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1

Redox Flow Batteries: a Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1137-1164 Date Published 102011 ISSN 1572-8838 Keywords Flow battery, Flow cell, Redox, Regenerative fuel cell, Vanadium Abstract Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are enjoying a...

2

Transitioning from Fuel Cells to Redox Flow Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transitioning From Fuel Cells to Redox Transitioning From Fuel Cells to Redox Flow Cells T. Zawodzinski and Matt Mench University of Tennessee and ORNL Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy 2 Acknowledgments $$ DOE-OE EPRI GCEP NSF EPSCOR (TN SCORE) UTK Governor's Chair Fund Partner in Crime Matt Mench Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy 'Peeling the Onion' Personalized History of PEM Fuel Cells We May Recapitulate This for RFBs Catalysis Test System * Small Single Cell * Large Single Cell * Stack * System Layers of the Onion Hot Topic du Jour * Water Management, Membranes * Late '80's, early '90's * Reformate Tolerance, DMFC's * Mid '90's * High Temp Membranes * Late '90's * Durability * Early '00's Modeling * Membrane/ Water * Cathode * Impedance

3

Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vanadium redox flow battery, sometimes abbreviated as VRB, is an energy storage technology with significant potential for application in a wide range of contexts. Vanadium redox batteries have already been used in a number of demonstrations in small-scale utility-scale applications, and it is believed that the technology is close to being viable for more widespread use. This report examines the vanadium redox technology, including technical performance and cost issues that drive its application today...

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

4

Performance and cycling of the iron-ion/hydrogen redox flow cell with  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Performance and cycling of the iron-ion/hydrogen redox flow cell with Performance and cycling of the iron-ion/hydrogen redox flow cell with various catholyte salts Title Performance and cycling of the iron-ion/hydrogen redox flow cell with various catholyte salts Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Tucker, Michael C., Venkat Srinivasan, Philip N. Ross, and Adam Z. Weber Journal Journal of Applied Electrochemistry Volume 43 Issue 7 Pagination 637 - 644 Date Published 7/2013 ISSN 0021-891X Keywords battery, Flow battery, iron hydrogen cell, progress, redox flow cell Abstract A redox flow cell utilizing the Fe2+/Fe3+ and H-2/H+ couples is investigated as an energy storage device. A conventional polymer electrolyte fuel cell anode and membrane design is employed, with a cathode chamber containing a carbon felt flooded with aqueous acidic solution of iron salt. The maximum power densities achieved for iron sulfate, iron chloride, and iron nitrate are 148, 207, and 234 mW cm(-2), respectively. It is found that the capacity of the iron nitrate solution decreases rapidly during cycling. Stable cycling is observed for more than 100 h with iron chloride and iron sulfate solutions. Both iron sulfate and iron chloride solutions display moderate discharge polarization and poor charge polarization; therefore, voltage efficiency decreases dramatically with increasing current density. A small self-discharge current occurs when catholyte is circulating through the cathode chamber. As a result, a current density above 100 mA cm(-2) is required to achieve high Coulombic efficiency (> 0.9).

5

A New Hybrid Redox Flow Battery with Multiple Redox Couples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A redox flow battery using V{sup 4+}/V{sup 5+} vs. V{sup 2+}/V{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} vs. V{sup 2+}/V{sup 3+} redox couples in chloric/sulphuric mixed acid supporting electrolyte was investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The Fe/V hybrid redox flow cell using mixed reactant solutions operated within a voltage window of 0.5-1.7 V demonstrated stable cycling over 100 cycles with energy efficiency {approx}80% and no capacity fading at room temperature. A 66% improvement in the energy density of the Fe/V hybrid cell was achieved compared with the previous reported Fe/V cell using only Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} vs. V{sup 2+}/V{sup 3+} redox couples.

Wang, Wei; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Luo, Qingtao; Shao, Yuyan; Wei, Xiaoliang; Chen, Feng; Xia, Guanguang; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

6

Redox flow batteries: a review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of RFBs with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

Weber, Adam Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Mench, Matthew M [ORNL; Meyers, Jeremy [University of Texas, Austin; Ross, Philip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gostick, Jeffrey T. [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Liu, Qinghua [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energys Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

8

Redox Flow Batteries for Grid-scale Energy Storage - Energy ...  

Though considered a promising large-scale energy storage device, the real-world deployment of redox flow batteries has been limited by their inability ...

9

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Single Substance Organic Redox Flow Battery...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2Z Z - + Z + E 0 -2.8V A Single Substance Organic Redox Flow Battery -+- -+- Components Compound Z Tetraethylammonium Tetrafluoroborate (TEA-BF 4 )...

10

ESS 2012 Peer Review - New Generation Aqueous Base Redox Flow...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Generation Aqueous Base Redox Flow Battery Component Development Wei Wang, Qingtao Luo, Xiaoliang Wei, Bin Li, Zimin Nie, Baowei Chen, Yuyan Shao, Vijayakumar Murugesan, Amy...

11

ESS 2012 Peer Review - New Generation Redox Flow Battery Prototype...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Next Generation Redox Flow Battery Prototype Development Vincent Sprenkle, Soowhan Kim, Ed Thomsen, Alasdair Crawford, Zimin Nie, Vilayanur Viswanathan, David Stephenson, Qingtao...

12

Advanced Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries with Mixed Acid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Large-scale energy storage technologies like redox flow batteries have been sought for renewable integration and smart grid applications.

13

Fact Sheet: Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (October 2012) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (October 2012) Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to develop next-generation vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) that reduce costs by improving energy and power densities, widening the operating temperature window, and simplifying and optimizing stack/system designs. These efforts build on Pacific Northwest National Laboratory research that has developed new redox electrolytes that enable increased VRB operating temperatures and energy storage capabilities. Fact Sheet: Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (October 2012) More Documents & Publications Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - Day 3, Session 2 Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - Poster Session 2

14

Microporous Separators for Fe/V Redox Flow Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fe/V redox flow battery has demonstrated promising performance that is advantageous over other redox flow battery systems. The less oxidative nature of the Fe(III) species enables use of hydrocarbon - based ion exchange membranes or separators. Daramic(reg. sign) microporous polyethylene separators were tested on Fe/V flow cells using the sulphuric/chloric mixed acid - supporting electrolytes. Among them, Daramic(reg. sign) C exhibited good flow cell cycling performance with satisfactory repeatability over a broad temperature range of 5 - 50 degrees C. Energy efficiency (EE) of C remains above 67% at current densities of 50 - 80 cm{sup -2} in the temperature range from room temperature to 50 degrees C. The capacity decay problem could be circumvented through hydraulic pressure balancing by applying different pump rates to the positive and negative electrolytes. Stable capacity and energy were obtained over 40 cycles at room temperature and 40 degrees C. These results manifest that the extremely low-cost separators ($10/cm2) are applicable in the Fe/V flow battery system at an acceptable sacrifice of energy efficiency. This stands for a remarkable breakthrough in significant reduction of the capital cost of the Fe/V flow battery system, and is promising to promote its market penetration in grid stabilization and renewable integration.

Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Xia, Guanguang; Miller, Eric; Chambers, Jeff; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

15

Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

16

Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Electrolyte Investigation and Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently invented Fe/V redox flow battery (IVBs) system has attracted more and more attentions due to its long-term cycling stability. In this paper, the factors (such as compositions, state of charge (SOC) and temperatures) influencing the stability of electrolytes in both positive and negative half-cells were investigated by an extensive matrix study. Thus an optimized electrolyte, which can be operated in the temperature ranges from -5oC to 50oC without any precipitations, was identified. The Fe/V flow cells using the optimized electrolytes and low-cost membranes exhibited satisfactory cycling performances at different temperatures. The efficiencies, capacities and energy densities of flow batteries with varying temperatures were discussed in detail.

Li, Bin; Li, Liyu; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Yang, Zhenguo; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Component Research for Redox Flow Batteries...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Battelle for the Department of Energy Component Research for Redox Flow Batteries Tom Zawodzinski and Che-Nan (Josh) Sun With help from Jamie Lawton, Zhijiang Tang, Doug Aaron,...

18

Electrochemical Model of the Fe/V Redox Flow Battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a mathematical model for the new Fe/V redox flow battery chemistry. The model is designed to be useful for stack development and cost analysis purposes.

Stephenson, David E.; Kim, Soowhan; Chen, Feng; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

19

High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage Title High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Cho, Kyu Taek, Paul L. Ridgway, Adam Z. Weber, Sophia Haussener, Vincent S. Battaglia, and Venkat Srinivasan Journal Journal of the Electrochemical Society Volume 159 Issue 11 Pagination A1806 - A1815 Date Published 01/2012 ISSN 0013-4651 Keywords hydrogen/bromine, redox flow battery Abstract The electrochemical behavior of a promising hydrogen/bromine redox flow battery is investigated for grid-scale energy-storage application with some of the best redox-flow-battery performance results to date, including a peak power of 1.4 W/cm(2) and a 91% voltaic efficiency at 0.4 W/cm(2) constant-power operation. The kinetics of bromine on various materials is discussed, with both rotating-disk-electrode and cell studies demonstrating that a carbon porous electrode for the bromine reaction can conduct platinum-comparable performance as long as sufficient surface area is realized. The effect of flow-cell designs and operating temperature is examined, and ohmic and mass-transfer losses are decreased by utilizing a flow-through electrode design and increasing cell temperature. Charge/discharge and discharge-rate tests also reveal that this system has highly reversible behavior and good rate capability.

20

Recent Progress in Redox Flow Battery Research and Development  

SciTech Connect

With the increase need to seamlessly integrate the renewable energy with the current grid which itself is evolving into a more intelligent, efficient, and capable electrical power system, it is envisioned that the energy storage system will play a more prominent role in bridging the gap between the current technology and a clean sustainable future in grid reliability and utilization. Redox flow battery technology is leading the way in this perspective in providing a well balanced approach for current challenges. Recent progress in the research and development of redox flow battery technology is reviewed here with a focus on new chemistries and systems.

Wang, Wei; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Anion permselective membrane. [For redox fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental anion permeselective membranes were improved and characterized for use as separators in a chemical redox, power storage cell being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The goal of minimal Fe/sup +3/ ion transfer was achieved for each candidate membrane system. Minimal membrane resistivity was demonstrated by reduction of film thickness using synthetic backing materials but usefulness of thin membranes was limited by the scarcity of compatible fabrics. The most durable and useful backing fabrics were modacrylics. One membrane, a copolymer of 4 vinylpyridine and vinyl benzylchloride was outstanding in overall electrochemical and physical properties. Long term (1000 hrs) membrane chemical and thermal durability in redox environment was shown by three candidate polymers and two membranes. The remainder had good durability at ambient temperature. Manufacturing capability was demonstrated for large scale production of membrane sheets 5.5 ft/sup 2/ in area for two candidate systems.

Alexander, S.S.; Hodgdon, R.B.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

A New Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Using Sulfuric/Chloric Mixed Acid Supporting Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

A redox flow battery using Fe2+/Fe3+ and V2+/V3+ redox couples in chloric/sulphuric mixed acid supporting electrolyte was investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The Fe/V redox flow cell using mixed reactant solutions operated within a voltage window of 0.5-1.35 V with a nearly 100% utilization ratio and demonstrated stable cycling over 100 cycles with energy efficiency > 80% and no capacity fading at room temperature. A 25% improvement in the discharge energy density of the Fe/V cell was achieved compared with the previous reported Fe/V cell using pure chloride acid supporting electrolyte. Stable performance was also achieved in the temperature range between 0 C and 50 C as well as using microporous separator as the membrane. The improved electrochemical performance at room temperature makes the Fe/V redox flow battery a promising option as a stationary energy storage device to enable renewable integration and stabilization of the electrical grid.

Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Chen, Feng; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Xia, Guanguang; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Investigation of Local Environments in Nafion-SiO2 Composite Membranes used in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The proton conducting polymer composite membranes are of technological interest in many energy devices such as fuel cells and redox flow batteries. In particular, the polymer composite membranes such as SiO2 incorporated Nafion membranes are recently reported as highly promising for the redox flow batteries. However, there is conflicting reports regarding the performance of this Nafion-SiO2 composite membrane in the redox flow cell. This paper presents results of the analysis of the Nafion-SiO2 composite membrane used in a vanadium redox flow battery by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. The XPS study reveals the chemical identity and environment of vanadium cations accumulated at the surface. On the other hand, the 19F and 29Si NMR measurement explores the nature of the interaction between the silica particles, Nafion side chains and diffused vanadium cations. The 29Si NMR shows that the silica particles interaction via hydrogen bonds to the sulfonic groups of Nafion and diffused vanadium cations. Based on these spectroscopic studies, the chemical environment of the silica particles inside the Nafion membrane and their interaction with diffusing vanadium cations during flow cell operations are discussed. This study discusses the origin of performance degradation of the Nafion-SiO2 composite membrane materials in vanadium redox flow batteries.

Vijayakumar, M.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Hu, Jian Z.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Analysis of performance capabilities of redox-flow storage batteries  

SciTech Connect

Major physical performance parameters and economic factors of a generalized redox-flow storage battery system are analyzed. The system is divided into power-related and energy-related subsystems. The economic factors include plant capital (and other) costs, electrical energy lost by the storage-cycle inefficiency, and a penalty term for failures. Relationships are formulated for the overall system efficiency and system performance parameters (voltages, current density, state-of-charge of the storage liquid, and parasitic losses). Equations for sizing and costing of the battery and the storage tank subsystems are given. Directions for needed research are indicated.

Roy, A.S.; Kaplan, S.I.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Redox Flow Batteries for Grid-scale Energy Storage - Energy ...  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Startup America Industrial Technologies Energy Storage Redox ...

26

Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of {approx}82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes.

Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

27

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries DOE Grant No: DE-SC0006306 Alan Cisar* and Chris Rhodes Lynntech, Inc., 2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South, College Station, TX...

28

R&D Activities of Redox Flow Battery for Energy Storage at DICP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, R&D Activities of Redox Flow Battery for Energy Storage at DICP ... Optimization of Na0.44MnO2 Cathode Material for Use in Aqueous...

29

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Redox Flow Battery (RFB) with Low-cost...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and 1.2 m 3 footprint ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO 2.5kW10kWh Redox Flow Battery (RFB) with Low-cost Electrolyte and Membrane Technologies 2.1 M, 33-month program...

30

Lithium borate cluster salts as novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion cells.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Redox shuttle is a promising mechanism for intrinsic overcharge protection in lithium-ion cells and batteries. Two lithium borate cluster salts are reported to function as both the main salt for a nonaqueous electrolyte and the redox shuttle for overcharge protection. Lithium borate cluster salts with a tunable redox potential are promising candidates for overcharge protection for most positive electrodes in state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells.

