aluminosilicate Zeolites for Postcombustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - NASA Coordinated Airborne CO2 Lidar Flight...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsNASA Coordinated Airborne CO2 Lidar Flight Test Campaign ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at...

  1. Investigations of supercritical CO2 Rankine cycles for geothermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    brayton cycle while lower efficiencies can be attained with the transcritical CO2 Rankine cycle. Authors: Sabau, Adrian S 1 ; Yin, Hebi 1 ; Qualls, A L 1 ; McFarlane,...

  2. Alabama Project Testing Potential for Combining CO2 Storage with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    As part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, geologic CO2 storage is considered ... View a map of all large scale CCS Projects as part of the DOE's RCSP program November 5, ...

  3. Bees, Balloons, Pollen Used as Novel CO2 Monitoring Approach

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory have discovered an innovative way to use bees, pollen, and helium-filled balloons to verify that no carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks from carbon sequestration sites.

  4. Electronic Structure, Phonon Dynamical Properties, and CO2 Capture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Electronic Structure, Phonon Dynamical Properties, and CO2 Capture Capability of Na2-xMxZrO3 ( MLi ,K): Density-Functional Calculations and Experimental...

  5. Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership PCOR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grand Forks, North Dakota Zip: 58202-9018 Product: North Dakota-based consortium researching CO2 storage options. PCOR is busy with the ECBM in the Unminable Lignite Research...

  6. Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission intensities and line ratios from a fast neutral helium beam J-W. Ahn a͒ Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA D. Craig, b͒ G. Fiksel, and D. J. Den Hartog Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA J. K. Anderson Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA M. G.

  7. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Authors: Dafflon, B. ; Wu, Y. ; Hubbard, S. S. ; Birkholzer, J. T. ; Daley, T. M. ; Pugh,

  8. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  9. CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins. Applied

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins. Applied Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins. Applied Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations This

  10. Evaluating a new approach to CO2 capture and storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluating a new approach to CO2 capture and storage Evaluating a new approach to CO2 capture and storage In a perspective paper published in Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, researchers examined a new approach that could potentially overcome many barriers to deployment and jumpstart this process on a commercial scale. September 13, 2015 Map of the contiguous United States shows the location of facilities that produce high-value chemicals/products and the amount of carbon dioxide

  11. Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications These pages provide an example of the layout and style required for the preparation of four-page papers for the TechConnect World 2015 technical proceedings.Documents must be submitted in electronic (Adobe PDFfile) format. Please study the enclosed materials beforebeginning the

  12. CO2 Removal using a Synthetic Analogue of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Cordatos

    2010-09-14

    Project attempts to develop a synthetic analogue for carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it in a membrane for separation of CO2 from coal power plant flue gas. Conference poster presents result of first 9 months of project progress including concept, basic system architecture and membrane properties target, results of molecular modeling for analogue - CO2 interaction, and next steps of testing analogue resistance to flue gas contaminants.

  13. Modeling long-term CO2 storage, sequestration and cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.

    2013-11-11

    The application of numerical and analytical models to the problem of storage, sequestration and migration of carbon dioxide in geologic formations is discussed. A review of numerical and analytical models that have been applied to CO2 sequestration are presented, as well as a description of frameworks for risk analysis. Application of models to various issues related to carbon sequestration are discussed, including trapping mechanisms, density convection mixing, impurities in the CO2 stream, changes in formation porosity and permeability, the risk of vertical leakage, and the impacts on groundwater resources if leakage does occur. A discussion of the development and application of site-specific models first addresses the estimation of model parameters and the use of natural analogues to inform the development of CO2 sequestration models, and then surveys modeling that has been done at two commercial-scale CO2 sequestration sites, Sleipner and In Salah, along with a pilot-scale injection sites used to study CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers (Frio) and an experimental site designed to test monitoring of CO2 leakage in the vadose zone (ZERT Release Facility).

  14. SANS Investigations of CO2 Adsorption in Microporous Carbon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bahadur, Jitendra; Melnichenko, Yuri B; He, Lilin; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C; Carmichael, Justin R

    2015-08-07

    The high pressure adsorption behavior of CO2 at T = 296 K in microporous carbon was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique. A strong densification of CO2 in micropores accompanied by non-monotonic adsorption-induced pore deformation was observed. The density of confined CO2 increases rapidly with pressure and reaches the liquid –like density at 20 bar, which corresponds to the relative pressure of P/Psat ~0.3. At P > 20 bar density of confined CO2 increases slowly approaching a plateau at higher pressure. The size of micropores first increases with pressure, reaches a maximum at 20 bar,more » and then decreases with pressure. A complementary SANS experiment conducted on the same microporous carbon saturated with neutron-transparent and non-adsorbing inert gas argon shows no deformation of micropores at pressures up to ~200 bars. This result demonstrates that the observed deformation of micropores in CO2 is an adsorption-induced phenomenon, caused by the solvation pressure - induced strain and strong densification of confined CO2 .« less

  15. Jumpstarting commercial-scale CO2 capture and storage with ethylene production and enhanced oil recovery in the US Gulf

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Middleton, Richard S.; Levine, Jonathan S.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Carey, J. William; Stauffer, Philip H.

    2015-04-27

    CO2 capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technology has yet to be widely deployed at a commercial scale despite multiple high-profile demonstration projects. We suggest that developing a large-scale, visible, and financially viable CCUS network could potentially overcome many barriers to deployment and jumpstart commercial-scale CCUS. To date, substantial effort has focused on technology development to reduce the costs of CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. Here, we propose that near-term investment could focus on implementing CO2 capture on facilities that produce high-value chemicals/products. These facilities can absorb the expected impact of the marginal increase in the cost of production onmore » the price of their product, due to the addition of CO2 capture, more than coal-fired power plants. A financially viable demonstration of a large-scale CCUS network requires offsetting the costs of CO2 capture by using the CO2 as an input to the production of market-viable products. As a result, we demonstrate this alternative development path with the example of an integrated CCUS system where CO2 is captured from ethylene producers and used for enhanced oil recovery in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.« less

  16. Recovery Act: Innovative CO2 Sequestration from Flue Gas Using Industrial Sources and Innovative Concept for Beneficial CO2 Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Mike; Ghosh, Rajat

    2012-07-31

    field testing of a biomimetic in-duct scrubbing system for the capture of gaseous CO2 coupled with sequestration of captured carbon by carbonation of alkaline industrial wastes. The Phase 2 project, reported on here, combined efforts in enzyme development, scrubber optimization, and sequestrant evaluations to perform an economic feasibility study of technology deployment. The optimization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme reactivity and stability are critical steps in deployment of this technology. A variety of CA enzyme variants were evaluated for reactivity and stability in both bench scale and in laboratory pilot scale testing to determine current limits in enzyme performance. Optimization of scrubber design allowed for improved process economics while maintaining desired capture efficiencies. A range of configurations, materials, and operating conditions were examined at the Alcoa Technical Center on a pilot scale scrubber. This work indicated that a cross current flow utilizing a specialized gas-liquid contactor offered the lowest system operating energy. Various industrial waste materials were evaluated as sources of alkalinity for the scrubber feed solution and as sources of calcium for precipitation of carbonate. Solids were mixed with a simulated sodium bicarbonate scrubber blowdown to comparatively examine reactivity. Supernatant solutions and post-test solids were analyzed to quantify and model the sequestration reactions. The best performing solids were found to sequester between 2.3 and 2.9 moles of CO2 per kg of dry solid in 1-4 hours of reaction time. These best performing solids were cement kiln dust, circulating dry scrubber ash, and spray dryer absorber ash. A techno-economic analysis was performed to evaluate the commercial viability of the proposed carbon capture and sequestration process in full-scale at an aluminum smelter and a refinery location. For both cases the in-duct scrubber technology was compared to traditional amine- based capture. Incorporation of the laboratory results showed that for the application at the aluminum smelter, the in-duct scrubber system is more economical than traditional methods. However, the reverse is true for the refinery case, where the bauxite residue is not effective enough as a sequestrant, combined with challenges related to contaminants in the bauxite residue accumulating in and fouling the scrubber absorbent. Sensitivity analyses showed that the critical variables by which process economics could be improved are enzyme concentration, efficiency, and half-life. At the end of the first part of the Phase 2 project, a gate review (DOE Decision Zero Gate Point) was conducted to decide on the next stages of the project. The original plan was to follow the pre-testing phase with a detailed design for the field testing. Unfavorable process economics, however, resulted in a decision to conclude the project before moving to field testing. It is noted that CO2 Solutions proposed an initial solution to reduce process costs through more advanced enzyme management, however, DOE program requirements restricting any technology development extending beyond 2014 as commercial deployment timeline did not allow this solution to be undertaken.

  17. Emissions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity Volume 1: Main Text ::_:_ii_i!!._i_!!!i_!!_!_!i!ii_!).._i!iiii!!_i!i_!!_iii!i!_ii_iii!!_i!i!ii_!i!!_!!!_ii!!_)i!i_i_i!!ii!i!_!!ii!!i_!i_!iii_!!i!i_i!i!!_!ii_i!i._!ii_i!i!_i!_!!!i!!_!_!!_!_!!!!i_!_!!!i_:``.!ii!!_i_i_i!!!_!_!_ii_i_!_i_i_!!i!i!i!!!ii:!i_i!_ii!_!!ii_! ,qh_...dllri" :._m..41W..- ,,mm,m_ - Centerfor TransportationResearch Argonne NationalLaboratory Operated by lhe University of Chicago, under

  18. Targeted Pressure Management During CO2 Sequestration: Optimization of Well Placement and Brine Extraction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Bianchi, Marco

    2014-12-31

    Large-scale pressure increases resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in the subsurface can potentially impact caprock integrity, induce reactivation of critically stressed faults, and drive CO2 or brine through conductive features into shallow groundwater. Pressure management involving the extraction of native fluids from storage formations can be used to minimize pressure increases while maximizing CO2 storage. However, brine extraction requires pumping, transportation, possibly treatment, and disposal of substantial volumes of extracted brackish or saline water, all of which can be technically challenging and expensive. This paper describes a constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm for optimal well placement and injection/ extractionmore » control with the goal of minimizing brine extraction while achieving predefined pressure contraints. The CDE methodology was tested for a simple optimization problem whose solution can be partially obtained with a gradient-based optimization methodology. The CDE successfully estimated the true global optimum for both extraction well location and extraction rate, needed for the test problem. A more complex example application of the developed strategy was also presented for a hypothetical CO2 storage scenario in a heterogeneous reservoir consisting of a critically stressed fault nearby an injection zone. Through the CDE optimization algorithm coupled to a numerical vertically-averaged reservoir model, we successfully estimated optimal rates and locations for CO2 injection and brine extraction wells while simultaneously satisfying multiple pressure buildup constraints to avoid fault activation and caprock fracturing. The study shows that the CDE methodology is a very promising tool to solve also other optimization problems related to GCS, such as reducing ‘Area of Review’, monitoring design, reducing risk of leakage and increasing storage capacity and trapping.« less

  19. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  20. Extending lean operating limit and reducing emissions of methane spark-ignited engines using a microwave-assisted spark plug

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rapp, Vi H.; DeFilippo, Anthony; Saxena, Samveg; Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Dibble, Robert W.; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Moon, Ahsa; Ikeda, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Amore » microwave-assisted spark plug was used to extend the lean operating limit (lean limit) and reduce emissions of an engine burning methane-air. In-cylinder pressure data were collected at normalized air-fuel ratios of λ = 1.46, λ = 1.51, λ = 1.57, λ = 1.68, and λ = 1.75. For each λ, microwave energy (power supplied to the magnetron per engine cycle) was varied from 0 mJ (spark discharge alone) to 1600 mJ. At lean conditions, the results showed adding microwave energy to a standard spark plug discharge increased the number of complete combustion cycles, improving engine stability as compared to spark-only operation. Addition of microwave energy also increased the indicated thermal efficiency by 4% at λ = 1.68. At λ = 1.75, the spark discharge alone was unable to consistently ignite the air-fuel mixture, resulting in frequent misfires. Although microwave energy produced more consistent ignition than spark discharge alone at λ = 1.75, 59% of the cycles only partially burned. Overall, the microwave-assisted spark plug increased engine performance under lean operating conditions (λ = 1.68) but did not affect operation at conditions closer to stoichiometric.« less

  1. Process for CO2 Capture Using Ionic Liquid That Exhibits Phase Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisinger, RS; Keller, GE

    2014-11-01

    A novel process for capturing carbon dioxide from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant has been shown to reduce parasitic power consumption substantially. The process employs an ionic liquid created at the University of Notre Dame that has a high capacity for absorbing CO2 by chemical reaction. A distinguishing property of this ionic liquid is that it changes phase from solid to liquid upon reaction with CO2. The process uses heat generated by this phase transition to lower parasitic power consumption. The driving force for CO2 separation is a combination of temperature and pressure differences; the process could even work without the addition of heat. A realistic process was created to capture CO2 efficiently. Computer simulation of the process enabled calculation of viable process conditions and power usage. The main concepts of the process were shown to work using a lab-scale apparatus. Parasitic power consumes 23% of net power generation, 55% lower than that of the monoethanolamine (MEA) process. However, capital cost is higher. The cost of electricity (COE) is 28% lower than that of the MEA process.

  2. Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

    2007-03-07

    Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are captured. Influence functions, derived using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model driven by the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and nudged to NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, are used to determine source regions for the towers. The influence functions are combined with satellite vegetation observations to interpret the observed trends in CO2 concentration. Full inversions will combine these elements in a more formal analytic framework.

  3. CO2-selective, Hybrid Membranes by Silation of Alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-09-01

    Hybrid membranes are feasible candidates for the separation of CO2 from gas produced in coal-based power generation since they have the potential to combine the high selectivity of polymer membranes and the high permeability of inorganic membranes. An interesting method for producing hybrid membranes is the silation of an inorganic membrane. In this method, trichloro- or alkoxy-silanes interact with hydroxyl groups on the surface of ?-AlO3 or TiO2, binding organic groups to that surface. By varying the length of these organic groups on the organosilane, it should be possible to tailor the effective pore size of the membrane. Similarly, the addition of CO2-phillic groups to the silating agent allows for the careful control of surface affinity and the enhancement of surface diffusion mechanisms. This method of producing hybrid membranes selective to CO2 was first attempted by Hyun [1] who silated TiO2 with phenyltriethoxysilane. Later, Way [2] silated ?-AlO3 with octadecyltrichlorosilane. Both researchers were successful in producing membranes with improved selectivity toward CO2, but permeability was not maintained at a commercially applicable level. XPS data indicated that the silating agent did not penetrate into the membrane pores and separation actually occurred in a thin polymer-like surface layer. The present study attempts to overcome the mass transfer problems associated with this technique by producing the desired monolayer coverage of silane, and thus develop a highly-permeable CO2-selective hybrid membrane.

