National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for reduce carbon emissions

  1. REDUCING CARBON EMISSIONS REAL WORLD EXAMPLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    process are used to produce carbon- neutral bio-energy 1 2 3 4 5 #12;GHG REDUCTION COMMITMENT Percentage

  2. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  4. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    in CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementwith CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission.emissions from fossil-fuel combustion. Biogeosciences 9,

  5. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  6. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dioxide sequestration process. The overall carbonation reaction includes the following steps: (1)23 CaCarbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions change.20 This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper

  7. The potential for reducing carbon emissions from increased efficiency : a general equilibrium methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blitzer, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for analyzing the potential for reduction in carbon emissions through increased fuel efficiency and provides an illustration of the method. The methodology employed is a multisectoral, ...

  8. Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

  9. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

  10. The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

  11. Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released today by scientists at Syracuse and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released emissions from power plants would provide an added bonus--reductions in other air pollutants that can make in power plant emissions of four other harmful air pollutants: fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides

  12. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    CO 2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion (IEA, 2013). Olivier, J.emissions from fossil-fuel combustion. Biogeosciences 9,Associated Rocks And Coal Combustion Products Collected For

  13. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    DM. 2003. Does Emissions Trading Encourage Innovation?A. 2001. Multi-lateral emission trading: lessons from inter-International Emissions Trading Association. 2010. Response

  14. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    CO 2 emissions from China’s cement production: methodologiesfossil fuel consumption and cement production. Geophys. Res.NTNU, 2006). 27. China Cement Association. China Cement

  15. Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klier, Thomas

    France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005–2010, a vehicle’s tax is negatively correlated with its ...

  16. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

  17. The Confusing Allure of Combined Heat and Power: The Financial Attraction and Management Challenge of Reducing Energy Spend and Resulting Carbon Emissions Through Onsite Power Generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R.

    2009-01-01

    —from the perspective of reducing energy spending and energy-related carbon emissions—is combined heat and power ("CHP"), sometimes referred to as cogeneration. However, the results of CHP deployment to date have been mixed—largely because companies do not fully...

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Pulp and paper industry Technologies and Measures in Pulp and Paper IndustryCARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND MEASURES IN US INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FINAL REPORT

  19. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    carbon-intensive fossil fuel, increased by 4.8 percent. 2.8. Carbon dioxide emissions and carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy inputs Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for...

  20. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    regenerative braking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissionsconditions, the expected savings in fuel costs are notis whether the fuel cost savings over the lifetime of the

  1. Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

  2. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations. ”ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions

  3. Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for a Sectoral Approach Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable...

  4. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  5. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  6. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    world experience, mobility management strategies appear to have the po­ tential to reduce energy and CO2 emissions

  7. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

  8. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

  9. Trading permanent and temporary carbon emissions credits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, Gregg; Marland, Eric

    2009-08-01

    In this issue of Climatic Change, Van Kooten (2009) addresses an issue that has bedeviled negotiators since the drafting stage of the Kyoto Protocol. If we accept that increasing withdrawals of carbon dioxide from the atmpshere has the same net impact on the climate system as reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, how do we design a system that allows trading of one for the other? As van Kooten expresses the challenge: 'The problem is that emissions reduction and carbon sequestration, while opposite sides of the same coin in some sense, are not directly comparable, thereby inhibiting their trade in carbon markets.' He explains: 'The difficulty centers on the length of time that mitigation strategies without CO{sub 2} from entering the atmosphere - the duration problem.' While reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} represents an essentially permanent benefit for the atmosphere, capturing CO{sub 2} that has been produced (whether capture is from the atmosphere or directly from, for example, the exhaust from power plants) there is the challenge of storing the carbon adn the risk that it will yet escape to the atmosphere. Permanent benefit to the atmosphere is often not assured for carbon sequestration activities. This is especially true if the carbon is taken up and stored in the biosphere - e.g. in forest trees or agricultural soils.

  10. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Damage Costs of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Assessment ofper Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost ($ per Year)Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA Emissions

  11. CARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    constraint to these relationships, with the carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption pressingCARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE by Dennis Anderson CSERGE GEC Working Paper 92-28 #12;CARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE by Dennis Anderson

  12. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The era of publicly mandated GHG emissions restrictions inthe United States has begun with recent legislation in California andseven northeastern states. Commercial and industrial buildings canimprove the carbon-efficiency of end-use energy consumption by installingtechnologies such as on-site cogeneration of electricity and useful heatin combined heat and power systems, thermally-activated cooling, solarelectric and thermal equipment, and energy storage -- collectively termeddistributed energy resources (DER). This research examines a collectionof buildings in California, the Northeast, and the southern United Statesto demonstrate the effects of regional characteristics such as the carbonintensity of central electricity grid, the climate-driven demand forspace heating and cooling, and the availability of solar insolation. Theresults illustrate that the magnitude of a realistic carbon tax ($100/tC)is too small to incent significant carbon-reducing effects oneconomically optimal DER adoption. In large part, this is because costreduction and carbon reduction objectives are roughly aligned, even inthe absence of a carbon tax.

  13. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization: Framing Regional Options L A U R A S C reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut The call to cut global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by up to 80% below 2000 levels, which researchers

  14. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

  15. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban

  16. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2005-12-27

    Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

  17. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include sig- nificant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic

  18. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01

    tax increases, larger solar collector/absorption chillerphotovoltaics, solar thermal collectors, and energy storagecapacity of solar thermal collectors carbon emissions

  19. REVIEW PAPER Strategies for reducing the carbon footprint of field crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REVIEW PAPER Strategies for reducing the carbon footprint of field crops for semiarid areas emission. To provide the potential solution, we estimated the carbon footprint [i.e., the total amount the effect of crop sequences on the carbon footprint of durum wheat. Key strategies for reducing the carbon

  20. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  1. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

    Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  2. Reducing Emissions in Plant Flaring Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duck, B.

    2011-01-01

    latest technologies and reducing green house gas emissions.1 The company also created a Green Team with the objective of achieving zero injury, zero pollution, and zero accidents for all production facilities. These Green Teams advocated the company's new...

  3. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  4. Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

    2002-01-01

    Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

  5. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Assessment of the potential of CHP technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries.

  6. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by...

  7. Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

    2011-01-01

    Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

  8. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01

    photovoltaics, solar thermal collectors, and energy storagecapacity of solar thermal collectors carbon emissionsCHP investment. However, solar thermal collectors coupled to

  9. Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

    1999-11-29

    The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

  10. Australian climatecarbon cycle feedback reduced by soil black carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Annual emissions of carbon dioxide from soil organic carbon are an order of magnitude greater than all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions taken together1 . Global warming is likely to increase the decomposition of soil organic carbon, and thus the release of carbon dioxide from soils2­5 , creating a positive

  11. Energy Efficiency as a Low-Cost Resource for Achieving Carbon Emissions Reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    Summarizes the scale and economic value of energy efficiency for reducing carbon emissions and discusses barriers to achieving the potential for cost-effective energy efficiency.

  12. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  13. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Damage Costs of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Assessment ofThe Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and UrbanTHE GREENNESS OF CITIES: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS AND URBAN

  14. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    of CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost ($of CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA

  15. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US...

  16. Carbon Emissions Analysis of Rail Resurfacing Work: A Case Study, Practical Guideline, and Systems Thinking Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krezo, S.

    Carbon pollution has become a sensitive topic across the globe in recent times. In Australia, incentive has been provided to industry in order to reduce carbon emissions in heavy polluting industries. The railway transportation ...

  17. Unintended Consequences of Transportation Carbon Policies: Land-Use, Emissions, and Innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.

    Renewable fuel standards, low carbon fuel standards, and ethanol subsidies are popular policies to incentivize ethanol production and reduce emissions from transportation. Compared to carbon trading, these policies lead ...

  18. Potential impact of (CET) carbon emissions trading on China's power sector: A perspective from different allowance allocation options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilensky, Uri

    Potential impact of (CET) carbon emissions trading on China's power sector: A perspective from February 2010 Received in revised form 5 May 2010 Accepted 9 June 2010 Keywords: Carbon emissions trading (carbon emissions trading) is an effective tool to reduce emissions. But because CET is not fully

  19. Potential for reducing paper mill energy use and carbon dioxide emissions through plant-wide energy audits: A case study in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Lingbo

    2014-01-01

    Taylor, 2011). China’s pulp and paper industry alone used2 emissions in China’s pulp and paper industry. This paperbe used for China’s pulp and paper industry. This factor is

  20. Reducing Vehicle Emissions to Meet Environmental Goals | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Emissions to Meet Environmental Goals Reducing Vehicle Emissions to Meet Environmental Goals Now that both gasoline and diesel vehicles have been cleaned up, it's time to...

  1. Carbon Permit Prices in the European Emissions Trading System: A Stochastic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Permit Prices in the European Emissions Trading System: A Stochastic Analysis By Wee Chiang, Technology and Policy Program 1 #12;Carbon Permit Prices in the European Emissions Trading System Abstract The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone for European efforts to reduce greenhouse gas

  2. The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Alberto, Jr

    2009-01-01

    The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

  3. Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions with Fuel-Flexible Burners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using the standard fuel injectors found in fuel oil burners. This project developed fuel-flexible burners operating on biomass-derived liquid fuels with low carbon emissions....

  4. Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions Liquid Hydrogen. Note: Black carbon does not deplete ozone. What happens is the black carbon emissions from the rocket. Other black carbon emissions: The number one contributor to black carbon is burning biomass. Also

  5. Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions --A New Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions -- A New Approach Larry Hughes, Kathleen Bohan different sectors and their associated greenhouse gas emissions (principally carbon dioxide, methane of tables relating to national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (principally carbon dioxide, methane, 1

  6. Reduced Emission above Sunspots Reduced Coronal Emission above Large Isolated Sunspots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryabov, Boris I.

    of reduced soft X-ray and microwave emission in five large isolated sunspots. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph 17 GHz observations reveal a local depression of microwave brightness in the peripheral area fields of solar active regions (ARs) confine plasma flows to be along field lines and thereby have

  7. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Action Programme Against Greenhouse Gas Emissions. City ofActionProgramme_against Greenhouse_Gases 2002. pdf. (2002).calculating emissions of greenhouse gases: key facts and

  8. 8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems John Reilly1. With emissions trading, emitters who found they could cheaply reduce their emissions might have allowances- ing Australia, Canada, Japan and Russia. This group also pushed strongly for inter- national emissions

  9. Light Emission in Silicon from Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaufrès, Etienne; Noury, Adrien; Roux, Xavier Le; Rasigade, Gilles; Beck, Alexandre; Vivien, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The use of optics in microelectronic circuits to overcome the limitation of metallic interconnects is more and more considered as a viable solution. Among future silicon compatible materials, carbon nanotubes are promising candidates thanks to their ability to emit, modulate and detect light in the wavelength range of silicon transparency. We report the first integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon waveguides, successfully coupling their emission and absorption properties. A complete study of this coupling between carbon nanotubes and silicon waveguides was carried out, which led to the demonstration of the temperature-independent emission from carbon nanotubes in silicon at a wavelength of 1.3 {\\mu}m. This represents the first milestone in the development of photonics based on carbon nanotubes on silicon.

  10. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  11. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    out and "sequester" the CO2 emissions, though the cost andthe costs of stabiliz­ ing atmospheric CO2 concentrations at

  12. Grid Expansion Planning for Carbon Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toole, Gasper L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    There is a need to upgrade and expand electric power transmission and generation to meet specified renewable energy targets and simultaneously minimize construction cost and carbon emissions. Some challenges are: (1) Renewable energy sources have variable production capacity; (2) Deficiency of transmission capacity at desirable renewable generation locations; (3) Need to incorporate models of operations into planning studies; and (4) Prevent undesirable operational outcomes such as negative dispatch prices or curtailment of carbon neutral generation.

  13. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory . Other full fuel cycle GHG emission models, such440 grams per mile on a full fuel cycle (or "well-to-wheel")

  14. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

    1999-01-01

    Energy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ReductionEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Energy-IntensiveEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Energy-Intensive

  15. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    do Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from California Go?Figure 1. 2004 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fuel CombustionImproving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the

  16. Estimating carbon dioxide emissions factors for the California electric power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-01-01

    U.S. EPA. 2000. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generationfor Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Combustion ofUS EPA), 2000. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation

  17. ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING LIFECYLE CARBON EMISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwok, George

    2014-05-31

    .......................................................................................................................... 62 4.2.3 Construction Equipment and Installation .................................................................... 71 4.3 Building Embodied Carbon Emissions Modeling ............................................................ 73 CHAPTER 5: DATA... ............................................... 94 Figure 23 Solar Factor vs. Latitude (Hui & Chu, 2009) ................................................... 98 Figure 24 Schematic Diagram of Cooling Tower ........................................................... 101 Figure 25 Summary of Energy...

  18. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted to existing engines Significantly reduces NOx...

  19. Cleantech: Innovative Lab Partnership Reduces Emissions from Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how the National Energy Technology Laboratory is working to reduce the emission of pollutants from existing coal-fired power plants.

  20. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles offer similar emissionsimilar GHG emission levels as CNG vehicles and diesel vehi­BRT buses . The 40-foot CNG buses used in a BRT system

  1. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ñ 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and per

  2. OPTIMAL PRODUCTION POLICY UNDER THE CARBON EMISSION MARKET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMAL PRODUCTION POLICY UNDER THE CARBON EMISSION MARKET REDOUANE BELAOUAR, ARASH FAHIM, AND NIZAR TOUZI Abstract. The aim of this paper is to address the effect of the carbon emission allowance cases; when the firm is not a large polluter, when it has a large contribution in emission of carbon

  3. New Automobile Regulations: Double the Fuel Economy, Half the CO2 Emissions, and Even Automakers Like It

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nic

    2012-01-01

    ever taken to reduce oil consumption and carbon emissions inever taken to reduce oil consumption and carbon emissions in

  4. Reduced Turbine Emissions Using Hydrogen-Enriched Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ·Aids in the attainment of energy independence from foreign sources ­ Low-heating and medium emissions Source: Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide Systems At ultra lean conditions a tradeoff exists between NOx and CO emissions · Lean Premixed Combustion

  5. The Ecological Society of America www.frontiersinecology.org Avoiding greenhouse-gas emissions by reducing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    -gas emissions by reducing the rate of conversion of forests across the globe is widely considered to be a cost mechanism ­ such as "REDD+" (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation or enhancement and soil carbon, with bio- mass stock estimates as high as 225 metric tons of car- bon per hectare (tC ha­1

  6. Rethinking Downstream Regulation: California's Opportunity to Engage Households in Reducing Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from UK household2002. Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the2002). Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the

  7. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

  8. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

  9. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices the impact of proposed federal regulations aimed at reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions gas emissions; however, it does not attempt to model the full details of the proposed legislation

  10. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    2008 Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitionsto atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversionthe major sources of emissions from fires in this region.

  11. Capturing Fugitives to Reduce DOE’s GHG Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experts are hunting down fugitive carbon emissions from across 20 Energy Department laboratories, sites and program offices — and they’ve already prevented the release of more than 600,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent since 2009 -- equal to taking 140,000 cars off the road for a year.

  12. Fact #898: November 9, 2015 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Week Since 1990, China shows the greatest increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The Americas, Europe and Eurasia have about the same CO2 emissions in 2012 as in...

  13. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Boden, Thomas A; Breon, F.-M.; Erickson, D; Gregg, J. S.; Jacobson, Andrew; Marland, Gregg; Miller, J.; Oda, T; Raupach, Michael; Rayner, P; Treanton, K.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  14. Laser-induced light emission from carbon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osswald, S.; Behler, K.; Gogotsi, Y.

    2008-10-01

    Strong absorption of light in a broad wavelength range and poor thermal conductance between particles of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, onions, nanodiamond, and carbon black, lead to strong thermal emission (blackbody radiation) upon laser excitation, even at a very low (milliwatts) power. The lasers commonly used during Raman spectroscopy characterization of carbon can cause sample heating to very high temperatures. While conventional thermometry is difficult in the case of nanomaterials, Raman spectral features, such as the G band of graphitic carbon and thermal emission spectra were used to estimate the temperature during light emission that led to extensive graphitization and evaporation of carbon nanomaterials, indicating local temperatures exceeding 3500 deg. C.

  15. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    redistribution by emissions trading) is the time for whichof offset such as emissions trading (see below). For thebefore any possible emissions trading, are plotted against

  16. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  17. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. Iron and Steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, N.; Price, L.

    1999-01-01

    Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction AchievedEfficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction PotentialEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Process in U.S.

  18. The Politics of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction: The Role of Pluralism in Shaping the Climate Change Technology Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Dylan

    1999-01-01

    sources of carbon dioxide emissions are the destruction ofat 570. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION causedat 438. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION trucks.

  19. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 Cummins Power Generation, in collaboration with...