Chen, Z.; Liu, J.; Jansen, A. N.; Casteel, B.; Amine, K.; GirishKumar, G.; Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

ESS 2012 Peer Review - New Generation Aqueous Base Redox Flow Battery Component Development - Wei Wang, PNNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Generation Aqueous Base Redox Flow Generation Aqueous Base Redox Flow Battery Component Development Wei Wang, Qingtao Luo, Xiaoliang Wei, Bin Li, Zimin Nie, Baowei Chen, Yuyan Shao, Vijayakumar Murugesan, Amy Chen, Gordon, Xia, Liyu Li, Gary Z. Yang, Vincent Sprenkle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Boulevard P. O. Box 999 Richland, WA 99352, USA DOE Stationary Energy Storage Program Review, Washington, DC Sept. 26-28, 2012 Dr. Imre Gyuk 1 2 Review of previous work 2.5M, ~30Wh/L, -5~50 o C Mixed-acid VRB Double Energy Density Extend temperature window Charge Discharge Charge Discharge Charge Discharge Catholyte: VO 2+ + Cl - + H 2 O - e VO 2 Cl + 2H + ε co =1.0 V Anolyte: V 3+ + e V 2+ ε ao =-0.25 Overall: VO 2+ + Cl

32

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Alan Cisar, Lynntech  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Acid Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries DOE Grant No: DE-SC0006306 Alan Cisar* and Chris Rhodes Lynntech, Inc., 2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South, College Station, TX 77845 *E-mail: alan.cisar@lynntech.com, Phone: 979.764.2311 Prof. Arumugam Manthiram University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 Prof. Fuqiang Liu University of Texas Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 Conclusions Lynntech, in conjunction with the University of Texas and the University of Texas at Arlington, developed a new series of low-cost polymer blend membranes with high proton conductivity and ultralow vanadium ion permeability. The proton conductivity and physical properties of these membranes are tunable by adjusting the ratio of acid and base components. Membrane conductivity was found to be more critical to

33

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Highly Selective Proton-Conducting Composite Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Alan Cisar, Lynntech  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries DOE Grant No: DE-SC0004516 Alan Cisar* and Chris Rhodes Lynntech, Inc., 2501 Earl Rudder Freeway South, College Station, TX 77845 *E-mail: alan.cisar@lynntech.com, Phone: 979.764.2311 Introduction * Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are a promising technology to store electrical energy from intermittent renewable sources such as solar and wind power. Although they offer many advantages, RFBs with reduced cost and improved performance (i.e., efficiency and durability) need to be developed to achieve broad market penetration. * Ion exchange membranes in RFBs separate two soluble redox couples should allow rapid proton transport and suppress transport of the reactive species between anode and cathode compartments. Nafion

34

Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The V5+ electrolyte solution from vanadium redox flow batteries was studied by variable temperature 17O and 51V Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and DFT based computational modeling. It was found that the V5+ species exist as hydrated penta co-ordinated vanadate ion, i.e. [VO2(H2O)3]1+. This hydrated structure is not stable at elevated temperature and change into neutral H3VO4 molecule via a deprotonation process. H3VO4 species is also knowingly unstable, leading to the observed V2O5 precipitation in V5+ electrolyte solutions.

Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Liyu; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Huamin; Yang, Zhenguo; Hu, Jian Z.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

In-situ Investigation of Vanadium Ion Transport in Redox Flow Battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We will show a new method to differentiate the vanadium transport from concentration gradient and that from electric field. Flow batteries with vanadium and iron redox couples as the electro-active species were employed to investigate the transport behavior of vanadium ions in the presence of electric field. It was shown that electric field accelerated the positive-to-negative and reduced the negative-to-positive vanadium ions transport in charge process and affected the vanadium ions transport in an opposite way in discharge process. In addition, a method was designed to differentiate the concentration gradient-driven vanadium ions diffusion and electric field-driven vanadium ions migration. Simplified mathematical model was established to simulate the vanadium ions transport in real charge-discharge operation of flow battery. The concentration gradient diffusion coefficients and electric-migration coefficients of V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO2+ across Nafion membrane were obtained by fitting the experimental data.

Luo, Qingtao; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

36

Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stability of the electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow battery was investigated with ex-situ heating/cooling treatment and in-situ flow-battery testing methods. The effects of inorganic and organic additives have been studied. The additives containing the ions of potassium, phosphate, and polyphosphate are not suitable stabilizing agents because of their reactions with V(V) ions, forming precipitates of KVSO6 or VOPO4. Of the chemicals studied, polyacrylic acid and its mixture with CH3SO3H are the most promising stabilizing candidates which can stabilize all the four vanadium ions (V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO2+) in electrolyte solutions up to 1.8 M. However, further effort is needed to obtain a stable electrolyte solution with >1.8 M V5+ at temperatures higher than 40 C.

Zhang, Jianlu; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Vijayakumar, M.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low Cost and Highly Selective Composite Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries - Fei Wang, EIC Laboratories  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Cost and Highly Selective Composite Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries Low Cost and Highly Selective Composite Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries Fei Wang, Dharmasena Peramunage, James M. Sylvia, and Monsy M. Jocob EIC Laboratories, Inc. 111 Downey Street, Norwood, MA 02062. www.eiclabs.com Identification of the Problem and Technical Approach Redox flow batteries (RFB) hold great promise for large scale electrochemical energy storage. A critical component of RFB is the membrane which separates anode and cathode compartments. The current state-of-the-art membrane, NAFION is too expensive, lacks selectivity, permitting leakage between anode and cathode electrolyte compartments. EIC is developing a novel bilayer, interpenetrating network membrane. Thin Nafion layer for anode side protection providing oxidative stability. The bulk part of the membrane consists of a block

38

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Single Substance Organic Redox Flow Battery - Paul Rasmussen, Vinazene  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Charging Mechanism Charging Mechanism The Z compound, as described in Vinazene Patent 8,080,327, undergoes the following half reactions during charging: Z Z + + e - E 0 = -1.3V Z + e -  Z - E 0 = -1.5V _____________________ 2Z  Z - + Z + E 0 = -2.8V A Single Substance Organic Redox Flow Battery -+- -+- Components Compound Z Tetraethylammonium Tetrafluoroborate (TEA-BF 4 ) Maintains Electroneutrality Acetonitrile (MeCN) Dielectric and Transport medium Abstract Abundant energy, in the exajoule range, is available everyday from solar and wind flux. However, green sources of this energy are subject to intermittent and/or periodic fluctuations. Mitigation of supply obstacles is possible through the use of cost effective and dispatchable energy storage methods. During Phase I of this SBIR

39

Some Lessons Learned from 20 Years in RedOx Flow Battery R&d  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lessons learned from 20 years in lessons learned from 20 years in RedOx Flow Battery R&D Dr Steve Clarke, CEO Applied Intellectual Capital, Alameda CAc DOE Workshop Washington DC March 2012 www.apicap.com Contents ● AIC's involvement in RFB R&D ● Some key lessons learned ● Some remaining challenges to be overcome 2 Applied Intellectual Capital ● Technology consulting  Electrochemical and materials focus  Clients include leading industrials, VCs, DOE, DOD and EPA  33,000 ft. facility for laboratory, engineering, rapid prototyping and testing ● Technology venturing (own micro- fund)  IP generated by consulting and R&D  Leverages labs, facilities and consulting successes ● Combined resources  Proven business development team  Start-up to IPO

40

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Component Research for Redox Flow Batteries - Tom Zawodzinski, ORNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Battelle Battelle for the Department of Energy Component Research for Redox Flow Batteries Tom Zawodzinski and Che-Nan (Josh) Sun With help from Jamie Lawton, Zhijiang Tang, Doug Aaron, Alex Papandrew, Qinhua Liu, Matt Mench (UTK) Frank Delnick (SNL) Thanks to Imre Gyuk (OE) and team at UTK Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy Approach This project is a little different from many others in the portfolio We are not looking into alternative battery chemistries per se We are doing work to guide you in choices of materials and hardware designs to make all RFBs better! Focus on components, diagnostics to drive understanding how to improve Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy Goals and Tasks 1. Demonstrate improved performance of RFBs in pre-

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Spectroscopic Investigations of the Fouling Process on Nafion Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Nafion-117 membrane used in vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The XPS study reveals the chemical identity and environment of vanadium cations accumulated at the surface due to their low diffusivity. On the other hand, the 17O NMR spectrum explores the diffused vanadium cation from the bulk part of Nafion and shows the chemical bonding of cation and the host membrane. The 19F NMR shows the basic Nafion structure is not altered due to the presence of diffused vanadium cation. Based on these spectroscopic studies, the chemical environment of diffused vanadium cation in the Nafion membrane is discussed. This study also shed light into the possible cause for the high diffusivity of certain vanadium cations inside the Nafion membranes.

Vijayakumar, M.; Sivakumar, Bhuvaneswari M.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Schwenzer, Birgit; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Hu, Jian Z.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Ellipsoidal cell flow system  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to a system incorporating an ellipsoidal flow chamber having light reflective walls for low level light detection in practicing cellular analysis. The system increases signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of ten over prior art systems. In operation, laser light passes through the primary focus of the ellipsoid. A controlled flow of cells simultaneously passes through this focus so that the laser light impinges on the cells and is modulated by the cells. The reflective walls of the ellipsoid reflect the cell-modulated light to the secondary focus of the ellipsoid. A tapered light guide at the secondary focus picks up a substantial portion of modulated reflective light and directs it onto a light detector to produce a signal. The signal is processed to obtain the intensity distribution of the modulated light and hence sought after characteristics of the cells. In addition, cells may be dyed so as to fluoresce in response to the laser light and their fluorescence may be processed as cell-modulated light above described. A light discriminating filter would be used to distinguish reflected modulated laser light from reflected fluorescent light.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Mullaney, Paul F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop Summary Report Workshop Summary Report Prepared for: U. S. Department of Energy Prepared by: Dr. Adam Z. Weber Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Organizing Committee: Michael Perry, UTRC Tom Zawodzinski, UTK and ORNL Ned Stetson, DOE EERE Mark Johnson, DOE ARPA-E Imre Gyuk, DOE OEDER i Executive Summary An essentially identical technology to a reversible fuel cell is that of a redox flow cell (RFC) or redox flow battery (RFB), where a RFC can be seen as merging the concepts of RFBs with recent improvements in fuel cells. To investigate how a RFC can be a grid-scale electrical- energy-storage (EES) system and the associated technological needs, this workshop was held. The specific objectives of the workshop were to understand the needs for applied research in RFCs; identify the grand challenges and prioritize R&D needs; and gather input for future

44

Vanadium redox flow battery efficiency and durability studies of sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene)s  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP) was examined for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) use. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied from 1.4, 1.6 and 2.0 meq/g in order to tune the proton conductivity and vanadium permeability. Coulombic efficiencies between 92 to 99% were observed, depending on IEC (lower IEC, higher coulombic efficiencies). In all cases the SDAPP displayed comparable energy efficiencies (88 - 90%) to Nafion 117 (88%) at 50mA/cm2. Membrane durability also was dependent on IEC; SDAPP with the highest IEC lasted slightly over 50 cycles while SDAPP with the lowest IEC lasted over 400 cycles and testing was discontinued only due to time constraints. Accelerated vanadium lifetime studies were initialed with SDAPP, by soaking films in a 0.1 M V5+ and 5.0 M total SO4-2 solution. The rate of degradation was also proportional with IEC; the 2 meq/g sample dissolved within 376 hours, the 1.6 meq/g sample dissolved after 860 hours, while the 1.4 meq/g sample broke apart after 1527 hours.

Fujimoto, Cy H.; Kim, Soowhan; Stains, Ronald; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Hongxing Hu, Amsen Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DESIGN © 2008 DESIGN © 2008 www.PosterPresentations.com Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Hongxing Hu, Amsen Technologies LLC DOE SBIR Project, Program Manager at DOE: Dr. Imre Gyuk Objectives and Technical Approach Objectives: This SBIR project aims to develop low-cost, high performance hybrid polymeric PEMs for redox flow batteries (RFBs). Such membranes shall have high chemical stability in RFB electrolytes, high proton conductivity, low permeability of vanadium ions, along with high dimensional stability, high mechanical strength and durability, and lower cost than Nafion membranes. Approach: * Hybrid membranes of sulfonated polymers * Balance between different types of polymers for proton conductivity and chemical stability

46

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Estimation of Capital and Levelized Cost for Redox Flow Batteries - Vilayanur Viswanathan, PNNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimation of Capital and Levelized Estimation of Capital and Levelized Cost for Redox Flow Batteries V. Viswanathan, A. Crawford, L. Thaller 1 , D. Stephenson, S. Kim, W. Wang, G. Coffey, P. Balducci, Z. Gary Yang 2 , Liyu Li 2 , M. Kintner-Meyer, V. Sprenkle 1 Consultant 2 UniEnergy Technology September 28, 2012 USDOE-OE ESS Peer Review Washington, DC Dr. Imre Gyuk - Energy Storage Program Manager, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability 1 What are we trying to accomplish? PNNL grid analytics team has established ESS cost targets for various applications PNNL cost/performance model estimates cost for redox flow battery systems of various chemistries drives research internally to focus on most important components/parameters/metrics for cost reduction and performance improvement

47

A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane  

SciTech Connect

Driven by the motivation of searching for low-cost membrane alternatives, a novel nanoporous polytetrafluoroethylene/silica composite separator has been prepared and evaluated for its use in all-vanadium mixed-acid redox flow battery. This separator consisting of silica particles enmeshed in a polytetrafluoroethylene fibril matrix has no ion exchange capacity and is featured with unique nanoporous structures, which function as the ion transport channels in redox flow battery operation, with an average pore size of 38nm and a porosity of 48%. This separator has produced excellent electrochemical performance in the all-vanadium mixed-acid system with energy efficiency delivery comparable to Nafion membrane and superior rate capability and temperature tolerance. The separator also demonstrates an exceptional capacity retention capability over extended cycling, offering additional operational latitude towards conveniently mitigating the capacity decay that is inevitable for Nafion. Because of the inexpensive raw materials and simple preparation protocol, the separator is particularly low-cost, estimated to be at least an order of magnitude more inexpensive than Nafion. Plus the proven chemical stability due to the same backbone material as Nafion, this separator possesses a good combination of critical membrane requirements and shows great potential to promote market penetration of the all-vanadium redox flow battery by enabling significant reduction of capital and cycle costs.

Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Simmons, Kevin L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

2013-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

49

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flow Cells for Energy Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings Annual Merit Review Proceedings

50

High Performance Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries with Optimized Electrode Configuration and Membrane Selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a vanadium flow battery with no-gap architecture was significantly improved via several techniques. Specifically, gains arising from variation of the overall electrode thickness, membrane thickness, and electrode thermal treatment were studied. There is a trade-off between apparent kinetic losses, mass transfer losses, and ionic resistance as the electrode thickness is varied at the anode and cathode. Oxidative thermal pretreatment of the carbon paper electrode increased the peak power density by 16%. Results of the pretreatment in air showed greater improvement in peak power density compared to that obtained with pretreatment in an argon environment. The highest peak power density in a VRB yet published to the author s knowledge was achieved at a value of 767 mW cm 2 with optimized membrane and electrode engineering. 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.051208jes] All rights reserved.

Liu, Q. H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Grim, G. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Papandrew, A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Turhan, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zawodzinski, Thomas A [ORNL; Mench, Matthew M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Alterations in mitochondrial respiratory functions, redox metabolism and apoptosis by oxidant 4-hydroxynonenal and antioxidants curcumin and melatonin in PC12 cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cellular oxidative stress and alterations in redox metabolisms have been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many diseases including cancer. Antioxidant treatments have been proven beneficial in controlling these diseases. We have recently shown that 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a by-product of lipid peroxidation, induces oxidative stress in PC12 cells by compromising the mitochondrial redox metabolism. In this study, we have further investigated the deleterious effects of 4-HNE on mitochondrial respiratory functions and apoptosis using the same cell line. In addition, we have also compared the effects of two antioxidants, curcumin and melatonin, used as chemopreventive agents, on mitochondrial redox metabolism and respiratory functions in these cells. 4-HNE treatment has been shown to cause a reduction in glutathione (GSH) pool, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein carbonylation and apoptosis. A marked inhibition in the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and aconitase was observed after 4-HNE treatment. Increased nuclear translocation of NF-kB/p65 protein was also observed after 4-HNE treatment. Curcumin and melatonin treatments, on the other hand, maintained the mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions without a marked effect on ROS production and cell viability. These results suggest that 4-HNE-induced cytotoxicity may be associated, at least in part, with the altered mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions. The alterations in mitochondrial energy metabolism and redox functions may therefore be critical in determining the difference between cell death and survival.