  4. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 ?C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  5. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabine, Christopher; Hankin, S.; Koyuk, H; Bakker, D C E; Pfeil, B; Olsen, A; Metzl, N; Fassbender, A; Manke, A; Malczyk, J; Akl, J; Alin, S R; Bellerby, R G J; Borges, A; Boutin, J; Cai, W-J; Chavez, F P; Chen, A; Cosa, C; Feely, R A; Gonzalez-Davila, M; Goyet, C; Hardman-Mountford, N; Heinze, C; Hoppema, M; Hunt, C W; Hydes, D; Ishii, M; Johannessen, T; Key, R M; Kortzinger, A; Landschutzer, P; Lauvset, S K; Lefevre, N; Lourantou, A; Mintrop, L; Miyazaki, C; Murata, A; Nakadate, A; Nakano, Y; Nakaoka, S; Nojiri, Y; et al.

    2013-01-01

    A well documented, publicly available, global data set for surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968 2007). The SOCAT gridded data is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust regularly spaced fCO2 product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet, but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address.

  6. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne?s research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions was also a major reason. The transportation sector alone consumes about 13 million barrels of crude oil per day (nearly 60% of which is imported) and is responsible for about 30% of the CO{sub 2} emission. When we consider manufacturing and other energy-intensive industrial processes, the amount of petroleum being consumed due to friction and wear reaches more than 20 million barrels per day (from official energy statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration). Frequent remanufacturing and/or replacement of worn parts due to friction-, wear-, and scuffing-related degradations also consume significant amounts of energy and give rise to additional CO{sub 2} emission. Overall, the total annual cost of friction- and wear-related energy and material losses is estimated to be rather significant (i.e., as much as 5% of the gross national products of highly industrialized nations). It is projected that more than half of the total friction- and wear-related energy losses can be recovered by developing and implementing advanced friction and wear control technologies. In transportation vehicles alone, 10% to 15% of the fuel energy is spent to overcome friction. If we can cut down the friction- and wear-related energy losses by half, then we can potentially save up to 1.5 million barrels of petroleum per day. Also, less friction and wear would mean less energy consumption as well as less carbon emissions and hazardous byproducts being generated and released to the environment. New and more robust anti-friction and -wear control technologies may thus have a significant positive impact on improving the efficiency and environmental cleanliness of the current legacy fleet and future transportation systems. Effective control of friction in other industrial sectors such as manufacturing, power generation, mining and oil exploration, and agricultural and earthmoving machinery may bring more energy savings. Therefore, this project was timely and responsive to the energy and environmental objectives of DOE and our nation. In this project, most of the boron-based mater

  7. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    offers a large collection of helpful Web-based tools. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuel providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use. Find the Clean Cities coalition in your area, and get the contact information for your Clean Cities coordinator at eere.energy.gov/cleancities/coalitions.html. Clean Cities Tools Tools to help you save money, use less petroleum, and reduce emissions Access Clean Cities

  8. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Wang, Guohui; Sullivan, E. C.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Harvey, Omar R.; Bowden, Mark

    2013-04-15

    Experimental research work has been conducted and is undergoing at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to address a variety of scientific issues related with the potential leaks of the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from deep storage reservoirs. The main objectives of this work are as follows: • Develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and redox reactions) in the aquifer sediments. • Identify prevailing environmental conditions that would dictate one geochemical outcome over another. • Gather useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geological carbon sequestration. In this report, we present results from experiments conducted at PNNL to address research issues related to the main objectives of this effort. A series of batch and column experiments and solid phase characterization studies (quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions with a concentrated acid) were conducted with representative rocks and sediments from an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer, i.e., Edwards aquifer in Texas, and a confined aquifer, i.e., the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream simulating CO2 gas leaking scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in liquid and effluent samples collected at pre-determined experimental times. Additional research to be conducted during the current fiscal year will further validate these results and will address other important remaining issues. Results from these experimental efforts will provide valuable insights for the development of site-specific, generation III reduced order models. In addition, results will initially serve as input parameters during model calibration runs and, ultimately, will be used to test model predictive capability and competency. The results from these investigations will provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological, deep subsurface CO2 storage and sequestration.

  9. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse gas-into methanol (CH3OH)-a key commodity used to produce numerous industrial chemicals and fuels. With the help of ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at the ALS, researchers have discovered that nanoparticles of cerium oxide (ceria) in contact with copper will form metal-oxide interfaces that allow

  10. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse gas-into methanol (CH3OH)-a key commodity used to produce numerous industrial chemicals and fuels. With the help of ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at the ALS, researchers have discovered that nanoparticles of cerium oxide (ceria) in contact with copper will form metal-oxide interfaces that allow

  11. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse gas-into methanol (CH3OH)-a key commodity used to produce numerous industrial chemicals and fuels. With the help of ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at the ALS, researchers have discovered that nanoparticles of cerium oxide (ceria) in contact with copper will form metal-oxide interfaces that allow

  12. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse gas-into methanol (CH3OH)-a key commodity used to produce numerous industrial chemicals and fuels. With the help of ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at the ALS, researchers have discovered that nanoparticles of cerium oxide (ceria) in contact with copper will form metal-oxide interfaces that allow

  13. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse gas-into methanol (CH3OH)-a key commodity used to produce numerous industrial chemicals and fuels. With the help of ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at the ALS, researchers have discovered that nanoparticles of cerium oxide (ceria) in contact with copper will form metal-oxide interfaces that allow

  14. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse gas-into methanol (CH3OH)-a key commodity used to produce numerous industrial chemicals and fuels. With the help of ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at the ALS, researchers have discovered that nanoparticles of cerium oxide (ceria) in contact with copper will form metal-oxide interfaces that allow

  15. ARM - Datastreams - 30co2flx25m

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flx25m Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025035 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : 30CO2FLX25M Eddy Correlation CO2 Flux Data: 25 m samples, 30-min stats Active Dates 2002.12.18 - 2015.07.20 Measurement Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State, Surface Properties Originating Instrument Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems

  16. ARM - Datastreams - 30co2flx4m

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    m Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025036 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : 30CO2FLX4M Eddy Correlation CO2 Flux Data: 4 m samples, 30-min stats Active Dates 2002.12.18 - 2015.07.20 Measurement Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State, Surface Properties Originating Instrument Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems

  17. ARM - Datastreams - 30co2flx4mmet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mmet Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025037 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : 30CO2FLX4MMET Eddy Correlation CO2 Flux Data: 4 m samples, meteorological data, 30-min stats Active Dates 2002.12.18 - 2015.07.20 Measurement Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State, Radiometric, Surface Properties Originating Instrument Carbon

  18. ARM - Datastreams - 30co2flx60m

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    flx60m Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025038 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : 30CO2FLX60M Eddy Correlation CO2 Flux Data: 60 m samples, 30-min avg Active Dates 2001.01.01 - 2015.07.20 Measurement Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State, Surface Properties Originating Instrument Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems

  19. CO2 hydrogenation to formate and methanol as an alternative to photo- and electrochemical CO2 reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Wan -Hui; Himeda, Yuichiro; Muckerman, James T.; Manbeck, Gerald F.; Fujita, Etsuko

    2015-09-03

    In this study, carbon dioxide is one of the end products of combustion, and is not a benign component of the atmosphere. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has reached unprecedented levels and continues to increase owing to an escalating rate of fossil fuel combustion, causing concern about climate change and rising sea levels. In view of the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels, a possible solution to this problem is the recycling of carbon dioxide, possibly captured at its point of generation, to fuels. Researchers in this field are using solar energy for CO2 activation and utilization in severalmore » ways: (i) so-called artificial photosynthesis using photo-induced electrons; (ii) bulk electrolysis of a CO2 saturated solution using electricity produced by photovoltaics; (iii) CO2 hydrogenation using solar-produced H2; and (iv) the thermochemical reaction of metal oxides at extremely high temperature reached by solar collectors. Since the thermodynamics of CO2 at high temperature (> 1000 ºC) are quite different from those near room temperature, only chemistry below 200 ºC is discussed in this review.« less

  20. The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-06-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the potential role of commercial-sector distributed energy resources (DER) with combined heat and power (CHP) in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. Historically, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. In our research, we examine how these medium-sized commercial buildings might implement DER and CHP. The buildings are able to adopt and operate various technologies, e.g., photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, batteries and thermal storage systems. We apply the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs and/or CO2 emissions. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California, existing tariffs of major utilities, and expected performance data of available technologies in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for these buildings. We compare different policy instruments, e.g., a CO2 pricing scheme or a feed-in tariff (FiT), and show their contributions to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goals of additional 4 GW CHP capacities and 6.7 Mt/a GHG reduction in California by 2020. By applying different price levels for CO2, we find that there is competition between fuel cells and PV/solar thermal. It is found that the PV/solar thermal adoption increases rapidly, but shows a saturation at high CO2 prices, partly due to limited space for PV and solar thermal. Additionally, we find that large office buildings are good hosts for CHP in general. However, most interesting is the fact that fossil-based CHP adoption also increases with increasing CO2 prices. We will show service territory specific results since the attractiveness of DER varies widely by climate zone and service territory.

  1. Differences in carbon cycle and temperature projections from emission- and concentration-driven earth system model simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, P.; Zeng, X.; Zeng, X.

    2014-08-29

    The influence of prognostic and prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on the carbon uptake and temperature is investigated using all eight Earth System Models (ESMs) with relevant output variables from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the projected [CO2] differences in 2100 vary from -19.7 to +207.3 ppm in emission-driven ESMs. Incorporation of the interactive concentrations also increases the range of global warming, computed as the 20 year average difference between 20812100 and 18501869/18611880, by 49% from 2.36 K (i.e. ranging from 3.11 to 5.47 K) in the concentration-driven simulations to 3.51 K inmorethe emission-driven simulations. The observed seasonal amplitude of global [CO2] from 19802011 is about 1.25.3 times as large as those from the eight emission-driven ESMs, while the [CO2] seasonality is simply neglected in concentration-driven ESMs, suggesting the urgent need of ESM improvements in this area. The temperature-concentration feedback parameter ? is more sensitive to [CO2] (e.g. during 19802005 versus 20752100) than how [CO2] is handled (i.e. prognostic versus prescribed). This sensitivity can be substantially reduced by using a more appropriate parameter ?' computed from the linear regression of temperature change versus that of the logarithm of [CO2]. However, the inter-model relative variations of both ? and ?' remain large, suggesting the need of more detailed studies to understand and hopefully reduce these discrepancies.less

  2. Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based Engineered Geothemal System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based Engineered Geothemal System Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based Engineered Geothemal System Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based ...

  3. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Sorption Behavior in Confined Coal Cores for Enhanced Coalbed Methane and CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, T.R.; Seshadri, K.S.; Irdi, G.A.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of CO2 in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed methane/CO2 sequestration field projects. Sorption isotherms measured in the lab can provide the upper limit on the amount of CO2 that might be sorbed in these projects. Because sequestration sites will most likely be in unmineable coals, many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may significantly reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh #8 was kept under a constant, three-dimensional external stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while it sorbed, CO2. Increases in sample density due to sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the computerized tomography showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core, and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO2 sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh #8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO2 source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO2 was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated volume elements differed from the initial distribution, suggesting hysteresis and a possible rearrangement of coal structure due to CO2 sorption.

  4. Final Report on "Rising CO2 and Long-term Carbon Storage in Terrestrial Ecosystems: An Empirical Carbon Budget Validation"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Patrick Megonigal; Bert G. Drake

    2010-08-27

    The primary goal of this report is to report the results of Grant DE-FG02-97ER62458, which began in 1997 as Grant DOE-98-59-MP-4 funded through the TECO program. However, this project has a longer history because DOE also funded this study from its inception in 1985 through 1997. The original grant was focused on plant responses to elevated CO2 in an intact ecosystem, while the latter grant was focused on belowground responses. Here we summarize the major findings across the 25 years this study has operated, and note that the experiment will continue to run through 2020 with NSF support. The major conclusions of the study to date are: (1 Elevated CO2 stimulated plant productivity in the C3 plant community by ~30% during the 25 year study. The magnitude of the increase in productivity varied interannually and was sometime absent altogether. There is some evidence of down-regulation at the ecosystem level across the 25 year record that may be due to interactions with other factors such as sea-level rise or long-term changes in N supply; (2) Elevated CO2 stimulated C4 productivity by <10%, perhaps due to more efficient water use, but C3 plants at elevated CO2 did not displace C4 plants as predicted; (3) Increased primary production caused a general stimulation of microbial processes, but there were both increases and decreases in activity depending on the specific organisms considered. An increase in methanogenesis and methane emissions implies elevated CO2 may amplify radiative forcing in the case of wetland ecosystems; (4) Elevated CO2 stimulated soil carbon sequestration in the form of an increase in elevation. The increase in elevation is 50-100% of the increase in net ecosystem production caused by elevated CO2 (still under analysis). The increase in soil elevation suggests the elevated CO2 may have a positive outcome for the ability of coastal wetlands to persist despite accelerated sea level rise; (5) Crossing elevated CO2 with elevated N causes the elevated CO2 effect to diminish, with consequences for change in soil elevation.

  5. CO2/CH4, CH4/H2 and CO2/CH4/H2 separations at high pressures using

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mg2(dobdc) | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome /CH4, CH4/H2 and CO2/CH4/H2 separations at high pressures using Mg2(dobdc) Previous Next List Zoey R. Herm, Rajamani Krishna, Jeffrey R. Long, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 151, 481-487 (2012) DOI: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2011.09.004 Full-size image (38 K) Abstract: High-pressure separations of binary and ternary mixtures of CO2, CH4, and H2 are relevant to carbon dioxide capture as well as hydrogen

  6. Exploring the effects of data quality, data worth, and redundancy of CO2 gas pressure and saturation data on reservoir characterization through PEST Inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zhufeng; Hou, Zhangshuan; Lin, Guang; Engel, David W.; Fang, Yilin; Eslinger, Paul W.

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the impacts of reservoir properties on CO2 migration after subsurface injection and evaluated the possibility of characterizing reservoir properties using CO2 monitoring data such as saturation distribution. The injection reservoir was assumed to be located 1400-1500 m below the ground surface such that CO2 remained in the supercritical state. The reservoir was assumed to contain layers with alternating conductive and resistive properties, which is analogous to actual geological formations such as the Mount Simon Sandstone unit. The CO2 injection simulation used a cylindrical grid setting in which the injection well was situated at the center of the domain, which extended up to 8000 m from the injection well. The CO2 migration was simulated using the PNNL-developed simulator STOMP-CO2e (the water-salt-CO2 module). We adopted a nonlinear parameter estimation and optimization modeling software package, PEST, for automated reservoir parameter estimation. We explored the effects of data quality, data worth, and data redundancy on the detectability of reservoir parameters using CO2 saturation monitoring data, by comparing PEST inversion results using data with different levels of noises, various numbers of monitoring wells and locations, and different data collection spacing and temporal sampling intervals. This study yielded insight into the use of CO2 saturation monitoring data for reservoir characterization and how to design the monitoring system to optimize data worth and reduce data redundancy.