  20. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year--and are projected to rise another 60 percent by 2030 (see Figure 1).1 Most of the world's emissions come from

  1. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    US power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets, Environ.Andres et al. : A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions doi:A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel

  2. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    9 Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the U.S.Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Energy Use inConsumption, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from calcination

  3. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    Li, 2001. Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from SteelEnergy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ReductionEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Steel Sector

  4. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01

    spatial patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from nationalRotty, R. M. : Carbon-dioxide Emissions From Fossil-fuels –Dis- tribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil Fuel

  5. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2010. ” AugustChina’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in ManufacturingChina’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing

  6. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    C, Meida LO. 2001. Carbon Dioxide Emission from the GlobalN, Wyckoff A. 2003. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions Embodied inin energy-related carbon dioxide emissions had moved even

  7. Control of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines for Reduced Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Control of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines for Reduced Emissions A.G. Stefanopoulouz Introduction In this paper we consider an automotive control problem for a variable geometry turbocharged (VGT torque output as compared to (non-turbocharged) naturally aspirated engines 13]. The power generated

  8. Reduce emissions and operating costs with appropriate glycol selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covington, K.; Lyddon, L. [Bryan Research and Engineering, Inc., TX (United States); Ebeling, H. [Latoka Engineering L.L.C., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) emissions from glycol dehydration units have become a major concern and some form of control is necessary in many cases. One method of reducing BTEX emissions that is often overlooked is in the selection of the proper dehydrating agent. BTEX compounds are less soluble in diethylene glycol (DEG) than triethylene glycol (TEG) and considerably less soluble in ethylene glycol (EG). If the use of DEG or EG achieves the required gas dew point in cases where BTEX emissions are a concern, a significant savings in both operating costs and the cost of treating still vent gases may be achieved. This paper compares plant operations using TEG, DEG and EG from the viewpoint of BTEX emissions, circulating rates, utilities and dehydration capabilities.

  9. Equitable Carbon Revenue Distribution Under an International Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    No. 5 Equitable Carbon Revenue Distribution Under an International Emissions Trading Regime Nathan an International Emissions Trading Regime Nathan E. Hultman and Daniel M. Kammen Energy & Resources Group Goldman emissions have started but may not be completely felt for 100 years or more.2 The long-term nature

  10. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    on North American carbon dioxide ex- change: CarbonTracker,A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuelof two US power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets,

  11. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01

    2003. “Gas-Fired Distributed Energy Resource TechnologyATIONAL L ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for CarbonFirestone 5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon

  12. Production, Energy, and Carbon Emissions: A Data Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  13. Daily burned area and carbon emissions from boreal fires in Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veraverbeke, S; Rogers, BM; Randerson, JT

    2015-01-01

    of burned area and car- bon emission by fire at 450 mestimates of carbon emissions and car- bon consumption with

  14. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-02-15

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic expansion and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both a short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as a long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study presents a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. Over the past few years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced its China End-Use Energy Model which is based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. In addition, this analysis also evaluated China's long-term domestic energy supply in order to gauge the potential challenge China may face in meeting long-term demand for energy. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not necessarily be the case because saturation in ownership of appliances, construction of residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that China's 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency improvements will play in carbon mitigation along with a decarbonized power supply through greater renewable and non-fossil fuel generation.

  15. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  16. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013 October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2014 U.S. Energy...

  17. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Non-OECD Countries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    Presents world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries (including the current and former centrally planned economies).

  18. Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

  19. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

  20. Prospects for international trade in environmental services: An analysis of international carbon emission off-sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation presents a case study analysis in which the costs to a US electric utility of reducing its carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are compared with the costs of carbon-saving forestry projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The results show that a large electric utility in the south-central US would find it relatively inexpensive, even profitable given a conducive regulatory treatment, to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions by a few percent over the next ten years, through direct investment in energy end-use efficiency improvements. In comparison, the costs of the forestry projects studied in Central America range from $1/TC to a worst-case value of about $55/TC, with most project costs between $5 and $13/TC, depending on the type of project, the climate, and the opportunity cost of land. The total amount of CO{sub 2} storage potential is significant, about 100 million tons per country, but not enough to suggest that forestry can offset more than a few percent of global CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use. These case studies suggest that international trade in the environmental service of reducing global CO{sub 2} accumulation could have significant economic and ecological benefits. A transaction in which a utility pays for forestry projects in exchange for credit against an emission reduction policy is an example of an international carbon emission offset (ICEO). ICEO's could provide a currency for funding carbon-saving services as a way to comply with national policies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, as long as compliance is allowed through investments in other countries. This type of North-South transfer is necessary to reconcile economic efficiency and international equity, because of the disparity between the national allocations of responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and opportunities for emission reductions.

  1. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1998-10-13

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications is disclosed. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. 8 figs.

  2. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelc, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  3. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

    2009-03-31

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  4. Driving down corporate carbon emissions through sustainable property management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be more energy- and cost- efficient. These demands impact the property strategy and how it informs portfolios, with buildings being responsible for some 45% of the UK's overall greenhouse gas emissions. The Carbon Trust estimates that 20% energy savings (translating into both cost and carbon reductions

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

  6. Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low-�������­���¢�������Energy, Carbon-�������­Dioxide-�������­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

    2012-05-14

    Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC-based concrete with HFC in infrastructure we can reduce energy use in concrete production by 70%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 98%; thus the potential to reduce the impact of building materials on global warming and climate change is highly significant. Low Temperature Solidification (LTS) is a breakthrough technology that enables the densification of inorganic materials via a hydrothermal process. The resulting product exhibits excellent control of chemistry and microstructure, to provide durability and mechanical performance that exceeds that of concrete or natural stone. The technology can be used in a wide range of applications including facade panels, interior tiles, roof tiles, countertops, and pre-cast concrete. Replacing traditional building materials and concrete in these applications will result in significant reduction in both energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions.

  7. Impacts of reducing shipboard NOx? and SOx? emissions on vessel performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caputo, Ronald J., Jr. (Ronald Joseph)

    2010-01-01

    The international maritime community has been experiencing tremendous pressures from environmental organizations to reduce the emissions footprint of their vessels. In the last decade, air emissions, including nitrogen ...

  8. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01

    carbon tax, combined heat and power, distributed energyuseful heat in combined heat and power systems, thermally-fossil-fuel based combined heat and power (CHP), thermally-

  9. Impact of European Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS) on carbon emissions and investment decisions in the power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feilhauer, Stephan M. (Stephan Marvin)

    2009-01-01

    This masters thesis assesses the impact of a emissions trading on short-term carbon abatement and investment decisions in the power sector. Environmental benefits from carbon abatement due to emissions trading are quantified ...

  10. Recent advances in carbon emissions reduction: policies, technologies, monitoring, assessment and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, John

    energy systems Carbon capture and storage Geoengineering approaches Carbon trade/tax schemes a b s t r Keywords: Carbon emissions reduction Improved energy use efficiency Implementation of low-fossil carbon in this special volume assess alternative carbon emissions reduction approaches, such as carbon capture

  11. RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Gemmer, Bob; Scheihing, Paul; Quinn, James

    2007-09-01

    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of the 2006 initiative, ITP has expanded the effort in 2007 with the goal of conducting 250 more asse

  12. New Report: Integrating More Wind and Solar Reduces Utilities' Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and Reduce Carbon Pollution |of EnergyResearchEnergy

  13. Driving down emissions : analyzing a plan for meeting Massachusetts' carbon emission reduction targets for passenger vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irvin, Elizabeth J. (Elizabeth Joanna)

    2015-01-01

    Massachusetts is one of the US states at the forefront of carbon emission reduction policy, and has the potential to model success to the rest of the country. The state's Global Warming Solutions Act (GWSA) passed in 2008, ...

  14. Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

    1992-01-01

    A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

  15. Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

    1992-01-01

    A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

  16. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Citation Details...

  17. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  18. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Evan

    2010-01-01

    2007. “Reducing U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much atDepartment of Energy. 2009. “Greenhouse gas abatement in thefor Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Evan

  19. Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 5:07pm Addthis...

  20. Project Information Form Project Title Eco-Driving to Reduce Emissions Cars (Behavioral Focus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Project Information Form Project Title Eco-Driving to Reduce Emissions ­ Cars (Behavioral Focus) presently understood potential of feedback to vehicle drivers to reduce on-road energy use and emissions

  1. O P I N I O N Biogenic vs. geologic carbon emissions and forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeton, William S.

    O P I N I O N Biogenic vs. geologic carbon emissions and forest biomass energy production J O H N- versities articulated a concern over equating biogenic carbon (C) emissions with fossil fuel emissions the amount of carbon in circulation. In contrast, carbon dioxide released from fossil fuels increases

  2. Real time control of gasifiers to increase tolerance to biomass variety and reduce emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Real time control of gasifiers to increase tolerance to biomass variety and reduce emissions to increase tolerance to biomass variety and reduce emissions Ian A. Watson Systems, Power and Energy Research.watson@glasgow.ac.uk #12;Real time control of gasifiers to increase tolerance to biomass variety and reduce emissions

  3. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    6.1.2 Greenhouse Gas Emission Metrics . . . . . . iii 72.1.2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impact Assessment 2.1.3energy payback times, greenhouse gas emissions and external

  4. Carbon-containing cathodes for enhanced electron emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cao, Renyu (Cupertino, CA); Pan, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Vergara, German (Madrid, ES); Fox, Ciaran (Los Altos, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A cathode has electropositive atoms directly bonded to a carbon-containing substrate. Preferably, the substrate comprises diamond or diamond-like (sp.sup.3) carbon, and the electropositive atoms are Cs. The cathode displays superior efficiency and durability. In one embodiment, the cathode has a negative electron affinity (NEA). The cathode can be used for field emission, thermionic emission, or photoemission. Upon exposure to air or oxygen, the cathode performance can be restored by annealing or other methods. Applications include detectors, electron multipliers, sensors, imaging systems, and displays, particularly flat panel displays.

  5. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Bacon, Diana H. carbon...

  6. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000-2011)" "metric tons of carbon dioxide per person" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  7. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " ,"million metric tons of carbon dioxide",,,,,"shares" "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total",,"Coal","Petrol...

  8. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportat...

  9. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2011)" "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011" "State",2000,2001,2002,...

  10. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

  11. Sri Lanka-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Transport and Building Electricity Use Jump to: navigation, search Name Sri Lanka-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions...

  12. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by 2025. Due to the state's heavy reliance on coal as a fuel source for electricity generation, Indiana#12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices on the projected prices of electricity and the use of electric energy in the state of Indiana. The analysis

  13. Carbon Emissions: Stone, Clay, and Glass Industry

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948California (MillionThousandChemicalsPaperCarbon

  14. Novel Carbon Capture Solvent Begins Pilot-Scale Testing for Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Capture Solvent Begins Pilot-Scale Testing for Emissions Control Novel Carbon Capture Solvent Begins Pilot-Scale Testing for Emissions Control January 13, 2015 - 11:20am...

  15. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    doi:10.1029/2008GL035689, 2008 Fire-related carbon emissionssources of emissions from fires in this region. Citation:and Y. Shimabukuro (2008), Fire-related carbon emissions

  16. Review of U.S. and European Regional Modeling Studies of Policies Intended to Reduce Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases are possible (accidents, noise, and greenhouse gas emissions. We reviewto Reduce Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Robert A.

  17. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  18. Just Say No to Carbon Emissions (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhou, Nan; Oldenburg, Curt

    2011-04-28

    Learn about three efforts our grandchildren may thank us for: cheap solar energy, bringing energy efficiency to China, and learning how to store carbon deep underground. Can solar energy be dirt cheap? We're all potentially billionaires when it comes to solar energy. The trick is learning how to convert sunlight to electricity using cheap and plentiful materials. Ramamoorthy Ramesh, an innovative materials scientist at Berkeley Lab, will discuss how he and other researchers are working to make photovoltaic cells using the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust -- materials that are literally as common as dirt. Energy efficiency in China: Nan Zhou is a researcher with Berkeley Labs China Energy Group. She will speak about Chinas energy use and the policies that have been implemented to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emission growth. Her work focuses on building China's capacity to evaluate, adopt and implement low-carbon development strategies. Zhou has an architecture degree from China, and a Master and Ph.D. in Engineering from Japan. Understanding geologic carbon sequestration: Even with continued growth of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, fossil fuels will likely remain cheap and plentiful for decades to come. Geologist Curt Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Lab's Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will discuss a strategy to reduce carbon emissions from coal and natural gas. It involves pumping compressed CO2 captured from large stationary sources into underground rock formations that can store it for geological time scales.

  19. Just Say No to Carbon Emissions (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhou, Nan; Oldenburg, Curt

    2010-04-26

    Learn about three efforts our grandchildren may thank us for: cheap solar energy, bringing energy efficiency to China, and learning how to store carbon deep underground. Can solar energy be dirt cheap? We're all potentially billionaires when it comes to solar energy. The trick is learning how to convert sunlight to electricity using cheap and plentiful materials. Ramamoorthy Ramesh, an innovative materials scientist at Berkeley Lab, will discuss how he and other researchers are working to make photovoltaic cells using the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust -- materials that are literally as common as dirt. Energy efficiency in China: Nan Zhou is a researcher with Berkeley Labs China Energy Group. She will speak about Chinas energy use and the policies that have been implemented to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emission growth. Her work focuses on building China's capacity to evaluate, adopt and implement low-carbon development strategies. Zhou has an architecture degree from China, and a Master and Ph.D. in Engineering from Japan. Understanding geologic carbon sequestration: Even with continued growth of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, fossil fuels will likely remain cheap and plentiful for decades to come. Geologist Curt Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Lab's Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will discuss a strategy to reduce carbon emissions from coal and natural gas. It involves pumping compressed CO2 captured from large stationary sources into underground rock formations that can store it for geological time scales.

  20. Edinburgh Research Explorer Life Cycle Costs and Carbon Emissions of Offshore Wind Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Life Cycle Costs and Carbon Emissions of Offshore Wind Power Citation for published version: Thomson, C & Harrison, G 2015, Life Cycle Costs and Carbon Emissions of Offshore Wind. 2015 #12;Life Cycle Costs and Carbon Emissions of Offshore Wind Power R Camilla Thomson, Gareth P

  1. Project Information Form Project Title Reducing Truck Emissions and Improving Truck Fuel Economy via ITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Project Information Form Project Title Reducing Truck Emissions and Improving Truck Fuel Economy new traffic flow and traffic light control concepts with respect to emissions and fuel economy. Some

  2. A global comparison of carbon monoxide profiles and column amounts from Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and anthropogenic incomplete combustion processes. In the presence of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (COA global comparison of carbon monoxide profiles and column amounts from Tropospheric Emission compare carbon monoxide (CO) products from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT

  3. Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    black carbon on California. In conducting the study, scientists used computer models and air pollution data collected by aircraft, satellite and ground monitors. The study's...

  4. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasing, T J; Schroeder, Dana

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  5. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  6. Inverting for emissions of carbon monoxide from Asia using aircraft observations over the western Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Inverting for emissions of carbon monoxide from Asia using aircraft observations over the western 2001), in combination with an optimal estimation inverse model, to improve emission estimates of carbon monoxide (CO) from Asia. A priori emissions and their errors are from a customized bottom-up Asian emission

  7. Predictability of carbon emissions from biomass burning in Indonesia from 1997 to 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Field, Robert

    Predictability of carbon emissions from biomass burning in Indonesia from 1997 to 2006 Robert D biomass burning C emissions in Indonesia for 1997­2006, obtained from the Global Fire Emissions Database), Predictability of carbon emissions from biomass burning in Indonesia from 1997 to 2006, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G

  8. Field emission from strained carbon nanotubes on cathode substrate D. Roy Mahapatra a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melnik, Roderick

    Field emission from strained carbon nanotubes on cathode substrate D. Roy Mahapatra a, *, N. Sinha, Waterloo, Ont. N2L3C5, Canada 1. Introduction Field emission from carbon nanotube (CNT) was first reported, the use of CNTs in the field emission devices (e.g., field emission displays, X-ray tube sources, electron

  9. Field Emission Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with a Variety of Emitter-Morphologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Field Emission Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with a Variety of Emitter@chemsys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Field emission properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), which have been prepared through. Protrusive bundles at the top surface of samples act selectively as emission sites. The number of emission

  10. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    installed to replace hydro power, in terms of GHG emissions.coal-fired power plant or a hydro-power facility. 4. The GHG

  11. Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines Formation of droplets was minimized through optimization of fuel vaporization and distribution avoiding airfuel zones richer than...

  12. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    2006 GDP CO2 Population Source: LBNL, emissions are derivedCarbon Emissions Reductions, 2000-2020 Mt CO2 Source:CO 2 Emissions, 1950-2006 Mt CO2 USA PRC Source: Historical

  13. GreenColo: Incentivizing Tenants for Reducing Carbon Footprint in Colocation Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Shaolei

    1 GreenColo: Incentivizing Tenants for Reducing Carbon Footprint in Colocation Data Centers energy consumption of data centers worldwide has resulted in a large carbon footprint, raising serious their servers for carbon efficiency. In this paper, we aim at minimizing the carbon footprint of geo

  14. Low-Cost Packaged Combined Heat and Power System with Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Fact sheet overviewing how this project will develop a flexible, packaged CHP system that increases efficiency and reduces emissions and cost.

  15. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Some International Comparisons

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    Presents energy use and carbon emissions patterns in a world context. The report contrasts trends in economically developed and developing areas of the world since 1970, presents a disaggregated view of the "Group of Seven" (G7) key industrialized countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and examines sectoral energy use patterns within each of the G7 countries.