Raza, Haider [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, POBox 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)], E-mail: h.raza@uaeu.ac.ae; John, Annie [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, POBox 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Brown, Eric M. [Department of Anatomy, FMHS, Al Ain, UAE University (United Arab Emirates); Benedict, Sheela [Department of Internal Medicine, FMHS, Al Ain, UAE University (United Arab Emirates); Kambal, Amr [Tawam Hospital/Johns Hopkins Medicine International, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Flow Cells for Energy Storage...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) held a Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop on March...

53

Fuel cell system with coolant flow reversal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for cooling electrochemical fuel cell system components. Periodic reversal of the direction of flow of cooling fluid through a fuel cell stack provides greater uniformity and cell operational temperatures. Flow direction through a recirculating coolant fluid circuit is reversed through a two position valve, without requiring modulation of the pumping component.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Fuel cell with internal flow control  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

Haltiner, Jr., Karl J. (Fairport, NY); Venkiteswaran, Arun (Karnataka, IN)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

55

Doped Yttrium Chromite-Ceria Composite as a Redox-Stable and Sulfur-Tolerant Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Ca- and Co-doped yttrium chromite (YCCC) - samaria-doped ceria (SDC) composite was studied in relation to a potential use as a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. Tests performed using the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte-supported cells revealed that the electrocatalytic activity of the YCCC-SDC anode towards hydrogen oxidation at 800 C was comparable to that of the Ni-YSZ anode. In addition, the YCCC-SDC anode exhibited superior sulfur tolerant characteristics showing less than 10% increase in a polarization resistance, fully reversible, upon exposure to 20 ppm H2S at 800 C. No performance degradation was observed during multiple reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles when the anode was intentionally exposed to the air environment followed by the reduction in hydrogen. The redox tolerance of the YCCC-SDC anode was attributed to the dimensional and chemical stability of the YCCC exhibiting minimal isothermal chemical expansion upon redox cycling.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

56

Vortex flow visualization using tetrahedral cell subdivision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proposes an effective technique for searching for critical points, which are points at which the velocity vector is zero. The previous method, using tetrahedral-cell subdivision, often generates multiple critical points in a hexahedral cell, and this ... Keywords: Newton's method, critical point searching technique, hexahedral cell, linear interpolation function, multiple critical points, numerical integration scheme, precise position calculation, tetrahedral cell subdivision, trilinear interpolation function, velocity vector, vortex flow visualization, vortices

A. Doi; S. Suzuki; K. Koyamada; S. Sannakanishi

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Redox Flow Battery (RFB) with Low-cost Electrolyte and Membrane Technologies - Thomas Kodenkandath, ITN Energy Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative, high energy density Mn-V based RFB electrolytes as a Innovative, high energy density Mn-V based RFB electrolytes as a low-cost alternate to all-Vanadium systems * Low-cost membrane technology, based on renewable biopolymer Chitosan with improved proton conduction & chemical stability, adaptable to Mn-V system * Scale-up of electrolyte and membrane technologies in pursuit of ARPA-E's goal for a 2.5kW/10kWh RFB stack with integrated BoS at a total cost of ~$1000/unit and ~1.2 m 3 footprint ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO 2.5kW/10kWh Redox Flow Battery (RFB) with Low-cost Electrolyte and Membrane Technologies $2.1 M, 33-month program awarded by ARPA-E Sept 7, 2012 Dr. Thomas Kodenkandath High-Performance, Low-cost RFB through Electrolyte & Membrane Innovations Technology Summary

58

The effect of flow rate on the in-situ gelation of a chrome/redox/polyacrylamide system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental data on the gelation of a polyacrylamide/thiourea/Cr(VI) gel system in unconsolidated sandpacks at flow rates typical of those encountered beyond the immediate vicinity of a wellbore. At these low rates, in-situ gelation during flow was characterized by an abrupt increase in flow resistance that occurred over a short distance at a specific location along the sandpack. The location of this region was a function of flow rate, and its distance from the inlet increased as flow rate increased. Filtration of gel aggregates appears to be the mechanism causing this behavior.

Marty, L.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P. (University of Kansas (US))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Chemical and electrochemical behavior of the Cr(III)/Cr(II) half cell in the NASA Redox Energy Storage System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Cr(III) complexes in the NASA Redox Energy Storage System have been isolated and identified as Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup +3/ and Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/Cl/sup +2/ by ion-exchange chromatography and visible spectrophotometry. The cell reactions during charge-discharge cycles have been followed by means of visible spectrophotometry. The spectral bands were resolved into component peaks and concentrations calculated using Beer's Law. During the charge mode Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/Cl/sup +2/ is reduced to Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/Cl/sup +/ and during the discharge mode Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/Cl/sup +/ is oxidized back to Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/Cl/sup +2/. Both electrode reactions occur via a chloride-bridge inner-sphere reaction pathway. Hysteresis effects can be explained by the slow attainment of equilibrium between Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup +3/ and Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/Cl/sup +2/.

Johnson, D.A.; Reid, M.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells  

SciTech Connect

Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

Sasaki, Dennis T. (Mountain View, CA); Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA); Buckie, Anne-Marie (Margate, GB)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

Sasaki, D.T.; Van den Engh, G.J.; Buckie, A.M.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

62

Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electricity Delivery Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability Organized by: Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy W i t h h e l p b y : Agenda Day/Time Speaker Subject Wednesday, March 07, 2012 8:45-9:00 Adam Weber, LBNL Welcome and workshop overview 9:00-9:30 Various, EERE, OFCT Background, approach, and reversible fuel cells 9:30-9:55 Michael Perry, UTRC Renaissance in flow cells: opportunities 9:55-10:20 Joe Eto, LBNL Energy storage requirements for the smart grid 10:20-10:35 AM Break 10:35-11:00 Robert Savinell, CWRU Revisiting flow-battery R&D 11:00-11:25 Stephen Clarke, Applied Intellectual Capital Lessons learned and yet to be learned from 20 years in RFB R&D 11:25-11:45 Imre Gyuk, DOE OE Research and deployment of stationary storage at DOE

63

Electrochemical storage cell containing a substituted anisole or di-anisole redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection and suitable for use in liquid organic and solid polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A electrochemical cell is described comprising an anode, a cathode, a solid polymer electrolyte; and a redox shuttle additive to protect the cell against overcharging and a redox shuttle additive to protect the cell against overcharging selected from the group consisting of: (a) a substituted anisole having the general formula shown in a figure (in an uncharged state): where R{sub 1} is selected from the group consisting of H, 0CH{sub 3}, OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}, and OCH{sub 2}phenyl, and R{sub 2} is selected from the group consisting of OCH{sub 3}, OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}, OCH{sub 2} phenyl, and O{sup {minus}}Li{sup +}; and (b) a di-anisole compound having the general formula shown in a second figure (in an uncharged state): where R is selected from the group consisting of -OCH{sup 3} and -CH{sub 3}, m is either 1 or 0, n is either 1 or 0, and X is selected from the group consisting of -OCH{sub 3} (methoxy) or its lithium salt -O{sup {minus}}Li{sup +}. The lithium salt of the di-anisole is the preferred form of the redox shuttle additive because the shuttle anion will then initially have a single negative charge, it loses two electrons when it is oxidized at the cathode, and then moves toward the anode as a single positively charged species where it is then reduced to a single negatively charged species by gaining back two electrons.

Kerr, John B.; Tian, Minmin

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Redox Flow Batteries, a Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

extend equipment life Cost: $500 per kWh Discharge Duration:and the cost per unit of energy-storage capacity ($/kWh). We

Weber, Adam Z.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Redox Flow Batteries, a Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

follows. Typical RFB carbon-fiber-paper or carbon-feltthat briefly heating carbon fiber materials at 300 C in anlooked at mass transfer in carbon-fiber electrodes [67, 122,

Weber, Adam Z.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Redox Flow Batteries, a Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Spur Transition to Smart Grid. Available: http://of storage into the smart grid also promises to enablewidespread adoption of smart grid technologies could yield a

Weber, Adam Z.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than todays flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRCs flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

None

2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

68

Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than todays flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRCs flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

69

A flow cell for electron microscopy imaging of specimen in ...  

A flow cell for electron microscopy imaging of specimen in liquid or gas. Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. ...

70

Flow field design development using the segmented cell approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on fuel cell flow-field development employing two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (2-D CFD). Simulation of the flow distribution of a parallel channel flow-field, with a simple one-channel manifold, predicted inhomogeneous performance distribution within the cell. Further modeling, focusing on modification of the inlet and outlet flow fields, was used to predict a more homogeneous flow distribution in the flow-field. Attempts were made to verify the theoretical predictions experimentally by application of the segmented cell system. Measurements of the current distribution and CO transient response supported the 2-D CFD predictions. However, the margin of error between predicted and experimental results was considered insufficient to be of practical use. Future work will involve the evaluation of 3-D CFD to achieve the appropriate level of accuracy.

Bender, G. (Guido); Ramsey, J. C. (John C.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Single chamber fuel cells: Flow geometry, rate and composition considerations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four different single chamber fuel cell designs were compared using propane-air gas mixtures. Gas flow around the electrodes has a significant influence on the open circuit voltage and the power density of the cell. The strong influence of flow geometry is likely due to its effect on gas composition, particularly on the oxygen chemical potential at the two electrodes as a result of gas mixing. The chamber design which exposes the cathode first to the inlet gas was found to yield the best performance at lower flow rates, while the open tube design with the electrodes equally exposed to the inlet gas worked best at higher flow rates.

Stefan, Ionel C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2003-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

72

Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field there between for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells. 11 figs.

Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

73

Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Life Technologies Corporation and LANL have released the Attune® Acoustic Focusing Cytometer, featuring a reduced footprint, reduced consumables, and an affordable price. April 3, 2012 Attune® Acoustic Focusing Cytometer The Attune® Acoustic Focusing Cytometer achieves sample throughput at rates over 10 times faster than other cytometers-up to 1,000 μL per minute. In December 2009, Life Technologies Corporation announced the release of the Attune® Acoustic Focusing Cytometer, a first-of-its-kind cytometer system based on technology developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Examining cells has never been clearer with LANL's use of acoustic waves

74

Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (.mu.HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a .mu.HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the .mu.HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF.sub.2), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

Johnson, Charles C. (Fairfield, OH); Taylor, Larry T. (Blacksburg, VA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (..mu.. HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a ..mu.. HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the ..mu.. HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF/sub 2/), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

Johnson, C.C.; Taylor, L.T.

1985-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

76

Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

Ernst, W.D.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Fuel cell with interdigitated porous flow-field  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is formed with an improved system for distributing gaseous reactants to the membrane surface. A PEM fuel cell has an ionic transport membrane with opposed catalytic surfaces formed thereon and separates gaseous reactants that undergo reactions at the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The fuel cell may also include a thin gas diffusion layer having first and second sides with a first side contacting at least one of the catalytic surfaces. A macroporous flow-field with interdigitated inlet and outlet reactant channels contacts the second side of the thin gas diffusion layer for distributing one of the gaseous reactants over the thin gas diffusion layer for transport to an adjacent one of the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The porous flow field may be formed from a hydrophilic material and provides uniform support across the backside of the electrode assembly to facilitate the use of thin backing layers.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Fuel Cell with Metal Screen Flow-Field - Energy Innovation Portal  

The invention provides a simpler and more effective reactant and cooling flow distribution in biopolar plate fuel cells.

79

Alternative flow-field and backing concepts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New concepts for potentially low cost flow-field and electrode backing components for polymer electrolyte fuel cells are investigated.

Wilson, M.S.; Springer, T.E.; Davey, J.R.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

NADPH oxidase and lipid raft-associated redox signaling are required for PCB153-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in human brain endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS.

Eum, Sung Yong [Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)], E-mail: sungyong.eum@uky.edu; Andras, Ibolya [Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Toborek, Michal [Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Painesville Municipal Electric Power Vanadium Redox Battery Demo Project - Jodi Startari, Ashlawn Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric Power Electric Power Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration Project Jodi Startari Ashlawn Energy LLC Briefing Overview * Painesville Municipal Electric Power Plant Project Synopsis * Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Technology * City of Painesville Municipal Electric Plant History * Project Multiple Objectives and Additional Detail * Project Risk Analysis presented at previous Peer Review * Project to date progress * Cost Distribution * Summary/Conclusions * Future Tasks * Questions US Produced Vanadium Redox Flow Battery for Bulk Storage, Peak Shaving * 8 MW Hour redox flow battery (1MW 8 hours) * To be installed at Painesville Municipal Electric Plant (PMEP), a 32 MW coal fired facility * Most efficient PMEP operation is steady state at 26 MW (lowest emissions, lowest operating cost)

82

An Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox Reactions  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox Reactions Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox Reactions In Variably Saturated Subsurface Flow Systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: An Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox Reactions In Variably Saturated Subsurface Flow Systems Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Reactive chemical transport occurs in a variety of geochemical environments, and over a broad range of space and time scales. Efficiency of the chemical speciation and water-rock-gas interaction calculations is important for modeling field-scale multidimensional reactive transport problems. An improved efficient model, REACT, for simulating water-rock-gas interaction under equilibrium and kinetic conditions, has been developed.

83

Redox Flow Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal  

Technology Marketing Summary The need for large, grid-scale electrochemical storage is being realized as a critical part of integrating large ...

84

Flow, Li-Air, and Other Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 18, 2011 ... Large-scale energy storage technologies like redox flow batteries have been sought for renewable integration and smart grid applications.

85

Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to develop approaches to direct catalytic oxidation of methane over oxides that are doubly doped with transition metal ions. The desired process aims at employing a double redox mechanism, where one redox couple is utilized for activation of oxygen and another for the trapping of CH{sub 3} radicals. The methyl radicals can either recombine, giving C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, or be converted, via electron transfer reaction, to carbocations. The latter species can react with surface OH{sup {minus}} groups to form methanol or formaldehyde. To choose from several possible catalytic systems, this research initially involved the characterization of the micromorphology and crystalline dimensions of zinc oxide catalysts doped with Cu, Fe, and Sn by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the determination of surface composition and oxidation states by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out. A newly constructed high temperature catalytic testing system has been calibrated (flow meters and temperature controllers), tested for possible gas leaks and integrated with a gas chromatographic analytical unit. A preliminary catalytic test study over a Cu/Fe/ZnO sample was performed. The following products of the methane coupling reaction was found: C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O together with CO{sub 2}. The maximum space time yield of 14 mmol C{sub 2} hydrocarbons/g cat/h was obtained at 848{degrees}C.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Sojka, Z.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environment Feature Stories Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Phonebook Calendar Video About Innovations for a Secure Nation Flow...

87

Redox Shuttle Additives | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

available for licensing: A series of novel redox shuttle additives for lithium-ion batteries for the purpose of overcharge protection and increased battery safety redoxshuttles...