  7. 'Underground battery' could store renewable energy, sequester CO2 |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration 'Underground battery' could store renewable energy, sequester CO2 | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact

  8. EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    saturated with Supercritical CO2 (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water saturated with Supercritical CO2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water saturated with Supercritical CO2 EGS using CO2 as a working fluid will likely involve hydro-shearing low-permeability hot rock reservoirs with a water solution. After that process, the fractures

  9. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  10. Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: FY1 Final Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  11. Liquid Fuel From Microbial Communities: Electroalcoholgenesis: Bioelectrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Butanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: MUSC is developing an engineered system to create liquid fuels from communities of interdependent microorganisms. MUSC is first pumping carbon dioxide (CO2) and renewable sources of electricity into a battery-like cell. A community of microorganisms uses the electricity to convert the CO2 into hydrogen. That hydrogen is then consumed by another community of microorganisms living in the same system. These new microorganisms convert the hydrogen into acetate, which in turn feed yet another community of microorganisms. This last community of microorganisms uses the acetate to produce a liquid biofuel called butanol. Similar interdependent microbial communities can be found in some natural environments, but theyve never been coupled together in an engineered cell to produce liquid fuels. MUSC is working to triple the amount of butanol that can be produced in its system and to reduce the overall cost of the process.

  12. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  13. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  14. Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: FY1 Final Report

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  15. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  16. Multi-Channel Auto-Dilution System for Remote Continuous Monitoring of High Soil-CO2 Fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amonette, James E.; Barr, Jonathan L.

    2009-04-23

    Geological sequestration has the potential capacity and longevity to significantly decrease the amount of anthropogenic CO2 introduced into the atmosphere by combustion of fossil fuels such as coal. Effective sequestration, however, requires the ability to verify the integrity of the reservoir and ensure that potential leakage rates are kept to a minimum. Moreover, understanding the pathways by which CO2 migrates to the surface is critical to assessing the risks and developing remediation approaches. Field experiments, such as those conducted at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) project test site in Bozeman, Montana, require a flexible CO2 monitoring system that can accurately and continuously measure soil-surface CO2 fluxes for multiple sampling points at concentrations ranging from background levels to several tens of percent. To meet this need, PNNL is developing a multi-port battery-operated system capable of both spatial and temporal monitoring of CO2 at concentrations from ambient to at least 150,000 ppmv. This report describes the system components (sampling chambers, measurement and control system, and power supply) and the results of a field test at the ZERT site during the late summer and fall of 2008. While the system performed well overall during the field test, several improvements to the system are suggested for implementation in FY2009.

  17. Effect of temperature and CO2 concentration on laser-induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temperature and CO2 concentration on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of alkali fume. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of temperature and CO2 ...

  18. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration,...

  19. High Fidelity Computational Analysis of CO2 Trapping at Pore Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Vinod

    2013-07-13

    With an alarming rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from anthropogenic sources, CO2 sequestration has become an attractive choice to mitigate the emission. Some popular storage media for CO{sub 2} are oil reservoirs, deep coal-bed, and deep oceanic-beds. These have been used for the long term CO{sub 2} storage. Due to special lowering viscosity and surface tension property of CO{sub 2}, it has been widely used for enhanced oil recovery. The sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration or enhanced oil recovery mostly consist of porous rocks. Lack of knowledge of molecular mobility under confinement and molecule-surface interactions between CO2 and natural porous media results in generally governed by unpredictable absorption kinetics and total absorption capacity for injected fluids, and therefore, constitutes barriers to the deployment of this technology. Therefore, it is important to understand the flow dynamics of CO{sub 2} through the porous microstructures at the finest scale (pore-scale) to accurately predict the storage potential and long-term dynamics of the sequestered CO{sub 2}. This report discusses about pore-network flow modeling approach using variational method and analyzes simulated results this method simulations at pore-scales for idealized network and using Berea Sandstone CT scanned images. Variational method provides a promising way to study the kinetic behavior and storage potential at the pore scale in the presence of other phases. The current study validates variational solutions for single and two-phase Newtonian and single phase non-Newtonian flow through angular pores for special geometries whose analytical and/or empirical solutions are known. The hydraulic conductance for single phase flow through a triangular duct was also validated against empirical results derived from lubricant theory.

  20. After the Clean Air Mercury Eule: prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana B. Milford; Alison Pienciak

    2009-04-15

    Recent court decisions have affected the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions from coal burning, but some state laws are helping to clear the air. In 2005, the US EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), setting performance standards for new coal-fired power plants and nominally capping mercury emissions form new and existing plants at 38 tons per year from 2010 to 2017 and 15 tpy in 2018 and thereafter; these down from 48.5 tpy in 1999. To implement the CAMR, 21 states with non-zero emissions adopted EPA's new source performance standards and cap and trade program with little or no modification. By December 2007, 23 other states had proposed or adopted more stringent requirements; 16 states prohibited or restricted interstate trading of mercury emissions. On February 2008, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia Circuit unanimously vacated the CAMR. This article assesses the status of mercury emission control requirements for coal-fired power plants in the US in light of this decision, focusing on state actions and prospects for a new federal rule. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Novel Flow Sheet for Low Energy CO2 Capture Enabled by Biocatalyst Delivery System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reardon, John; Shaffer, Alex; Vaysman, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    This report documents a preliminary Techno-Economic Assessment (TEA) for processes utilizing Akermin’s second generation biocatalyst delivery system to enhance AKM24, a non- volatile salt solution for CO2 capture. Biocatalyst enhanced AKM24 offers the potential to reduce the cost of CO2 capture in flue gas applications due to its improved equilibrium and stoichiometric properties that result in double the absorption capacity relative to previously demonstrated biocatalyst enhanced solvents. The study assumes a new supercritical pulverized coal fired power plant with a net output of 550 MWe after 90% CO2 capture and uses the June 2011 cost basis (August 2012 update of Bituminous Baseline Study, or BBS). Power plant modeling, capital cost review, and economic calculations were provided by WorleyParsons. Rate-based CO2 capture process modeling and equipment sizing was performed by Akermin using AspenPlus® V8.4, customized to accurately predict thermodynamics, kinetics, and physical properties of the AKM-24 solvent based on available laboratory data. Equipment capital costs were estimated using Aspen Process Economic Analyzer™ which compared well with published baseline cost estimates. Quotes of equipment costs and power consumption for vacuum blower and CO2 compression equipment were also provided by Man Diesel & Turbo. Three process scenarios were examined for Akermin biocatalyst enhanced solvent systems including: Case-1A: an absorption-desorption system operated with a reboiler pressure of 0.16 bara (60°C); Case-2A: an absorption-desorption system with moderate vacuum assisted regeneration at 0.40 bara (80°C); and finally, Case-2B: a conventional absorption-desorption system with near atmospheric pressure regeneration at 1.07 bara (105°C). The estimated increases in cost of electricity (ICOE) for these cases were $58.1/MWh, $47.3/MWh and $46.4/MWh, respectively. Case 2B had the best results for this analysis achieving an estimated 30% reduction in ICOE relative to the NETL Case 12 (v2) baseline of $66.3/MWh ICOE. Likewise, Case-2B achieved capture costs of $53.0/tCO2 and 65.7/tCO2 avoided, which equates to 20.2% and 31.4% savings relative to the Case 12 baseline ($66.4/tCO2 and $95.9/tCO2 avoided). While Case 2A and 2B have similar results, Case 2A requires further development. Focus on Case 2B is recommended for this project because its cost performance is closest to the DOE goals, and has it has the best potential to achieve a successful demonstration at the next scale.

  2. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Active Management of Integrated GeothermalCO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations: An Approach to Improve Energy Recovery and Mitigate Risk : FY1 Final Report The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  3. Predicting Large CO2 Adsorption in Aluminosilicate Zeolites for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Postcombustion Carbon Dioxide Capture | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Large CO2 Adsorption in Aluminosilicate Zeolites for Postcombustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Previous Next List Jihan Kim, Li-Chiang Lin, Joseph A. Swisher, Maciej Haranczyk, and Berend Smit, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134 (46), pp 18940-18943 DOI: 10.1021/ja309818u Abstract Image Abstract: Large-scale simulations of aluminosilicate zeolites were conducted to identify

  4. Literature Review of Mobility Control Methods for CO2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mobility and Conformance Control for Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO 2 -EOR) via Thickeners, Foams, and Gels - A Detailed Literature Review of 40 Years of Research DOE/NETL-2012/1540 Activity 4003.200.01 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or

  5. Comparative Reactivity Study of Forsterite and Antigorite in Wet Supercritical CO2 by In Situ Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wang, Zheming

    2013-10-01

    The carbonation reactions of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) and antigorite [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4], representatives of olivine and serpentine minerals, in dry and wet supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) at conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (35 C and 100 bar) were studied by in-situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Our results confirm that water plays a critical role in the reactions between metal silicate minerals and scCO2. For neat scCO2, no reaction was observed in 24 hr for either mineral. When water was added to the scCO2, a thin water film formed on the minerals surfaces, and the reaction rates and extents increased as the water saturation level was raised from 54% to 116% (excess water). For the first time, the presence of bicarbonate, a key reaction intermediate for metal silicate reactions with scCO2, was observed in a heterogeneous system where mineral solids, an adsorbed water film, and bulk scCO2 co-exist. In excess-water experiments, approximately 4% of forsterite and less than 2% of antigorite transformed into hydrated Mg-carbonates. A precipitate similar to nesquehonite (MgCO33H2O) was observed for forsterite within 6 hr of reaction time, but no such precipitate was formed from antigorite until after water was removed from the scCO2 following a 24-hr reaction period. The reduced reactivity and carbonate-precipitation behavior of antigorite was attributed to slower, incongruent dissolution of the mineral and lower concentrations of Mg2+ and HCO3- in the water film. The in situ measurements employed in this work make it possible to quantify metal carbonate precipitates and key reaction intermediates such as bicarbonate for the investigation of carbonation reaction mechanisms relevant to geologic carbon sequestration.

  6. The Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH,

  7. emissions | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cities CO2 emissions OpenEI suburbs US New research from the University of California-Berkeley shows that those who live in cities in the United States have significantly smaller...

  8. Ab initio thermodynamic approach to identify mixed solid sorbents for CO2

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    capture technology (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ab initio thermodynamic approach to identify mixed solid sorbents for CO2 capture technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab initio thermodynamic approach to identify mixed solid sorbents for CO2 capture technology Because the current technologies for capturing CO2 are still too energy intensive, new materials must be developed that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. At a given CO2 pressure, the

  9. Chemical Reactions of Portland Cement with Aqueous CO2 and their Impacts on

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cement's Mechanical Properties under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Chemical Reactions of Portland Cement with Aqueous CO2 and their Impacts on Cement's Mechanical Properties under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical Reactions of Portland Cement with Aqueous CO2 and their Impacts on Cement's Mechanical Properties under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions Authors: Li, Q. ; Lim, Yun Mook ;

  10. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  11. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-11-16

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e., ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site's annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities plus a natural gas company, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB's assumed utilization is far higherthan is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at stimulating CHP deployment, while the SGIP buy down is more powerful. The attractiveness of CHP varies widely by climate zone and service territory, but in general, hotter inland areas and San Diego are the more attractive regions because high cooling loads achieve higher equipment utilization. Additionally, large office buildings are surprisingly good hosts for CHP, so large office buildings in San Diego and hotter urban centers emerge as promising target hosts. Overall the effect on CO2 emissions is limited, never exceeding 27percent of the CARB target. Nonetheless, results suggest that the CO2 emissions abatement potential of CHP in mid-sized CA buildings is significant, and much more promising than is typically assumed.

  12. Making appropriate comparisons of estimated and actual costs of reducing SO{sub 2} emissions under Title IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.

    1998-12-31

    A current sentiment within some parts of the environmental policy community is that market-based regulatory approaches such as emissions trading have proven so effective that actual costs will be only a small fraction of what ex ante cost estimation procedures would project. With this line of reasoning, some have dismissed available cost estimates for major proposed new regulations, such as the new PM and ozone NAAQS, as not meaningful for policy decisions. The most commonly used evidence in support of this position is the experience with SO{sub 2} reductions under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. In Title IV, a market for emissions allowances has been used to achieve reductions in sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}) to ameliorate acid rain. It is commonly asserted today that the cost of achieving the SO{sub 2} emissions reductions has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV was originally expected to cost. This paper demonstrates that, to the contrary, actual costs for SO{sub 2} reductions remain roughly in line with original estimates associated with Title IV. Erroneous conclusions about Title IV`s costs are due to inappropriate comparisons of a variety of different measures that appear to be comparable only because they are all stated in dollars per ton. Program cost estimates include the total costs of a fully-implemented regulatory program. The very low costs of Title IV that are commonly cited today are neither directly reflective of a fully implemented Title IV, (which is still many years away) nor reflective of all the costs already incurred. Further, a careful review of history finds that the initial cost estimates that many cite were never associated with Title IV. Technically speaking, people are comparing the estimated control costs for the most-costly power plant associated with earlier acid rain regulatory proposals with prices from a market that do not directly reflect total costs.

  13. HIGH-TEMPERATURE CO-ELECTROLYSIS OF H2O AND CO2 FOR SYNGAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoots, C.M.

    2006-11-01

    Worldwide, the demand for light hydrocarbon fuels like gasoline and diesel oil is increasing. To satisfy this demand, oil companies have begun to utilize oil deposits of lower hydrogen content (an example is the Athabasca Oil Sands). Additionally, the higher contents of sulfur and nitrogen of these resources requires processes such as hydrotreating to meet environmental requirements. In the mean time, with the price of oil currently over $50 / barrel, synthetically-derived hydrocarbon fuels (synfuels) have become economical. Synfuels are typically produced from syngas hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) -- using the Fischer-Tropsch process, discovered by Germany before World War II. South Africa has used synfuels to power a significant number of their buses, trucks, and taxicabs. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City, USA) has been researching for several years the use of solid-oxide fuel cell technology to electrolyze steam for large-scale nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Now, an experimental research project is underway at the INL to investigate the feasibility of producing syngas by simultaneously electrolyzing at high-temperature steam and carbon dioxide (CO2) using solid oxide fuel cell technology. The syngas can then be used for synthetic fuel production. This program is a combination of experimental and computational activities. Since the solid oxide electrolyte material is a conductor of oxygen ions, CO can be produced by electrolyzing CO2 sequestered from some greenhouse gas-emitting process. Under certain conditions, however, CO can further electrolyze to produce carbon, which can then deposit on cell surfaces and reduce cell performance. The understanding of the co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is also complicated by the competing water-gas shift reaction. Results of experiments and calculations to date of CO2 and CO2/H2O electrolysis will be presented and discussed. These will include electrolysis performance at various temperatures, gas mixtures, and electrical settings. Product gas compositions, as measured via a gas analyser, and their relationship to conversion efficiencies will be presented. These measurements will be compared to predictions obtained from chemical equilibrium computer codes. Better understanding of the feasibility of producing syngas using high-temperature electrolysis will initiate the systematic investigation of nuclear-powered synfuel production as a bridge to the future hydrogen economy and ultimate independence from foreign energy resources.