  16. Non-linear response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygen availability in a drained histosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNicol, Gavin; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Soil respiration; methane; carbon dioxide; oxygen;response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygenof carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gas

  17. Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy of Carbon Arc Plasma during Formation of Carbon Magnetic Encapsulates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lange, H.; Labedz, O.; Huczko, A.; Bystrzejewski, M.

    2011-11-29

    Plasma diagnostics of carbon arc discharge under conditions of carbon magnetic encapsulates formation was performed by emission and absorption spectroscopy. Content of C{sub 2} and Fe species, rotational temperatures of excited (d {sup 3} product {sub g}) and non-excited (a {sup 3} product {sub u}) states, and excitation temperatures of a {sup 5}F and a {sup 3}F levels relatively to the a {sup 5}D level of Fe atoms were determined. The results pointed to a non-equilibrium state of carbon arc plasma under prevailing discharge conditions.

  18. Reduced Turbine Emissions Using Hydrogen-Enriched Fuels R.W. Schefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as an effective approach to NOx emissions reduction. In addition to pure hydrogen and air, mixtures of hydrogen-lean premixed combustion is an effective approach to NOx emissions reduction from gas turbine engines. Hydrogen a solution to the immediate need for NOx reduction, and also provides a transition strategy to a carbon free

  19. MINIMIZING NET CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL/BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Todd Lang

    2001-06-25

    Solid fuels vary significantly with respect to the amount of CO{sub 2} directly produced per unit heating value. Elemental carbon is notably worse than other solid fuels in this regard, and since carbon (char) is an intermediate product of the combustion of almost all solid fuels, there is an opportunity to reduce specific CO{sub 2} emissions by reconfiguring processes to avoid char combustion wholly or in part. The primary goal of this one-year Innovative Concepts project is to make a fundamental thermodynamic assessment of three modes of solid fuel use: (1) combustion, (2) carbonization, and (3) oxidative pyrolysis, for a wide range of coal and alternative solid fuels. This period a large set of thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the potential of the three processes. The results show that the net carbon dioxide emissions and the relative ranking of the different processes depends greatly on the particular baseline fossil fuel being displaced by the new technology. As an example, in a baseline natural gas environment, it is thermodynamically more advantageous to carbonize biomass than to combust it, and even more advantageous to oxidatively pyrolyze the biomass.

  20. Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

    2009-01-01

    want to reduce their ‘carbon footprint,’ not by law, but todecreases of its carbon footprint could reduce emissions byTo decrease the carbon footprint of transportation, the

  1. Sardinia 2007, Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium Potential for Reducing Global Methane Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    for Reducing Global Methane Emissions From Landfills, 2000-2030 E. MATTHEWS1 , N. J. THEMELIS2 1 NASA Goddard methane (CH4 )annually to the world's total CH4 emission of ~550 Tg/yr. Recycling and thermal treatment destined for landfills and to mitigating CH4 emission. Waste generation is estimated to more than double

  2. Drive-by Motor Vehicle Emissions: Immediate Feedback in Reducing Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Drive-by Motor Vehicle Emissions: Immediate Feedback in Reducing Air Pollution G A R Y A . B I S H, Denver, Colorado 80208 L E N O R A B O H R E N The National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control & Safety of vehicle emissions information system has been developed which utilizes an innovative variable message sign

  3. Reducing the uncertainties in carbon emissions fromReducing the uncertainties in carbon emissions from tropical deforestation -the BIOMASS mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from tropical deforestation - the BIOMASS mission Shaun Quegan University of Sheffield x average biomassCem = deforested area x average biomass (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Good Practice Guide 2003) #12;How well is biomass known? Model Model + SatelliteInterpolation Model

  4. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    the economic and environmental impact of energy policy,”ability to reduce environmental impacts and move toward ato minimize cost and environmental impact,” Proceedings of

  5. Decomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Ian Sue

    of carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and hydroelectric generation all lead to upward shifts in the long are the drivers of future global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions growth and how would the availability of key Classification: D58, Q4, Q54, O1, Keywords: Asia, energy use, carbon emissions, global climate change, computable

  6. Quantifying the impact of model errors on topdown estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heald, Colette L.

    Quantifying the impact of model errors on topdown estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using use of inverse modeling to better quantify regional surface emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), which to or larger than the combustion source, optimizing the CO from NMVOC emissions on larger spatial scales than

  7. Simulations of field emission from a semiconducting ,,10,0... carbon nanotube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Alexandre

    Simulations of field emission from a semiconducting ,,10,0... carbon nanotube A. Mayera three-dimensional simulations of field emission from an ideal open 10,0 carbon nanotube without work function around 5 eV depending on the type of nanotube. These nanotubes show interesting field-emission

  8. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of Controlled Diameter and Bundle Size and Their Field Emission Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resasco, Daniel

    Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of Controlled Diameter and Bundle Size and Their Field Emission: June 8, 2005 Field emission studies were conducted on as-produced CoMoCAT single-walled carbon nanotube became larger, but the bundle size became smaller. A gradual and consistent reduction in the emission

  9. MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uppsala Universitet

    MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical

  10. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  11. Internal combustion engine system and method with reduced noxious emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, M.

    1988-03-22

    For use in conjunction with a combustion-based system including a combustion chamber having an exhaust, a source of input air and a source of fuel for providing input air and fuel to the combustion chamber, and means communicating with the combustion chamber for obtaining power from the combustion; the improvement is described comprising: an ultrasonic fogging device communicating with the input air, the fogging device being adapted to receive a fogger air supply and fogger water supply, and to generate a fog in the source of input air which has a droplet size of the order of ten microns or less, and evaporates to dryness in the input air; means for sensing noxious emissions in exhaust gases from the combustion chamber; and means for controlling the fogging device in accordance with the sensed noxious emissions.

  12. Internal combustion engine system and method with reduced noxious emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, M.

    1987-05-26

    An improved turbine apparatus is described comprising: a turbine power generator, including a source of input air, and a source of fuel, a compressor which receives the input air, a combustion chamber which receives air from the output of the compressor and fuel from the source of fuel, a turbine which receives exhaust gases from the combustion chamber; and an electrical generator mechanically coupled with the turbine. A fogging device communicates with the input air. The fogging device is adapted to receive a fogger air supply and a fogger water supply, and to generate a fog in the input air; means for sensing noxious emissions in the exhaust gases; and means for controlling the fogging device in accordance with the sensed noxious emissions.

  13. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plahn, Paul; Keene, Kevin; Pendray, John

    2014-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  14. Model Project Streamlines Compliance, Reduces Emissions and Energy Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vining, S. K.

    1998-01-01

    leak threshold is the measured level of VOCs which will trigger a repair of the components.) Measurements. OVA or TVA monitors are used to measure fugitive emissions. These devices measure small VOC releases from packing glands and seals of pumps... Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 22-23, 1998 monitored component if a leak is detected above a certain threshold, commonly 10,000 parts per million (ppm). However, under Phase III of the Hazardous Organic NESHAP's (HON), limits for leak...

  15. Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux Abstract High ground-level ozone concentrations are typical of Mediterranean climates. Plant exposure to this oxidant is known to reduce carbon assimilation. Ozone damage has been traditionally measured through

  16. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  17. Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES ScienceInformation Company NamenewEmailEmergencyEmission

  18. Reducing Forestry Emissions in Indonesia | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLCALLETEREFURecent content inForestry Emissions in

  19. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    by at least 3 billion metric tons in total by 2030, equal to more than a year's carbon pollution from the entire U.S. electricity system. Furnace fans are used to circulate air...

  20. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

  1. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    by the Institute for Industrial Productivity through theL ABORATORY China’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions inproceedings, ECEEE Industrial Summer Study, Arnhem, the

  2. Field Emission from Carbon Films Deposited by Controlled-Low-Energy Beams and CVD Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Merkulov, V.I.; Baylor, L.R.; Jellison, Jr., G.E.; Poker, D.B.; Kim, S.; Sohn, M.H.; Paik, N.W.

    1999-11-29

    The principal interests in this work are energetic-beam control of carbon-film properties and the roles of doping and surface morphology in field emission.

  3. Table 4. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector " "percent of total" ,"shares" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportation"...

  4. Growth and field emission properties of small diameter carbon nanotube films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    Growth and field emission properties of small diameter carbon nanotube films Y.Y. Wanga,*, S are comprised of both single- and double-wall nanotubes. The electron field emission properties of the films were investigated by variable distance field emission and temperature-dependent field electron emission

  5. The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2007-07-11

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the planet’s climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

  6. Dynamics of Implementation of Mitigating Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Commercial Aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Rahul

    2010-07-13

    Increasing demand for air transportation and growing environmental concerns motivate the need to implement measures to reduce CO2 emissions from aviation. Case studies of historical changes in the aviation industry have ...

  7. Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry production facilities in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry. Another option that needs to be considered for use in wet scrubbers is acidic electrolyzed water (AEW

  8. Dynamics of implementation of mitigating measures to reduce CO? emissions from commercial aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Rahul, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Increasing demand for air transportation and growing environmental concerns motivate the need to implement measures to reduce CO? emissions from aviation. Case studies of historical changes in the aviation industry have ...

  9. Personal revised version of: Howitt et al. (2011), Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight. Paper to appear in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    2011-01-01

    Personal revised version of: Howitt et al. (2011), Carbon dioxide emissions from international air the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed here: doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.09.051 1 Carbon dioxide emissions and 0.53 Mt. Keywords International air freight, carbon dioxide emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, New

  10. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

  11. Using market-based dispatching with environmental price signals to reduce emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using market-based dispatching with environmental price signals to reduce emissions and water use to: discover new interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess future; and improve methods to model, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts

  12. Shaping the Terms of Competition: Environmental Regulation and Corporate Strategies to Reduce Diesel Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Diesel Vehicle Emissions by Christine Bik-Kay Ng B.S., Civil and Environmental Engineering University Strategies to Reduce Diesel Vehicle Emissions by Christine Bik-Kay Ng Submitted to the Engineering Systems. This research explains the conditions under which competitive regulatory strategies are pursued in the diesel

  13. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    Article Correction to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouseCor- rection to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas1 ] In the paper “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas

  14. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants with Advanced Technology

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request of Senators James M. Jeffords and Joseph I. Lieberman. This report describes the impacts of technology improvements and other market-based opportunities on the costs of emissions reductions from electricity generators, including nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury, and carbon dioxide.

  15. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    CO2 Emissions Reduction by Source ..67 AIS Power Sector CO2 Emissions Reduction by Source EnergyCO2 Emission Reduction under AIS by Fuel Source

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000 hydrocarbons) from forest fires in China for the time period from 1950 to 2000 by using a combination of remote of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05313, doi:10

  17. Edinburgh Research Explorer Life Cycle Costs and Carbon Emissions of Onshore Wind Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Life Cycle Costs and Carbon Emissions of Onshore Wind Power Citation. 2015 #12;Life Cycle Costs and Carbon Emissions of Onshore Wind Power R Camilla Thomson, Gareth P the economics of wind energy is vitally important to ensure a rational discussion about the role of wind power

  18. How Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    climate efficiency as the amount of carbon dioxide emissions per generated added value. This conceptHow Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Relation to Its Added Value Diploma Thesis Department of Environmental Sciences ETH Zurich Ana

  19. Pyrogenic carbon emission from a large wildfire in Oregon, United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    : area burned, fuel density (biomass per unit area), combustion factor (fraction of biomass consumedPyrogenic carbon emission from a large wildfire in Oregon, United States John Campbell,1 Dan Donato carbon emissions from the Biscuit Fire, an exceptionally large wildfire, which in 2002 burned over 200

  20. SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT AND FIELD-EMISSION PROPERTIES OF MULTI-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Alexandre

    of the Electrochemical Society - Cold Cathodes II) We present three-dimensional simulations of transport and fieldSIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT AND FIELD-EMISSION PROPERTIES OF MULTI-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES Alexandre- emission properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The structure considered for the transport properties

  1. Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-02-01

    Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from thecarbon capture faqsCarbon Capture,

  3. Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Parks, II, James E; Wagner, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

  4. Modeling Impacts of Management on Carbon Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Impacts of Management on Carbon Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested Wetland-DNDC, was modified to enhance its capacity to predict the impacts of management practices on carbon sequestration nonnegligible roles in mitigation in comparison with carbon sequestration. Forests are recognized for having

  5. The impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China during 1978-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Qin, E-mail: zhuqin@fudan.edu.cn; Peng Xizhe, E-mail: xzpeng@fudan.edu.cn

    2012-09-15

    This study examines the impacts of population size, population structure, and consumption level on carbon emissions in China from 1978 to 2008. To this end, we expanded the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology model and used the ridge regression method, which overcomes the negative influences of multicollinearity among independent variables under acceptable bias. Results reveal that changes in consumption level and population structure were the major impact factors, not changes in population size. Consumption level and carbon emissions were highly correlated. In terms of population structure, urbanization, population age, and household size had distinct effects on carbon emissions. Urbanization increased carbon emissions, while the effect of age acted primarily through the expansion of the labor force and consequent overall economic growth. Shrinking household size increased residential consumption, resulting in higher carbon emissions. Households, rather than individuals, are a more reasonable explanation for the demographic impact on carbon emissions. Potential social policies for low carbon development are also discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We expand the STIRPAT model by containing population structure factors in the model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure includes age structure, urbanization level, and household size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ridge regression method is used to estimate the model with multicollinearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure plays a more important role compared with the population size.

  6. Short term effects of moderate carbon prices on land use in the New Zealand emissions trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    Short term effects of moderate carbon prices on land use in the New Zealand emissions trading Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) was introduced through the Climate Change Response Act............................................................................ 14 #12;1 1 Introduction The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) was legislated through

  7. Carbon emissions in China: How far can new efforts bend the curve?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon emissions in China: How far can new efforts bend the curve? Xiliang Zhang, Valerie J future; and improve methods to model, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts emissions in China: How far can new efforts bend the curve? Xiliang Zhang§* , Valerie J. Karplus , Tianyu Qi

  8. Uncertainty in Future Carbon Emissions: A Preliminary Exploration Mort D. Webster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the criminal code and liable to a fine of $250 and/or six months in prison." Section 889, New York State Code variety of economic-energy models are used to project emissions under alternative emission control of economic-energy models are used to project future carbon emissions under various policy scenarios. Due

  9. Field emission of individual carbon nanotube with in situ tip image and real work function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Field emission of individual carbon nanotube with in situ tip image and real work function Zhi Xu August 2005; published online 10 October 2005 The field emission properties of individual multiwalled work functions at tips by the in situ transmission electron microscopy method. The field emission

  10. The Clean Development Mechanism and CER Price Formation in the Carbon Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    . The first is emission trading. Based on the success of the SOx and NOx markets set up in the US in the 1980sThe Clean Development Mechanism and CER Price Formation in the Carbon Emission Markets Ren such as the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and offset certificates such as CERs generated within

  11. Cooling the greenhouse effect: Options and costs for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from the American Electric Power Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helme, N.; Popovich, M.G.; Gille, J. [Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A recent report from the National Academy of Sciences concludes that the earth is likely to face a doubling of preindustrial greenhouse gases in the next half century. This doubling could be expected to push average global temperatures. up from between 1.8 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit. Much of the potential for human impacts on the global climate is linked to fossil fuel consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption in the US totals about one-quarter of the world`s total emissions from energy consumption. Global warming is different from other environmental problems because CO{sub 2} emissions can be captured naturally by trees, grasses, soil, and other plants. In contrast, acid rain emissions reductions can only be accomplished through switching to lower-polluting fuels, conserving energy, or installing costly retrofit technologies. Terrestrial biota, such as trees, plants, grasses and soils, directly affect the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the atmosphere. A number of reports have concluded that forestry and land-use practices can increase CO{sub 2} sequestration and can help reduce or delay the threat of global warming.

  12. Clean Power Plan: Reducing Carbon Pollution From Existing Power Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bremer,K.

    2014-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-KT-14-11-20.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7502 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-KT-14-11-20.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 CLEAN POWER PLAN Reducing... improvements Co-firing or switching to natural gas Coal retirements Retrofit CCS (e.g.,WA Parish in Texas) 2. Use lower-emitting power sources more Dispatch changes to existing natural gas combined cycle (CC) Dispatch changes to existing natural gas CC 3...

  13. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1999-08-10

    A novel field emitter device is disclosed for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials. 8 figs.

  14. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Friedmann, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A novel field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials.

  15. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  16. Alternatives to reduce corrosion of carbon steel storage drums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    The major tasks of this research were (a) pollution prevention opportunity assessments on the overpacking operations for failed or corroded drums, (b) research on existing container corrosion data, (c) investigation of the storage environment of the new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Type II storage modules, (d) identification of waste streams that demonstrate deleterious corrosion affects on drum storage life, and (e) corrosion test cell program development. Twenty-one waste streams from five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites within the DOE Complex were identified to demonstrate a deleterious effect to steel storage drums. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure: 0.5 to 2 years. The results of this research support the position that pollution prevention evaluations at the front end of a project or process will reduce pollution on the back end.