88

Particle and Blood Cell Dynamics in Oscillatory Flows Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Our aim has been to uncover fundamental aspects of the suspension and dislodgement of particles in wall-bounded oscillatory flows, in flows characterized by Reynolds numbers en- compassing the situation found in rivers and near shores (and perhaps in some industrial processes). Our research tools are computational and our coverage of parameter space fairly broad. Computational means circumvent many complications that make the measurement of the dynamics of particles in a laboratory setting an impractical task, especially on the broad range of parameter space we plan to report upon. The impact of this work on the geophysical problem of sedimentation is boosted considerably by the fact that the proposed calculations can be considered ab-initio, in the sense that little to no modeling is done in generating dynamics of the particles and of the moving fluid: we use a three-dimensional Navier Stokes solver along with straightforward boundry conditions. Hence, to the extent that Navier Stokes is a model for an ideal incompressible isotropic Newtonian fluid, the calculations yield benchmark values for such things as the drag, buoyancy, and lift of particles, in a highly controlled environment. Our approach will be to make measurements of the lift, drag, and buoyancy of particles, by considering progressively more complex physical configurations and physics.

Juan M. Restrepo (PI)

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Redox shuttle additives for overcharge protection in lithium batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Seven new redox shuttle additives with shuttle current onset potentials above 4.2 V vs Li/Li+ are reported, along with diffusion coefficients for the neutral additives. The dependence of the limiting shuttle current on the respective diffusion coefficients of the oxidized and reduced forms of an additive is clarified. Overcharge protection in liquid electrolyte Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells is demonstrated.

Richardson, Thomas J.; Ross Jr., P.N.

1999-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

90

Measurement of radionuclides using ion chromatography and flow-cell scintillation counting with pulse shape discrimination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A project has been initiated at Clemson Univ. to develop a HPLC/flow- cell system for analysis of non-gamma emitting radionuclides in environmental samples; an important component is development of a low background flow-cell detector that counts alpha and beta particles separately through pulse shape discrimination. Objective of the work presented here is to provide preliminary results of an evaluation of the following scintillators: CaF{sub 2}:Eu, scintillating glass, and BaF{sub 2}. Slightly acidic aqueous solutions of the alpha emitter {sup 233}U and the beta emitter {sup 45}Ca were used. Detection efficiencies and minimum detectable activities were determined.

DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles (electron transporters) for...

92

A Dynamic Two-Phase Flow Model of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A dynamic two phase flow model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is presented. The two dimensional along-the-channel model includes the two phase flow of water (gaseous and liquid) in the porous diffusion layers and in the catalyst layers, as well as the transport of the species in the gas phase. Moreover, proton and water transport in the membrane and the oxygen reduction reaction in the cathodic catalyst layer is accounted for. The discretisation of the resulting flow equations is done by a mixed finite element approach. Based on this the transport equations for the species in each phase are discretised by a finite volume scheme. The coupled mixed finite element/finite volume approach gives the spatially resolved water and gas saturation and the species concentrations. In order to describe the charge transport in the fuel cell the Poisson equations for the electrons and protons are solved by using Galerkin finite element schemes.

Karsten Khn; K. Khn; Mario Ohlberger; Jrgen O. Schumacher; C. Ziegler; R. Klfkorn; Karsten Khn Ab; Mario Ohlberger Cd; Jrgen O. Schumacher A; Christoph Ziegler; Robert Klfkorn C

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

94

Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

Gregg, Brian A. (Golden, CO); Taylor, A. Michael (Golden, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Stainless steel wire mesh flow-fields for polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The high cost of fuel cells has delayed their potential widespread use. Stack manufacturers have historically used high-Pt loading membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) and intricately machined graphite bipolar plates. We have focused our efforts on decreasing the cost of these components in order to demonstrate an inexpensive, yet high performance PEM fuel cell. This paper describes the design and demonstration of a 100 cm{sup 2} (active area) cell that utilizes ultra-low Pt loading MEAs and inexpensive stainless steel wire screen flow fields.

Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Relativistic Shear Flow Boundary Layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using 2.5-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations, we studied the kinetic physics of relativistic shear flows. We find efficient magnetic field generation and nonthermal particle acceleration at the shear boundary. Ordered flux tubes/sheets with alternating polarities and peak fields reaching equipartition values are generated and sustained by the free-energy of the shear flow. Nonthermal high-energy particles are accelerated by diffusive acceleration. A quasi-power-law tail truncated at low energies is achieved at strong shears. These results have important implications for the dissipation and radiation of relativistic jets.

Liang, Edison; Boettcher, Markus

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Flow cytometric analysis of respiratory tract cells exposed to oil shale and silica particulates. [Hamsters  

SciTech Connect

Flow cytometric techniques were used to measure the cytological and biochemical damage to respiratory tract cells in animals exposed to particulates. Hamsters were exposed to raw and spent oil shale particulates and silica by intratracheal instillation. Exfoliated lung cells were obtained by sacrificing the animals and lavaging the respiratory tract posterior to the trachea with saline. Cell samples were fixed in ethanol and stained with mithramycin for fluorescence analysis of DNA content. DNA content distributions from hamsters exposed to spent oil shale and silica particulates showed atypical changes 28 to 35 days later. Cell counts and total numbers of macrophages, leukocytes, and epithelial cells in the lavage fluid also showed marked changes related to time after exposure.

Steinkamp, J.A.; Wilson, J.S.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

MICROSCALE METABOLIC, REDOX AND ABIOTIC REACTIONS IN HANFORD 300 AREA SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford 300 Area is a unique site due to periodic hydrologic influence of river water resulting in changes in groundwater elevation and flow direction. This area is also highly subject to uranium remobilization, the source of which is currently believed to be the region at the base of the vadose zone that is subject to period saturation due to the changes in the water levels in the Columbia River. We found that microbial processes and redox and abiotic reactions which operate at the microscale were critical to understanding factors controlling the macroscopic fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. The combined laboratory and field research showed how microscale conditions control uranium mobility and how biotic, abiotic and redox reactions relate to each other. Our findings extended the current knowledge to examine U(VI) reduction and immobilization using natural 300 Area communities as well as selected model organisms on redox-sensitive and redox-insensitive minerals. Using innovative techniques developed specifically to probe biogeochemical processes at the microscale, our research expanded our current understanding of the roles played by mineral surfaces, bacterial competition, and local biotic, abiotic and redox reaction rates on the reduction and immobilization of uranium.

Beyenal, Haluk [WSU] [WSU; McLEan, Jeff [JCVI] [JCVI; Majors, Paul [PNNL] [PNNL; Fredrickson, Jim [PNNL] [PNNL

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

99

A New Redox Flow Battery Using Fe/V Redox Couples in Chloride ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications. Presentation Title, A...

100

H[sub 2]S--Conclusion: Options narrowed to Claus or redox processes  

SciTech Connect

Depending on the gas flow rate and the produced tons of sulfur/day, the amine/Claus and Redox processes meet the requirements of a proposed CO[sub 2] EOR gas processing plant near Welch, Tex. In the low gas flow range and sulfur tonnage above 8 long tons/day, amine/Claus was best while for the high gas flow range and sulfur tonnage below 15 long tons/day, Redox was more economical. Five different sulfur recovery processes were evaluated for OXY USA Inc.'s CO[sub 2] enhanced oil recovery project (EOR) in West Texas. Part 1 described the overall processes selected. This concluding part will detail the sulfur recovery options.

Johnson, J.E. (Pritchard Corp., Overland, KS (United States)); Tzap, S.J.; Kelley, R.E. (Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Denver, CO (United States)); Laczko, L.P. (OXY USA Inc., Midland, TX (United States))

1993-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

ET Kinetics of Bifunctional Redox Protein Maquettes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kinetics of Bifunctional Redox Protein Maquettes Kinetics of Bifunctional Redox Protein Maquettes Mitchell W. Mutz, James F. Wishart and George L. McLendon Adv. Chem Ser. 254, Ch. 10, pp. 145-159 Abstract: We prepared three bifunctional redox protein maquettes based on 12-, 16-, and 20-mer three-helix bundles. In each case, the helix was capped with a Co(III) tris-bipyridyl electron acceptor and also functionalized with a C-terminal viologen (1-ethyl-1'-ethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) donor. Electron transfer (ET) was initiated by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis and followed spectrometrically to determined average, concentration-independent, first-order rates for the 16-mer and 20-mer maquettes. For the 16-mer bundle, the alpha-helical content was adjusted by the addition of urea or trifluoroethanol to solutions containing the metalloprotein. This

102

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Flow Battery Membrane - David Ofer, Tiax  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Flow Battery Membrane Flow Battery Membrane Energy Storage Systems Program (ESS) Peer Review and Update Meeting 2012 Jack Treger treger.jack@tiaxllc.com Washington DC, September 27, 2012 Flow Battery Membrane Background and Purpose 1 Vanadium redox batteries (VRB) for energy storage require improved ion- selective membranes. * Vanadium permeation across current membranes leads to self-discharge and decreases cycling efficiency: - Negative half cell: V 2+ V 3+ + e - E o = -0.255V - Positive half cell: e - + VO 2 + + 2H + VO 2+ + H 2 O E o = 1.00V . * Current perfluorosulfonic acid polymer membranes are costly. * TIAX is developing a novel composite bipolar membrane: - Composite anionic membrane minimizes content of costly perfluorosulfonic acid polymer - Made bipolar by a cationic surface layer to improve selectivity for

103

Method for controlling power flow between an electrochemical cell and a power grid  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for controlling a force-commutated inverter coupled between an electrochemical cell and a power grid for adjusting the magnitude and direction of the electrical energy flowing therebetween. Both the real power component and the reactive power component of ac electrical energy flow can be independently VARied through the switching waveform presented to the intermediately coupled inverter. A VAR error signal is derived from a comparison of a var command signal with a signal proportional to the actual reactive power circulating between the inverter and the power grid. This signal is presented to a voltage controller which essentially varies only the effective magnitude of the fundamental voltage waveform out of the inverter , thereby leaving the real power component substantially unaffected. In a similar manner, a power error signal is derived by a comparison of a power command signal with a signal proportional to the actual real power flowing between the electrochemical cell and the power grid. This signal is presented to a phase controller which varies only the phase of the fundamental component of the voltage waveform out of the inverter relative to that of the power grid and changes only the real power in proportion thereto, thus leaving the reactive power component substantially unaffected.

Coleman, A. K.

1981-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

104

Flow microfluorometric and spectrophotofluorometric analysis of DNA staining in mammalian cells  

SciTech Connect

The effects of pH, ionic strength, stain concentration, and magnesium concentration on DNA staining with the antibiotics mithramycin, chromomycin A3, and olivomycin were examined with DNA in solution and in mammalian cells. Ethanol-fixed Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) stained with mithramycin solution in the pH range 4.0 to 10.0 and analyzed by flow microfluorometry (FMF) showed only a slight increase in fluorescence intensity from pH 4.0 to 8.0. Above this range, there was a more dramatic increase in intensity of stained cells, and at pH 10.0 the flouorescence intensity was 1-1/2 times greater than cells stained at pH 4.5. The resolution in DNA distribution patterns also improved as a function of increasing pH, corresponding with a marked decrease in the coefficient of variation (CV). However, the distribution of cells in various phases of the cell cycle remained essentially the same over the pH ranges tested.

Crissman, H.A.; Stevenson, A.; Kissane, R.J.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Methods for using redox liposome biosensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and compositions for detecting the presence of biologically-important analytes by using redox liposome biosensors. In particular, the present invention provides liposome/sol-gel electrodes suitable for the detection of a wide variety of organic molecules, including but not limited to bacterial toxins.

Cheng, Quan (SF, CA); Stevens, Raymond C. (La Jolla, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Fact Sheet: Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (October 2012)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Breakthrough Breakthrough Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a new sulfate (SO 4 2- ) and chloride (Cl - ) mixed solution that is used as the electrolyte. Compared to pure sulfuric acid, the new solution can hold more than 70% more vanadium ions, increasing energy storage capacity by more than 70%. The use of Cl - in the new solution also increases the operating temperature window by 83%, so the battery

107

Development of a scintillation flow-cell detection system for environmental restoration and waste management applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A flow-cell detection system was developed utilizing a coincidence circuit and tested with BaF{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2}:Eu and scintillating glass. The coincidence detection system reduced the background from {approximately}200 cps to {approximately}0.5 cps. The detection efficiencies for these cells ranged from 0.38 to 0.66 for {sup 45}Ca beta particles (E{sub max} = 0.257 MeV) and from 0.45 to 0.52 for {sup 233}U alpha particles (E{sub {alpha}} = 4.8 MeV). The minimum detectable activity was calculated for a 30 s count time and determined to be in the range of 1-2 Bq.

DeVol, T.A.; Branton, S.D.; Fjeld, R.A.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Cell rolling and adhesion on surfaces in shear flow. A model for an antibody-based microfluidic screening system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Here we present a model and an experimental investigation to study cell bound to the floor of a microfluidic system and the flow induced detachment. The experimental investigation has been performed by a microfluidic assay biofunctionalized with specific ... Keywords: Cell rolling, Microfluidic assay, Numerical model

G. Simone; G. Perozziello; E. Battista; F. De Angelis; P. Candeloro; F. Gentile; N. Malara; A. Manz; E. Carbone; P. Netti; E. Di Fabrizio

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field - Energy Innovation Portal  

Building Energy Efficiency ... Solar Thermal; ... and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat ...

110

Two-phase flow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two-phase flow and transport of reactants and products in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is studied analytically and numerically. Four regimes of water distribution and transport are classified by defining three threshold current densities and a maximum current density. They correspond to first appearance of liquid water at the membrane/cathode interface, extension of the gas-liquid two-phase zone to the cathode/channel interface, saturated moist air exiting the gas channel, and complete consumption of oxygen by the electrochemical reaction. When the cell operates above the first threshold current density, liquid water appears and a two-phase zone forms within the porous cathode. A two-phase, multi-component mixture model in conjunction with a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is applied to simulate the cathode operation in this regime. The model is able to handle the situation where a single-phase region co-exists with a two-phase zone in the air cathode. For the first time, the polarization curve as well as water and oxygen concentration distributions encompassing both single- and two-phase regimes of the air cathode are presented. Capillary action is found to be the dominant mechanism for water transport inside the two-phase zone. The liquid water saturation within the cathode is predicted to reach 6.3% at 1.4 A/cm{sup 2}.

WANG,Z.H.; WANG,C.Y.; CHEN,KEN S.

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

111

Measurement of radionuclides using ion chromatography and flow-cell scintillation counting with pulse shape discrimination  

SciTech Connect

Principal conclusions are: CsI(Tl) provides sufficient pulse shape discrimination for use in the flow-cell detector. However, an improved method of coating is needed to extend the useful life of a detection cell. Of the activation/fission products investigated, only the co-elution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 63}Ni produced a radiological interference. Tritium (and presumably other non-ionic radioisotopes) can be separated during the loading of the solution onto the pre- concentration column. Natural U (and/or decay products) produced a radiological interference with {sup 90}Sr. This is a potential problem. No potential radiological interferences were observed with {sup 223}Th. Chemical interferences were observed to some degree for all the chemicals tested except for the chloride solutions, NaCl and KCl, and the sulfate solution, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The specific interference effects were decreased detection efficiencies and changes in peak elution times. The NEL`s (non-observable effects loadings) are tentative targets for development of sample processing protocols, which is the next phase of the work.

DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.; Roane, J.E. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering; Leyba, J.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Branton, S.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Redox shuttles for safer lithium-ion batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Overcharge protection is not only critical for preventing the thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries during operation, but also important for automatic capacity balancing during battery manufacturing and repair. A redox shuttle is an electrolyte additive that can be used as intrinsic overcharge protection mechanism to enhance the safety characteristics of lithium-ion batteries. The advances on stable redox shuttles are briefly reviewed. Fundamental studies for designing stable redox shuttles are also discussed.

Chen, Z.; Qin, Y.; Amine, K.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Faster, More Efficient Redox Cycle to Split Water or ...  

heating or cooling is required between the respective ... using concentrated solar energy to provide thermal ... More Efficient Redox Cycle to Split W ...

114

Progress in understanding uranium redox processes in biologically...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Office of Science SSRL Phone List People Search Maps Progress in understanding uranium redox processes in biologically reduced sediments Wednesday, April 24, 2013 - 3:00pm...

115

Lithium Redox Process for Thermochemical Water-Splitting as ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Thermochemical water-splitting by Li redox process consists of three ... A21: First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Chemical...

116

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells. Project 65021 final technical progress report, April 15, 1979-April 17, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goals of this program have been to experimentally identify semiconductor photoanode/redox couple systems that (a) show promise of meeting acceptable solar efficiencies using polycrystalline materials, and (b) have the potential for use in conjunction with a suitable cathode in which another redox species is available for reduction. Such an overall system allows for the convenient removal, storage, and later discharge of reaction products through the use of porous, flow-through redox electrodes. Increasing solar energy conversion efficiencies and identifying potentially long-life systems were emphasized. Semiconductor/redox couple systems were selected on the basis of the apparent positions of their conduction and valence band energy levels at the interface, together with the semiconductor decomposition potential. Selected redox couples should possess equilibrium potentials that lie negative of the semiconductor decomposition potential and positive of the semiconductor conduction band. Liquid-junction solar cells were characterized using n-MoSe/sub 2/, n-WSe/sub 2/, n-CdSe, and n-GaAs as photoanodes. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

Ang, P.G.P.; Sammells, A.F.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Thin graphite bipolar plate with associated gaskets and carbon cloth flow-field for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention comprises a thin graphite plate with associated gaskets and pieces of carbon cloth that comprise a flow-field. The plate, gaskets and flow-field comprise a "plate and gasket assembly" for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell, fuel cell stack or battery.

Marchetti, George A. (Western Springs, IL)

2003-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

118

Impacts of Dibasic Acid (DBA) Addition on the Performance of a Pilot Vertical Flow Cell: Duke Energy Marshall Steam Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a pilot study conducted to test the potential impact of dibasic acid (DBA) on vertical flow cells (VFCs) constructed to remove selenium and mercury from a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber discharge. VFCs are a passive treatment technology with very low operational and maintenance costs and the potential for order-of-magnitude savings over conventional treatment methods. A full-scale VFC system has been constructed at a power generating facility based on ...

2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

119

Redox reactions of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMN), riboflavin (RBF), and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) with ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite  

SciTech Connect

Flavins are secreted by the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella and can function as endogenous electron transfer mediators (ETM). In order to assess the potential importance of flavins in Fe(III) bioreduction, we investigated the redox reaction kinetics of reduced flavins (FMNH2 and RBFH2) with ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. The organic reductants rapidly reduced and dissolved ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite in the pH range 4-8. The rate constant k for 2-line ferrihydrite reductive dissolution by FMNH2 was 87.5 ? 3.5 M-1?s-1 at pH 7.0 in batch reactors, and the k was similar for RBFH2. For lepidocrocite, the k was 500 ? 61 M-1?s-1 for FMNH2, and 236 ? 22 M-1?s-1 for RBFH2. The surface area normalized initial reaction rates (ra) were between 0.08 and 77 ?moles?m-2?s-1 for various conditions in stopped-flow experiments. Initial rates (ro) were first-order with respect to Fe(III) oxide concentration, and ra increased with decreasing pH. Poorly crystalline 2-line ferrihydrite yielded the highest ra, followed by more crystalline 6-line ferrihydrite, and crystalline lepidocrocite. Compared to a previous whole-cell study with Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, our findings suggest that ETM reduction by the Mtr pathway coupled to lactate oxidation are rate limiting, rather than heterogeneous electron transfer to the Fe(III) oxide.

Shi, Zhi; Zachara, John M.; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Moore, Dean A.; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Flow-Through Microfluidic Device for High-Efficiency Transfection of Mammalian Cells through Combined Microelectroporation and Sonoporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study we are presenting a proof-of-concept microfluidic device that simultaneously applies the conditions required for microelectroporation and micro-sonoporation in a flow-through fashion that allows for high throughput, high efficiency transfection of mammalian cells. During the design stage, we developed a low-cost, high-resolution polymer microfabrication technique termed laser stenciling. While few other electro-sonoporation protocols have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, we are the first to incorporate microelectroporation, which has been well established in literature to be advantageous to conventional electroporation, with flow-through micro-sonoporation. When comparing transfection efficiency for our electro-sonoporation method to that of sonoporation or microelectroporation alone, we observed single batch improvements up to 20 percent and 17 percent, respectively. The average improvement in efficiency was approximately 15 percent greater than achieved with sonoporation and 10 percent greater than that of electroporation. Importantly, there was little difference in short term cell viability between the three methods (maintained at > 90 percent). The average transfection efficiency for electro-sonoporation was 81.25 percent and cell viability was 91.56 percent. Overall, we have presented a device and electro-sonoporation method that meets or outperforms the transfection efficiency and cell viability standards for HeLa cells set by other reported electroporation and sonoporation methods.

Longsine, Whitney Leigh

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Detection of Equatorward Meridional Flow and Evidence of Double-Cell Meridional Circulation inside the Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Meridional flow in the solar interior plays an important role in redistributing angular momentum and transporting magnetic flux inside the Sun. Although it has long been recognized that the meridional flow is predominantly poleward at the Sun's surface and in its shallow interior, the location of the equatorward return flow and the meridional flow profile in the deeper interior remain unclear. Using the first two years of continuous helioseismology observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory / Helioseismic Magnetic Imager, we analyze travel times of acoustic waves that propagate through different depths of the solar interior carrying information about the solar interior dynamics. After removing a systematic center-to-limb effect in the helioseismic measurements and performing inversions for flow speed, we find that the poleward meridional flow of a speed of 15 m/s extends in depth from the photosphere to about 0.91 R_sun. An equatorward flow of a speed of 10 m/s is found between 0.82 to 0.91 R_sun in the...

Zhao, Junwei; Kosovichev, A G; Duvall,, T L; Hartlep, Thomas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Anisotropic output-based adaptation with tetrahedral cut cells for compressible flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anisotropic, adaptive meshing for flows around complex, three-dimensional bodies remains a barrier to increased automation in computational fluid dynamics. Two specific advances are introduced in this thesis. First, a ...

Park, Michael Andrew

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Structural Basis for NADH/NAD+ Redox Sensing by a Rex Family Repressor  

SciTech Connect

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides have emerged as key signals of the cellular redox state. Yet the structural basis for allosteric gene regulation by the ratio of reduced NADH to oxidized NAD{sup +} is poorly understood. A key sensor among Gram-positive bacteria, Rex represses alternative respiratory gene expression until a limited oxygen supply elevates the intracellular NADH:NAD{sup +} ratio. Here we investigate the molecular mechanism for NADH/NAD{sup +} sensing among Rex family members by determining structures of Thermus aquaticus Rex bound to (1) NAD{sup +}, (2) DNA operator, and (3) without ligand. Comparison with the Rex/NADH complex reveals that NADH releases Rex from the DNA site following a 40{sup o} closure between the dimeric subunits. Complementary site-directed mutagenesis experiments implicate highly conserved residues in NAD-responsive DNA-binding activity. These rare views of a redox sensor in action establish a means for slight differences in the nicotinamide charge, pucker, and orientation to signal the redox state of the cell.

McLaughlin, K.J.; Soares, A.; Strain-Damerell, C. M.; Xie, K.; Brekasis, D.; Pagent, M. S. B.; Kielkopf, C. L.

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

124

A finite element analysis modeling tool for solid oxide fuel cell development: coupled electrochemistry, thermal and flow analysis in MARC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3D simulation tool for modeling solid oxide fuel cells is described. The tool combines the versatility and efficiency of a commercial finite element analysis code, MARC{reg_sign}, with an in-house developed robust and flexible electrochemical (EC) module. Based upon characteristic parameters obtained experimentally and assigned by the user, the EC module calculates the current density distribution, heat generation, and fuel and oxidant species concentration, taking the temperature profile provided by MARC{reg_sign} and operating conditions such as the fuel and oxidant flow rate and the total stack output voltage or current as the input. MARC{reg_sign} performs flow and thermal analyses based on the initial and boundary thermal and flow conditions and the heat generation calculated by the EC module. The main coupling between MARC{reg_sign} and EC is for MARC{reg_sign} to supply the temperature field to EC and for EC to give the heat generation profile to MARC{reg_sign}. The loosely coupled, iterative scheme is advantageous in terms of memory requirement, numerical stability and computational efficiency. The coupling is iterated to self-consistency for a steady-state solution. Sample results for steady states as well as the startup process for stacks with different flow designs are presented to illustrate the modeling capability and numerical performance characteristic of the simulation tool.

Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Lin, Zijing; Singh, Prabhakar; Surdoval, Wayne; Collin, D

2004-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

125

Preparation of redox polymer cathodes for thin film rechargeable batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to the manufacture of thin film solid state electrochemical devices using composite cathodes comprising a redox polymer capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction, a polymer solid electrolyte and conducting carbon. The polymeric cathode material is formed as a composite of radiation crosslinked polymer electrolytes and radiation crosslinked redox polymers based on polysiloxane backbones with attached organosulfur side groups capable of forming sulfur-sulfur bonds during electrochemical oxidation.

Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki.

1994-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

126

Alternative Evaluation for the REDOX (202-S) Plutonium Loadout Hood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Located in the 200 Areas is the inactive 202-S Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Facility, which is managed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Surveillance/Maintenance and Transition project. This facility is contaminated from nuclear material processes related to nuclear material separation from Hanford Site facility operations. This alternative evaluation report describes the alternatives and selection criteria based on the necessary protective requirements to maintain the REDOX Plutonium Loadout Hood in a safe and stable condition awaiting a final waste response action.

N. R. Kerr

1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

127

Semi-Solid Flowable Battery Electrodes: Semi-Solid Flow Cells for Automotive and Grid-Level Energy Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

BEEST Project: Scientists at 24M are crossing a Li-Ion battery with a fuel cell to develop a semi-solid flow battery. This system relies on some of the same basic chemistry as a standard Li-Ion battery, but in a flow battery the energy storage material is held in external tanks, so storage capacity is not limited by the size of the battery itself. The design makes it easier to add storage capacity by simply increasing the size of the tanks and adding more paste. In addition, 24M's design also is able to extract more energy from the semi-solid paste than conventional Li-Ion batteries. This creates a cost-effective, energy-dense battery that can improve the driving range of EVs or be used to store energy on the electric grid.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Semi-Solid Flowable Battery Electrodes: Semi-Solid Flow Cells for Automotive and Grid-Level Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: Scientists at 24M are crossing a Li-Ion battery with a fuel cell to develop a semi-solid flow battery. This system relies on some of the same basic chemistry as a standard Li-Ion battery, but in a flow battery the energy storage material is held in external tanks, so storage capacity is not limited by the size of the battery itself. The design makes it easier to add storage capacity by simply increasing the size of the tanks and adding more paste. In addition, 24M's design also is able to extract more energy from the semi-solid paste than conventional Li-Ion batteries. This creates a cost-effective, energy-dense battery that can improve the driving range of EVs or be used to store energy on the electric grid.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

A Two Dimensional Model of a Direct Propane Fuel Cell with an Interdigitated Flow Field .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Increasing environmental concerns as well as diminishing fossil fuel reserves call for a new generation of energy conversion technologies. Fuel cells, which convert the chemical (more)

Khakdaman, Hamidreza

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

The influence of thallium on the redox reaction CrT /CrS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Investigations on the kinetics and electrocatalysis of the CrT /CrS reaction were carried out. By means of cyclic voltammetry, it was discovered that the addition of thallium-I-chloride not only accelerates the CrT /CrS reaction in HC1 electrolytes catalytically, using graphite electrodes with small amounts of Au, but also raises th hydrogen overvoltage more than lead and bismuth, the heavy metal catalysts already tested in the practical redox cells. Investigations concerning the reaction rate, the influence of chrome ion concentrations, the electrolyte storage time, temperature, and the presence of iron are being conducted.

Cheng, D. Sh.; Hollax, E.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Hadley Cell Dynamics in a Primitive Equation Model. Part I: Axisymmetric Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A strategy is adopted that applies the mean meridional circulation (MMC) equation to two different steady states of a primitive equation model. This allows for the investigation of the mechanisms behind the sensitivity of the Hadley cell ...

Hyun-kyung Kim; Sukyoung Lee

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Hadley Cell Dynamics in a Primitive Equation Model. Part II: Nonaxisymmetric Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effect of baroclinic eddies on the structure of the Hadley cell. Self-consistent calculations of both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric circulations allow an unambiguous estimate of baroclinic eddy effects on the ...

Hyun-kyung Kim; Sukyoung Lee

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Thermodynamic Analyses of Iron Oxides Redox Reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To clarify such confusions, the elementary thermodynamic data of various iron ... and water vapor are used to calculate the changes of thermodynamic quantities such as .... Heat Transfer Characteristic in a Slag Heat Recovery Chamber ... Numerical Simulation of Electro-magnetic Flow Control Phenomenon in a Tundish.

134

Flow cytometric applications of tumor biology: prospects and pitfalls. [Applications in study of spontaneous dog tumors and in drug and radiation effects on cultured V79 cells  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of cytometry instrumentation and its potential applications in tumor biology is presented using our recent data. Age-distribution measurements of cells from spontaneous dog tumors and cultured cells after exposure to x rays, alpha particles, or adriamycin are shown. The data show that DNA fluorescence measurements have application in the study of cell kinetics after either radiation or drug treatment. Extensive and careful experimentation is needed to utilize the sophisticated developments in flow cytometry instrumentation.

Raju, M.R.; Johnson, T.S.; Tokita, N.; Gillette, E.L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Redox reactions with empirical potentials: Atomistic battery discharge simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Batteries are pivotal components in overcoming some of today's greatest technological challenges. Yet to date there is no self-consistent atomistic description of a complete battery. We take first steps toward modeling of a battery as a whole microscopically. Our focus lies on phenomena occurring at the electrode-electrolyte interface which are not easily studied with other methods. We use the redox split-charge equilibration (redoxSQE) method that assigns a discrete ionization state to each atom. Along with exchanging partial charges across bonds, atoms can swap integer charges. With redoxSQE we study the discharge behavior of a nano-battery, and demonstrate that this reproduces the generic properties of a macroscopic battery qualitatively. Examples are the dependence of the battery's capacity on temperature and discharge rate, as well as performance degradation upon recharge.