  14. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across Northern Eurasia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rawlins, M. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Kimball, J. S.; Dass, P.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; et al

    2015-07-28

    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960–2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate modelmore » simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m⁻² yr⁻², equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960–1969 vs. 2000–2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our analysis points to improvements in model elements controlling vegetation productivity and soil respiration as being needed for reducing uncertainty in land-atmosphere CO2 exchange. These advances will require collection of new field data on vegetation and soil dynamics, the development of benchmarking data sets from measurements and remote-sensing observations, and investments in future model development and intercomparison studies.« less

  15. NREL's Cyanobacteria Engineering Shortens Biofuel Production Process, Captures CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's work to systematically analyze the flow of energy in a photosynthetic microbe and show how the organism adjusts its metabolism to meet the increased energy demand for making ethylene. This work successfully demonstrates that the organism could cooperate by stimulating photosynthesis. The results encourage further genetic engineering for the conversion of CO2 to biofuels and chemicals. This highlight is being developed for the September 2015 Alliance S&T Board meeting. biofuels and chemicals. This highlight is being developed for the September 2015 Alliance S&T Board meeting.

  16. Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or Thermal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Treatment in a Metal-Organic Framework | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Reversible Alteration of CO2 Adsorption upon Photochemical or Thermal Treatment in a Metal-Organic Framework Previous Next List Jinhee Park , Daqiang Yuan , Khanh T. Pham , Jian-Rong Li , Andrey Yakovenko , and Hong-Cai Zhou, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134 (1), pp 99-102 DOI: 10.1021/ja209197f Abstract Image Abstract: A metal-organic framework (MOF) for reversible

  17. STOMP Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases: STOMP-CO2 and STOMP-CO2e Guide: Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; McGrail, B. Peter; Watson, David J.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2012-04-03

    This STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) guide document describes the theory, use, and application of the STOMP-CO2 and STOMP-CO2e operational modes. These operational modes of the STOMP simulator are configured to solve problems involving the sequestration of CO2 in geologic saline reservoirs. STOMP-CO2 is the isothermal version and STOMP-CO2e is the nonisothermal version. These core operational modes solve the governing conservation equations for component flow and transport through geologic media; where, the STOMP-CO2 components are water, CO2 and salt and the STOMP-CO2e operational mode also includes an energy conservation equation. Geochemistry can be included in the problem solution via the ECKEChem (Equilibrium-Conservation-Kinetic-Equation Chemistry) module, and geomechanics via the EPRMech (Elastic-Plastic-Rock Mechanics) module. This addendum is designed to provide the new user with a full guide for the core capabilities of the STOMP-CO2 and -CO2e simulators, and to provide the experienced user with a quick reference on implementing features. Several benchmark problems are provided in this addendum, which serve as starting points for developing inputs for more complex problems and as demonstrations of the simulators capabilities.

  18. CO2 sequestration potential of Charqueadas coal field in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanov, V; Santarosa, C; Crandall, D; Haljasmaa, I; Hur, T -B; Fazio, J; Warzinski, R; Heemann, R; Ketzer, J M

    2013-02-01

    Although coal is not the primary source of energy in Brazil there is growing interest to evaluate the potential of coal from the south of the country for various activities. The I2B coal seamin the Charqueadas coal field has been considered a target for enhanced coal bed methane production and CO2 sequestration. A detailed experimental study of the samples from this seam was conducted at the NETL with assistance from the Pontif?cia Universidade Cat?lica Do Rio Grande Do Sul. Such properties as sorption capacity, internal structure of the samples, porosity and permeability were of primary interest in this characterization study. The samples used were low rank coals (high volatile bituminous and sub-bituminous) obtained from the I2B seam. It was observed that the temperature effect on adsorption capacity correlates negatively with as-received water and mineral content. Langmuir CO2 adsorption capacity of the coal samples ranged 0.61?2.09 mmol/g. The upper I2B seam appears to be overall more heterogeneous and less permeable than the lower I2B seam. The lower seam coal appears to have a large amount of micro-fractures that do not close even at 11 MPa of confining pressure.

  19. Biases of CO2 Storage in Eddy Flux Measurements pertinent to Vertical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Configurations of a Profile System and CO2 Density Averaging (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Biases of CO2 Storage in Eddy Flux Measurements pertinent to Vertical Configurations of a Profile System and CO2 Density Averaging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biases of CO2 Storage in Eddy Flux Measurements pertinent to Vertical Configurations of a Profile System and CO2 Density Averaging CO2 storage in a 30-minute period in a tall forest canopy often makes significant

  20. Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

    2011-09-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

  1. Coal-Derived Warm Syngas Purification and CO2 Capture-Assisted Methane Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; King, David L.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Xing, Rong; Spies, Kurt A.; Zhu, Yunhua; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Liyu; Braunberger, B.

    2014-10-31

    Gasifier-derived syngas from coal has many applications in the area of catalytic transformation to fuels and chemicals. Raw syngas must be treated to remove a number of impurities that would otherwise poison the synthesis catalysts. Inorganic impurities include alkali salts, chloride, sulfur compounds, heavy metals, ammonia, and various P, As, Sb, and Se- containing compounds. Systems comprising multiple sorbent and catalytic beds have been developed for the removal of impurities from gasified coal using a warm cleanup approach. This approach has the potential to be more economic than the currently available acid gas removal (AGR) approaches and improves upon currently available processes that do not provide the level of impurity removal that is required for catalytic synthesis application. Gasification also lends itself much more readily to the capture of CO2, important in the regulation and control of greenhouse gas emissions. CO2 capture material was developed and in this study was demonstrated to assist in methane production from the purified syngas. Simultaneous CO2 sorption enhances the CO methanation reaction through relaxation of thermodynamic constraint, thus providing economic benefit rather than simply consisting of an add-on cost for carbon capture and release. Molten and pre-molten LiNaKCO3 can promote MgO and MgO-based double salts to capture CO2 with high cycling capacity. A stable cycling CO2 capacity up to 13 mmol/g was demonstrated. This capture material was specifically developed in this study to operate in the same temperature range and therefore integrate effectively with warm gas cleanup and methane synthesis. By combining syngas methanation, water-gas-shift, and CO2 sorption in a single reactor, single pass yield to methane of 99% was demonstrated at 10 bar and 330oC when using a 20 wt% Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst and a molten-phase promoted MgO-based sorbent. Under model feed conditions both the sorbent and catalyst exhibited favorable stability after multiple test cycles. The cleanup for warm gas cleanup of inorganics was broken down into three major steps: chloride removal, sulfur removal, and the removal for a multitude of trace metal contaminants. Na2CO3 was found to optimally remove chlorides at an operating temperature of 450C. For sulfur removal two regenerable ZnO beds are used for bulk H2S removal at 450C (<5 ppm S) and a non-regenerable ZnO bed for H2S polishing at 300C (<40 ppb S). It was also found that sulfur from COS could be adsorbed (to levels below our detection limit of 40 ppb) in the presence of water that leads to no detectable slip of H2S. Finally, a sorbent material comprising of Cu and Ni was found to be effective in removing trace metal impurities such as AsH3 and PH3 when operating at 300C. Proof-of-concept of the integrated cleanup process was demonstrated with gasifier-generated syngas produced at the Western Research Institute using Wyoming Decker Coal. When operating with a ~1 SLPM feed, multiple inorganic contaminant removal sorbents and a tar-reforming bed was able to remove the vast majority of contaminants from the raw syngas. A tar-reforming catalyst was employed due to the production of tars generated from the gasifier used in this particular study. It is envisioned that in a real application a commercial scale gasifier operating at a higher temperature would produce lesser amount of tar. Continuous operation of a poison-sensitive copper-based WGS catalyst located downstream from the cleanup steps resulted in successful demonstration. ?

  2. Combustor for a low-emissions gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glezer, Boris (Del Mar, CA); Greenwood, Stuart A. (San Diego, CA); Dutta, Partha (San Diego, CA); Moon, Hee-Koo (San Diego, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Many government entities regulated emission from gas turbine engines including CO. CO production is generally reduced when CO reacts with excess oxygen at elevated temperatures to form CO2. Many manufactures use film cooling of a combustor liner adjacent to a combustion zone to increase durability of the combustion liner. Film cooling quenches reactions of CO with excess oxygen to form CO2. Cooling the combustor liner on a cold side (backside) away from the combustion zone reduces quenching. Furthermore, placing a plurality of concavities on the cold side enhances the cooling of the combustor liner. Concavities result in very little pressure reduction such that air used to cool the combustor liner may also be used in the combustion zone. An expandable combustor housing maintains a predetermined distance between the combustor housing and combustor liner.

  3. Operation and analysis of a supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Steven Alan; Radel, Ross F.; Vernon, Milton E.; Pickard, Paul S.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investigating advanced Brayton cycles using supercritical working fluids for use with solar, nuclear or fossil heat sources. The focus of this work has been on the supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle (S-CO2) which has the potential for high efficiency in the temperature range of interest for these heat sources, and is also very compact, with the potential for lower capital costs. The first step in the development of these advanced cycles was the construction of a small scale Brayton cycle loop, funded by the Laboratory Directed Research & Development program, to study the key issue of compression near the critical point of CO{sub 2}. This document outlines the design of the small scale loop, describes the major components, presents models of system performance, including losses, leakage, windage, compressor performance, and flow map predictions, and finally describes the experimental results that have been generated.

  4. Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

  5. Reduction of Heavy-Duty Fuel Consumption and CO2 Generation ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Fuel Consumption and CO2 Generation -- What the Industry Does and What the Government Can Do Reduction of Heavy-Duty Fuel Consumption and CO2 Generation -- What the ...

  6. Properties of CO2-Rich Pore Fluids and Their Effect on Porosity Evolution in EGS Rocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Quantify key parameters critically needed for developing and validating numerical modeling of chemical interactions between EGS reservoir rocks and supercritical CO2and CO2-rich aqueous fluids.

  7. Advanced Development Of The Coal Fired Oxyfuel Process With CO2...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Of The Coal Fired Oxyfuel Process With CO2 Separation ADECOS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Development Of The Coal-Fired Oxyfuel Process With CO2...

  8. 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOEs Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the...

  9. Designing small catalysts for CO2 capture (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Designing small catalysts for CO2 capture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Designing small catalysts for CO2 capture You are accessing a document from the Department...

  10. Designing small catalysts for CO2 capture (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Designing small catalysts for CO2 capture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Designing small catalysts for CO2 capture Authors: Wong, S E ; Lau, E Y ; Satcher, J H ; Aines,...

  11. Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled release experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater...

  12. U.S. Manufacturers Save $1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency Investments U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency...

  13. U.S. Manufacturers Save $1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency Investments U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy...

  14. Large-Scale Utilization of Biomass Energy and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the Transport and Electricity Sectors under Stringent CO2 Concentration Limit Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-08-05

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to meet atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm by the end of the century. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. A key aspect of the research presented here is that the costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are explicitly incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced globally by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the majority source, along with growing utilization of waste-to-energy. The ability to draw on a diverse set of biomass based feedstocks helps to reduce the pressure for drastic large-scale changes in land use and the attendant environmental, ecological, and economic consequences those changes would unleash. In terms of the conversion of bioenergy feedstocks into value added energy, this paper demonstrates that biomass is and will continue to be used to generate electricity as well as liquid transportation fuels. A particular focus of this paper is to show how climate policies and technology assumptions - especially the availability of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies - affect the decisions made about where the biomass is used in the energy system. The potential for net-negative electric sector emissions through the use of CCS with biomass feedstocks provides an attractive part of the solution for meeting stringent emissions constraints; we find that at carbon prices above 150$/tCO2, over 90% of biomass in the energy system is used in combination with CCS. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, it is a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. CCS is also used heavily with other fuels such as coal and natural gas, and by 2095 a total of 1530 GtCO2 has been stored in deep geologic reservoirs. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels as two representative conversion processes and shows that both technologies may be important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics.

  15. 2014 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 2014 NETL CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY MEETING July 29-August 1, 2014 Previous Proceedings 2012: NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting 2013: NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Proceedings of the 2014 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Table of Contents Presentations Tuesday, July 29, 2014 Opening/Overview System Studies and Modeling Post-Combustion Sorbent-Based Capture Wednesday, July 30, 2014 Post-Combustion Solvent-Based Capture Thursday, July 31, 2014 Post-Combustion

  16. Low-Energy CO2 Capture through Cooperative Adsorption | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Low-Energy CO2 Capture through Cooperative Adsorption

  17. Enhanced CO2 Capture in Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Enhanced CO2 Capture in Metal-Organic Frameworks

  18. Stimulus CO2 adsorption in Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Stimulus CO2 adsorption in Metal-Organic Frameworks

  19. Feasibility of CO2 Capture from Mobile Sources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 Capture from Mobile Sources Feasibility of CO2 Capture from Mobile Sources Presents integrated system for post-combustion CO2 capture from mobile sources PDF icon p-16_davis.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-003442: Categorical Exclusion Determination EIS-0473: Mitigation Action Plan CX-010800: Categorical Exclusion Determination

  20. First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances First U.S. Large-Scale CO2 Storage Project Advances April 6, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Drilling nears completion for the first large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection well in the United States for CO2 sequestration. This project will be used to demonstrate that CO2 emitted from industrial sources - such as coal-fired power plants - can be stored in deep geologic formations to mitigate large quantities of greenhouse gas

  1. Impact of mesophyll diffusion on estimated global land CO2 fertilization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Ying; Gu, Lianhong; Dickinson, Robert E.; Norby, Richard J.; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hoffman, Forrest M.