  17. Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    goal for a theory of justice: first to reduce the growth rate of global carbon dioxide emissions such activitiespersist.In thispaper the conceptis usedto addressthe question offair allocation of carbon emissions nations could continue emissions for much longer before exhausting theirfair share of the Carbon Commons

  18. Review of cost estimates for reducing CO2 emissions. Final report, Task 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Since the ground breaking work of William Nordhaus in 1977, cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions have been developed by numerous groups. The various studies have reported sometimes widely divergent cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Some recent analyses have indicated that large reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved at zero or negative costs (e.g. Rocky Mountain Institute 1989). In contrast, a recent study by Alan Manne of Stanford and Richard Richels of the Electric Power Research Institute (Manne-Richels 1989) concluded that in the US the total discounted costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 20 percent below the 1990 level could be as much as 3.6 trillion dollars over the period from 1990 to 2100. Costs of this order of magnitude would represent about 5 percent of US GNP. The purpose of this briefing paper is to summarize the different cost estimates for CO{sub 2} emission reduction and to identify the key issues and assumptions that underlie these cost estimates.

  19. The Value of End-Use Energy Efficiency in Mitigation of U.S. Carbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2007-11-27

    This report documents a scenario analysis exploring the value of advanced technologies in the U.S. buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors in stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The analysis was conducted by staff members of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), working at the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) in support of the strategic planning process of the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The conceptual framework for the analysis is an integration of detailed buildings, industrial, and transportation modules into MiniCAM, a global integrated assessment model. The analysis is based on three technology scenarios, which differ in their assumed rates of deployment of new or presently available energy-saving technologies in the end-use sectors. These technology scenarios are explored with no carbon policy, and under two CO2 stabilization policies, in which an economic price on carbon is applied such that emissions follow prescribed trajectories leading to long-term stabilization of CO2 at roughly 450 and 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv). The costs of meeting the emissions targets prescribed by these policies are examined, and compared between technology scenarios. Relative to the reference technology scenario, advanced technologies in all three sectors reduce costs by 50% and 85% for the 450 and 550 ppmv policies, respectively. The 450 ppmv policy is more stringent and imposes higher costs than the 550 ppmv policy; as a result, the magnitude of the economic value of energy efficiency is four times greater for the 450 ppmv policy than the 550 ppmv policy. While they substantially reduce the costs of meeting emissions requirements, advanced end-use technologies do not lead to greenhouse gas stabilization without a carbon policy. This is due mostly to the effects of increasing service demands over time, the high consumption of fossil fuels in the electricity sector, and the use of unconventional feedstocks in the liquid fuel refining sector. Of the three end-use sectors, advanced transportation technologies have the greatest potential to reduce costs of meeting carbon policy requirements. Services in the buildings and industrial sectors can often be supplied by technologies that consume low-emissions fuels such as biomass or, in policy cases, electricity. Passenger transportation, in contrast, is especially unresponsive to climate policies, as the fuel costs are small compared to the time value of transportation and vehicle capital and operating costs. Delaying the transition from reference to advanced technologies by 15 years increases the costs of meeting 450 ppmv stabilization emissions requirements by 21%, but the costs are still 39% lower than the costs assuming reference technology. The report provides a detailed description of the end-use technology scenarios and provides a thorough analysis of the results. Assumptions are documented in the Appendix.

  20. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Clean Cities Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

  1. City Profile: Los Angeles A part of the study entitled: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through local

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    City Profile: Los Angeles A part of the study entitled: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through in multifamily housing and more than 10 percent of households do not own a car. 61 percent of Los Angelenos over. Los Angeles Commute Mode Split Car Transit Walk Other Source: US Census Figure 1 Approximately three

  2. City Profile: Berkeley A part of the study entitled: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through local government

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    City Profile: Berkeley A part of the study entitled: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through activism and a liberal political bent. Berkeley Commute Mode Split (2000) Car Transit Walk Other Source: US not own a car. 56 percent of Berkeley residents over 16 years of age are employed. The US Census reports

  3. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions- Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions, given by John Pendray of Cummins Power Generation, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

  4. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3 degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant

  5. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Drive Smarter, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Clean Cities' Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

  6. Greenovate Composting Fellowship Greenovate Boston is the City's initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 25% by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    effort to divert food waste on a large scale. If successful, it can influence food waste diversion Composting Fellowship Greenovate Boston is the City's initiative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 25, healthy, and innovative city. A Greenovate community composting program was piloted in 2014, and met

  7. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Emissions Monitoring Combined Heat and Power Carbon Dioxide18.7 to 36.8 *Combined Heat and Power (CHP) ** Uncertaintiesin electric and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants, diesel

  8. Water and Energy Savings, and Carbon Emission Reductions From Rain Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Water and Energy Savings, and Carbon Emission Reductions From Rain Water Harvesting, Combined Heat Infrastructure Ecology Decentralized Water Resource Development: Low Impact Development (LID) Decentralized Energy Production: Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Policies for Adoption of Rain Water Harvesting

  9. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01

    G. Keppel-Aleks et al. : Fossil fuel constraints from X CO 2P. P. : Assess- ment of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and otherstrong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions

  10. Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity applying the iterative Bayesian shrinkage procedure. The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. Keywords: Environmental Kuznets curve; Bayesian shrinkage estimator; Heterogeneity JEL classification: O13

  11. Growth and welfare losses from carbon emissions restrictions : a general equilibrium analysis for Egypt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blitzer, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is an assessment for a particular country, Egypt, of the economic effects, under various conditions, of carbon emission restrictions. Like other work, it is an exemplification of some of the economic possibilities. ...

  12. Cutting Carbon Emissions under 111(d): The case for expanding solar energy in America

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar energy is a solution technology that can provide a cost-effective, economically beneficial, and integral part of a state's effort to regulate carbon emissions from the electric sector. Solar energy's rapidly falling prices and rapidly growing generating capacity, as well as the volatility of fossil fuel prices, give solar energy the potential to transform compliance with both new carbon emission requirements and other existing requirements under the Clean Air Act.

  13. International potential of IGCC technology for use in reducing global warming and climate change emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, F.S.

    1996-12-31

    High efficiency advanced coal-based technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) that can assist in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions which contribute to Global Warming and Climate Change are becoming commercially available. U-GAS is an advanced gasification technology that can be used in many applications to convert coal in a high efficiency manner that will reduce the total amount of CO{sub 2} produced by requiring less coal-based fuel per unit of energy output. This paper will focus on the status of the installation and performance of the IGT U-GAS gasifiers which were installed at the Shanghai Cooking and Chemical Plant General located in Shanghai, China. Its use in future IGCC project for the production of power and the benefits of IGCC in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through its high efficiency operation will be discussed.

  14. Zero Emission Vehicle Program Changes In 1990, California embarked on a plan to reduce vehicle emissions to zero through the gradual introduction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    12/10/01 Zero Emission Vehicle Program Changes In 1990, California embarked on a plan to reduce vehicle emissions to zero through the gradual introduction of zero emission vehicles (ZEVs). Specifically, the Air Resources Board mandated that at least 2 percent, 5 percent and 10 percent of new car sales

  15. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system developed to meet EPA 2010 and final Tier 4 emission regulations show substantial improvements in system performance while reducing system cost

  16. Carbon emissions and the Kyoto commitment in the European Union

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viguier, Laurent L.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Reilly, John M.

    We estimate reference CO? emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO? emissions ...

  17. Analysis of energy use and carbon emissions from automobile manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raykar, Sumant (Sumant Shreechandra)

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the energy use and emissions arising from automobile manufacturing. The automobile manufacturing sector is the 11th largest industrial sector globally in terms of energy use and emissions. The IPCC ...

  18. Large and stable emission current from synthesized carbon nanotube/fiber network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di, Yunsong; Xiao, Mei; Zhang, Xiaobing Wang, Qilong; Li, Chen; Lei, Wei; Cui, Yunkang

    2014-02-14

    In order to obtain a large and stable electron field emission current, the carbon nanotubes have been synthesized on carbon fibers by cold wall chemical vapor deposition method. In the hierarchical nanostructures, carbon fibers are entangled together to form a conductive network, it could provide excellent electron transmission and adhesion property between electrode and emitters, dispersed clusters of carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters have been synthesized on the top of carbon fibers as field emitters, this kind of emitter distribution could alleviate electrostatic shielding effect and protect emitters from being wholly destroyed. Field emission properties of this kind of carbon nanotube/fiber network have been tested, up to 30?mA emission current at an applied electric field of 6.4?V/?m was emitted from as-prepared hierarchical nanostructures. Small current degradation at large emission current output by DC power operation indicated that carbon nanotube/fiber network could be a promising candidate for field emission electron source.

  19. emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    CO2 emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2 Nordic Plus) and Use, utilisation and long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the pulp and paper industry. The Geological of serpentinites in energy and metal industry (ECOSERP) Carl-Johan Fogelholm, Project leader, professor Sanni

  20. Model limits on the role of volcanic carbon emissions in regulating glacialinterglacial CO2 variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    Model limits on the role of volcanic carbon emissions in regulating glacial­interglacial CO2 (2009) proposed that an increase in volcanic activity provoked by ice sheet melting contributed emissions in regulating glacial­interglacial CO2 variations, but uncertainties prevent a firm conclusion

  1. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  2. 1 THE WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF CARBON TAXES AND CARBON 2 CAPS: A LOOK AT U.S. HOUSEHOLDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    . Nations all over51 are debating policies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse reductions. #12;47 Keywords: Carbon emissions, Carbon trading, Carbon credits, Cap and trade, Welfare1 THE WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF CARBON TAXES AND CARBON 2 CAPS: A LOOK AT U.S. HOUSEHOLDS 3 4 Sumala

  3. Carbon permit prices in the European emissions trading system : a stochastic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    See, Wee Chiang

    2005-01-01

    The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone for European efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and in its test phase will operate from 2005-2007. It is a cap-and-trade system where an aggregate cap on emissions ...

  4. Transport of oxygen in soil pore-water systems: implications for modeling emissions of carbon dioxide and methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    andaresignificantsourcesofgreenhousegases,including carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. The traditional approachTransport of oxygen in soil pore-water systems: implications for modeling emissions of carbon of CH4 is 24 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over a 100-year time scale (Ramaswamy et al

  5. New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    carbon and sulfur dioxide from India Gazala Habib,1 Chandra Venkataraman,1 Manish Shrivastava,2 Rangan a narrower bound than in previous works. From this new activity data and currently used black carbon emission factors, the black carbon (BC) emissions from biofuel combustion were estimated as 220 (65­760) Gg yrÀ1

  6. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    AIS Figure 64 Electricity Generation by Fuel, CIS and AISlow-carbon electricity generation through fuel switching and55 Figure 64 Electricity Generation by Fuel, CIS and AIS

  7. Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions: A matter of time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J

    2011-01-01

    no. 21 | 8533–8534 COMMENTARY Accounting for carbon dioxidetime dimension into this accounting problem. They focus onwe must have a reason- able accounting system that allocates

  8. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  9. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  10. At what cost do we reduce pollution Shadow prices of SO[sub 2] emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinton, J.R. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States))

    1998-01-01

    The US EPA's infant market for SO[sub 2] emissions has the potential for improving the cost effectiveness of reducing acid rain pollutants. If the market works as planned, over time one should see the cost of reducing additional amounts of sulfur dioxide converge across plants. The results of the study described here demonstrate that before the market opened marginal abatement costs varied wildly across plants. This work provides estimates of the shadow price of SO[sub 2] abatement using the output distance function approach for Illinois, Minnesota and Wisconsin coal-burning electric plants. The results demonstrate that the coal-burning electric plants with the highest emissions rates are also the plants with the lowest marginal abatement costs, a fact that may explain lower-than-expected prices in the new market for allowances. The data include information about plants with installed scrubber capital allowing for an investigation of the effect of scrubber capital on marginal abatement costs.

  11. System and method for making metallic iron with reduced CO.sub.2 emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiesel, Richard F; Englund, David J; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for making metallic iron nodules with reduced CO.sub.2 emissions is disclosed. The method includes: assembling a linear hearth furnace having entry and exit portions, at least a conversion zone and a fusion zone, and a moving hearth adapted to move reducible iron bearing material through the furnace on contiguous hearth sections; assembling a shrouded return substantially free of air ingress extending adjacent at least the conversion and fusion zones of the furnace through which hearth sections can move from adjacent the exit portion to adjacent the entry portion of the furnace; transferring the hearth sections from the furnace to the shrouded return adjacent the exit portion; reducing reducible material in the linear hearth furnace to metallic iron nodules; and transporting gases from at least the fusion zone to the shrouded return to heat the hearth sections while in the shrouded return.

  12. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  13. Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles · New and aged lubricants representative fuel, biodiesel, and CNG The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems

  14. Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestration and Land Use Emissions Using Detailed Model Results and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Atul Jain

    2005-04-17

    This report outlines the progress on the development and application of Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestrations and Land Use Emissions supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-01ER63069. The overall objective of this collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to unite the latest advances in carbon cycle research with scientifically based models and policy-related integrated assessment tools that incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science and emission trajectories, and their policy implications. As part of this research we accomplished the following tasks that we originally proposed: (1) In coordination with LLNL and ORNL, we enhanced the Integrated Science Assessment Model's (ISAM) parametric representation of the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles that better represent spatial and seasonal variations, which are important to study the mechanisms that influence carbon sequestration in the ocean and terrestrial ecosystems; (2) Using the MiniCAM modeling capability, we revised the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios; IPCC, 2000) land use emission scenarios; and (3) On the application front, the enhanced version of ISAM modeling capability is applied to understand how short- and long-term natural carbon fluxes, carbon sequestration, and human emissions contribute to the net global emissions (concentrations) trajectories required to reach various concentration (emission) targets. Under this grant, 21 research publications were produced. In addition, this grant supported a number of graduate and undergraduate students whose fundamental research was to learn a disciplinary field in climate change (e.g., ecological dynamics and ocean circulations) and then complete research on how this field could be linked to the other factors we need to consider in its dynamics (e.g., land use, ocean and terrestrial carbon sequestration and climate change).

  15. Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    support for allocating resources to alter the market mix of carbon sequestration and direct emission carbon sequestration practices also influence the environment by for example reducing erosion1 Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental

  16. Managing the cost of emissions for durable, carbon-containing products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirley, Kevin [Appalachian State University; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Cantrell, Jenna [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

    2011-03-01

    We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probability distribution that models the carbon release predicts the amount of carbon that is released as a function of time. The use of a probability distribution in accounting for the release of carbon to the atmosphere realizes a fundamental shift from the idea that all carbon-containing products contribute to a single pool that decays in proportion to the size of the stock. Viewing the release of carbon as a continuous probabilistic process introduces some theoretical opportunities not available in the former paradigm by taking advantage of other fields where the use of probability distributions has been prevalent for many decades. In particular, theories developed in the life insurance industry can guide the development of pricing and payment structures for dealing with the costs associated with the oxidation and release of carbon. These costs can arise from a number of proposed policies (cap and trade, carbon tax, social cost of carbon, etc), but in the end they all result in there being a cost to releasing carbon to the atmosphere. If there is a cost to the emitter for CO2 emissions, payment for that cost will depend on both when the emissions actually occur and how payment is made. Here we outline some of the pricing and payment structures that are possible which result from analogous theories in the life insurance industry. This development not only provides useful constructs for valuing sequestered carbon, but highlights additional motivations for employing a probability distribution approach to unify accounting methodologies for stocks of carbon containing products.

  17. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

  18. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no specific Hg controls) ranged from 5.7 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest to 2 x 10{sup -5} in the Southeast. Reducing emissions from coal plants by 90% reduced the estimated range in risk to 5 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest and 1.5 x 10{sup -5} in Southeast, respectively. The population risk for the subsistence fisher using the Southeast regional fish Hg levels was 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, a factor of 200 greater than the general population risk. For the subsistence fishers and the Savannah River Hg levels, the population risk was 4.3 x 10{sup -5}, a factor of 2 greater than for the general population. The estimated risk reductions from a 90% reduction in coal plant Hg emissions ranged from 25%-68%, which is greater than the assumed reduction in Hg levels in fish, (15.5%). To place this risk in perspective, there are approximately 4 x 10{sup 6} births/year in the U.S (National Vital Statistics Report, 2000). Assuming that the Southeast risk level (the highest of the regions) is appropriate for the entire U.S., an estimate of 80 newborn children per year have a 5% chance of realizing any of the 16 adverse effects used to generate the DRF. If Hg emissions from power plants are reduced 90%, the number of children at risk is reduced to 60.

  19. Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young high and would subject young people, future generations and nature to irreparable harm. Carbon dioxide. Of course carbon dioxide from deforestation also causes warming and policies must address that carbon source

  20. Roman Seawater Concrete Holds the Secret to Cutting Carbon Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that industry puts into the air." The carbon footprint of Roman concrete, made from lime, volcanic ash, and seawater, is much smaller. Read the News Release Drill core of...

  1. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Energy Savings Potential by Subsector .. 49 Figure 55 Transport Primary Energy Consumption by Fuel Energy Drivers Drivers of Transformation Sector This analysis examines the potential growth of low-carbon electricity generation through fuel

  2. Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, R

    2009-01-01

    In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

  3. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  4. Keeping British Columbia "the best place on Earth": Reducing the carbon footprint of air traffic in British Columbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    1 Keeping British Columbia "the best place on Earth": Reducing the carbon footprint of air traffic the aviation industry in British Columbia. Specifically, I calculate the carbon footprint of civil aviation). Aviation is not only intricately integrated into the global economy but also one of the most carbon

  5. Will Monetized Carbon Emission Reductions Buy Enhanced Building Operations? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millhone, J.