Dapp, Wolf B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1989  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to develop approaches to direct catalytic oxidation of methane over oxides that are doubly doped with transition metal ions. The desired process aims at employing a double redox mechanism, where one redox couple is utilized for activation of oxygen and another for the trapping of CH{sub 3} radicals. The methyl radicals can either recombine, giving C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, or be converted, via electron transfer reaction, to carbocations. The latter species can react with surface OH{sup {minus}} groups to form methanol or formaldehyde. To choose from several possible catalytic systems, this research initially involved the characterization of the micromorphology and crystalline dimensions of zinc oxide catalysts doped with Cu, Fe, and Sn by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the determination of surface composition and oxidation states by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out. A newly constructed high temperature catalytic testing system has been calibrated (flow meters and temperature controllers), tested for possible gas leaks and integrated with a gas chromatographic analytical unit. A preliminary catalytic test study over a Cu/Fe/ZnO sample was performed. The following products of the methane coupling reaction was found: C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O together with CO{sub 2}. The maximum space time yield of 14 mmol C{sub 2} hydrocarbons/g cat/h was obtained at 848{degrees}C.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Sojka, Z.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Metal-ligand redox interaction in the multielectron chemistry of porphyrinogen coordination compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal complexes of the macrocycle porphyrinogen (calix[4]pyrrole) are studied with an emphasis on the redox activity ("non-innocence") of the ligand (Chapter I). Porphyrinogen complexes of spherical, redox-inert metal ...

Bachmann, Julien

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Biogeochemical Redox Processes and their Impact on Contaminant Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of biogeochemical redox processes is crucial for predicting and protecting environmental health and can provide new the chemical speciation, bioavailability, toxicity, and mobility of many major and trace elements including Fe, and mobility of these elements in the environment are directly affected by reduction and oxidation. In addition

Sparks, Donald L.

139

Redox mediation and hydrogen-generation with bipyridinium reagents  

SciTech Connect

A variety of redox mediating agents employing bipyridinium reagents and such reagents in conjunction with dispersed noble metals, such as platinium, are disclosed as coatings for substrates and electrodes. The agents may be charged by an applied voltage or by photoelectric effects or may be equilibrated with hydrogen. The agents are useful in reducing biological materials and electrolytic hydrogen production.

Wrighton, Mark S. (Winchester, MA); Bookbinder, Dana C. (East Greenwich, RI); Bruce, James A. (Somerville, MA); Dominey, Raymond N. (Pensacola, FL); Lewis, Nathan S. (Palo Alto, CA)

1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

140

Versatile plug flow catalytic cell for in situ transmission/fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure measurements  

SciTech Connect

A novel flow-through catalytic cell has been developed for in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on heterogeneous catalysts under working conditions and in the presence of a liquid and a gas phase. The apparatus allows to carry out XAS measurements in both the transmission and fluorescence modes, at moderate temperature (from RT to 50-80 Degree-Sign C) and low-medium gas pressure (up to 7-8 bars). The materials employed are compatible with several chemicals such as those involved in the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, methanol). The versatile design of the cell allows to fit it to different experimental setups in synchrotron radiation beamlines. It was used successfully for the first time to test nanostructured Pd catalysts during the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in methanol solution from dihydrogen and dioxygen.

Centomo, P.; Zecca, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, via Marzolo 1, Universita degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); Meneghini, C. [Dipartimento di Scienze, via della Vasca Navale 84, Universita di Roma TRE, 00146 Roma (Italy)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

VRB Energy Storage for Voltage Stabilization: Testing and Evaluation of the PacifiCorp Vanadium Redox Battery Energy Storage System at Castle Valley, Utah  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy storage is a strategic option for utilities to support and optimize operations in generation, transmission and distribution. This report describes a demonstration energy storage facility based on vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) technology. This technology has been installed by PacifiCorp, a distribution utility in the Pacific Northwest, to defer investment in additional distribution assets in an environmentally pristine area in Castle Valley in Southeastern Utah. The technology has substantial p...

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

142

Preparation and discharge characteristics of solid redox polymerization electrodes employing disulfide polymers and copolymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent work in our laboratory on polymeric organodisulfides has shown these materials to perform well as positive electrodes in solid-state batteries. The polymeric materials have been named solid redox polymerization electrodes (SRPE's) due to the reversible polymerization/depolymerization reaction that occurs on charge/discharge of the electrode. The cell radiation for SRPE-based cells can be described for a simple case as, 2n M + (SRS){sub n} = n M{sub 2}SRS, where M is an alkali metal (Li, Na, K) and R is an organic group. In the broader sense SRPE's can have more than two S groups per monomer R unit, and are reversible to other monovalent and divalent metals. In the fully charged state SRPE's consist of polydisulfide polymers and are depolymerized on discharge by scission of sulfur-sulfur bonds, leading to the formation of dithiolate salts in the fully discharged cell. SRPE's are easy to synthesize, are air stable, and should be very inexpensive in bulk quantities. Depending on the redox potential of the polydisulfide and reaction condition, many disulfides can be copolymerized by oxidizing a mixture of dithiols, x HSRSH + y HSR'SH + (x+y)l{sub 2} = (SRS){sub x}(Sr'S){sub y} + 2(x+y) Hl, allowing modification of the physical and/or redox properties of the SRPE's. A series of simple aliphatic dithiols including (HSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}SH), (HSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}SH), and (HSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}SH) have been oxidized to polydisulfides and mixtures of the dithiols have been copolymerized. All of the resulting polymers and copolymers were evaluated in solid-state lithium cells, with some of the new materials demonstrating high levels of performance. The utilization of available capacity in the positive electrode was observed to be independent of electrode thickness for a number of SRPE's of loading levels up to 45% by weight. 8 refs., 5 figs. 2 tabs.

Lerner, M.M. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Visco, S.J.; Doeff, M.M.; Dejonghe, L.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ue, M. (Mitsubishi Petrochemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Parallel flow diffusion battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

144

Parallel flow diffusion battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

PEGylated Nanoceria as Radical Scavenger with Tunable Redox Chemistry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have shown tremendous potential in various applications such as water gas shift catalysis, chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), solar cells4 and high temperature oxidation protection coatings1. Recently, CNPs have been demonstrated to protect biological tissues against radiation induced damage, scavenging of superoxide anions, prevention of laser induced retinal damage, reduction of spinal injury in a tissue culture model, prevention of cardiovascular myopathy, pH dependent antioxidant properties, as a tool for immunoassays as well as other inflammatory diseases2. In most biomedical applications it is speculated that nanoceria is a regenerative radical scavenger with the ability to regenerate its active 3+ oxidation state for radical scavenging. Thus far there are no reports to control the regeneration of Ce3+ oxidation state which is the most important parameter in the application of CNPs as a reliable and regenerative radical scavenger. Thus, there is an imminent need to increase the potency of CNPs to achieve higher degree of protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS), to increase the residence time of CNPs in body and to control the regeneration of 3+ oxidation state. PEG has been reported to increase the residence time of nanoparticles and proteins inside cells and provide biocompatibility3. PEGylated counterparts of the SOD enzymes have shown improved performance over non-PEGylated enzymes. Herein, we report our efforts to synthesize CNPs directly in polyethylene glycol (mol wt 600) solution and determine the effect of increasing concentration of PEG (PEG vol % as 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80) on the SOD mimetic properties exhibited by nanoceria. We also report how the active Ce3+ oxidation state can be regenerated or further tuned to regenerate at faster rate. We further demonstrate the role of PEG on the redox chemistry of CNPs catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide. Several complexes of PEGs with lanthanides have been reported and characterized4. To evaluate the effect of PEG concentration on the complexation of cerium, UV-Vis spectra of the precursor salt of cerium (cerium nitrate hexahydrate) in different solutions of PEG were obtained (SI-1). It was observed that all PEG solutions showed an increase in absorption relative to the water based solution of cerium nitrate but the observed non specific trend cannot be ascribed to a systematic decrease in the solvent polarity or dielectric constant. This observation is in contrast to Uekawa et al5 who reported a red shift upon addition of cerium nitrate in PEG however, they ruled out the charge transfer between Ce4+ and oxygen. The above observation confirms the complexation of PEG with cerium ions. The CNPs were then synthesized as described in the experimental details (SI-2). High resolution transmission electron micrograph (Figure 1a) demonstrates that PEG coats as an amorphous layer on CNPs as observed from an amorphous background behind the crystalline core. To confirm further CNPs synthesized in PEG were dialyzed using a 3500 MWCO cellulose membrane and the FTIR spectrum was collected from the isolated powder. Figure 1b confirms the presence of PEG on the nanoceria particles. To facilitate the explanation, only representative spectrum from 20% PEG solution is shown.

Karakoti, Ajay S.; Singh, Sanjay; Kumar, Amit; Malinska, M.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Wozniak, K.; Self, William; Seal, Sudipta

2009-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

146

In situ redox manipulation treatability test -- waste management plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Waste Management Plan provides guidance for the management of waste generated from groundwater well installations in the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The well installations are necessary to implement the In Situ Redox Manipulation Treatability Test to determine methods for in situ remedial efforts to prevent discharge of hexavalent chromium at levels above those considered protective of aquatic life in the Columbia River and riverbed sediments

A. J. Knepp

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

Redox Kinetics and Diffusion in Lithium Niobate by Optical In Situ ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Redox kinetics upon oxygen activity jumps and the associated chemical diffusion coefficients are found in close agreement at a given temperature, indicating a...

148

Metal Ferrite Spinels for Solar-thermal Water Splitting REDOX Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Metal Ferrite Spinels for Solar-thermal Water Splitting REDOX Cycles. Author(s), Alan Weimer. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Alan Weimer.

149

Lateral flow strip assay  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

Miles, Robin R. (Danville, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Pearson, Francesca S. (Livermore, CA); Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

150

Cell-surface changes in cadmium-resistant Euglena: Studies using lectin-binding techniques and flow cytometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most in vitro studies on contaminants focus on the short-term effects of pollutants on cells, without regard to long-term effects and the ability of cells or microorganisms to develop a specific resistance to a pollutant. Cadmium is ubiquitous environmental contaminant. This heavy metal enters the aquatic environment mainly through vapor emissions and fallout during smelting operations. Diverse mechanisms of algal resistance to toxic metals are known. Among these, the most general mechanism is the development of metal-binding proteins. In cadmium-resistant unicellular Euglena gracilis Z algae cells, the metal did not appear to be sequestered on soluble metal-binding ligands. Previous experiments have shown that resistance development is related to a diminution of cadmium penetration into cells, implicating cell surface or membrane alteration. This research investigates the mechanisms of development of cadmium resistance in Euglena cells at the cell-surface level. Sugar chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids are a predominant feature of the surface of cells. Moreover, the cell-response to environmental changes is often orchestrated through surface macromolecules such as glycoproteins. In this study, we applied this lectin method to investigate surface carbohydrate expression during and after resistance development. Our interest was twofold: (1) to learn more about the carbohydrate composition of the cell-surface of Euglena; and (2) to determine whether transition from wild cells to Cd-resistant cells changes the expression of cell-surface carbohydrates. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Bonaly, J.; Brochiero, E. [Faculte de Pharmacie, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Thermal-fluid and electrochemical modeling and performance study of a planar solid oxide electrolysis cell : analysis on SOEC resistances, size, and inlet flow conditions.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory researchers are analyzing the electrochemical and thermal-fluid behavior of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) for high temperature steam electrolysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The major challenges facing commercialization of steam electrolysis technology are related to efficiency, cost, and durability of the SOECs. The goal of this effort is to guide the design and optimization of performance for high temperature electrolysis (HTE) systems. An SOEC module developed by FLUENT Inc. as part of their general CFD code was used for the SOEC analysis by INL. ANL has developed an independent SOEC model that combines the governing electrochemical mechanisms based on first principals to the heat transfer and fluid dynamics in the operation of SOECs. The ANL model was embedded into the commercial STAR-CD CFD software, and is being used for the analysis of SOECs by ANL. The FY06 analysis performed by ANL and reported here covered the influence of electrochemical properties, SOEC component resistances and their contributing factors, SOEC size and inlet flow conditions, and SOEC flow configurations on the efficiency and expected durability of these systems. Some of the important findings from the ANL analysis are: (1) Increasing the inlet mass flux while going to larger cells can be a compromise to overcome increasing thermal and current density gradients while increasing the cell size. This approach could be beneficial for the economics of the SOECs; (2) The presence of excess hydrogen at the SOEC inlet to avoid Ni degradation can result in a sizeable decrease in the process efficiency; (3) A parallel-flow geometry for SOEC operation (if such a thing be achieved without sealing problems) yields smaller temperature gradients and current density gradients across the cell, which is favorable for the durability of the cells; (4) Contact resistances can significantly influence the total cell resistance and cell temperatures over a large range of operating potentials. Thus it is important to identify and avoid SOEC stack conditions leading to such high resistances due to poor contacts.

Yildiz, B.; Smith, J.; Sofu, T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

152

Toward an In Vitro Vasculature: Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Within an Endothelial Cell-Seeded Modular Construct in a Microfluidic Flow Chamber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An in vitro tissue construct amenable to perfusion was formed by randomly packing mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-embedded, endothelial cell (EC)-coated collagen cylinders (modules) into a microfluidic chamber. The interstices ...

Chamberlain, M. Dean

153

Microbially-Enhanced Redox Solution Reoxidation for Sour Natural Gas Sweetening  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The specific objective of this project are to advance the technology and improve the economics of the commercial iron-based chelate processes such as LO-CAT II and SulFerox process utilizing biologically enhanced reoxidation of the redox solutions used in these processes. The project is based on the use of chelated ferric iron as the catalyst for the production of elemental sulfur, and then oxidizing bacteria, such as Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans (ATCC 23270) as an oxidizer. The regeneration of Fe{sup 3+} - chelate is accomplished by the use of these same microbes under mild conditions at 25-30 C and at atmospheric pressure to minimize the chelate degradation process. The pH of the redox solution was observed to be a key process parameter. Other parameters such as temperature, total iron concentration, gas to liquid ratio and bacterial cell densities also influence the overall process. The second part of this project includes experimental data and a kinetic model of microbial H{sub 2}S removal from sour natural gas using thiobacillus species. In the experimental part, a series of experiments were conducted with a commercial chelated iron catalyst at pH ranges from 8.7 to 9.2 using a total iron concentration range from 925 ppm to 1050 ppm in the solution. Regeneration of the solution was carried out by passing air through the solution. Iron oxidizing bacteria were used at cell densities of 2.3 x 10{sup 7}cells/ml for optimum effective performance. In the modeling part, oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} ions by the iron oxidizing bacteria - Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans was studied for application to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The factors that can directly affect the oxidation rate such as dilution rate, temperature, and pH were analyzed. The growth of the microorganism was assumed to follow Monod type of growth kinetics. Dilution rate had influence on the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron. Higher dilution rates caused washout of the biomass. The oxidation rate was highly pH sensitive. Specific growth is a function of pH of the both. The specific growth rate had a maximum value at around 2.2. A dynamic model for a packed bed fluid reactor is also developed and simulated. A feedback control loop is proposed to control the production under feed disturbances.

Kenneth Brezinsky

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Vanadium redox-flow batteries Installation at Ris for characterisation measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and investigating distributed power systems. SYSLAB consists of two wind turbines, a pv-array, a diesel genset Bindner, Wind Energy Department, Risø National Laboratory, DTU, henrik.bindner@risoe.dk Peter Ahm, PA it provides different services to grid including smoothing of wind turbine output, load balancing and similar

155

Vanadium-redox flow and lithium-ion battery modelling and performance in wind energy applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As wind energy penetration levels increase, there is a growing interest in using storage devices to aid in managing the fluctuations in wind turbine output (more)

Chahwan, John A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Progress on Technology of Redox Flow Battery and Its Application in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemical Charge/Discharge Behavior of Li-Mg Alloy Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Batteries Electronic Conductivity Enhancement of CNT Dispersed...