    2014-10-13

    In C3 plants, CO2 concentrations drop considerably along mesophyll diffusion pathways from substomatal cavities to chloroplasts where CO2 assimilation occurs. Global carbon cycle models have not explicitly represented this internal drawdown and so overestimate CO2 available for carboxylation and underestimate photosynthetic responsiveness to atmospheric CO2. An explicit consideration of mesophyll diffusion increases the modeled cumulative CO2 fertilization effect (CFE) for global gross primary production (GPP) from 915 PgC to 1057 PgC for the period of 1901 to 2010. This increase represents a 16% correction, large enough to explain the persistent overestimation of growth rates of historical atmospheric CO2 by Earthmore » System Models. Without this correction, the CFE for global GPP is underestimated by 0.05 PgC yr-1ppm-1. This finding implies that the contemporary terrestrial biosphere is more CO2-limited than previously thought.« less

  2. Spatial Relationships of Sector-Specific Fossil-fuel CO2 Emissions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Global Biogeochemical ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, ...

  3. Device for separating CO2 from fossil-fueled power plant emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN); Wilson, Kirk A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-04-23

    A gas separation device includes an inner conduit, and a concentric outer conduit. An electrically conductive filter media, preferably a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve, is provided in the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit. Gas flows through the inner conduit and the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit, so as to contact the filter media. The filter media preferentially adsorbs at least one constituent of the gas stream. The filter media is regenerated by causing an electric current to flow through the filter media. The inner conduit and outer conduit are preferably electrically conductive whereby the regeneration of the filter media can be electrically stimulated. The invention is particularly useful for the removal of CO.sub.2 from the exhaust gases of fossil-fueled power plants.

  4. Dissecting the steps of CO2 reduction: 1. The interaction of CO and CO2 with ?-Al2O3: an in situ FTIR study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2014-08-07

    The adsorption of CO2 and CO was investigated on a pure ?-Al2O3 support material that has been used for the preparation of Pd and Ru catalysts for the catalytic reduction of CO2. The adsorption of CO2 resulted in the formation of carbonates, bicarbonates and linearly adsorbed CO2 species. The amount and the nature of the adsorbed species were dependent on the annealing temperature of the alumina support. On ?-Al2O3 annealed at 473 K mostly bicarbonates formed, while no adsorbed CO2 was seen on this highly hydroxylated surface. With increasing calcinations temperature, i.e., increasing extent of dehydroxylation, the amounts of both surface nitrates and linear adsorbed CO2 increased, but still the most abundant surface species were bicarbonates. Surface carbonates and adsorbed CO2 can readily be removed from the alumina surface, while bicarbonates are stable to elevated temperatures. The interaction of CO with ?-Al2O3 is much weaker than that of CO2. At room temperatures CO adsorbs only on Lewis acid sites, and can be readily removed by evacuation. At 100 K CO can probe different defect sites on the alumina surface (both Lewis acid sites and surface hydroxyls). Under no conditions we have observed the formation of any carbonates or bicarbonates upon the interaction of CO with the pure alumina support. In co-adsorption experiments CO competes for adsorption sites with the linearly adsorbed CO2 on the 773 K-annealed ?-Al2O3 surface; but it does not result in the desorption of CO2, rather in the increase of weakly-held carbonate production. After the removal of adsorbed CO, CO2 moves back to its original adsorption sites, i.e., Lewis acidic Al3+ centers. The exposure of a CO2-saturated ?-Al2O3 to H2O did not affect any of the adsorbed surface species. The findings of this study will be used to rationalize the results of our ongoing in situ and in operando studies on the reduction of CO2 on supported Pd and Ru catalysts. Acknowledgements: We gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences for the support of this work. The synthesis and catalyst pre-treatment portion of the work described in this manuscript was supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. J.H.K. also acknowledges the support of this work by the 2013 Research Fund of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea).

  5. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  6. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture environmental pollutants in the gaseous state and co-inject them with the CO2, in order to mitigate problems associated with solid waste disposal in surface impoundments. Under such conditions, the injected pollutant concentrations could be roughly equivalent to their concentrations in the coal feed. The fate of the injected contaminants can only be determined through further testing and geochemical modeling. However, the concentrations of inadvertent contaminants in the injected CO2 would probably be comparable to their ambient concentrations in confining shales of the injection zone. In general, the aqueous concentrations of hazardous constituents in distal parts of the injection zone, regardless of source, are likely to be limited by equilibrium with respect to coexisting solid phases under the acid conditions induced by the dissolved high pressure CO2, rather than by the initial concentrations of injected contaminants. Therefore, even if a deliberate policy of contaminant recovery and injection were to be pursued, water quality in USDWs would more likely depend on thermodynamic controls governing aqueous contaminant concentrations in the presence of high pressure CO2 rather than in the injected CO2. The conclusions reached in this report are preliminary, and should be confirmed through more comprehensive data evaluation and supporting geochemical modeling.

  7. CO2 CAPTURE PROJECT - AN INTEGRATED, COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR NEXT GENERATION CO2 SEPARATION, CAPTURE AND GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Helen Kerr

    2003-08-01

    The CO{sub 2} Capture Project (CCP) is a joint industry project, funded by eight energy companies (BP, ChevronTexaco, EnCana, Eni, Norsk Hydro, Shell, Statoil, and Suncor) and three government agencies (1) European Union (DG Res & DG Tren), (2) Norway (Klimatek) and (3) the U.S.A. (Department of Energy). The project objective is to develop new technologies, which could reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and geologic storage by 50% for retrofit to existing plants and 75% for new-build plants. Technologies are to be developed to ''proof of concept'' stage by the end of 2003. The project budget is approximately $24 million over 3 years and the work program is divided into eight major activity areas: (1) Baseline Design and Cost Estimation--defined the uncontrolled emissions from each facility and estimate the cost of abatement in $/tonne CO{sub 2}. (2) Capture Technology, Post Combustion: technologies, which can remove CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases after combustion. (3) Capture Technology, Oxyfuel: where oxygen is separated from the air and then burned with hydrocarbons to produce an exhaust with high CO{sub 2} for storage. (4) Capture Technology, Pre -Combustion: in which, natural gas and petroleum coke are converted to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} in a reformer/gasifier. (5) Common Economic Model/Technology Screening: analysis and evaluation of each technology applied to the scenarios to provide meaningful and consistent comparison. (6) New Technology Cost Estimation: on a consistent basis with the baseline above, to demonstrate cost reductions. (7) Geologic Storage, Monitoring and Verification (SMV): providing assurance that CO{sub 2} can be safely stored in geologic formations over the long term. (8) Non-Technical: project management, communication of results and a review of current policies and incentives governing CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Technology development work dominated the past six months of the project. Numerous studies are making substantial progress towards their goals. Some technologies are emerging as preferred over others. Pre-combustion Decarbonization (hydrogen fuel) technologies are showing good progress and may be able to meet the CCP's aggressive cost reduction targets for new-build plants. Chemical looping to produce oxygen for oxyfuel combustion shows real promise. As expected, post-combustion technologies are emerging as higher cost options that may have niche roles. Storage, measurement, and verification studies are moving rapidly forward. Hyper-spectral geo-botanical measurements may be an inexpensive and non-intrusive method for long-term monitoring. Modeling studies suggest that primary leakage routes from CO{sub 2} storage sites may be along wellbores in areas disturbed by earlier oil and gas operations. This is good news because old wells are usually mapped and can be repaired during the site preparation process. Many studies are nearing completion or have been completed. Their preliminary results are summarized in the attached report and presented in detail in the attached appendices.

  8. RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Gemmer, Bob; Scheihing, Paul; Quinn, James

    2007-09-01

    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of the 2006 initiative, ITP has expanded the effort in 2007 with the goal of conducting 250 more asse

  9. CO2-Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration Full Technology Feasibility Study B1 - Solvent-based Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J

    2014-08-31

    PNNL, Fluor Corporation and Queens University (Kingston, ON) successfully completed a three year comprehensive study of the CO2BOL water-lean solvent platform with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed solvent synthesis, characterization, environmental toxicology, physical, thermodynamic and kinetic property measurements, Aspen Plus™ modeling and bench-scale testing of a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule. Key Program Findings The key program findings are summarized as follows: • PSAR favorably reduced stripper duties and reboiler temperatures with little/no impact to absorption column • >90% CO2 capture was achievable at reasonable liquid-gas ratios in the absorber • High rich solvent viscosities (up to 600 cP) were successfully demonstrated in the bench-scale system. However, the projected impacts of high viscosity to capital cost and operational limits compromised the other levelized cost of electricity benefits. • Low thermal conductivity of organics significantly increased the required cross exchanger surface area, and potentially other heat exchange surfaces. • CO2BOL had low evaporative losses during bench-scale testing • There was no evidence of foaming during bench scale testing • Current CO2BOL formulation costs project to be $35/kg • Ecotoxicity (Water Daphnia) was comparable between CO2BOL and MEA (169.47 versus 103.63 mg/L) • Full dehydration of the flue gas was determined to not be economically feasible. However, modest refrigeration (13 MW for the 550 MW reference system) was determined to be potentially economically feasible, and still produce a water-lean condition for the CO2BOLs (5 wt% steady-state water loading). • CO2BOLs testing with 5 wt% water loading did not compromise anhydrous performance behavior, and showed actual enhancement of CO2 capture performance. • Mass transfer of CO2BOLs was not greatly impeded by viscosity • Facile separation of antisolvent from lean CO2BOL was demonstrated on the bench cart • No measurable solvent degradation was observed over 4 months of testing – even with 5 wt% water present

  10. Biofuels from Bacteria, Electricity, and CO2: Biofuels from CO2 Using Ammonia or Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria in Reverse Microbial Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Electrofuels Project: Columbia University is using carbon dioxide (CO2) from ambient air, ammoniaan abundant and affordable chemical, and a bacteria called N. europaea to produce liquid fuel. The Columbia University team is feeding the ammonia and CO2 into an engineered tank where the bacteria live. The bacteria capture the energy from ammonia and then use that energy to convert CO2 into a liquid fuel. When the bacteria use up all the ammonia, renewable electricity can regenerate it and pump it back into the systemcreating a continuous fuel-creation cycle. In addition, Columbia University is also working with the bacteria A. ferrooxidans to capture and use energy from ferrous iron to produce liquid fuels from CO2.

  11. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

    2006-08-31

    Injection of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds is a plausible method of reducing atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO{sub 2} disposal in high-rank coals. The objective of this research was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery from, low-rank coals in the Texas Gulf Coast area. Our research included an extensive coal characterization program, including acquisition and analysis of coal core samples and well transient test data. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic reservoir simulation and economic studies to evaluate the effects of injectant fluid composition (pure CO{sub 2} and flue gas), well spacing, injection rate, and dewatering on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery in low-rank coals of the Calvert Bluff formation of the Texas Wilcox Group. Shallow and deep Calvert Bluff coals occur in two, distinct, coalbed gas petroleum systems that are separated by a transition zone. Calvert Bluff coals < 3,500 ft deep are part of a biogenic coalbed gas system. They have low gas content and are part of a freshwater aquifer. In contrast, Wilcox coals deeper than 3,500 ft are part of a thermogenic coalbed gas system. They have high gas content and are part of a saline aquifer. CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Calvert Bluff low-rank coals of East-Central Texas must be located in the deeper, unmineable coals, because shallow Wilcox coals are part of a protected freshwater aquifer. Probabilistic simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection into 20 feet of Calvert Bluff coal in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicates that these coals can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0.59 Bcf of CO{sub 2} with an ECBM recovery of 0.68 to 1.20 Bcf. Economic modeling of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery indicates predominantly negative economic indicators for the reservoir depths (4,000 to 6,200 ft) and well spacings investigated, using natural gas prices ranging from $2 to $12 per Mscf and CO{sub 2} credits based on carbon market prices ranging from $0.05 to $1.58 per Mscf CO{sub 2} ($1.00 to $30.00 per ton CO{sub 2}). Injection of flue gas (87% N{sub 2} - 13% CO{sub 2}) results in better economic performance than injection of 100% CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} sequestration potential and methane resources in low-rank coals of the Lower Calvert Bluff formation in East-Central Texas are significant. The potential CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the coals ranges between 27.2 and 49.2 Tcf (1.57 and 2.69 billion tons), with a mean value of 38 Tcf (2.2 billion tons), assuming a 72.4% injection efficiency. Estimates of recoverable methane resources range between 6.3 and 13.6 Tcf, with a mean of 9.8 Tcf, assuming a 71.3% recovery factor. Moderate increases in gas prices and/or carbon credits could generate attractive economic conditions that, combined with the close proximity of many CO{sub 2} point sources near unmineable coalbeds, could enable commercial CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Texas low-rank coals. Additional studies are needed to characterize Wilcox regional methane coalbed gas systems and their boundaries, and to assess potential of other low-rank coal beds. Results from this study may be transferable to other low-rank coal formations and regions.