    2007-01-01

    transportation arteries and thus are capable of measuring impacts from mobile sources as well as stationary sources. Monitoring is performed to measure the criteria pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, lead, particulate matter.... Monitoring is performed to measure the criteria pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, lead, particulate matter, and ozone) as well as meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, wind direction variance, temperature, net...

  6. THE UNUSUAL HYDROCARBON EMISSION FROM THE EARLY CARBON STAR HD 100764: THE CONNECTION BETWEEN AROMATICS AND ALIPHATICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Gregory C.

    THE UNUSUAL HYDROCARBON EMISSION FROM THE EARLY CARBON STAR HD 100764: THE CONNECTION BETWEEN disk. The spectrum shows emission features from polycyclic aro- matic hydrocarbons (PAHs shifts are consistent with hydrocarbon mixtures containing both aromatic and aliphatic bonds. We propose

  7. Reducing emissions from the electricity sector: the costs and benefits nationwide and for the Empire State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen Palmer; Dallas Butraw; Jhih-Shyang Shih

    2005-06-15

    Using four models, this study looks at EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as originally proposed, which differs in only small ways from the final rule issued in March 2005, coupled with several approaches to reducing emissions of mercury including one that differs in only small ways from the final rule also issued in March 2005. This study analyzes what costs and benefits each would incur to New York State and to the nation at large. Benefits to the nation and to New York State significantly outweigh the costs associated with reductions in SO{sub 2}, NOx and mercury, and all policies show dramatic net benefits. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications for the cost of the regulation and for emission levels for SO{sub 2} and NOx and where those emissions are located. Contrary to EPA's findings, CAIR as originally proposed by itself would not keep summer emissions of NOx from electricity generators in the SIP region below the current SIP seasonal NOx cap. In the final CAIR, EPA added a seasonal NOx cap to address seasonal ozone problems. The CAIR with the seasonal NOx cap produces higher net benefits. The effect of the different policies on the mix of fuels used to supply electricity is fairly modest under scenarios similar to the EPA's final rules. A maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach, compared to a trading approach as the way to achieve tighter mercury targets (beyond EPA's proposal), would preserve the role of coal in electricity generation. The evaluation of scenarios with tighter mercury emission controls shows that the net benefits of a maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach exceed the net benefits of a cap and trade approach. 39 refs., 10 figs., 30 figs., 5 apps.

  8. Secondary ion emission under keV carbon cluster bombardment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Locklear, Jay Edward

    2006-10-30

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a surface analysis technique capable of providing isotopic and molecular information. SIMS uses keV projectiles to impinge upon a sample resulting in secondary ion emission from ...

  9. Market power in international carbon emissions trading: a laboratory test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlén, Björn.

    The prospect that governments of one or a few large countries, or trading blocs, would engage in international greenhouse gas emissions trading has led several policy analysts to express concerns that trade would be ...

  10. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    2 emissions. The renewable energy base case assumes 535 GWcase, the low renewable energy sensitivity cases result incase of hydro, the projection to 2020 draws on the NDRC’s Medium- and Long-Term Plan for Renewable Energy

  11. Carbon Emissions from Smouldering Peat in Shallow and Strong Fronts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo; Cohen, Simon; Simeoni, Albert

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments of shallow and strong smouldering fronts in boreal peat have been conducted under laboratory conditions to study the CO and CO2 emissions. Peat samples of 100 mm by 100 mm in cross section and 50 ...

  12. Regional versus global? -- Will strategies for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions from electric utilities increase carbon dioxide emissions?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, J.C.; Dolsak, N.

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal are expected to reduce their SO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions may result in increased CO{sub 2} emissions. Thereby decrease of regional pollution may cause increase of global pollution. Environmental, political, moral, and economic consequences of the two types of pollution differ significantly. Midwestern electric utilities, USA, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal, are analyzed in the paper. However, the same problem is relevant for some European coal fueled power plants. Strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions, employed by Midwestern electric utilities to comply with the clean Air Act amendments (CAAA) of 1990 and their possible affects on CO{sub 2} emissions, are presented. The paper focuses on two general strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions. First is coal-switching or blending with a low-sulfur coal. Second is construction and use of flue-gas desulfurization devices (scrubbers). A combination of both strategies is also a viable option. Switching to low-sulfur coal may result in larger CO{sub 2} emissions because that coal has different characteristics and has to be transported much greater distances. Scrubbers require significant amounts of energy for their operation which requires burning more coal. This increases the level of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  13. Carbon Cycle Coastal Sensitivity to Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    For the Year 2000. Available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center [http to reduce carbon emissions from landuse change, and may also advance global terrestrial and climate an enormous 500 billion tones of carbon, more than 60 times annual anthropogenic carbon emissions

  14. 6 Monthly Report on MMU Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monthly Report on MMU Carbon Management Plan #12;2009/10 Emissions MMU Carbon Footprint Trajectory Project Footprint MMU Actual Carbon Footprint Projects that Reduced the 2009/10 CO2 Footprint #12;2010/11 Emissions6 Monthly Report on MMU Carbon Management Plan June 2011 let's make a sustainable planet #12

  15. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    52 Figure 60 Major Oil Product Imports anddemand for other oil products is not reduced commensurately.sulfur content in oil products) requires more intensive

  16. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

  17. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources. Case study of Murmansk

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2015-07-27

    Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in the Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture), ships and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys tomore »understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emissions in the Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 69 % of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source, emitting about 13 % of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 50.8 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 49 % of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.« less

  18. Emission spectra analysis of arc plasma for synthesis of carbon nanostructures in various magnetic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jian; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael

    2012-07-15

    Arc discharge supported by the erosion of anode materials is one of the most practical and efficient methods to synthesize various high-quality carbon nanostructures. By introducing a non-uniform magnetic field in arc plasmas, high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and large-scale graphene flakes can be obtained in a single step. In this paper, ultraviolet-visible emission spectra of arc in different spots under various magnetic conditions are analyzed to provide an in situ investigation for transformation processes of evaporated species and growth of carbon nanostructures in arc. Based on the arc spectra of carbon diatomic Swan bands, vibrational temperature in arc is determined. The vibrational temperature in arc center was measured around 6950 K, which is in good agreement with our simulation results. Experimental and simulation results suggest that SWCNT are formed in the arc periphery region. Transmission electronic microscope and Raman spectroscope are also employed to characterize the properties of carbon nanostructures.

  19. Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Constraints on Carbon Monoxide Emissions Based on Tall Tower Measurements in the U.S. Upper Midwest-up emission estimates in response to top-down constraints. 1. INTRODUCTION Carbon monoxide (CO) is a precursor is emitted during the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel and produced photochemically from the oxidation

  20. Reducing cold start hydrocarbon emissions from port fuel injected spark ignition engines with improved management of hardware & controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Kevin R., 1980-

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to investigate strategies for reducing cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from port fuel injected (PFI) spark ignition (SI) engines with better use of existing hardware and control ...

  1. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded the direct value of the energy savings. Commissioning also improves worker comfort, mitigates indoor air quality problems

  2. Reduced methane emissions from large-scale changes in water management of China's rice paddies during 19802000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduced methane emissions from large-scale changes in water management of China's rice paddies; accepted 1 July 2002; published 24 October 2002. [1] Decreased methane emissions from paddy rice may have contributed to the decline in the rate of increase of global atmospheric methane (CH4) concentration over

  3. In order to reduce emissions and enhance energy security, renewable power sources are being introduced proactively. As the fraction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    as a distributed energy resource as well as an energy storage for propulsion. The authors have built a plug to the power grid to provide higher efficiency, better energy security, and lower greenhouse gas emissionsAbstract In order to reduce emissions and enhance energy security, renewable power sources

  4. Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

    2008-05-01

    The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jonathan J.

    LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric * Hydroelectric reservoirs cover an area of 3.4 × 105 km2 and comprise about 20% of all reservoirs. In addition dioxide and methane from hydroelectric reservoirs, on the basis of data from 85 globally distributed

  6. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examines some of the factors that influence state-level carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels. These factors include: the fuel mix — especially in the generation of electricity; the state climate; the population density of the state; the industrial makeup of the state and whether the state is a net exporter or importer of electricity.

  7. Edinburgh Research Explorer Life cycle costs and carbon emissions of wind power: Executive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Life cycle costs and carbon emissions of wind power: Executive Summary of wind power: Executive Summary. ClimateXChange. Link: Link to publication record in Edinburgh Research of wind power Executive Summary R Camilla Thomson, Gareth P Harrison, University of Edinburgh, 2015

  8. Trends and breaks in per-capita carbon dioxide emissions, 1870-2028

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanne, Markku

    2003-01-01

    We consider per-capita carbon dioxide emission trends in 16 early developed countries over the period 1870-2028. Using a multiple-break time series method we find more evidence for very early downturns in per-capita trends ...

  9. Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes

  10. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States 1998

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The President issued a directive on April 15, 1999, requiring an annual report summarizing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by electricity generation in the United States, including both utilities and nonutilities. In response, this report is jointly submitted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  11. 15 Energy for development: solar home systemsin Africa and global carbon emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    15 Energy for development: solar home systemsin Africa and global carbon emissions RICHARD D. DUKEl, private and non- governmental organization (NGG) projects have already targeted SHS in Africa. The World;market transformation;photovoltaics; solar home systems; buydown ABST RACT A growingnumberofrural

  12. Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 41554163 Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly-dependent ``technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amounts in Great. Soot is a particle-phase product of incomplete combus- tion of carbon containing fuels. Its main

  13. Effects of palladium coating on field-emission properties of carbon nanofibers in a hydrogen plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    Effects of palladium coating on field-emission properties of carbon nanofibers in a hydrogen plasma not compromised when a protective coating consisting of a layer of palladium of 5 and 30 nm thickness was applied. Following exposure to a hydrogen plasma for sev- eral hours we find that the coatings impede plasma damage

  14. Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Devices - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from thecarbon capture faqsCarbonProcess

  15. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers in theOriginOriginEnergy-Related Carbon

  16. Long-Term Trends in California Mobile Source Emissions and Ambient Concentrations of Black Carbon and Organic Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    mobile source emissions of BC and OA (primary + secondary). Over time, as on-road engine emissions haveLong-Term Trends in California Mobile Source Emissions and Ambient Concentrations of Black Carbon, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1710, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: A fuel

  17. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 012814 (2013) Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 012814 (2013) Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances

  18. Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications for Ozone Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Chemical Composition of Gas-Phase Organic Carbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Implications gasoline and diesel vehicles via two methods. First we use speciated measurements of exhaust emissions from-based, single vehicle dynamometer testing, and on-road measurements in roadway tunnels.3-12 Emission factors

  19. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    in emissions, primary energy, capacity and composition ofin primary energy use, emissions and capacity and the changei.e. energy, upper plots) and capacity variables. The plots

  20. Enhanced light emission from Carbon Nanotubes integrated in silicon micro-resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noury, Adrien; Vivien, Laurent; Izard, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube are considered a fascinating nanomaterial for photonic applications and are especially promising for efficient light emitter in the telecommunication wavelength range. Furthermore, their hybrid integration with silicon photonic structures makes them an ideal platform to explore the carbon nanotube instrinsic properties. Here we report on the strong photoluminescence enhancement from carbon nanotubes integrated in silicon ring resonator circuit under two pumping configurations: surface-illuminated pumping at 735 nm and collinear pumping at 1.26 {\\mu}m. Extremely efficient rejection of the non-resonant photoluminescence was obtained. In the collinear approach, an emission efficiency enhancement by a factor of 26 has been demonstrated in comparison with classical pumping scheme. This demonstration pave the way for the development of integrated light source in silicon based on carbon nanotubes.

  1. Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis of Baseline Carbon Emissions and Removal in Tropical Rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Benjamin Kroll; Carlos R. Vargas

    2006-01-10

    Conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land and pasture has reduced forest extent and the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation and reforestation can restore those ecosystem services. We have assessed forest species patterns, quantified deforestation and reforestation rates, and projected future baseline carbon emissions and removal in Amazon tropical rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru. The research area is a 4800 km{sup 2} buffer zone around the Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen, Bosque de Proteccion San Matias-San Carlos, and the Reserva Comunal Yanesha. A planned project for the period 2006-2035 would conserve 4000 ha of forest in a proposed 7000 ha Area de Conservacion Municipale de Chontabamba and establish 5600 ha of natural regeneration and 1400 ha of native species plantations, laid out in fajas de enriquecimiento (contour plantings), to reforest 7000 ha of agricultural land. Forest inventories of seven sites covering 22.6 ha in primary forest and 17 sites covering 16.5 ha in secondary forest measured 17,073 trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm. The 24 sites host trees of 512 species, 267 genera, and 69 families. We could not identify the family of 7% of the trees or the scientific species of 21% of the trees. Species richness is 346 in primary forest and 257 in the secondary forest. In primary forest, 90% of aboveground biomass resides in old-growth species. Conversely, in secondary forest, 66% of aboveground biomass rests in successional species. The density of trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm is 366 trees ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 533 trees ha{sup -1} in secondary forest, although the average diameter is 24 {+-} 15 cm in primary forest and 17 {+-} 8 cm in secondary forest. Using Amazon forest biomass equations and wood densities for 117 species, aboveground biomass is 240 {+-} 30 t ha{sup -1} in the primary sites and 90 {+-} 10 t ha{sup -1} in the secondary sites. Aboveground carbon density is 120 {+-} 15 t ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 40 {+-} 5 t ha{sup -1} in secondary forest. Forest stands in the secondary forest sites range in age from 10 to 42 y. Growth in biomass (t ha{sup -1}) as a function of time (y) follows the relation: biomass = 4.09-0.017 age{sup 2} (p < 0.001). Aboveground biomass and forest species richness are positively correlated (r{sup 2} = 0.59, p < 0.001). Analyses of Landsat data show that the land cover of the 3700 km{sup 2} of non-cloud areas in 1999 was: closed forest 78%; open forest 12%, low vegetation cover 4%, sparse vegetation cover 6%. Deforestation from 1987 to 1999 claimed a net 200 km{sup 2} of forest, proceeding at a rate of 0.005 y{sup -1}. Of those areas of closed forest in 1987, only 89% remained closed forest in 1999. Consequently, closed forests experienced disruption in the time period at double the rate of net deforestation. The three protected areas experienced negligible deforestation or slight reforestation. Based on 1987 forest cover, 26,000 ha are eligible for forest carbon trading under the Clean Development Mechanism, established by the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Principal components analysis showed that distance to nonforest was the factor that best explained observed patterns of deforestation while distance to forest best explained observed patterns of reforestation, more significant than elevation, distance to rivers, distance to roads, slope, and distance to towns of population > 400. Aboveground carbon in live vegetation in the project area decreased from 35 million {+-} 4 million t in 1987 to 34 million {+-} 4 million t in 1999. Projected aboveground carbon in live vegetation would fall to 33 million {+-} 4 million t in 2006, 32 million {+-} 4 million t in 2011, and 29 million {+-} 3 million t in 2035. Projected net deforestation in the research area would total 13,000 {+-} 3000 ha in the period 1999-2011, proceeding at a rate of 0.003 {+-} 0.0007 y{sup -1}, and would total 33,000 {+-} 7000

  2. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Stork, Kevin C. (Chicago, IL)

    1997-01-01

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  3. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  4. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  5. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-06

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O?) and fine particulate matter (PM???) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth Systemmore »Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O? increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM??? increases of up to 2 ?gm?³. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.« less

  6. Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey.

    The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

  7. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  8. Estakhri and Saylak 1 Potential for Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Texas Through the Use of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    emissions are from the transportation sector. The next largest source of CO2 emissions is from per cent of CO2 emissions come from the combustion of fossil fuels, and approximately 30% of those the manufacture of cement and account for approximately 10% of all CO2 emissions (1). When faced

  9. The Need to Reduce Mobile Source Emissions in the South Coast Air Basin

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: South Coast Air Quality Management District

  10. Energy Storage/Conservation and Carbon Emissions Reduction Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Erik

    2012-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) federal assistance for the management of a project to develop and test a prototype flywheel-­?based energy recovery and storage system in partnership with Test Devices, Inc. (TDI). TDI specializes in the testing of jet engine and power generation turbines, which uses a great deal of electrical power for long periods of time. In fact, in 2007, the company consumed 3,498,500 kW-­?hr of electricity in their operations, which is equivalent to the electricity of 328 households. For this project, CTE and TDI developed and tested a prototype flywheel-­?based energy recovery and storage system. This technology is being developed at TDI’s facilities to capture and reuse the energy necessary for the company’s core process. The new technology and equipment is expected to save approximately 80% of the energy used in the TDI process, reducing total annual consumption of power by approximately 60%, saving approximately two million kilowatt-­?hours annually. Additionally, the energy recycling system will allow TDI and other end users to lower their peak power demand and reduce associated utility demand charges. The use of flywheels in this application is novel and requires significant development work from TDI. Flywheels combine low maintenance costs with very high cycle life with little to no degradation over time, resulting in lifetimes measured in decades. All of these features make flywheels a very attractive option compared to other forms of energy storage, including batteries. Development and deployment of this energy recycling technology will reduce energy consumption during jet engine and stationary turbine development. By reengineering the current inefficient testing process, TDI will reduce risk and time to market of efficiency upgrades of gas turbines across the entire spectrum of applications. Once in place the results from this program will also help other US industries to utilize energy recycling technology to lower domestic energy use and see higher net energy efficiency. The prototype system and results will be used to seek additional resources to carry out full deployment of a system. Ultimately, this innovative technology is expected to be transferable to other testing applications involving energy-­?based cycling within the company as well as throughout the industry.