157

TY JOUR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A1 Michael C Tucker A1 Venkat Srinivasan A1 Philip N Ross A1 Adam Z Weber KW battery KW Flow battery KW iron hydrogen cell KW progress KW redox flow cell AB p A redox...

158

Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow of Benard-Cell Convection in Rectangular Container with Free Surface Sensed by Infrared Thermography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The natural convection flow phenomena that occur inside an enclosed space are very interesting examples of complex fluid systems that may yield to analytical, empirical and numerical solutions, and many reports have looked into this basic problem. In ... Keywords: Gas-liquid Interface, Heat Transfer, Infrared Thermography, Natural Convection, Thermal Visualization, Turbulence

T. Inagaki; M. Hatori; T. Suzuki; Y. Shiina

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Flow Batteries: A Historical Perspective  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marvin Warshay *1976 Shunt Current Model, Paul Prokopius *1976 Interfaced an RFB with solar cells *1977 Electrode-Membrane-Flow Battery Testing *Largest polarization @ negative...

160

Multiple sort flow cytometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA); Esposito, Richard J. (Seattle, WA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

An Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flow Systems Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Reactive chemical transport occurs in a variety of geochemical environments, and over a broad range of...

162

Flow cytometry apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one-dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the obstruction directs flat cells near to the area of one-dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates. 6 figs.

Pinkel, D.

1987-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

Flow cytometry apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the construction directs flat cells near to the area of one dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates.

Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium subsurface mobility is primarily controlled by its oxidation state, which in turn is loosely coupled to the oxidation state of iron in the system. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of sediment iron mineral composition and oxidation state on plutonium sorption and oxidation state. A pH 6.3 vadose zone sediment containing iron oxides and iron-containing phyllosilicates was treated with various complexants (ammonium oxalate) and reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate) to selectively leach and/or reduce iron oxide and phyllosilicate phases. Mssbauer spectroscopy was used to identify initial iron mineral composition of the sediment and monitor dissolution and reduction of iron oxides. Sorption of Pu(V) was monitored over one week for each of six treated sediment fractions. Plutonium oxidation state speciation in the aqueous and solid phases was monitored using solvent extraction, coprecipitation, and XANES. Mssbauer spectroscopy showed that the sediment contained 25-30% hematite, 60-65% Al-goethite, and <10%Fe(III) in phyllosilicate; there was no detectable Fe(II). Upon reduction with a strong chemical reductant (dithionite-citrate buffer, DCB), much of the hematite and goethite disappeared and the Fe in the phyllosilicate reduced to Fe(II). The rate of sorption was found to correlate with the 1 fraction of Fe(II) remaining within each treated sediment phase. Pu(V) was the only oxidation state measured in the aqueous phase, irrespective of treatment, whereas Pu(IV) and much smaller amounts of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) were measured in the solid phase. Surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) occurred in treated and untreated sediment samples; Pu(V) remained on untreated sediment surface for two days before reducing to Pu(IV). Similar to the sorption kinetics, the reduction rate was correlated with sediment Fe(II) concentration. The correlation between Fe(II) concentrations and Pu(V) reduction demonstrates the potential impact of changing iron mineralogy on plutonium subsurface transport through redox transition areas. These findings should influence the conceptual models of long-term stewardship of Pu contaminated sites that have fluctuating redox conditions, such as vadose zones or riparian zones.

Hixon, Amy E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Nitsche, Heino; Qafoku, Odeta; Powell, Brian A.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Method of reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with redox enzymes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with redox enzymes, such as Oxyrase (Trademark of Oxyrase, Inc., Mansfield, Ohio).

Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Consequences of redox-active phenazines on the physiology of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phenazines are redox-active small molecules produced by bacteria. Although phenazines have been studied extensively for their roles as toxins, how phenazines benefit producing organisms is still being uncovered. Pseudomonas ...

Kern, Suzanne E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Transimination of Quinone Imines: A Mechanism for Embedding Exogenous Redox Activity into the Nucleosome  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aminophenols can redox cycle through the corresponding quinone imines to generate ROS. The electrophilic quinone imine intermediate can react with protein thiols as a mechanism of immobilization in vivo. Here, we describe ...

Ye, Wenjie

168

Thermodynamic Basis for Redox Regulation of the Yap1 Signal Transduction Pathway  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-like enzyme, oxidant receptor protein (Orp1). We were unable to obtain satisfactory redox titration data for Orp1 at pH 7.0, but if the redox-active disulfide of Orp1 exhibits the -59 mV per pH unit dependence for Em typical of protein disulfides in this pH region, an Em value of -315 mV can be estimated for Orp1

Wood, Matthew J.

169

1: Redox chemistry of bimetallic fulvalene complexes; 2: Oligocyclopentadienyl complexes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electrochemistry of the heterobimetallic complexes (fulvalene)WFe(CO){sub 5} (30) and (fulvalene)WRu(CO){sub 5} (31) has been investigated. Compound 30 is reduced in two one-electron processes, and this behavior was exploited synthetically to prepare a tetranuclear dimer by selective metal reduction. Complex 31 displayed a distinction between the metals upon reoxidation of the dianion, allowing the formation of a dimer by selective metal anion oxidation. The redox behavior of 30 led to an investigation of the use of electrocatalysis to effect metal-specific ligand substitution. It was found that reduction of 30 with a catalytic amount of CpFe(C{sub 6}Me{sub 6}) (97) in the presence of excess P(OMe){sub 3} or PMe{sub 3} led to the formation of the zwitterions (fulvalene)[W(CO){sub 3}{sup {minus}}][Fe(CO)PR{sub 3}{sup +}] (107, R = P(OMe){sub 3}; 108, R = PMe{sub 3}). Compound 31 also displayed unique behavior with different reducing agents, as the monosubstituted zwitterion (fulvalene)[W(CO){sub 3}{sup {minus}}][Ru(CO){sub 2}(PMe{sub 3}){sup +}] was obtained when 97 was used while the disubstituted complex (fulvalene) [W(CO){sub 3}{sup {minus}}] [Ru(CO)(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +}] was produced when Cp*Fe(C{sub 6}Me{sub 6}) was the catalyst. Potential synthetic routes to quatercyclopentadienyl complexes were also explored. Various attempts to couple heterobimetallic fulvalene compounds proved to be unsuccessful. 138 refs.

Brown, D.S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Redox Chemistry DOI: 10.1002/anie.200501192  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

benefits of converting coal into electricity directly in a fuel cell rather than by generating steam to develop a process for generating electricity directly from the oxidation of coal date back to the late 19 Fuel Cell** Douglas B. Weibel, Roman Boulatov, Andrew Lee, Rosaria Ferrigno, and George M. Whitesides

Weibel, Douglas B.

171

Development of Advanced Flow-Through External Pressure-Balanced Reference Electrode for Temperatures up to 400 degrees C.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of an advanced flow-through external pressure-balanced reference electrode opens the door for more accurate measurements of corrosion potential, redox potential, and pH in power plant waters at temperatures up to 400 degrees C. Such measurements allow a more accurate assessment of an environment's corrosivity and promote more effective corrosion control.

1998-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

172

Microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip and method for simultaneously detecting multiple redox labels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a microfabricated capillary electrophoresis chip for detecting multiple redox-active labels simultaneously using a matrix coding scheme and to a method of selectively labeling analytes for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple label-analyte conjugates after electrophoretic or chromatographic separation.

Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Singhal, Pankaj (Berkeley, CA); Xie, Jin (Walnut Creek, CA); Glazer, Alexander N. (Orinda, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Microstructure Change of SOFC Anode Caused by Electrochemical Redox Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Systems. All Rights Reserved. 2 Contents Manufacturing development dependencies SOFC elements Reserved. 6 SOFC Elements: Independent of Construction Need to create and join the electrochemical Rights Reserved. 7 SOFC Stack Elements Fuel cell ­ Electrolyte, cathode, anode Interconnects ­ Deliver

Tokyo, University of

174

Electrochemical cell operation and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermal control in fuel cell operation is affected through sensible heat of process gas by providing common input manifolding of the cell gas flow passage in communication with the cell electrolyte and an additional gas flow passage which is isolated from the cell electrolyte and in thermal communication with a heat-generating surface of the cell. Flow level in the cell gas flow passage is selected based on desired output electrical energy and flow level in the additional gas flow passage is selected in accordance with desired cell operating temperature.

Maru, Hansraj C. (Brookfield Center, CT)

1980-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

175

FLOW GATING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

BS>This invention is a fast gating system for eiectronic flipflop circuits. Diodes connect the output of one circuit to the input of another, and the voltage supply for the receiving flip-flop has two alternate levels. When the supply is at its upper level, no current can flow through the diodes, but when the supply is at its lower level, current can flow to set the receiving flip- flop to the same state as that of the circuit to which it is connected. (AEC)

Poppelbaum, W.J.

1962-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Extraordinarily Efficient Conduction in a Redox-Active Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iodine added to iodide-based ionic liquids leads to extraordinarily efficient charge transport, vastly exceeding that expected for such viscous systems. Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, in conjunction with dc conductivity, diffusivity and viscosity measurements we unravel the conductivity pathways in 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide melts. This study presents evidence of the Grotthuss mechanism as a significant contributor to the conductivity, and provides new insights into ion pairing processes as well as the formation of polyiodides. The terahertz and transport results are reunited in a model providing a quantitative description of the conduction by physical diffusion and the Grotthuss bond-exchange process. These novel results are important for the fundamental understanding of conduction in molten salts and for applications where ionic liquids are used as charge-transporting media such as in batteries and dye-sensitized solar cells.

Verner K. Thorsmlle; Guido Rothenberger; Daniel Topgaard; Jan C. Brauer; Dai-Bin Kuang; Shaik M. Zakeeruddin; Bjrn Lindman; Michael Grtzel; Jacques-E. Moser

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

177

Microbially-enhanced redox solution reoxidation for sweetening sour natural gas  

SciTech Connect

About twenty five percent of natural gas produced in the United States is sour containing significant volumes of hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants. Liquid redox processes remove hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. Aqueous solution of chelated ferric ions oxidize the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The reduced iron chelate is then oxidized by contact with air and recycled. This requires expensive equipment for regeneration, costly chemicals and the process is usually energy intensive. Recent studies show that the ferric ion regeneration rates are substantially enhanced in presence of acidophilic bacteria. The specific objectives of this project are to advance the technology and improve the economics of the commercial iron-based chelate processes utilizing biologically-enhanced reoxidation of the redox solutions used in these processes, such as LO-CAT II and SulFerox.

Rai, C.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Flow cytometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Faraday cage enclosing the flow chamber of a cytometer and ground planes associated with each field deflection plate in concert therewith inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates and increases forces applied to a charged event passing therethrough for accurate focus thereof while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard.

van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Flow cytometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

Van den Engh, G.

1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

180

Radiation-induced non-equilibrium redox chemistry of plutonium: implications for environmental migration  

SciTech Connect

Static concentrations of plutonium oxidation states in solution and at surfaces in oxide-water systems are identified as non-equilibrium steady states. These kinetically controlled systems are described by redox cycles based on irreversible disproportionation of Pu(IV), Pu(V), and Pu(VI) in OH-bridged intermediate complexes and at OH-covered oxide surfaces. Steady state is fixed by continuous redox cycles driven by radioactivity-promoted electron-transfer and energetically favorable reactions of Pu(III) and Pu(VII) disproportionation products with H2O. A model based on the redox cycles accounts for the high steady-state [Pu] coexisting with Pu(IV) hydrous oxide at pH 0-15 and for predominance of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) in solution. The steady-state [Pu] depends on pH and the surface area of oxide in solution, but not on the initial Pu oxidation state. PuO{sub 2+x} formation is attributed to high Pu(V) concentrations existing at water-exposed oxide surfaces. Results infer that migration of Pu in an aqueous environment is controlled by kinetic factors unique to that site and that the predominant oxidation states in solution are Pu(V) and Pu(VI).

Haschke, J M; Siekhaus, W J

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

EVALUATION OF AMENDMENTS FOR MENDING THE INSITU REDOX MANIPULATION (ISRM) BARRIER  

SciTech Connect

In May of 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from DOE Headquarters EM-23 to provide a team of technical experts to evaluate likely chemical/biological amendments for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. This request was a follow-on to an earlier request for assistance regarding the cause of chromium (Cr) breakthrough and recommendations for mending the barrier (March 2004 workshop). This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the ISRM technology, was installed at a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to estimate barrier longevity, calculated to be in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in approximately 17 wells has been found to contain elevated Cr concentrations. The March 2004 technical assistance team (TAT) identified potential causes of Cr breakthrough as likely related to physical and chemical heterogeneity within the aquifer (including loss of reductive capacity within preferential flow paths) and the presence of other oxidants (DO and nitrate) significantly affecting the reductive capacity of the treated aquifer. These aquifer characteristics may limit the ability of alternative amendments to extend the reducing capacity of the barrier. A 2001 Bechtel Hanford report and evaluation of the ISRM performance data and barrier longevity assessment corroborate the observations and findings of the March 2004 TAT. The March 2004 TAT recommended the collection of new aquifer characterization data in combination with the interpretation of existing data to develop a conceptual model of aquifer heterogeneity to enable design of the most appropriate barrier mending system. The current TAT was convened to examine the most promising amendment that could be applied to mend the ISRM barrier. The Technical Assistance Team (TAT) performed the following activities: (1) Evaluate the most appropriate single or combination of chemical/biological amendments suitable for increasing the reductive capacity of the ISRM barrier; (2) Evaluate the most practicable means of introducing chemical/biological amendments in the target zones along the current BRM barrier; (3) Provide recommendations for laboratory treatability-testing protocol development to evaluate the type and delivery mechanisms of amendments in the current ISRM barrier location. Sections of this report present analyses and recommendations of potential amendments and delivery options to improve performance of the ISRM barrier. The report covers the spectrum of passive barrier mending to chemical and biological amendments that have been shown to perform more efficiently in more active remedial design approaches. Because DOE/RL is considering significant aquifer characterization studies as additional time and cost investment to mending the barrier, the TAT strongly recommends that DOE/RL conduct cost-benefit analyses of alternative designs to mend the barrier. In this way, the value and extent of characterization studies, compared to passive amendment delivery, compared to engineering redesign, can be quantitatively estimated for decision-making purposes.

PETERSEN, S.W.

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

182

Defining How a Microbial Cell Senses and Responds to a Redox Active Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This grant was for four years, and the work was designed to look at the mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer by the dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and other closely related Shewanella strains and species. During this work, we defined many of the basic physiological and biochemical properties of the Shewanella group, Much of which was summarized in review articles. We also finished and published the genome sequence of strain MR-1, the first of the shewanellae to have its genome sequenced. Control at the transcriptional and translational level was studied in collaboration with colleagues at PNNL and ANL. We utilized synchrotron X-ray radiation to image both the bacteria and the metal oxide particles via a technique called STXM, synchrotron X-ray absorption (ref. No.9), and X-ray microbeam analysis. We purified several of the cytochromes involved with metal reduction, and improved gene annotation of the MR-1 genome. The conductive appendages (nanowires) of MR-1 were described and characterized. Comparative genomics and biochemistry revealed that the pathway for the utilization of N-acetyl glucosamine in the various strains of Shewanella exhibited great variability, and had a number of previously unknown genes.