  12. Conversion of Waste CO2 and Shale Gas to High-Value Chemicals | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Conversion of Waste CO2 and Shale Gas to High-Value Chemicals Conversion of Waste CO2 and Shale Gas to High-Value Chemicals The project aims to develop, build, operate, and validate a laboratory-scale continuous process that converts waste CO2 from industrial sources from shale gas into commodity chemical intermediates. PDF icon Factsheet More Documents & Publications CX-010693: Categorical Exclusion Determination AMO PEER REVIEW, MAY 28-29, 2015 Waste Treatment and

  13. Carbonic anhydrase-facilitated CO2 absorption with polyacrylamide buffering bead capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, Robert; Griffith, Craid; Liu, Zhu; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila W.; Koepsel, Richard; Ataai, M [Ataai, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    A novel CO2 separation concept is described wherein the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) is used to increase the overall rate Of CO2 absorption after which hydrated CO2 reacts with regenerable amine-bearing polyacrylamide buffering beads (PABB). Following saturation of the material's immobilized tertiary amines, CA-bearing carrier water is separated and recycled to the absorption stage while CO2-loaded material is thermally regenerated. Process application of this concept would involve operation of two or more columns in parallel with thermal regeneration with low-pressure steam taking place after the capacity of a column of amine-bearing polymeric material was exceeded. PABB CO2- bearing capacity was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for beads of three acrylamido buffering monomer ingredient concentrations: 0 mol/kg bead, 0.857 mol/kg bead, and 2 mol/kg bead. TGA results demonstrate that CO2- bearing capacity increases with increasing PABB buffering concentration and that up to 78% of the theoretical CO2- bearing capacity was realized in prepared PABB samples (0.857 mol/kg recipe). The highest observed CO2-bearing capacity of PABB was 1.37 mol of CO2 per kg dry bead. TGA was also used to assess the regenerability Of CO2-loaded PABB. Preliminary results suggest that CO2 is partially driven from PABB samples at temperatures as low as 55 degrees C, with complete regeneration occurring at 100 degrees C. Other physical characteristics of PABB are discussed. In addition, the effectiveness of bovine carbonic anhydrase for the catalysis Of CO2 dissolution is evaluated. Potential benefits and drawbacks of the proposed process are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Anthropogenic CO2 as a Feedstock for Cyanobacteria-Based Biofuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Anthropogenic CO2 as a Feedstock for Cyanobacteria-Based Biofuels Anthropogenic CO2 as a Feedstock for Cyanobacteria-Based Biofuels Breakout Session 2-A: The Future of Algae-Based Biofuels Anthropogenic CO2 as a Feedstock for Cyanobacteria-Based Biofuels Ronald R. Chance, Executive Vice President, Engineering, Algenol PDF icon chance_bioenergy_2015.pdf More Documents & Publications Metabolic Pathways and Metabolic Engineering Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen

  15. solvents-co2-capture-pitt | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solvents for CO2 Capture Project No.: R&D 048 The most attractive physical solvents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture are those having such properties as high thermal stability, extremely low vapor pressures, nonflammability, and nontoxicity. Such materials not only have the potential to capture CO2 with minimal solvent loss in the gas stream but are expected to be environmentally benign. NETL's Office of Research and Development is conducting a study involving one general type of

  16. R & D Supercritiacl CO2/ Rock Chemicals Interactions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R & D Supercritiacl CO2/ Rock Chemicals Interactions R & D Supercritiacl CO2/ Rock Chemicals Interactions R & D Supercritiacl CO2/ Rock Chemicals Interactions presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon university_of_minnesota_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications An integrated experimental and numerical study: Developing a reaction transport model that couples chemical reactions of mineral dissolution/precipitation with spatial and

  17. In-Situ MVA of CO2 Sequestration Using Smart Field Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In-Situ MVA of CO 2 Sequestration Using Smart Field Technology Background Through its core research and development program administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) emphasizes monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA), as well as computer simulation and risk assessment, of possible carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) leakage at CO 2 geologic storage sites. MVA efforts focus on the development and deployment of technologies that can provide an

  18. Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on Geomechanical Properties of Reservoir Rocks and Seals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact on Geomechanical Properties of Reservoir Rocks and Seals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact on Geomechanical Properties of Reservoir Rocks and Seals This article develops a novel multiscale modeling approach to analyze CO2 reservoirs using

  19. TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC MODELING & INVERSION OF CO2 SATURATION FOR SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Meadows

    2006-03-31

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into subsurface aquifers for geologic storage/sequestration, and into subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery, has become an important topic to the nation because of growing concerns related to global warming and energy security. In this project we developed new ways to predict and quantify the effects of CO2 on seismic data recorded over porous reservoir/aquifer rock systems. This effort involved the research and development of new technology to: (1) Quantitatively model the rock physics effects of CO2 injection in porous saline and oil/brine reservoirs (both miscible and immiscible). (2) Quantitatively model the seismic response to CO2 injection (both miscible and immiscible) from well logs (1D). (3) Perform quantitative inversions of time-lapse 4D seismic data to estimate injected CO2 distributions within subsurface reservoirs and aquifers. This work has resulted in an improved ability to remotely monitor the injected CO2 for safe storage and enhanced hydrocarbon recovery, predict the effects of CO2 on time-lapse seismic data, and estimate injected CO2 saturation distributions in subsurface aquifers/reservoirs. We applied our inversion methodology to a 3D time-lapse seismic dataset from the Sleipner CO2 sequestration project, Norwegian North Sea. We measured changes in the seismic amplitude and traveltime at the top of the Sleipner sandstone reservoir and used these time-lapse seismic attributes in the inversion. Maps of CO2 thickness and its standard deviation were generated for the topmost layer. From this information, we estimated that 7.4% of the total CO2 injected over a five-year period had reached the top of the reservoir. This inversion approach could also be applied to the remaining levels within the anomalous zone to obtain an estimate of the total CO2 injected.

  20. Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Illinois | Department of Energy Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois November 19, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A project important to demonstrating the commercial viability of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology has completed the first year of injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) from an industrial plant at a large-scale test site in

  1. New York MARKAL: An evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1992-12-31

    A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the State`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO2 emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO2 emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

  2. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2009 … Main Text

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Emissions from Metallurgical Coke Production (Thousand Metric Tons) .............................................................................................................. 4-40 Table 4-56: Production and Consumption Data for the Calculation of CO 2 Emissions from Metallurgical Coke Production (million ft 3 ) ............................................................................................................................................ 4-41 Table 4-57: CO 2 Emission Factors

  3. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1.1 Total emissions Total U.S. anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 were 5.8 percent below the 2008 total (Table 1). The decline in total emissions-from 6,983 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) in 2008 to 6,576 MMTCO2e in 2009-was the largest since emissions have been tracked over the 1990-2009 time frame. It was largely the result of a 419-MMTCO2e drop in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (7.1 percent). There was a

  4. Hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol: Importance of metal–oxide and metal–carbide interfaces in the activation of CO2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, José A.; Liu, Ping; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; White, Michael G.; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-09-30

    In this study, the high thermochemical stability of CO2 makes it very difficult to achieve the catalytic conversion of the molecule into alcohols or other hydrocarbon compounds, which can be used as fuels or the starting point for the generation of fine chemicals. Pure metals and bimetallic systems used for the CO2 → CH3OH conversion usually bind CO2 too weakly and, thus, show low catalytic activity. Here, we discuss a series of recent studies that illustrate the advantages of metal–oxide and metal–carbide interfaces when aiming at the conversion of CO2 into methanol. CeOx/Cu(111), Cu/CeOx/TiO2(110), and Au/CeOx/TiO2(110) exhibit an activity formore » the CO2 → CH3OH conversion that is 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than that of a benchmark Cu(111) catalyst. In the Cu–ceria and Au–ceria interfaces, the multifunctional combination of metal and oxide centers leads to complementary chemical properties that open active reaction pathways for methanol synthesis. Efficient catalysts are also generated after depositing Cu and Au on TiC(001). In these cases, strong metal–support interactions modify the electronic properties of the admetals and make them active for the binding of CO2 and its subsequent transformation into CH3OH at the metal–carbide interfaces.« less

  5. DOE Best Practices Manual Focuses on Site Selection for CO2 Storage...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    promising methods for assessing potential carbon dioxide (CO2) geologic storage sites - a crucial component of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology - is the focus of the...

  6. Using Pressure and Volumetric Approaches to Estimate CO2 Storage Capacity in Deep Saline Aquifers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thibeau, Sylvain; Bachu, Stefan; Birkholzer, Jens; Holloway, Sam; Neele, Filip; Zhou, Quanlin

    2014-12-31

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where CO2 storage capacity is evaluated both volumetrically (with “open” and/or “closed” approaches) and through flow modeling. These examples show that the “open aquifer” CO2 storage capacity estimation can strongly exceed the cumulative CO2 injection from the flow model, whereas the “closed aquifer” estimates are a closer approximation to the flow-model derived capacity. Anmore » analogy to oil recovery mechanisms is presented, where the primary oil recovery mechanism is compared to CO2 aquifer storage without producing formation water; and the secondary oil recovery mechanism (water flooding) is compared to CO2 aquifer storage performed simultaneously with extraction of water for pressure maintenance. This analogy supports the finding that the “closed aquifer” approach produces a better estimate of CO2 storage without water extraction, and highlights the need for any CO2 storage estimate to specify whether it is intended to represent CO2 storage capacity with or without water extraction.« less

  7. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2as Heat Transmission Fluid

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The overall objective of the research is to explore the feasibility of operating enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2as heat transmission fluid.

  8. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT-THE ECOLOGY AND GENOMICS OF CO2 FIXATIION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Yet owing to increased light transmissivity from sediment deposition coupled with the influx of nutrients, dramatic CO2 drawdown occurs, and...

  9. 10,422,136 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of August 21, 2015...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the Major Demonstration Program are detailed below. Regional Carbon...

  10. Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based Engineered Geothemal System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based Engineered Geothemal Systempresentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  11. Metal-Organic Frameworks Capture CO2 From Coal Gasification Flue Gas |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Metal-Organic Frameworks Capture CO2 From Coal Gasification Flue Gas

  12. Pre-Designed Single-Molecule Traps for CO2 Capture | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Pre-Designed Single-Molecule Traps for CO2 Capture

  13. CO2 Dynamics in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Metal Sites | Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome CO2 Dynamics in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Metal Sites

  14. Highly Stable Porphyrinic Zr-MOFs for CO2 Fixation | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Highly Stable Porphyrinic Zr-MOFs for CO2 Fixation

  15. Probing CO2 Adsorption in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Open Metal Sites |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Probing CO2 Adsorption in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Open Metal Sites

  16. Understanding CO2 dynamics inside open-metal sites MOFs | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Understanding CO2 dynamics inside open-metal sites MOFs

  17. DOE Regional Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia DOE Regional Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia February 11, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) team of regional partners has begun injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) into coal seams in the Central Appalachian Basin to determine the feasibility of CO2 storage in unmineable coal seams and the potential for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The results of the study will be vital in

  18. DOE-Funded Project Testing Laser CO2 Monitoring at Carbon Storage Site |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy DOE-Funded Project Testing Laser CO2 Monitoring at Carbon Storage Site DOE-Funded Project Testing Laser CO2 Monitoring at Carbon Storage Site June 3, 2015 - 8:44am Addthis Photo courtesy of Exelis Photo courtesy of Exelis A project that uses lasers to monitor carbon dioxide (CO2) is being analyzed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) drive to improve greenhouse gas-monitoring abilities at CO2 storage sites. The project is managed by the DOE Office of Fossil

  19. The Rosetta Resources CO2 Storage Project - A WESTCARB GeologicPilot Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trautz, Robert; Benson, Sally; Myer, Larry; Oldenburg, Curtis; Seeman, Ed; Hadsell, Eric; Funderburk, Ben

    2006-01-30

    WESTCARB, one of seven U.S. Department of Energypartnerships, identified (during its Phase I study) over 600 gigatonnesof CO2 storage capacity in geologic formations located in the Westernregion. The Western region includes the WESTCARB partnership states ofAlaska, Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon and Washington and theCanadian province of British Columbia. The WESTCARB Phase II study iscurrently under way, featuring three geologic and two terrestrial CO2pilot projects designed to test promising sequestration technologies atsites broadly representative of the region's largest potential carbonsinks. This paper focuses on two of the geologic pilot studies plannedfor Phase II -referred to-collectively as the Rosetta-Calpine CO2 StorageProject. The first pilot test will demonstrate injection of CO2 into asaline formation beneath a depleted gas reservoir. The second test willgather data for assessing CO2 enhanced gas recovery (EGR) as well asstorage in a depleted gas reservoir. The benefit of enhanced oil recovery(EOR) using injected CO2 to drive or sweep oil from the reservoir towarda production well is well known. EaR involves a similar CO2 injectionprocess, but has received far less attention. Depleted natural gasreservoirs still contain methane; therefore, CO2 injection may enhancemethane production by reservoir repressurization or pressure maintenance.CO2 injection into a saline formation, followed by injection into adepleted natural gas reservoir, is currently scheduled to start inOctober 2006.

  20. CO2 Induced Phase Transitions in Diamine-Appended Metal-Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Induced Phase Transitions in Diamine-Appended Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Odoh, Samuel O.; Schnell, Sondre K.; Dzubak, Allison; Lee,...

  1. Center for Geologic Storage of CO2 (GSCO2) | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Center for Geologic Storage of CO2 (GSCO2) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications ...

  2. Russian Policy on Methane Emissions in the Oil and Gas Sector: A Case Study in Opportunities and Challenges in Reducing Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha

    2014-08-04

    This paper uses Russian policy in the oil and gas sector as a case study in assessing options and challenges for scaling-up emission reductions. We examine the challenges to achieving large-scale emission reductions, successes that companies have achieved to date, how Russia has sought to influence methane emissions through its environmental fine system, and options for helping companies achieve large-scale emission reductions in the future through simpler and clearer incentives.

  3. Subtask 2.6 - Assessment of Alternative Fuels on CO2 Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Darren Naasz

    2009-06-16

    Many coal-based electric generating units use alternative fuels, and this effort assessed the impact of alternative fuels on CO{sub 2} production and other emissions and also assessed the potential impact of changes in emission regulations under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for facilities utilizing alternative fuels that may be categorized as wastes. Information was assembled from publicly available U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration databases that included alternative fuel use for 2004 and 2005. Alternative fuel types were categorized along with information on usage by coal-based electric, number of facilities utilizing each fuel type, and the heating value of solid, liquid, and gaseous alternative fuels. The sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with alternative fuels and primary fuels were also evaluated. Carbon dioxide emissions are also associated with the transport of all fuels. A calculation of carbon dioxide emissions associated with the transport of biomass-based fuels that are typically accessed on a regional basis was made. A review of CAA emission regulations for coal-based electric generating facilities from Section 112 (1) and Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators was performed with consideration for a potential regulatory change from Section 112 (1) regulation to Section 129 (2). Increased emission controls would be expected to be required if coal-based electric generating facilities using alternative fuels would be recategorized under CAA Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators, and if this change were made, it is anticipated that coal-fired electric generating facilities might reduce the use of alternative fuels. Conclusions included information on the use profile for alternative fuels and the impacts to emissions as well as the impact of potential application of emission regulations for solid waste incinerators to electric generating facilities using alternative fuels.

  4. Biogeophysical effects of CO2-fertilization on global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C; Phillips, T J

    2006-04-26

    CO{sub 2}-fertilization affects plant growth, which modifies surface physical properties, altering the surface albedo, and fluxes of sensible and latent heat. We investigate how such CO{sub 2}-fertilization effects on vegetation and surface properties would affect the climate system. Using a global three-dimensional climate-carbon model that simulates vegetation dynamics, we compare two multi-century simulations: a ''Control'' simulation with no emissions, and a ''Physiol-noGHG'' simulation where physiological changes occur as a result of prescribed CO{sub 2} emissions, but where CO{sub 2}-induced greenhouse warming is not included. In our simulations, CO{sub 2}-fertilization produces warming; we obtain an annual- and global-mean warming of about 0.65 K (and land-only warming of 1.4 K) after 430 years. This century-scale warming is mostly due to a decreased surface albedo associated with the expansion of the Northern Hemisphere boreal forests. On decadal time scales, the CO{sub 2} uptake by afforestation should produce a cooling effect that exceeds this albedo-based warming; but if the forests remain in place, the CO{sub 2}-enhanced-greenhouse effect would diminish as the ocean equilibrates with the atmosphere, whereas the albedo effect would persist. Thus, on century time scales, there is the prospect for net warming from CO{sub 2}-fertilization of the land biosphere. Further study is needed to confirm and better quantify our results.