  11. CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing Bacteria (TechnicalTransmission, Distribution and-- Energy,ConnectGAMMA-RAY

  12. Triode carbon nanotube field emission display using barrier rib structure and manufacturing method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, In-taek (Yongin, KR); Kim, Jong-min (Seongnam, KR)

    2003-01-01

    A triode carbon nanotube field emission display (FED) using a barrier rib structure and a manufacturing method thereof are provided. In a triode carbon nanotube FED employing barrier ribs, barrier ribs are formed on cathode lines by a screen printing method, a mesh structure is mounted on the barrier ribs, and a spacer is inserted between the barrier ribs through slots of the mesh structure, thereby stably fixing the mesh structure and the spacer within a FED panel due to support by the barrier ribs.

  13. Carbon currencies: A new gold standard for sustainable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    Change Bill commits the government to achieving 80% cuts in carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, compared to all UK citizens, with the aim of limiting and reducing carbon emissions. However, the lack endeavour, as `ecological citizenship' rather than `ecological modernisation' Keywords carbon emissions

  14. Low carbon spaces: area-based carbon emission reduction -a scoping study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Transport, Local Government and the Regions EEC Energy Efficiency Commitment EESoP Energy Efficiency by the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research in January 2002 to review existing experiences on 'carbon project(s). In this report 'Scale' refers to a range of units of different spatial dimensions. We also use

  15. Carbon Density and Anthropogenic Land Use Influences on Net Land-Use Change Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Rothwell, Andrew J.

    2013-10-08

    We examine historical and future land-use emissions using a simple mechanistic carbon-cycle model with regional and ecosystem specific parameterizations. Our central estimate of net terrestrial land-use change emissions, exclusive of climate feedbacks, is 250 GtC over the last three hundred years. This estimate is most sensitive to assumptions for preindustrial forest and soil carbon densities. We also find that estimates are sensitive to the treatment of crop and pasture lands. These sensitivities also translate into differences in future terrestrial uptake in the RCP4.5 land-use scenario. This estimate of future uptake is lower than the native values from the GCAM integrated assessment model result due to lower net reforestation in the RCP4.5 gridded land-use data product

  16. Energy Department Announces $10 Million to Advance Zero-Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicles and infrastructure will reduce petroleum use, carbon emissions, and air pollution at transportation hubs, such as ports. The Energy Department seeks...

  17. Evaluation of strategies for reducing taxi-out emissions at airports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deonandan, Indira

    Aircraft taxiing on the surface contribute significantly to the fuel burn and emissions at airports. This paper is aimed at estimating the baseline fuel burn and emissions from taxi-out processes at airports, evaluating ...

  18. Reduced impact logging minimally alters tropical rainforest carbon and energy exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    variations in energy and carbon exchange over forest andon tropical forest carbon, water, and energy exchange. Twothe role of forest in the water and energy cycles and

  19. Investigation of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Engine Technology: Improving Engine Efficiency and Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, Vi Hai

    2011-01-01

    NO x . Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions Measurements UnburnedHoriba, 1990]. Measurements of hydrocarbon concentrationdifferent hydrocarbons. This allows accurate measurements to

  20. Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

  1. A general equilibrium analysis of the effects of carbon emission restrictions on economic growth in a developing country

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blitzer, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    A general equilibrium approach, in the form of a multisector, intertemporal programming model, is used to analyze the effects on the growth of the Egyptian economy of carbon emissions constraints that differ across sectors ...

  2. Design and implementation of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen emissions measurement in swirl-stabilized oxy-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommer, Andrew (Andrew Zhang)

    2013-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion in natural gas power generation is a technology of growing interest as it provides the most efficient means of carbon capture. Since all the emissions from these power plants are sequestered, there are ...

  3. Reduced graphene oxide and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes superhydrophilic films for supercapacitors devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanin, H.; Saito, E.; Ceragioli, H.J.; Baranauskas, V.; Corat, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene nanosheets were produced onto wire rods. • RGO and VACNT-O were evaluated and compared as supercapacitor electrode. • RGO and VACNT-O have structural and electrochemical properties quite similars. • The materials present good specific capacitance, energy storage and power delivery. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) superhydrophilic films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition techniques for electrical energy storage investigations. These electrodes were characterized in terms of their material and electrochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface wettability, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive and Raman spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge. We observed several physical structural and electrochemical similarities between these carbon-based materials with particular attention to very good specific capacitance, ultra-high energy storage and fast power delivery. Our results showed that the main difference between specific capacitance values is attributed to pseudocapacitive contribution and high density of multiwall nanotubes tips. In this work we have tested a supercapacitor device using the VACNT electrodes.

  4. Are there basic physical constraints on future anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Global Climate Models (GCMs) provide forecasts of future climate warming using a wide variety of highly sophisticated anthropogenic CO2 emissions models as input, each based on the evolution of four emissions "drivers": population p, standard of living g, energy productivity (or efficiency) f and energy carbonization c. The range of scenarios considered is extremely broad, however, and this is a primary source of forecast uncertainty. Here, it is shown both theoretically and observationally how the evolution of the human system can be considered from a surprisingly simple thermodynamic perspective in which it is unnecessary to explicitly model two of the emissions drivers: population and standard of living. Specifically, the human system grows through a self-perpetuating feedback loop in which the consumption rate of primary energy resources stays tied to the historical accumulation of global economic production - or p times g - through a time-independent factor of 9.7 +/- 0.3 milliwatts per inflation-adjuste...

  5. Dynamic reduced order modeling of entrained flow gasifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monaghan, Rory F. D. (Rory Francis Desmond)

    2010-01-01

    Gasification-based energy systems coupled with carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from continued use of abundant and secure fossil fuels. Dynamic reduced ...

  6. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the associated environmental risks are acceptable or not to the public.

  7. One person can make a difference. Taking small action steps will help reduce your carbon footprint on the earth. If every-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    One person can make a difference. Taking small action steps will help reduce your carbon footprint" environmental information contact http://earth911.org/. 10 Simple Ways To Reduce Your Carbon Footprint soilcrop fluorescent one saves 150 pounds of carbon dioxide each year. Drive less. Walk, bike, carpool, or take mass

  8. Differences in carbon cycle and temperature projections from emission- and concentration-driven earth system model simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, P.; Zeng, X.; Zeng, X.

    2014-08-29

    The influence of prognostic and prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on the carbon uptake and temperature is investigated using all eight Earth System Models (ESMs) with relevant output variables from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the projected [CO2] differences in 2100 vary from -19.7 to +207.3 ppm in emission-driven ESMs. Incorporation of the interactive concentrations also increases the range of global warming, computed as the 20 year average difference between 2081–2100 and 1850–1869/1861–1880, by 49% from 2.36 K (i.e. ranging from 3.11 to 5.47 K) in the concentration-driven simulations to 3.51 K inmore »the emission-driven simulations. The observed seasonal amplitude of global [CO2] from 1980–2011 is about 1.2–5.3 times as large as those from the eight emission-driven ESMs, while the [CO2] seasonality is simply neglected in concentration-driven ESMs, suggesting the urgent need of ESM improvements in this area. The temperature-concentration feedback parameter ? is more sensitive to [CO2] (e.g. during 1980–2005 versus 2075–2100) than how [CO2] is handled (i.e. prognostic versus prescribed). This sensitivity can be substantially reduced by using a more appropriate parameter ?' computed from the linear regression of temperature change versus that of the logarithm of [CO2]. However, the inter-model relative variations of both ? and ?' remain large, suggesting the need of more detailed studies to understand and hopefully reduce these discrepancies.« less

  9. 20th-Century Industrial Black Carbon Emissions Altered Arctic Climate Forcing Joseph R. McConnell,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Eric

    20th-Century Industrial Black Carbon Emissions Altered Arctic Climate Forcing Joseph R. Mc since 1788 as a result of boreal forest fires and industrial activities. Beginning about 1850, industrial emissions resulted in a seven-fold increase in ice core BC concentrations with most change

  10. Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    Admin- istration. Wang, M. The Greenhouse Gases, RegulatedGreenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  12. Reducing Freight Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the California Corridor: The potential of short sea shipping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Bo; Smirti, Megan; Hansen, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Resources Board (CARB). Greenhouse Gas Inventory Data: 1990-CARB) California 1990 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Leve l andfor Designing a Greenhouse Gas Cap -and- Trade System for

  13. Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies.

  14. Non-Incineration Treatment to Reduce Benzene and VOC Emissions from Green Sand Molding Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred S. Cannon; Robert C. Voigt

    2002-06-28

    Final report describing laboratory, pilot scale and production scale evaluation of advanced oxidation systems for emissions and cost reduction in metal casting green sand systems.

  15. DOE and NNSA labs work with CTBTO to reduce medical isotope emissions...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    monitoring. IRE is a major worldwide producer of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and its emissions - while safe from a health perspective - contribute to regional...

  16. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. MethodologyImpacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. MethodologyFigure 3: Commercial electricity demand with and without the

  17. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

  18. NIHR Carbon Guidelines -FAQs 1. Why do the guidelines address only the principles of good research?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diggle, Peter J.

    research impact on the associated carbon footprint. 2. How much carbon can be cut using these guidelines if necessary. 5. What other steps is the Department of Health taking to reduce the carbon footprint of research will be asked to consider the carbon footprint of their research and take steps to reduce carbon emissions where

  19. A carbon nanotube field emission multipixel x-ray array source for microradiotherapy application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Sigen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Calderon, Xiomara; Peng Rui [Curriculum of Applied and Materials Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Schreiber, Eric C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhou, Otto [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Curriculum of Applied and Materials Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Chang, Sha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2011-05-23

    The authors report a carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission multipixel x-ray array source for microradiotherapy for cancer research. The developed multipixel x-ray array source has 50 individually controllable pixels and it has several distinct advantages over other irradiation source including high-temporal resolution (millisecond level), the ability to electronically shape the form, and intensity distribution of the radiation fields. The x-ray array was generated by a CNT cathode array (5x10) chip with electron field emission. A dose rate on the order of >1.2 Gy/min per x-ray pixel beam is achieved at the center of the irradiated volume. The measured dose rate is in good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation result.

  20. Effect of plasma parameters on growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Tewari, Aarti

    2011-06-15

    The effect of plasma parameters (e.g., electron density and temperature, ion density and temperature, neutral atom density and temperature) on the growth (without a catalyst), structure, and field emission properties of a spherical carbon nanotube (CNT) tip has been theoretically investigated. A theoretical model of charge neutrality, including the kinetics of electrons, positively charged ions, and neutral atoms and the energy balance of the various species in plasma, has been developed. Numerical calculations of the radius of the spherical CNT tip for different CNT number densities and plasma parameters have been carried out for the typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that upon an increase in the CNT number density and plasma parameters, the radius of the spherical CNT tip decreases, and consequently the field emission factor for the spherical CNT tip increases.

  1. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gurney, Kevin

    Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  2. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    refrigeration generation type coal nuclear ngcc renewableby fuel type. %TWh Reduction Commercial coal ngcc nuclearType and Technology : Electricity : Electric Power Electric Power Projections for EMM Region : Electricity : Emissions Quantity Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Steam Coal

  3. Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-08-01

    The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

  4. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne?s research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions was also a major reason. The transportation sector alone consumes about 13 million barrels of crude oil per day (nearly 60% of which is imported) and is responsible for about 30% of the CO{sub 2} emission. When we consider manufacturing and other energy-intensive industrial processes, the amount of petroleum being consumed due to friction and wear reaches more than 20 million barrels per day (from official energy statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration). Frequent remanufacturing and/or replacement of worn parts due to friction-, wear-, and scuffing-related degradations also consume significant amounts of energy and give rise to additional CO{sub 2} emission. Overall, the total annual cost of friction- and wear-related energy and material losses is estimated to be rather significant (i.e., as much as 5% of the gross national products of highly industrialized nations). It is projected that more than half of the total friction- and wear-related energy losses can be recovered by developing and implementing advanced friction and wear control technologies. In transportation vehicles alone, 10% to 15% of the fuel energy is spent to overcome friction. If we can cut down the friction- and wear-related energy losses by half, then we can potentially save up to 1.5 million barrels of petroleum per day. Also, less friction and wear would mean less energy consumption as well as less carbon emissions and hazardous byproducts being generated and released to the environment. New and more robust anti-friction and -wear control technologies may thus have a significant positive impact on improving the efficiency and environmental cleanliness of the current legacy fleet and future transportation systems. Effective control of friction in other industrial sectors such as manufacturing, power generation, mining and oil exploration, and agricultural and earthmoving machinery may bring more energy savings. Therefore, this project was timely and responsive to the energy and environmental objectives of DOE and our nation. In this project, most of the boron-based mater

  5. Consideration of the environmental impact of aircraft has become critical in commercial aviation. The continued growth of air traffic has caused increasing demands to reduce aircraft emissions,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    aviation. The continued growth of air traffic has caused increasing demands to reduce aircraft emissions airframe, engine and mission. The environmental metrics considered in this investigation are CO2 emissions -- which are proportional to fuel burn -- and landing- takeoff NOx emissions. The results are compared

  6. Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Gyami

    2010-01-01

    black carbon and carbon dioxide emissions. Energ. Policyreduces predicted carbon dioxide emissions estimation by upincrease rates of carbon dioxide emissions [135,136]. Due to

  7. Growth of Multiwalled-Carbon Nanotubes using Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers as Templates/Scaffolds and Improved Field-Emission Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Hongtao; Yang, X.; Baylor, Larry R; Lowndes, Douglas H

    2005-01-01

    Multiwalled-carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are grown on top of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) via microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD). The VACNFs are first grown in a direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor using nickel catalyst. A layer of carbon-silicon materials is then deposited on the VACNFs and the nickel catalyst particle is broken down into smaller nanoparticles during an intermediate reactive-ion-plasma deposition step. These nickel nanoparticles nucleate and grow MWCNTs in the following MPECVD process. Movable-probe measurements show that the MWCNTs have greatly improved field-emission properties relative to the VACNFs

  8. Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

    2005-03-30

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  9. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-08-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  10. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-05-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  11. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  12. Reduced impact logging minimally alters tropical rainforest carbon and energy exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    as net eco- system production (NEP) minus the change in livechange Necromass change NEP Carbon budget from ecologicalsee Fig. 4). Positive GPP, NEP, NPP, and live biomass for

  13. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    combustion products such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (combustion decreased. The concentration of carbon monoxidecombustion products that now include primarily carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen (N 2 ) with small amounts of carbon monoxide (

  14. Emission features of femtosecond laser ablated carbon plasma in ambient K. F. Al-Shboul, S. S. Harilal, and A. Hassanein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Emission features of femtosecond laser ablated carbon plasma in ambient helium K. F. Al-Shboul, S 2013; published online 30 April 2013) We investigated the optical emission features of plasmas produced emission spectroscopy, and temporally spatially resolved optical time of flight emission spectroscopy were

  15. Measuring supply chain carbon efficiency : a carbon label framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Anthony (Anthony J.)

    2012-01-01

    In the near term, efficiency improvements represent a key option for reducing the impacts of climate change. The growing awareness of climate change has increased the attention regarding the carbon emissions "embedded" in ...

  16. Reduce Your Company's Energy Costs and Carbon Emissions with DOE Tools and Resources (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    A two-page overview fact sheet that describes the Industrial Technologies Program's Save Energy Now initiative and voluntary pledge program.

  17. Carbon brainprint – An estimate of the intellectual contribution of research institutions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterton, Julia; Parsons, David; Nicholls, John; Longhurst, Phil; Bernon, Mike; Palmer, Andrew; Brennan, Feargal; Kolios, Athanasios; Wilson, Ian; Ishiyama, Edward; Clements-Croome, Derek; Elmualim, Abbas; Darby, Howard; Yearley, Thomas; Davies, Gareth

    2015-05-07

    Ceramic coatings for jet engine turbine blades to improve engine efficiency Cranfield Improved delivery vehicle logistics to save fuel Cranfield Training for landfill gas inspectors to improve methane capture Cranfield Novel offshore vertical axis wind... of air travel, this was 196 excluded from the assessment. 197 3.2 Novel offshore vertical axis wind turbines 198 Researchers within the School of Engineering at Cranfield University were part of a 199 consortium to develop further the concept of Novel...

  18. New Report: Integrating More Wind and Solar Reduces Utilities' Carbon Emissions and Fuel Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2), a follow-up to the initial WWSIS released in May 2010, which examined the viability, benefits, and challenges of integrating as much as 33% wind and solar power into the electricity grid of the western United States.

  19. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    the coal used for exports, non-energy use and stock changes.energy consumption~domestic production z imports { exports +energy consumption ~ domestic production z imports { exports

  20. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    in China. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 34, 337–349 ( 2014).and uncertainties. Energy Policy 31. Le Que´re´, C. et al.36. Fridley, E. D. China Energy Databook—User Guide and

  1. Will Economic Restructuring in China Reduce Trade-Embodied CO2 Emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Tianyu

    We calculate CO2 emissions embodied in China’s net exports using a multi-regional input-output database. We find that the majority of China’s export-embodied CO2 is associated with production of machinery and equipment ...

  2. An Empirically-Derived Mechanism of Combined Incentives to Reduce Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    C/ emitted per year amount to 17-25% of anthropogenic GHG emissions (10-12). Recent research suggest of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (UK) 2 Energy Planning Program, COPPE ecosystems of the planet, tropical forests (1). Home to 50-66% of Earth's species (5-6), these forests

  3. The cost of reducing utility S02 emissions : not as low as you might think

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Anne E.

    1998-01-01

    A common assertion in public policy discussions is that the cost of achieving the SO2 emissions reductions under the acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act ("Title IV") has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV ...

  4. Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissions of the separation of CO2 from the emissions stream from fossil-fuel combustion, transporting it to a storage

  5. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and September of 2005 and are included in Appendices E and F.

  6. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  7. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    from geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zone2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites: CO 2 migrationGeologic Carbon Sequestration as a Global Strategy to

  8. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Swartz, Matthew M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  9. Reduced impact logging minimally alters tropical rainforest carbon and energy exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    role of forest in the water and energy cycles and sustainingforest carbon, water, and energy exchange. Two sites in theeffects on the water and energy ?uxes by the entire

  10. Reducing a Companies Carbon Footprint through Energy Saving Best Practices at a Dairy Manufacturing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kortan, Michael J.

    2010-12-17

    these companies with increased sales. These global warming gasses are made up of both naturally occurring and non-naturally occurring gasses. Naturally occurring gasses are carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone gasses while non...

  11. Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program that helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and GHG emissions.

  12. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01

    is only one type of fossil fuel and one alternative fuel andGHG emissions and reducing fossil fuel use, and ?nd biofuelin GHG intensity of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels,

  13. Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program, which helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01

    2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

  15. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  16. Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    concentrations ranged from 72 to 631 ppb. Seasonal dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH3SCH3) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS the DMS and DMDS overall average emissions rates, determined as 0.017 g dayÀ1 AUÀ1 and 0.036 g dayÀ1 AUÀ1 of magnitude higher than the overall average DMS (0.12 mg mÀ2 minÀ1 ) and DMDS (0.09 mg mÀ2 minÀ1 ) lagoon

  17. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  18. Secretary Chu Announces Up To $154 Million for NRG Energy's Carbon...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    project will demonstrate advanced technology to reduce emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. It will also assist with enhanced oil recovery efforts from a nearby oil...

  19. Time-resolved vibrational and rotational emission analysis of laser-produced plasma of carbon and polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time-resolved vibrational and rotational emission analysis of laser-produced plasma of carbon and polymers B. Ne´meta,*, K. Musiolb , I. Sa´ntaa , J. Zachorowskib a Institute of Physics, Janus Pannonius and the CN radical in the plasma obtained by Nd:YAG laser ablation of graphite and polymers in atmospheric

  20. `Capture ready' regulation of fossil fuel power plants Betting the UK's carbon emissions on promises of future technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    power stations licensed in 2009 have had to set off land adjacent to the power plant as a capture ready`Capture ready' regulation of fossil fuel power plants ­ Betting the UK's carbon emissions interest in investing in new fossil fuelled power plants. The question is whether capture ready policy can

  1. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  2. Yale University committed to reducing its primary greenhouse gas emissions 43% below 2005 levels.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) 260,700 216,634 2005 2013 Yale has implemented a comprehensive energy conservation strategy that has's mission. Effective strategies have included: reducing the energy intensity of buildings through construction and renovation standards, promoting behavioral shifts and culture change, and investing

  3. Dual fuel Russian urban transit buses: Economical reduced emissions. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This study, conducted by Caterpillar, was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The scope of this project was to examine the financial and environmental aspects of introducing new alternative fuel engines to the buses of Russia`s public transportation system. The report consists of the following: (1) executive summary; (2) background/overview; (3) 3306 design, development, test; (4) electronic governed engines; (5) Moscow bus testing; (6) conclusions; (7) appendices. The appendices include: (1) Caterpillar emissions lab report; (2) dyno tests -- dual fuel data sheets; (3) 3360 horizontal engine lub tilt test; (4) 1000 hour endurance test -- engine operator sheets; (5) 1000 hour endurance test -- 250 hour check; (6) Caterpillar dual fuel electronic engines; (7) product description -- dual fuel electronic governed engines; (8) California Environmental Protection Agency -- certification of caterpillar electronic governed engines; (9) annual payback data.

  4. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  5. Putting policy in drive : coordinating measures to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. light-duty vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Christopher W. (Christopher William)

    2008-01-01

    The challenges of energy security and climate change have prompted efforts to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions in light-duty vehicles within the United States. Failures in the market for lower rates of fuel ...

  6. Light emission from an argon discharge containing an admixture of carbon G. Bekefi, P. Avivi, F. DothanDeutsch, L. Friedland, J. L. Hirshfield, and H. Keren

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedland, Lazar

    Light emission from an argon discharge containing an admixture of carbon monoxide G. Bekefi, P Publishing Articles you may be interested in Light Emission of Argon Discharges: Importance of Heavy Particle Processes AIP Conf. Proc. 740, 353 (2004); 10.1063/1.1843519 Kinetic pathways to visible emission from

  7. A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3 Racetracks25 AMO PeerServices6ProgramAA Path to Reduce

  8. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    2008), of which wind and small hydro dominate (Ministry oflarge & small) Wind in India Biomass in India Hydro in India

  9. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    80% depreciation for wind project capital costs in the first80% depreciation for wind project capital costs in the firstdistinct values, like the cost of a wind turbine if a supply

  10. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    process identifies potential hydropower sites and determinespotential investments into a factory that are plant specific. 3.3. Hydropower

  11. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    and generator. State electricity regulatory commissions must balance two competing interests in determining wind power

  12. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    in formulating their power purchase policies. In 1994, MNESto rescind their power purchase agreements with bagasseelectric utilities to purchase power from local generators

  13. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    for wind, biomass and hydropower projects in India, Iat wind power, biomass energy and hydropower projects inassumptions 43 Hydropower projects: inappropriate

  14. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    2001. Commercial scale cogeneration of bagasse energy inS. C. Bagasse based cogeneration, India marching ahead .1998. Promotion of biomass cogeneration with power export in

  15. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    capital cost of independent power producers' (IPPs') powerexamples of independent power producers (IPPs) (Eberhard &

  16. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    52 India’s energybackground information on India’s energy and sugar sectors,2. BACKGROUND 2.1. India’s energy sector The potential

  17. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    renewable energy projects (2), government officials (2), members of the CDM governance panels (2), and researchers involved in renewable energy and hydropower development

  18. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Central Electricity Regulatory Commission tariff order for renewable energyCentral Electricity Regulatory Commission (Terms and Conditions for Tariff determination from Renewable Energy

  19. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    effectively promote renewable energy in India. I analyzedCDM and renewable energy professionals in India is that manyof CDM and renewable energy professionals in India together

  20. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    N. Wamukonya. 2002. Renewable energy markets in developingDC Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, 2008. Annual Reportbanks lending to renewable energy projects (2), government

  1. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    to fund a bagasse cogeneration plant at such a companylong after the bagasse cogeneration plant was installed Theinvested in a bagasse cogeneration plant in one of its mills

  2. The future of carbon sequestration. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-04-15

    The report is an overview of the opportunities for carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in carbon sequestration, the challenges faced in implementing carbon sequestration projects, and the current and future state of carbon sequestration. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of the climate change debate; Explanation of the global carbon cycle; Discussion of the concept of carbon sequestration; Review of current efforts to implement carbon sequestration; Analysis and comparison of carbon sequestration component technologies; Review of the economic drivers of carbon sequestration project success; and Discussion of the key government and industry initiatives supporting carbon sequestration.

  3. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north–south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.

    2014-09-12

    Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to physicochemical limnology and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included Direct Ebullition, Diffusion, Storage flux, and a newly identified Ice-Bubble Storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4more »emissions was two times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and Diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions respectively. IBS, ~ 10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, dystrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of phosphate and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.« less

  4. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andres 1 , T. A.resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission fluxes forCO 2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA,

  5. Corresponding author: Tel. (617) 253-3901, Fax. (617) 253-9845, Email: jrm1@mit.edu THE FUTURE OF COAL CONSUMPTION IN A CARBON CONSTRAINED WORLD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    emissions of carbon dioxide. It is used primarily in the electric power sector where it provides over half of the primary energy input. In the absence of penalties or restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions, coal use. However, policies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have the potential to threaten coal's dominance

  6. India's iron and steel industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1998-10-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's iron and steel sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both growth accounting and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that over the observed period from 1973--74 to 1993--94 productivity declined by 1.71{percent} as indicated by the Translog index. Calculations of the Kendrick and Solow indices support this finding. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's iron and steel sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protective policy regarding price and distribution of iron and steel as well as by large inefficiencies in public sector integrated steel plants. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? Most likely they will not. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with the liberalization of the iron and steel sector, the industry is rapidly moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use in existing and future plants.

  7. University of Aberdeen Carbon Management Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neri, Peter

    energy prices and acknowledge the financial and moral imperative for all organisations, in particular and outlines a comprehensive programme to reduce carbon emissions, increase energy efficiency and to devolve

  8. Reducing Our Carbon Footprint: Converting Plants to Fuel (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Somerville, Chris

    2011-04-28

    Berkeley Lab's Chris Somerville is a leading authority on the structure and function of plant cell walls, which comprise most of the body mass of higher plants. He views the knowledge of cell wall structure and function as furthering the development of plants with improved usefulness: these plants are strong potential sources of renewable materials and biofuel feedstocks. His scientific expertise defines an ideal match of his interest - in the development of cellulosic and other solar-to-fuel science - with his recent appointment as Director of the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI). With colleagues in biology, physical sciences, engineering, and environmental and the social sciences, he now leads the EBI multidisciplinary teams' research efforts to develop next-generation, carbon-neutral transportation fuels.

  9. Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide ................................................................................................................................ 7 1.1 APPROACHES TO REDUCING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy

  10. Methodology for Carbon Footprint in Forestry Findings and Ways of Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Methodology for Carbon Footprint in Forestry Findings and Ways of Improvement Gabriel Chauvet1 Auvergne, Site de Marmilhat, F-63370 Lempdes Abstract. Classic methodologies for carbon footprint are made recommendations to reduce GHG emissions in forestry. Keywords: forestry, GHG, emissions, carbon, footprint, wood

  11. Carbon Constraints and the Electric Power Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The report is designed to provide a thorough understanding of the type of carbon constraints that are likely to be imposed, when they are likely to take effect, and how they will impact the electric power industry. The main objective of the report is to provide industry participants with the knowledge they need to plan for and react to a future in which carbon emissions are restricted. The main goal of the report is to ensure an understanding of the likely restrictions that will be placed on carbon emissions, the methods available for reducing their carbon emissions, and the impact that carbon reductions will have on the electric power industry. A secondary goal of the report is to provide information on key carbon programs and market participants to enable companies to begin participating in the international carbon marketplace. Topics covered in the report include: overview of what climate change and the Kyoto Protocol are; analysis of the impacts of climate change on the U.S. and domestic efforts to mandate carbon reductions; description of carbon reduction mechanisms and the types of carbon credits that can be created; evaluation of the benefits of carbon trading and the rules for participation under Kyoto; Description of the methods for reducing carbon emissions available to the U.S. electric power industry; analysis of the impact of carbon restrictions on the U.S. electric power industry in terms of both prices and revenues; evaluation of the impact of carbon restrictions on renewable energy; overview of the current state of the global carbon market including descriptions of the three major marketplaces; descriptions of the industry and government programs already underway to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. electric power industry; and, profiles of the major international carbon exchanges and brokers.

  12. Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Anna; Brand, Christian; Ogilvie, David; iConnect consortium

    2012-08-03

    Abstract Background Motorised travel and associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generate substantial health costs; in the case of motorised travel, this may include contributing to rising obesity levels. Obesity has in turn been hypothesised...

  13. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008 Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions frompatterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO 2 is important

  14. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north–south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.

    2015-06-02

    Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to lakes' physicochemical properties and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included direct ebullition, diffusion, storage flux, and a newly identified ice-bubble storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lakemore »CH4 emissions was 2 times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions, respectively. IBS, ~10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, mixotrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. The relationship between CO2 emissions and geographic parameters was weak, suggesting high variability among sources and sinks that regulate CO2 emissions (e.g., catchment waters, pH equilibrium). Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth, and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.« less

  15. Energy-consumption and carbon-emission analysis of vehicle and component manufacturing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-12

    A model is presented for calculating the environmental burdens of the part manufacturing and vehicle assembly (VMA) stage of the vehicle life cycle. The approach is bottom-up, with a special focus on energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. The model is applied to both conventional and advanced vehicles, the latter of which include aluminum-intensive, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and all-electric vehicles. An important component of the model, a weight-based distribution function of materials and associated transformation processes (casting, stamping, etc.), is developed from the United States Council for Automotive Research Generic Vehicle Life Cycle Inventory Study. As the approach is bottom-up, numerous transformation process data and plant operational data were extracted from the literature for use in representing the many operations included in the model. When the model was applied to conventional vehicles, reliable estimates of cumulative energy consumption (34 GJ/vehicle) and CO{sub 2} emission (2 tonnes/vehicle) were computed for the VMA life-cycle stage. The numerous data sets taken from the literature permitted the development of some statistics on model results. Because the model explicitly includes a greater coverage of relevant manufacturing processes than many earlier studies, our energy estimates are on the higher end of previously published values. Limitations of the model are also discussed. Because the material compositions of conventional vehicles within specific classes (cars, light duty trucks, etc.) are sensibly constant on a percent-by-weight basis, the model can be reduced to a simple linear form for each class dependent only on vehicle weight. For advanced vehicles, the material/transformation process distribution developed above needs to be adjusted for different materials and components. This is particularly so for aluminum-intensive and electric-drive vehicles. In fact, because of their comparatively high manufacturing energy, batteries required for an electric vehicle can significantly add to the energy burden of the VMA stage. Overall, for conventional vehicles, energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions from the VMA stage are about 4% of their total life-cycle values. They are expected to be somewhat higher for advanced vehicles.

  16. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    Figure 1 shows electricity rates that provide the same costgasoline prices. Lower electricity rates than the ones shown2006 US residential electricity rates averaged about $0.083

  17. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01

    and Impacts of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Options for Compactand Impacts of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Options. (EPRI: PaloEvaluation of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Toyota’s Prius vs.

  18. State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sautter, John A.

    2010-10-15

    In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

  19. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    dioxide emis- sions from fossil-fuel use in North America,S. : High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emissionP. P. : Linking emissions of fossil fuel CO 2 and other

  20. Using an Explicit Emission Tagging Method in Global Modeling of Source-Receptor Relationships for Black Carbon in the Arctic: Variations, Sources and Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Singh, Balwinder; Zhang, Rudong; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Ghan, Steven J.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2014-11-27

    We introduce an explicit emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model to quantify source-region-resolved characteristics of black carbon (BC), focusing on the Arctic. Explicit tagging of BC source regions without perturbing the emissions makes it straightforward to establish source-receptor relationships and transport pathways, providing a physically consistent and computationally efficient approach to produce a detailed characterization of the destiny of regional BC emissions and the potential for mitigation actions. Our analysis shows that the contributions of major source regions to the global BC burden are not proportional to the respective emissions due to strong region-dependent removal rates and lifetimes, while the contributions to BC direct radiative forcing show a near-linear dependence on their respective contributions to the burden. Distant sources contribute to BC in remote regions mostly in the mid- and upper troposphere, having much less impact on lower-level concentrations (and deposition) than on burden. Arctic BC concentrations, deposition and source contributions all have strong seasonal variations. Eastern Asia contributes the most to the wintertime Arctic burden. Northern Europe emissions are more important to both surface concentration and deposition in winter than in summer. The largest contribution to Arctic BC in the summer is from Northern Asia. Although local emissions contribute less than 10% to the annual mean BC burden and deposition within the Arctic, the per-emission efficiency is much higher than for major non-Arctic sources. The interannual variability (1996-2005) due to meteorology is small in annual mean BC burden and radiative forcing but is significant in yearly seasonal means over the Arctic. When a slow aging treatment of BC is introduced, the increase of BC lifetime and burden is source-dependent. Global BC forcing-per-burden efficiency also increases primarily due to changes in BC vertical distributions. The relative contribution from major non-Arctic sources to the Arctic BC burden increases only slightly, although the contribution of Arctic local sources is reduced by a factor of 2 due to the slow aging treatment.

  1. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We reportmore »on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.« less

  2. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Associates; 200 SW 35th St.; Corvallis; OR; 97333; USA; Wilson, John K. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Associates; 200 SW 35th St.; Corvallis; OR; 97333; USA

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.

  3. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Claire L. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Reserach Associates,Corvallis, OR (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gregg, Jillian W. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Reserach Associates,Corvallis, OR (United States); Wilson, John K. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Reserach Associates,Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.