  5. A framework for environmental assessment of CO2 capture and storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathre, R; Chester, M; Cain, J; Masanet, E

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly seen as a way for society to enjoy the benefits of fossil fuel energy sources while avoiding the climate disruption associated with fossil CO2 emissions. A decision to deploy CCS technology at scale should be based on robust information on its overall costs and benefits. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a framework for holistic assessment of the energy and environmental footprint of a system, and can provide crucial information to policy-makers, scientists, and engineers as they develop and deploy CCS systems. We identify seven key issues that should be considered to ensure that conclusions and recommendations from CCS LCA are robust: energy penalty, functional units, scale-up challenges, non-climate environmental impacts, uncertainty management, policy-making needs, and market effects. Several recent life-cycle studies have focused on detailed assessments of individual CCS technologies and applications. While such studies provide important data and information on technology performance, such case-specific data are inadequate to fully inform the decision making process. LCA should aim to describe the system-wide environmental implications of CCS deployment at scale, rather than a narrow analysis of technological performance of individual power plants. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development – A Review of Key Data Types, Analyses, and Selected Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Sullivan, E. C.; Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Black, Gary D.

    2009-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has embarked on an initiative to develop world-class capabilities for performing experimental and computational analyses associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. The ultimate goal of this initiative is to provide science-based solutions for helping to mitigate the adverse effects of greenhouse gas emissions. This Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative currently has two primary focus areas—advanced experimental methods and computational analysis. The experimental methods focus area involves the development of new experimental capabilities, supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) housed at PNNL, for quantifying mineral reaction kinetics with CO2 under high temperature and pressure (supercritical) conditions. The computational analysis focus area involves numerical simulation of coupled, multi-scale processes associated with CO2 sequestration in geologic media, and the development of software to facilitate building and parameterizing conceptual and numerical models of subsurface reservoirs that represent geologic repositories for injected CO2. This report describes work in support of the computational analysis focus area. The computational analysis focus area currently consists of several collaborative research projects. These are all geared towards the development and application of conceptual and numerical models for geologic sequestration of CO2. The software being developed for this focus area is referred to as the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite or GS3. A wiki-based software framework is being developed to support GS3. This report summarizes work performed in FY09 on one of the LDRD projects in the computational analysis focus area. The title of this project is Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development. Some key objectives of this project in FY09 were to assess the current state-of-the-art in reservoir model development, the data types and analyses that need to be performed in order to develop and parameterize credible and robust reservoir simulation models, and to review existing software that is applicable to these analyses. This report describes this effort and highlights areas in which additional software development, wiki application extensions, or related GS3 infrastructure development may be warranted.

  7. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTRs commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Services Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

  8. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal - Appendix)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05

    The main objective of the Port Neches Project was to determine the feasibility and producibility of CO2 miscible flooding techniques enhanced with horizontal drilling applied to a Fluvial Dominated Deltaic reservoir. The second was to disseminate the knowledge gained through established Technology Transfer mechanisms to support DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing domestic oil production and reducing abandonment of oil fields.

  9. Method and apparatus for efficient injection of CO2 in oceans

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Olivia R.; Tsouris, Constantinos; Liang, Liyuan

    2003-07-29

    A liquid CO.sub.2 injection system produces a negatively buoyant consolidated stream of liquid CO.sub.2, CO.sub.2 hydrate, and water that sinks upon release at ocean depths in the range of 700-1500 m. In this approach, seawater at a predetermined ocean depth is mixed with the liquid CO.sub.2 stream before release into the ocean. Because mixing is conducted at depths where pressures and temperatures are suitable for CO.sub.2 hydrate formation, the consolidated stream issuing from the injector is negatively buoyant, and comprises mixed CO.sub.2 -hydrate/CO.sub.2 -liquid/water phases. The "sinking" characteristic of the produced stream will prolong the metastability of CO.sub.2 ocean sequestration by reducing the CO.sub.2 dissolution rate into water. Furthermore, the deeper the CO.sub.2 hydrate stream sinks after injection, the more stable it becomes internally, the deeper it is dissolved, and the more dispersed is the resulting CO.sub.2 plume. These factors increase efficiency, increase the residence time of CO2 in the ocean, and decrease the cost of CO.sub.2 sequestration while reducing deleterious impacts of free CO.sub.2 gas in ocean water.

  10. Insights into the structure of mixed CO2/CH4 in gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Susan M; Rawn, Claudia J; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Keffer, David J.; Huq, Ashfia; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2015-01-01

    The exchange of CO2 for CH4 in natural gas hydrates is an attractive approach to methane for energy production while simultaneously sequestering CO2. In addition to the energy and environmental implications, the solid solution of clathrate hydrate (CH4)1-x(CO2)x 5.75H2O provides a model system to study how the distinct bonding and shapes of CH4 and CO2 influence the structure and properties of the compound. High-resolution neutron diffraction was used to examine mixed CO2/CH4 gas hydrates. CO2-rich hydrates had smaller lattice parameters, which were attributed to the higher affinity of the CO2 molecule interacting with H2O molecules that form the surrounding cages, and resulted in a reduction in the unit cell volume. Experimental nuclear scattering densities illustrate how the cage occupants and energy landscape change with composition. These results provide important insights on the impact and mechanisms for exchanging CH4 and CO2.

  11. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  12. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  13. Integration & Co-development of a Geophysical CO2 Monitoring Suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-07-24

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has emerged as a key technology for dramatic short-term reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in particular from large stationary. A key challenge in this arena is the monitoring and verification (M&V) of CO2 plumes in the deep subsurface. Towards that end, we have developed a tool that can simultaneously invert multiple sub-surface data sets to constrain the location, geometry, and saturation of subsurface CO2 plumes. We have focused on a suite of unconventional geophysical approaches that measure changes in electrical properties (electrical resistance tomography, electromagnetic induction tomography) and bulk crustal deformation (til-meters). We had also used constraints of the geology as rendered in a shared earth model (ShEM) and of the injection (e.g., total injected CO{sub 2}). We describe a stochastic inversion method for mapping subsurface regions where CO{sub 2} saturation is changing. The technique combines prior information with measurements of injected CO{sub 2} volume, reservoir deformation and electrical resistivity. Bayesian inference and a Metropolis simulation algorithm form the basis for this approach. The method can (a) jointly reconstruct disparate data types such as surface or subsurface tilt, electrical resistivity, and injected CO{sub 2} volume measurements, (b) provide quantitative measures of the result uncertainty, (c) identify competing models when the available data are insufficient to definitively identify a single optimal model and (d) rank the alternative models based on how well they fit available data. We present results from general simulations of a hypothetical case derived from a real site. We also apply the technique to a field in Wyoming, where measurements collected during CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced oil recovery serve to illustrate the method's performance. The stochastic inversions provide estimates of the most probable location, shape, volume of the plume and most likely CO{sub 2} saturation. The results suggest that the method can reconstruct data with poor signal to noise ratio and use hard constraints available from many sites and applications. External interest in the approach and method is high, and already commercial and DOE entities have requested technical work using the newly developed methodology for CO{sub 2} monitoring.

  14. reduce CFRP embodied energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reduce CFRP embodied energy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  15. Evaluation of experimentally measured and model-calculated pH for rock-brine-CO2 systems under geologic CO2 sequestration conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, Christopher J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-11-01

    pH is an essential parameter for understanding the geochemical reactions that occur in rock-brine-CO2 systems when CO2 is injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Due to a lack of reliable experimental methods, most laboratory studies conducted under geological CO2 sequestration (GCS) conditions have relied on thermodynamic modeling to estimate pH. The accuracy of these model predictions is typically uncertain. In our previous work, we have developed a method for pH determination by in-situ spectrophotometry. In the present work, we expanded the applicable pH range for this method and measured the pH of several rock-brine-CO2 systems at GCS conditions for five rock samples collected from ongoing GCS demonstration projects. Experimental measurements were compared with pH values calculated using several geochemical modeling approaches. The effect of different thermodynamic databases on the accuracy of model prediction was evaluated. Results indicate that the accuracy of model calculations is rock-dependent. For rocks comprised of carbonate and sandstone, model results generally agreed well with experimentally measured pH; however, for basalt, significant differences were observed. These discrepancies may be due to the models failure to fully account for certain reaction occurring between the basalt minerals the CO2-saturated brine solutions.

  16. Benefits and Costs of Brine Extraction for Increasing Injection Efficiency In geologic CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-12-31

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additional wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7.6% increase in injection rate over the no-extraction base case. However, the practical impacts on capital costs suggest that this strategy is fiscally ineffective when evaluated solely on this metric, with extraction reducing injection well needs by only one per 56 (1x case) or one per 13 (4x case).

  17. Benefits and Costs of Brine Extraction for Increasing Injection Efficiency In geologic CO2 Sequestration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-12-31

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additionalmore » wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7.6% increase in injection rate over the no-extraction base case. However, the practical impacts on capital costs suggest that this strategy is fiscally ineffective when evaluated solely on this metric, with extraction reducing injection well needs by only one per 56 (1x case) or one per 13 (4x case).« less

  18. Crystallography and Physical Properties of BaCo2As2, Ba0.94K0.06Co2As2, and Ba0.78K0.22Co2As2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, V K; Quirinale, Dante G; Lee, Yongbin; Harmon, Bruce N; Furukawa, Yuji; Ogloblichev, V V; Huq, A; Abernathy, D L; Stephens, P W; McQueeney, Robert J; Kreyssig, Aandreas; Goldman, Alan I; Johnston, David C

    2014-08-01

    The crystallographic and physical properties of polycrystalline and single crystal samples of BaCo2As2 and K-doped Ba{1-x}K{x}Co2As2 (x = 0.06, 0.22) are investigated by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility chi, magnetization, heat capacity Cp, {75}As NMR and electrical resistivity rho measurements versus temperature T. The crystals were grown using both Sn flux and CoAs self-flux, where the Sn-grown crystals contain 1.6-2.0 mol% Sn. All samples crystallize in the tetragonal ThCr2Si2-type structure (space group I4/mmm). For BaCo2As2, powder neutron diffraction data show that the c-axis lattice parameter exhibits anomalous negative thermal expansion from 10 to 300 K, whereas the a-axis lattice parameter and the unit cell volume show normal positive thermal expansion over this T range. No transitions in BaCo2As2 were found in this T range from any of the measurements. Below 40-50 K, we find rho ~ T^2 indicating a Fermi liquid ground state. A large density of states at the Fermi energy D(EF) ~ 18 states/(eV f.u.) for both spin directions is found from low-T Cp(T) measurements, whereas the band structure calculations give D(EF) = 8.23 states/(eV f.u.). The {75}As NMR shift data versus T have the same T dependence as the chi(T) data, demonstrating that the derived chi(T) data are intrinsic. The observed {75}As nuclear spin dynamics are consistent with the presence of ferromagnetic and/or stripe-type antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. The crystals of Ba{0.78}K{0.22}Co2As2 were grown in Sn flux and show properties very similar to those of undoped BaCo2As2. On the other hand, the crystals from two batches of Ba{0.94}K{0.06}Co2As2 grown in CoAs self-flux show evidence of weak ferromagnetism at T < 10 K with small ordered moments at 1.8 K of 0.007 and 0.03 muB per formula unit, respectively.

  19. DOE-Funded Research Yields U.S. Patent for Use of CO2 in Concrete Curing |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy The United States Patent and Trademark Office has issued a patent to Solidia Technologies Inc. (Piscataway, NJ) for a process that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) rather than water to cure pre-cast concrete. Development of the process was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The new concrete process uses the same raw materials and equipment as traditional concrete, but curing time is reduced to less than 24 hours,

  20. Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Chen, Zizhong; Kazemi, Hossein; Yin, Xiaolong; Pruess, Karsten; Oldenburg, Curt; Winterfeld, Philip; Zhang, Ronglei

    2014-09-30

    This report is the final scientific one for the award DE- FE0000988 entitled Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers. The work has been divided into six tasks. In task, Development of a Three-Phase Non-Isothermal CO2 Flow Module, we developed a fluid property module for brine-CO2 mixtures designed to handle all possible phase combinations of aqueous phase, sub-critical liquid and gaseous CO2, supercritical CO2, and solid salt. The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of brine-CO2 mixtures (density, viscosity, and specific enthalpy of fluid phases; partitioning of mass components among the different phases) use the same correlations as an earlier fluid property module that does not distinguish between gaseous and liquid CO2-rich phases. We verified the fluid property module using two leakage scenarios, one that involves CO2 migration up a blind fault and subsequent accumulation in a secondary parasitic reservoir at shallower depth, and another investigating leakage of CO2 from a deep storage reservoir along a vertical fault zone. In task, Development of a Rock Mechanical Module, we developed a massively parallel reservoir simulator for modeling THM processes in porous media brine aquifers. We derived, from the fundamental equations describing deformation of porous elastic media, a momentum conservation equation relating mean stress, pressure, and temperature, and incorporated it alongside the mass and energy conservation equations from the TOUGH2 formulation, the starting point for the simulator. In addition, rock properties, namely permeability and porosity, are functions of effective stress and other variables that are obtained from the literature. We verified the simulator formulation and numerical implementation using analytical solutions and example problems from the literature. For the former, we matched a one-dimensional consolidation problem and a two-dimensional simulation of the Mandel-Cryer effect. For the latter, we obtained a good match of temperature and gas saturation profiles, and surface uplift, after injection of hot fluid into a model of a caldera structure. In task, Incorporation of Geochemical Reactions of Selected Important Species, we developed a novel mathematical model of THMC processes in porous and fractured saline aquifers, simulating geo-chemical reactions associated with CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers. Two computational frameworks, sequentially coupled and fully coupled, were used to simulate the reactions and transport. We verified capabilities of the THMC model to treat complex THMC processes during CO2 sequestration by analytical solutions and we constructed reactive transport models to analyze the THMC process quantitatively. Three of these are 1D reactive transport under chemical equilibrium, a batch reaction model with equilibrium chemical reactions, and a THMC model with CO2 dissolution. In task Study of Instability in CO2 Dissolution-Diffusion-Convection Processes, We reviewed literature related to the study of density driven convective flows and on the instability of CO2 dissolution-diffusion-convection processes. We ran simulations that model the density-driven flow instability that would occur during CO2 sequestration. CO2 diffused through the top of the system and dissolved in the aqueous phase there, increasing its density. Density fingers formed along the top boundary, and coalesced into a few prominent ones, causing convective flow that forced the fluid to the system bottom. These simulations were in two and three dimensions. We ran additional simulations of convective mixing with density contrast caused by variable dissolved CO2 concentration in saline water, modeled after laboratory experiments in which supercritical CO2 was circulated in the headspace above a brine saturated packed sand in a pressure vessel. As CO2 dissolved into the upper part of the saturated sand, liquid phase density increases causing instability and setting off convective mixing. We obtained good agreement

  1. Hybrid Solvent-Membrane CO2 Capture: A Solvent/Membrane Hybrid Post-combustion CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: The University of Kentucky is developing a hybrid approach to capturing CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants. In the first, CO2 is removed as flue gas is passed through an aqueous ammonium-based solvent. In the second, carbon-rich solution from the CO2 absorber is passed through a membrane that is designed to selectively transport the bound carbon, enhancing its concentration on the permeate side. The team’s approach would combine the best of both membrane- and solventbased carbon capture technologies. Under the ARPA-E award, the team is enabling the membrane operation to be a drop-in solution.