  4. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 113 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  5. Extending lean operating limit and reducing emissions of methane spark-ignited engines using a microwave-assisted spark plug

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rapp, Vi H.; DeFilippo, Anthony; Saxena, Samveg; Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Dibble, Robert W.; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Moon, Ahsa; Ikeda, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    A microwave-assisted spark plug was used to extend the lean operating limit (lean limit) and reduce emissions of an engine burning methane-air. In-cylinder pressure data were collected at normalized air-fuel ratios of ? = 1.46, ? = 1.51, ? = 1.57, ? = 1.68, and ? = 1.75. For each ?, microwave energy (power supplied to the magnetron per engine cycle) was varied from 0 mJ (spark discharge alone) to 1600 mJ. At lean conditions, the results showed adding microwave energy to a standard spark plug discharge increased the number of complete combustion cycles, improving engine stability as comparedmore »to spark-only operation. Addition of microwave energy also increased the indicated thermal efficiency by 4% at ? = 1.68. At ? = 1.75, the spark discharge alone was unable to consistently ignite the air-fuel mixture, resulting in frequent misfires. Although microwave energy produced more consistent ignition than spark discharge alone at ? = 1.75, 59% of the cycles only partially burned. Overall, the microwave-assisted spark plug increased engine performance under lean operating conditions (? = 1.68) but did not affect operation at conditions closer to stoichiometric.« less

  6. Generation of continuous and pulsed diagnostic imaging x-ray radiation using a carbon-nanotube-based field-emission cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -nanotube-based field-emission cathode G. Z. Yue Department of Physics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North-ray radiation can be generated using a carbon nanotube CNT -based field-emission cathode. The device can readily emission current of 28 mA was obtained from a 0.2 cm2 area CNT cathode. The x-ray intensity is sufficient

  7. Strategies for demonstration and early deployment of carbon capture and storage : a technical and economic assessment of capture percentage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Ashleigh Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical technology for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from electricity production by coal-fired power plants. However, full capture (capture of nominally 90% of emissions) has ...

  8. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    Values by Fuel Fuel Type Raw Coal Cleaned Coal Washed CoalType Carbon Coefficient CO 2 Coefficient (t C/TJ) (t CO 2 /TJ) Coal

  9. China's sustainable energy future: Scenarios of energy and carbon emissions (Summary)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    will shape China’s future energy system, and consequentlybeen conducted on future energy use and pollutant emissionscould influence China’s future energy consumption and carbon

  10. Carbon Accounting and Economic Model Uncertainty of Emissions from Biofuels-Induced Land Use Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plevin, Richard J; Beckman, Jayson; Golub, Alla A; Witcover, Julie; O'??Hare, Michael

    2015-01-01

    uncertainty of full carbon accounting of forest ecosystemsA. ; Hopson, E. , Proper accounting for time increases crop-use change modeling in GTEM: Accounting for forest sinks.

  11. Biomass torrefaction and CO2 capture using mining wastes A new approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of co-firing plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass torrefaction and CO2 capture using mining wastes ­ A new approach for reducing greenhouse: Biomass Torrefaction Carbon dioxide Sequestration Mining residues a b s t r a c t A novel combination. Torrefaction was combined with ultramafic mining residues to capture emitted CO2. Presence of CH4 and CO

  12. ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang Song1, Igor Razlivano1, Kevin R. Gurney1, and Preeti Rao2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang University, 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a primary greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas, coal, and petroleum sources. We use a `bottom-up' approach in which CO2

  13. Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    fossil fuel use and 40 Tg yrÀ1 from biomass burning. With the addition of isoprene oxidation, the total. In India, the preponderance of motorcycles with small, two-stroke engines and the practice of adulterating CO emissions were 67 Tg yrÀ1 from India and 87 Tg(CO) yrÀ1 from all of South Asia. These values

  14. Secretary of Energy Memorandum on DOE Greenhouse Gas Emission...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to a low-carbon economy. We must also lead by example in reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with our own operations and facilities. On October 5,2009, the President...

  15. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2011...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    by sector" was revised to match the values given in Table 3. Paragraph entitled "Emissions by Sector" the following changes were made by state and sector: Vermont...

  16. 20th-Century Industrial Black Carbon Emissions Altered Arctic Climate Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    emissions, not boreal forest fires. (B) Annual averagea result of boreal forest fires and industrial activities.as indi- cators of forest fires and industrial pollution,

  17. Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959–1999, Can. J.structure of the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Predictionemissions from boreal forest fires, J. Geophys. Res. , 109,

  18. 20th-Century Industrial Black Carbon Emissions Altered Arctic Climate Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    biomass and fossil fuel combustion alters chemical and physical properties of the atmosphere and snow albedo, yet little is known about its emission

  19. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    and industries. Provincial energy data are drawn from thethe provinces provide energy data at the manufacturing sub-2 emissions. As no energy data are available from Jiangsu,

  20. Allocation of Carbon Emission Certificates in the Power Sector: How generators profitfrom grandfathered rights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Kim Keats; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2006-03-14

    be auctioned. The paper also analyses the interactions with the Large Combustion Plant Directive, which limits SO2 and NOx emissions...

  1. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    emissions from accidental forest fires, and forest damageof non-forest and pasture maintenance fires), and 3) high-of fires and biomass removal through combustion than forest

  2. Carbon Accounting and Economic Model Uncertainty of Emissions from Biofuels-Induced Land Use Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plevin, Richard J; Beckman, Jayson; Golub, Alla A; Witcover, Julie; O'??Hare, Michael

    2015-01-01

    an increase in biofuel production. According to several;emissions from ILUC. Biofuel production also affects foodfrom increased biofuel production. AEZ- EF takes the GTAP

  3. Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

  4. e are hearing a lot these days about carbon emissions and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Steven

    of climate change or global warming. The basic problem, we are told, is the carbon dioxide that is released into theatmosphereeverytimeweburnsome- thing like petrol or coal. Carbon dioxide is a "greenhouse gas" that causes warming of the planet dioxide, is actually the strongest green- house gas in our atmosphere. Does that mean all the hype about

  5. SCENARIOS FOR DEEP CARBON EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM ELECTRICITY BY 2050 IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA USING THE SWITCH ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR PLANNING MODEL California's Carbon Challenge Phase II Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was installed on some gas plants by 2050.

  6. Effect of doping on growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip placed over cylindrical surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santolia, Isha; Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.; Sharma, Rinku

    2014-06-15

    Theoretical investigations to study the effect of doping of hetero-atoms on the growth and field emission properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) tip placed over a cylindrical surface in complex plasma have been carried out. A theoretical model incorporating kinetics of plasma species such as electron, ions, and neutral atoms including doping elements like nitrogen (N) and boron (B) and energy balance of CNTs in a complex plasma has been developed. The effect of doping elements of N and B on the growth of CNTs, namely, the tip radius has been carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that N and B as doping elements affect the radius of CNTs extensively. We obtain small radii of CNT doped with N and large radius of CNT doped with B. The field emission characteristics from CNTs have therefore been suggested on the basis of results obtained. Some of theoretical results are in compliance with the existing experimental observations.

  7. Effect of plasma parameters on growth and field emission of electrons from cylindrical metallic carbon nanotube surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Tewari, Aarti

    2011-08-15

    The effect of plasma parameters (e.g., electron density and temperature, ion density and temperature, neutral atom density, and temperature) on the growth (without a catalyst), structure, and field emission of electrons from a cylindrical metallic carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces has been theoretically investigated. A theoretical model of charge neutrality, including the kinetics of electrons, positively charged ions, and neutral atoms, and the energy balance of the various species in plasma, has been developed. Numerical calculations of the radius of the cylindrical CNT for different CNT number densities and plasma parameters have been carried out for the typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that, on increasing the CNT number density and plasma parameters, the radius of cylindrical CNT decreases and consequently, the field emission factor for the metallic cylindrical CNT surfaces increase.

  8. Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jinping; Jia, Xinyan; Hao, Xiaolei; Zeng, Bin; Jing, Chenrui; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xie, Hongqiang; Zhang, Chaojin; Zhao, Zengxiu; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-01-01

    We show that fluorescence emission induced by strong field tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from its lower-lying orbitals exhibits a peculiar molecular alignment dependence. The experimentally measured alignment-dependence of the fluorescence agrees with the alignment-dependence of the ionization probability calculated in the framework of the strong field approximation. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an all-optical approach for shedding more light on the ionization mechanisms of molecules from their lower-lying orbitals in tunnel ionization regime.

  9. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

    2007-11-09

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  10. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

    2007-10-01

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  11. Assessing ``Dangerous Climate Change'': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of America, 9 Marine Institute, PlymouthC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting

  12. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  13. Who Pays a Price on Carbon?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grainger, Corbett A.; Kolstad, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    that a fully auctioned emissions trading program (with aof a carbon tax or emissions trading system (Fullertona carbon tax or emissions trading system may have exemptions

  14. An Analysis of Measures to Reduce the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of California's Personal Computers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, A; Masanet, Eric

    2007-01-01

    +C+D+E A+B+C+D+E+F Primary Energy Use (PJ/yr) Direct Total %were converted to primary energy use and GHG emissions inFPD UEC (kWh/yr) Primary Energy Use (MJ/yr) GHG Emissions (

  15. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

  16. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.

    2013-03-31

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) consists of 5 U.S DOE national laboratories collaborating to develop a framework for predicting the risks associated with carbon sequestration. The approach taken by NRAP is to divide the system into components, including injection target reservoirs, wellbores, natural pathways including faults and fractures, groundwater and the atmosphere. Next, develop a detailed, physics and chemistry-based model of each component. Using the results of the detailed models, develop efficient, simplified models, termed reduced order models (ROM) for each component. Finally, integrate the component ROMs into a system model that calculates risk profiles for the site. This report details the development of the Groundwater Geochemistry ROM for the Edwards Aquifer at PNNL. The Groundwater Geochemistry ROM for the Edwards Aquifer uses a Wellbore Leakage ROM developed at LANL as input. The detailed model, using the STOMP simulator, covers a 5x8 km area of the Edwards Aquifer near San Antonio, Texas. The model includes heterogeneous hydraulic properties, and equilibrium, kinetic and sorption reactions between groundwater, leaked CO2 gas, brine, and the aquifer carbonate and clay minerals. Latin Hypercube sampling was used to generate 1024 samples of input parameters. For each of these input samples, the STOMP simulator was used to predict the flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, and the volume, length and width of the aquifer where pH was less than the MCL standard, and TDS, arsenic, cadmium and lead exceeded MCL standards. In order to decouple the Wellbore Leakage ROM from the Groundwater Geochemistry ROM, the response surface was transformed to replace Wellbore Leakage ROM input parameters with instantaneous and cumulative CO2 and brine leakage rates. The most sensitive parameters proved to be the CO2 and brine leakage rates from the well, with equilibrium coefficients for calcite and dolomite, as well as the number of illite and kaolinite sorption sites proving to be of secondary importance. The Groundwater Geochemistry ROM was developed using nonlinear regression to fit the response surface with a quadratic polynomial. The goodness of fit was excellent for the CO2 flux to the atmosphere, and very good for predicting the volumes of groundwater exceeding the pH, TDS, As, Cd and Pb threshold values.

  17. Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    from Canadian forest fires, 1959–1999, Can. J. For. Res. ,soils, Int. J. Wildland Fire, in press. Boby, L. A. , E. A.F. Johnstone (2010), Quantifying fire severity, carbon, and

  18. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiency of Household Appliances in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-01-01

    coal’s dominance in power generation will decline somewhatthe carbon intensity of power generation in China from 0.230of fuel in China’s power generation. Coal will continue to

  19. Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

    2009-04-30

    CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

  20. A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

  1. BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

  2. Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.; Evans, W.C. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California (United States)] Kennedy, B.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States)] Farrar, C.D. [U.S. Geological Survey, Carnelian Bay, California (United States)] Hainsworth, L.J. [Chemistry Department, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia (United States)] Hausback, B. [Geology Department, California State University, Sacramento

    1998-07-01

    Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source ({delta}thinsp{sup 13}C={minus}4.5 to {minus}5{per_thousand}, {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He=4.5 to 6.7 R{sub A}) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO{sub 2} discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills arc associated with CO{sub 2} concentrations of 30{endash}90{percent} in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 gthinspm{sup {minus}2}thinspd{sup {minus}1} at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO{sub 2} discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO{sub 2} flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30{endash}50 t/d of CO{sub 2} are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO{sub 2} and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N{sub 2}/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values indicate that the Mammoth Mountain gases are derived from sources separate from those that supply gas to the hydrothermal system within the Long Valley caldera. Various data suggest that the Mammoth Mountain gas reservoir is a large, low-temperature cap over an isolated hydrothermal system, that it predates the 1989 intrusion, and that it could remain a source of gas discharge for some time. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  3. Role of negatively charged ions in plasma on the growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Aarti; Walia, Ritu; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2012-01-15

    The role of negatively charged ions in plasma on growth (without catalyst) and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube (CNT) tip has been theoretically investigated. A theoretical model of charge neutrality, including the kinetics of electrons, negatively and positively charged ions, neutral atoms, and the energy balance of various species has been developed. Numerical calculations of the spherical CNT tip radius for different relative density of negatively charged ions {epsilon}{sub r}(=n{sub SF{sub 6{sup -}}}/n{sub C{sup +}}, where n{sub SF{sub 6{sup -}}} and n{sub C}{sup +} are the equilibrium densities of sulphur hexafluoride and carbon ions, respectively) have been carried out for the typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that the spherical CNT tip radius decreases with {epsilon}{sub r} and hence the field emission of electrons from the spherical CNT tip increases. Some of our theoretical results are in accordance with the existing experimental observations.

  4. Carbon Prices and Automobile Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Extensive and Intensive Margins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    The transportation sector accounts for nearly one third of the United States' greenhouse gas emissions. While over the past number of decades, policy makers have avoided directly pricing the externalities from vehicles, ...

  5. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    International Energy Agency (OECD/IEA): CO 2 emissions fromcombustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA, Paris, 2010. Kashiwagi,data are generated by the IEA and are a no- table feature of

  6. Synergy between Pollution and Carbon Emissions Control: Comparing China and the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Kyung-Min

    We estimate the potential synergy between pollution and climate control in the U.S. and China, summarizing the results as emissions cross-elasticities of control. We set a range of NOx and SO2 targets, and record the ...

  7. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    all countries where energy data and emission estimates existwith time due to increased energy data United 1752 is of thetime due to increased energy data availabil- ity and the

  8. Estimating carbon dioxide emissions factors for the California electric power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-01-01

    the thermal plants, excluding cogeneration, in each region.will be thermal plants that are not cogeneration facilities,plant and contract data for modeling emissions from cogeneration and

  9. Using NASA Remote Sensing Data to Reduce Uncertainty of Land-Use Transitions in Global Carbon-Climate Models: Data Management Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using NASA Remote Sensing Data to Reduce Uncertainty of Land-Use Transitions in Global Carbon University of Maryland The following Data Management Plan was part of the NASA ROSES 2012 Proposal Using NASA), as described below. We will follow all guidelines in the NASA Earth Science Data and Information Policy, along

  10. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    CSEM WP 167 Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel94720-5180 www.ucei.org Greenhouse Gas Reductions under LowLCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  11. Carbon and energy payback of variable renewable generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomson, Rachel Camilla

    2014-06-30

    The continued drive to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in order to mitigate climate change has led to an increase in demand for low-carbon energy sources, and the development of new technologies to harness the ...

  12. Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesse, M. A.

    The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

  13. Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas NuclearElectronic StructureEly M.Emilio Segrè About the LabEmission

  14. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guenther, Alex

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic ...

  15. Development of Low Temperature Combustion Modes to Reduce Overall Emissions from a Medium-Duty, Four Cylinder Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breen, Jonathan Robert

    2011-10-21

    Low temperature combustion (LTC) is an appealing new method of combustion that promises low nitric oxides and soot emissions while maintaining or improving on engine performance. The three main points of this study were ...

  16. Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann [Director, Demand Response Research Center

    2011-06-08

    Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  17. Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-02-02

    Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  18. After the Clean Air Mercury Eule: prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana B. Milford; Alison Pienciak

    2009-04-15

    Recent court decisions have affected the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions from coal burning, but some state laws are helping to clear the air. In 2005, the US EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), setting performance standards for new coal-fired power plants and nominally capping mercury emissions form new and existing plants at 38 tons per year from 2010 to 2017 and 15 tpy in 2018 and thereafter; these down from 48.5 tpy in 1999. To implement the CAMR, 21 states with non-zero emissions adopted EPA's new source performance standards and cap and trade program with little or no modification. By December 2007, 23 other states had proposed or adopted more stringent requirements; 16 states prohibited or restricted interstate trading of mercury emissions. On February 2008, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia Circuit unanimously vacated the CAMR. This article assesses the status of mercury emission control requirements for coal-fired power plants in the US in light of this decision, focusing on state actions and prospects for a new federal rule. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Challenges and Opportunities for Regulating Greenhouse Gas Emissions at the State, Regional and Local Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, Jim

    2009-01-01

    and mandatory carbon dioxide emission reporting. Governorand mandatory carbon dioxide emissions re- porting that hasthe tracking of carbon dioxide emissions many years ago. The

  20. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    CIS Total and Power Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-Power Sector CIS and AIS Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-Inter-scenario Carbon Dioxide Emissions Mitigation Potential