  2. Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Male, E.J.; Pickles, W.L.; Silver, E.A.; Hoffmann, G.D.; Lewicki, J.; Apple, M.; Repasky, K.; Burton, E.A.

    2009-11-01

    Hyperspectral plant signatures can be used as a short-term, as well as long-term (100-yr timescale) monitoring technique to verify that CO2 sequestration fields have not been compromised. An influx of CO2 gas into the soil can stress vegetation, which causes changes in the visible to nearinfrared reflectance spectral signature of the vegetation. For 29 days, beginning on July 9th, 2008, pure carbon dioxide gas was released through a 100-meter long horizontal injection well, at a flow rate of 300 kg/day. Spectral signatures were recorded almost daily from an unmown patch of plants over the injection with a ''FieldSpec Pro'' spectrometer by Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc. Measurements were taken both inside and outside of the CO2 leak zone to normalize observations for other environmental factors affecting the plants.

  3. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objective for this reporting period was to perform pressure transient testing to determine permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. To perform permeability testing of the Wilcox coal, we worked with Anadarko Petroleum Corporation in selecting the well and intervals to test and in designing the pressure transient test. Anadarko agreed to allow us to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well (Well APCT2). This well is located in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that we earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2} emissions. A service company, Pinnacle Technologies Inc. (Pinnacle) was contracted to conduct the tests in the field. Intervals tested were 2 coal beds with thicknesses of 3 and 7 feet, respectively, at approximately 4,100 ft depth in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in east-central Texas. Analyses of pressure transient test data indicate that average values for coalbed methane reservoir permeability in the tested coals are between 1.9 and 4.2 mD. These values are in the lower end of the range of permeability used in the preliminary simulation modeling. These new coal fracture permeability data from the APCT2 well, along with the acquired gas compositional analyses and sorption capacities of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}, complete the reservoir description phase of the project. During this quarter we also continued work on reservoir and economic modeling to evaluate performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery.

  4. Opportunities for market-based programs worldwide that reduce greenhouse gas emissions: Initial Observations from Missions to the Philippines, South Africa, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton-Hoyle, D.R.

    1998-07-01

    Globally, governments and industries are implementing innovative voluntary programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Often these programs encourage groups to use cost effective technologies that capture market-based forces. These programs are successful because they capitalize on existing opportunities where both the environment and the participants can benefit (i.e., win-win opportunities). This paper documents efforts to investigate these kinds of win-win opportunities in three developing countries: the Philippines, South Africa, and Mexico. Initial observations are provided as fresh information from the field, drawing on six missions during the last nine months. Utility costs, interest rates, and overall economic health appear to critically affect opportunities in each country. By contrast, details of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) design and local climate were often important differences between countries. These affect opportunities, for example, to achieve significant savings from cooling systems or not. Looking at the success of ESCOs was somewhat surprising. One might expect to see the most successful ESCO activity where utility costs are high and upgrade opportunities are plentiful (such as in the Philippines). This was not the case, however, as research in the Philippines did not reveal even one active ESCO contract yet. Design practices for new construction were in need of the same thing that helps US design teams do a better job of energy-efficient design, better communications between design team members. Finally, industrial firms were doing a variety of EE upgrades in each country, but this level of activity was relatively small compared to what should be cost effective.

  5. Electrolysis byproduct D2O provides a third way to mitigate CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenewerk, William Ernest

    2009-09-01

    Rapid atomic power deployment may be possible without using fast breeder reactors or making undue demands on uranium resource. Using by-product D2O and thorium-U233 in CANDU and RBMK piles may circumvent need for either fast breeder reactors or seawater uranium. Atmospheric CO2 is presently increasing 2.25%/year in proportion to 2.25%/year exponential fossil fuel consumption increase. Roughly 1/3 anthropologic CO2 is removed by various CO2 sinks. CO2 removal is modelled as being proportional to 45-year-earlier CO2 amount above 280 ppm-C Water electrolysis produces roughly 0.1 kg-D20/kWe-y. Material balance assumes each electrolysis stage increases D2O bottoms concentration times 3. Except for first two electrolysis stages, all water from hydrogen consumption is returned to electrolysis. The unique characteristic of this process is the ability to economically burn all deuterium-enriched H2 in vehicles. Condensate from vehicles returns to appropriate electrolysis stage. Fuel cell condensate originally from reformed natural gas may augment second-sage feed. Atomic power expansion is 5%/year, giving 55000 GWe by 2100. World primary energy increases 2.25%/y, exceeding 4000 EJ/y by 2100. CO2 maximum is roughly 600 ppm-C around year 2085. CO2 declines back below 300 ppm-C by 2145 if the 45-year-delay seawater sink remains effective.

  6. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can effectively sequester over 86,000 tons (78,200 Mg) of CO2 per acre while recovering methane to offset costs. The cost to separate CO2 from flue gas was identified as the major cost driver associated with CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams. Improvements in separations technology alone are unlikely to drive costs low enough for CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin to become economically viable. Breakthroughs in separations technology could aid the economics, but in the Powder River Basin, they cannot achieve the necessary cost reductions for breakeven economics without incentives.

  7. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO2 Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO2 Capture Project No.: FE0007502 GE Global Research and their project partners are conducting research on the use of a novel silicone solvent to capture CO2 with a continuous bench-scale system. The project will utilize both computational and experimental methods. Previously measured experimental data from a continuous laboratory-scale CO2 capture system will be used to design this bench-scale system. Data from the bench-scale system, such as kinetics

  8. Second Phase of Innovative Technology Project to Capture CO2, Produce

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuels Launched in Ohio | Department of Energy Second Phase of Innovative Technology Project to Capture CO2, Produce Biofuels Launched in Ohio Second Phase of Innovative Technology Project to Capture CO2, Produce Biofuels Launched in Ohio August 9, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A novel method to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas and produce biofuels has been formally launched in the second phase of a Department of Energy (DOE) project at a nursery in Ohio. Successful

  9. Geomechanical Evaluation of Thermal Impact of Injected CO2 Temperature on a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geological Reservoir: Application to the FutureGen 2.0 Site (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Geomechanical Evaluation of Thermal Impact of Injected CO2 Temperature on a Geological Reservoir: Application to the FutureGen 2.0 Site Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geomechanical Evaluation of Thermal Impact of Injected CO2 Temperature on a Geological Reservoir: Application to the FutureGen 2.0 Site The impact of temperature variations of injected CO2 on the mechanical integrity of a

  10. Ab Initio Thermodynamic Study of the CO2 Capture Properties of Potassium

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbonate Sesquihydrate, K2CO3*1.5H2O (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Ab Initio Thermodynamic Study of the CO2 Capture Properties of Potassium Carbonate Sesquihydrate, K2CO3*1.5H2O Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab Initio Thermodynamic Study of the CO2 Capture Properties of Potassium Carbonate Sesquihydrate, K2CO3*1.5H2O By combining density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, the thermodynamic properties of CO2 absorption/desorption reactions with

  11. NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential | Department of Energy NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage Potential NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage Potential September 28, 2015 - 9:49am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) today released the fifth edition of the Carbon Storage Atlas (Atlas V), which shows prospective carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resources of at least 2,600 billion metric tons - an increase

  12. DOE Establishes National Carbon Capture Center to Speed Deployment of CO2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture Processes | Department of Energy Establishes National Carbon Capture Center to Speed Deployment of CO2 Capture Processes DOE Establishes National Carbon Capture Center to Speed Deployment of CO2 Capture Processes May 27, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy has announced the creation of a new National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) to develop and test technologies to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-based power plants. Managed and operated by

  13. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral

  14. Large-scale Screening of Zeolite Structures for CO2 Membrane Separations |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Large-scale Screening of Zeolite Structures for CO2 Membrane Separations Previous Next List J. Kim, M. Abouelnasr, L.-C. Lin, and B. Smit, J Am Chem Soc, 135, 7545-7552 (2013) DOI: 10.1021/ja400267g Abstract: We have conducted large-scale screening of zeolite materials for CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 membrane separation applications using the free energy landscape of the guest molecules inside these porous materials. We

  15. CO2 Induced Phase Transitions in Diamine-Appended Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome CO2 Induced Phase Transitions in Diamine-Appended Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Odoh, Samuel O.; Schnell, Sondre K.; Dzubak, Allison; Lee, Kyuho; Planas, Nora; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Gagliardi, Laura; and Smit, Berend. CO2 Induced Phase Transitions in Diamine-Appended Metal-Organic Frameworks. Chem. Sci., 6, 5177-5185 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01828e CO2 induced phase

  16. DOE Selects Projects to Monitor and Evaluate Geologic CO2 Storage |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Monitor and Evaluate Geologic CO2 Storage DOE Selects Projects to Monitor and Evaluate Geologic CO2 Storage August 24, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the selection of 19 projects to enhance the capability to simulate, track, and evaluate the potential risks of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in geologic formations. The projects' total value is approximately $35.8 million over four years, with $27.6 million of

  17. Bayesian-information-gap decision theory with an application to CO2 sequestration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    O'Malley, D.; Vesselinov, V. V.

    2015-09-04

    Decisions related to subsurface engineering problems such as groundwater management, fossil fuel production, and geologic carbon sequestration are frequently challenging because of an overabundance of uncertainties (related to conceptualizations, parameters, observations, etc.). Because of the importance of these problems to agriculture, energy, and the climate (respectively), good decisions that are scientifically defensible must be made despite the uncertainties. We describe a general approach to making decisions for challenging problems such as these in the presence of severe uncertainties that combines probabilistic and non-probabilistic methods. The approach uses Bayesian sampling to assess parametric uncertainty and Information-Gap Decision Theory (IGDT) to addressmore » model inadequacy. The combined approach also resolves an issue that frequently arises when applying Bayesian methods to real-world engineering problems related to the enumeration of possible outcomes. In the case of zero non-probabilistic uncertainty, the method reduces to a Bayesian method. Lastly, to illustrate the approach, we apply it to a site-selection decision for geologic CO2 sequestration.« less

  18. CO2-based mixtures as working fluids for geothermal turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Steven Alan; Conboy, Thomas M.; Ames, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investigating advanced Brayton cycles using supercritical working fluids for application to a variety of heat sources, including geothermal, solar, fossil, and nuclear power. This work is centered on the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) power conversion cycle, which has the potential for high efficiency in the temperature range of interest for these heat sources and is very compact-a feature likely to reduce capital costs. One promising approach is the use of CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid mixtures. The introduction of additives to CO{sub 2} alters the equation of state and the critical point of the resultant mixture. A series of tests was carried out using Sandia's supercritical fluid compression loop that confirmed the ability of different additives to increase or lower the critical point of CO{sub 2}. Testing also demonstrated that, above the modified critical point, these mixtures can be compressed in a turbocompressor as a single-phase homogenous mixture. Comparisons of experimental data to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Standard Reference Database predictions varied depending on the fluid. Although the pressure, density, and temperature (p, {rho}, T) data for all tested fluids matched fairly well to REFPROP in most regions, the critical temperature was often inaccurate. In these cases, outside literature was found to provide further insight and to qualitatively confirm the validity of experimental findings for the present investigation.

  19. NUCLEAR POWERED CO2 CAPTURE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S

    2008-09-22

    A process for capturing CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere was recently proposed. This process uses a closed cycle of sodium and calcium hydroxide, carbonate, and oxide transformations to capture dilute CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and to generate a concentrated stream of CO{sub 2} that is amenable to sequestration or subsequent chemical transformations. In one of the process steps, a fossil-fueled lime kiln is needed, which reduces the net CO{sub 2} capture of the process. It is proposed to replace the fossil-fueled lime kiln with a modified kiln heated by a high-temperature nuclear reactor. This will have the effect of eliminating the use of fossil fuels for the process and increasing the net CO{sub 2} capture. Although the process is suitable to support sequestration, the use of a nuclear power source for the process provides additional capabilities, and the captured CO{sub 2} may be combined with nuclear-produced hydrogen to produce liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or other technologies. Conceivably, such plants would be carbon-neutral, and could be placed virtually anywhere without being tied to fossil fuel sources or geological sequestration sites.

  20. Effects of Increased Upward Flux of Saline Water Caused by CO2 Storage or Other Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, Lawrence; Xie, Shuang; Falta, Ronald W.; Yonkofski, Catherine MR

    2015-08-01

    Injection of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is being considered to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and this process is expected to increase the pressure in these deep aquifers. One potential consequence of pressurization is an increase in the upward flux of saline water. Saline groundwater occurs naturally at shallow depths in many sedimentary basins, so an upward flux of solutes could degrade the quality of freshwater aquifers and threaten aquatic ecosystems. One problem could occur where saline water flowed upward along preferential paths, like faults or improperly abandoned wells. Diffuse upward flow through the natural stratigraphy could also occur in response to basin pressurization. This process would be slower, but diffuse upward flow could affect larger areas than flow through preferential paths, and this motivated us to evaluate this process. We analyzed idealized 2D and 3D geometries representing the essential details of a shallow, freshwater aquifer underlain by saline ground water in a sedimentary basin. The analysis was conducted in two stages, one that simulated the development of a freshwater aquifer by flushing out saline water, and another that simulated the effect of a pulse-like increase in the upward flux from the basin. The results showed that increasing the upward flux from a basin increased the salt concentration and mass loading of salt to streams, and decrease the depth to the fresh/salt transition. The magnitude of these effects varied widely, however, from a small, slow process that would be challenging to detect, to a large, rapid response that could be an environmental catastrophe. The magnitude of the increased flux, and the initial depth to the fresh/salt transition in groundwater controlled the severity of the response. We identified risk categories for salt concentration, mass loading, and freshwater aquifer thickness, and we used these categories to characterize the severity of the response. This showed that risks would likely be minor if the upward flux was smaller than a few tenths of the magnitude of recharge, according to the 2D analyses. The 3D analyses also show that upward flux could occur without a significant increase in the risk categories. The major contribution of this work is that it shows how a large increase in diffuse upward flux from a basin could cause significant problems, but a small increase in upward flux may occur without significantly affecting risks to the shallow freshwater flow system. This heightens the importance of understanding interactions between shallow and deep hydrologic systems when characterizing CO2 storage projects.