Kenneth H. Nealson

2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

183

Effects of Redox Cycling of Iron in Nontronite on Reduction of Technetium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ technetium-99 (99Tc) immobilization by Fe(II) associated with clay minerals has been studied and is a potential cost-effective method for Tc remediation at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Fe redox cycling are common in sedimentary environments, however their effect on Tc reduction and immobilization has not yet been investigated. The objective of this project was therefore to study how multiple cycles of reduction-reoxidation of Fe-rich clay mineral, nontronite, affected its reactivity toward Tc (VII) reduction. Iron-rich nontronite NAu-2 was used as a model clay mineral. NAu-2 suspension was first bioreduced by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, which consequently was re-oxidized by air. Three cycles of reduction-oxidation were conducted and bioreduced NAu-2 samples from all three cycles were collected and used for Tc(VII) reduction experiments. Each redox cycle resulted in a small fraction of dissolution of small size and/or poorly crystalline NAu-2. The released Fe(II) from the dissolution was likely adsorbed onto NAu-2 surface/edge sites with a high reactivity. Upon exposure to O2, this reactive Fe(II) fraction was oxidized more rapidly than structural Fe(II) and may have accounted for a two-step reoxidation kinetics of NAu-2 associated Fe(II): rapid oxidation over first few hours followed by slow oxidation. Progressive increase of this reactive fraction of Fe(II), from increased dissolution, accounted for the successively higher rate of bioreduction and reoxidation with increased redox cycles. The same Fe redistribution accounted for two-step Tc(VII) reduction kinetics as well. Rapid Tc(VII) reduction in the first few hours may be attributed to a small fraction of highly reactive Fe(II) at the NAu-2 surface/edge sites, and more steady Tc(VII) reduction over longer time may be carried out by structural Fe(II). Similar to the increased rates of Fe(III) reduction and Fe(II) oxidation, the Tc(VII) reduction rate also increased with redox cycles and could be explained by progressive increase of the reactive Fe(II) on NAu-2 surface/edges. These results suggest that iron-rich clay minerals undergo important changes after redox cycles, but eventually reach a steady state with continued reactivity toward heavy metals.

Yang, Junjie; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Dong, Hailiang; Shelobolina, Evgenya S.; Zhang, Jing; Kim, Jinwook

2012-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

184

100-D Area In Situ Redox Treatability Test for Chromate-Contaminated Groundwater: FY 1998 Year-End Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A treatability test was conducted for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology at the US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington 100D Area. The target contaminant was dissolved chromate [Cr(VI)] in groundwater. The ISRM technology involves creating a permeable subsurface treatment zone to reduce mobile chromate in groundwater to an insoluble form. The ISRM permeable treatment zone is created by reducing ferric iron [Fe(III)] to ferrous iron [Fe(II)] within the aquifer sediments. This is accomplished by injecting aqueous sodium dithionite into the aquifer and withdrawing the reaction products. The goal of the treatability test was to create a linear ISRM barrier by injecting sodium dithionite into five wells. Well installation and site characterization activities began in the spring of 1997. The first dithionite injection took place in September 1997. The results of this first injection were monitored through the spring of 1998; the remaining four dithionite injections were carried out in May through July of 1998. These five injections created a reduced zone in the Hanford unconfined aquifer 150 feet in length (perpendicular to groundwater flow) by 50 feet wide. The reduced zone extended over the thickness of the unconfined zone, which is approximately 15 feet. Analysis of recent groundwater sampling events shows that the concentrations of chromate [Cr(VI)] in groundwater in the reduced zone have been decreased from starting concentrations of approximately 900 ppb to below analytical detection limits (<7 ppb). Chromate concentrations are also declining in some downgradient monitoring wells. Laboratory analysis of iron in the soil indicates that the barrier should remain in place for approximately 20 to 25 years. These measurements will be confirmed by analysis of sediment cores in FY 1999.

Williams, M.D.; Vermeul, V.R.; Szecsody, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Cole, C.R.

1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Final Report - Crystal Settling, Redox, and High Temperature Properties of ORP HLW and LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-1, Rev. 0, dated 6/18/09  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radioactive tank waste treatment programs at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) have featured joule heated ceramic melter technology for the vitrification of high level waste (HLW). The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) employs this same basic technology not only for the vitrification of HLW streams but also for the vitrification of Low Activity Waste (LAW) streams. Because of the much greater throughput rates required of the WTP as compared to the vitrification facilities at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) or the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the WTP employs advanced joule heated melters with forced mixing of the glass pool (bubblers) to improve heat and mass transport and increase melting rates. However, for both HLW and LAW treatment, the ability to increase waste loadings offers the potential to significantly reduce the amount of glass that must be produced and disposed and, therefore, the overall project costs. This report presents the results from a study to investigate several glass property issues related to WTP HLW and LAW vitrification: crystal formation and settling in selected HLW glasses; redox behavior of vanadium and chromium in selected LAW glasses; and key high temperature thermal properties of representative HLW and LAW glasses. The work was conducted according to Test Plans that were prepared for the HLW and LAW scope, respectively. One part of this work thus addresses some of the possible detrimental effects due to considerably higher crystal content in waste glass melts and, in particular, the impact of high crystal contents on the flow property of the glass melt and the settling rate of representative crystalline phases in an environment similar to that of an idling glass melter. Characterization of vanadium redox shifts in representative WTP LAW glasses is the second focal point of this work. The third part of this work focused on key high temperature thermal properties of representative WTP HLW and LAW glasses over a wide range of temperatures, from the melter operating temperature to the glass transition.

Kruger, Albert A.; Wang, C.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Kot, W.; Feng, Z.; Viragh, C.; McKeown, D. A.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Cecil, R.; Zhao, W.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

186

Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form of gibbsite, and its impact on filtration. The initial sample was diluted with a liquid simulant to simulate the receiving concentration of retrieved tank waste into the UFP2 vessel (< 10 wt% undissolved solids). Filtration testing was performed on the dilute waste sample and dewatered to a higher solids concentration. Filtration testing was then performed on the concentrated slurry. Afterwards, the slurry was caustic leached to remove aluminum present in the undissolved solid present in the waste. The leach was planned to simulate leaching conditions in the UFP2 vessel. During the leach, slurry supernate samples were collected to measure the dissolution rate of aluminum in the waste. After the slurry cooled down from the elevated leach temperature, the leach liquor was dewatered from the solids. The remaining slurry was rinsed and dewatered with caustic solutions to remove a majority of the dissolved aluminum from the leached slurry. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the rinse solutions was high enough to maintain the solubility of the aluminum in the dewatered rinse solutions after dilution of the slurry supernate. Filtration tests were performed on the final slurry to compare to filtration performance before and after caustic leaching.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

187

Redox Reactions of Metalloporphyrins and their Role in Catalyzed Reduction of Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pulse radiolysis and laser photolysis are used to study redox processes of metalloporphyrins and related complexes in order to evaluate these light absorbing molecules as sensitizers and intermediates in solar energy conversion schemes. The main thrust of the current studies is to investigate the role of reduced metalloporphyrins as intermediates in the catalyzed reduction of carbon dioxide. Studies involve cobalt and iron porphyrins, phthalocyanines, corroles, and corrins as homogeneous catalysts for reduction of carbon dioxide in solution. The main aim is to understand the mechanisms of these photochemical schemes in order to facilitate their potential utilization.

Neta, P.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Control of flow and oxygen in a 3-D perfused micro-environment fosters balanced survival of hepatocyte-non-parenchymal cell co-cultures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Creating a physiologically relevant in vitro liver model requires reproducing the cellular heterogeneity of in vivo liver in a functional state. However differentiated sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), marked by SE-1 ...

Dash, Ajit

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Miniaturized flow injection analysis system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Miniaturized flow injection analysis system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

Folta, J.A.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

PNNL: Available Technologies: Energy  

Smart Grid Devices. ... Redox Flow Batteries for Grid-scale Energy Storage; Fuel Cells. Introducing Fuel Oil into a Steam Reformer with Reduced Carbon ...

192

Improved Fluid Flow Measurements: Feedwater Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the combined results of a utility survey and site visits concerning feedwater flow measurement in fossil-fueled power plants. In addition, a summary is provided of the technologies available to measure the volumetric feedwater flow rate in plants. This volumetric flow rate can be converted to a mass flow rate by knowing the pressure and temperature of the flow media. Velocity meters, differential pressure meters, and other closed-conduit flowmeters are discussed along with ...

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

193

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4/3/2012 4/3/2012 eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Overview Flow Cell Workshop Washington, DC Dr. Sunita Satyapal & Dr. Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program 3/7/2011 Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Purpose To understand the applied research and development needs and the grand challenges for the use of flow cells as energy-storage devices. Objectives 1. Understand the needs for applied research from stakeholders. 2. Gather input for future development of roadmaps and technical targets for flow cells for various applications. 3. Identify grand challenges and prioritize R&D needs. Flow cells combine the unique advantages of batteries and fuel cells and can offer benefits for multiple energy storage applications.

194

Redox-dependent structure change and hyperfine nuclear magnetic resonance shifts in cytochrome c  

SciTech Connect

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance assignments for reduced and oxidized equine cytochrome c show that many individual protons exhibit different chemical shifts in the two protein forms, reflecting diamagnetic shift effects due to structure change, and in addition contact and pseudocontact shifts that occur only in the paramagnetic oxidized form. To evaluate the chemical shift differences for structure change, the authors removed the pseudocontact shift contribution by a calculation based on knowledge of the electron spin g tensor. The g-tensor calculation, when repeated using only 12 available C{sub {alpha}}H proton resonances for cytochrom c from tuna, proved to be remarkably stable. The derived g tensor was then used together with spatial coordinates for the oxidized form to calculate the pseudocontact shift contribution to proton resonances at 400 identifiable sites throughout the protein, so that the redox-dependent chemical shift discrepancy, could be evaluated. Large residual changes in chemical shift define the Fermi contact shifts, where are found as expected to be limited to the immediate covalent structure of the heme and its ligands and to be asymmetrically distributed over the heme. The chemical shift discrepancies observed appear in the main to reflect structure-dependent diamagnetic shifts rather than hyperfine effects due to displacements in the pseudocontact shift field. Although 51 protons in 29 different residues exhibit significant chemical shift changes, the general impressions one of small structural adjustments to redox-dependent strain rather than sizeable structural displacements or rearrangements.

Feng, Yiquing; Roder, H.; Englander, S.W. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

1990-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

195

Redox Active Layer-by-Layer Structures containing MnO2 Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoscale materials provide unique properties that will enable new technologies and enhance older ones. One area of intense activity in which nanoscale materials are being used is in the development of new functional materials for battery applications. This effort promises superior materials with properties that circumvent many of the problems associated with traditional battery materials. Previously we have worked on several approaches for using nanoscale materials for application as cathode materials in rechargeable Li batteries. Our recent work has focused on synthesizing MnO2 nanoparticles and using these in layer-by-layer (LbL) structures to probe the redox properties of the nanoparticles. We show that the aqueous colloidal nanoparticles produced by butanol reduction of tetramethylammonium permanganate can be trapped in thin films using a layer-by-layer deposition approach, and that these films are both redox active and exhibit kinetically facile electrochemical responses. We show cyclic voltammetry of MnO2 colloidal nanoparticles entrapped in a LbL thin film at an ITO electrode surface using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). CV experiments demonstrate that Li+ insertion accompanies Mn(IV) reduction in LiClO4 supporting electrolytes, and that reduction is hindered in supporting electrolytes containing only tetrabutylammonium cations. We also show that electron propagation through multilayer films is facile, suggesting that electrons percolate through the films via electron exchange between nanoparticles.

Bazito, Fernanda; O'Brien, Robert; Buttry, Daniel A.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Development of the in vivo flow cytometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An in vivo flow cytometer has been developed that allows the real-time detection and quantification of circulating cells containing fluorescent proteins or labeled with fluorochrome molecules in live animals, without the ...

Novak, John P. (John Peter), 1957-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Revised Benchmark Problem for modeling of metal flow and metal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The literature is scarce when it comes to benchmark problems for MHD flow in a cell and those cases which are available often suffer from insufficient level of...

198

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Advanced Materials for Flow Batteries...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cu-DEA 2 m 10 m 1 m Flow Cell Tester assembly Key Issues: * Force fluid against gravity * Avoid sharp turns * Carbon feltmembrane contact * Wettability * Membrane 8...

199

Discovery of agglutinated benthic foraminifera in Devonian black shales and their relevance for the redox state of ancient seas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Discovery of agglutinated benthic foraminifera in Devonian black shales and their relevance Received in revised form 4 October 2008 Accepted 31 October 2008 Keywords: Black shale Redox Devonian. The discovery that they occur widely in Late Devonian black shales has a bearing on the boundary conditions

Polly, David

200

A Glucose BioFuel Cell Implanted in Rats Philippe Cinquin1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Glucose BioFuel Cell Implanted in Rats Philippe Cinquin1 *, Chantal Gondran2 , Fabien Giroud2 powerful ones, Glucose BioFuel Cells (GBFCs), are based on enzymes electrically wired by redox mediators applications. Citation: Cinquin P, Gondran C, Giroud F, Mazabrard S, Pellissier A, et al. (2010) A Glucose BioFuel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

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201

Redox Control For Hanford HLW Feeds VSL-12R2530-1, REV 0  

SciTech Connect

The principal objectives of this work were to investigate the effects of processing simulated Hanford HLW at the estimated maximum concentrations of nitrates and oxalates and to identify strategies to mitigate any processing issues resulting from high concentrations of nitrates and oxalates. This report provides results for a series of tests that were performed on the DM10 melter system with simulated C-106/AY-102 HLW. The tests employed simulated HLW feeds containing variable amounts of nitrates and waste organic compounds corresponding to maximum concentrations proj ected for Hanford HLW streams in order to determine their effects on glass production rate, processing characteristics, glass redox conditions, melt pool foaming, and the tendency to form secondary phases. Such melter tests provide information on key process factors such as feed processing behavior, dynamic effects during processing, processing rates, off-gas amounts and compositions, foaming control, etc., that cannot be reliably obtained from crucible melts.

Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, Wing K. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Joseph, Innocent [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

202

Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce heat to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-based reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective heat recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.

None

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

203

Performance assessment of mass flow rate measurement capability in a large scale transient two-phase flow test system  

SciTech Connect

Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT.

Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Neutral and Cationic Main Group Lewis Acids - Synthesis, Anion Complexation and Redox Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary goal of this research concerns the synthesis and characterization of hybrid main group Lewis acids. Initially, the focus of this work was on the synthesis of derivatives possessing unusual bonding interactions enforced by a rigid 1,8- naphthalenediyl scaffold. After discovering a route to a new dilithio reagent, silicon based derivatives featuring R3Si-F->CR3 + and R3C-H->SiFR3 interactions of 2.703(2) and 2.32(2) Angstrom respectively were successfully synthesized and fully characterized. Another hybrid Lewis acid based on the 1,8-naphthalenediyl scaffold that was studied was a trinuclear B2/Hg Lewis acid. This molecule has been shown to bind two fluoride anions sequentially, and the binding events can be followed by differential pulsed votammetry. The final part of this work concerns the reactivity and redox behavior of main group systems. It has been shown that the p-phenylene linker in 4-dimesitylboryl-1- diarylmethylium benzenes effectively reduces electrochemical communication between the carbocation and borane moieties when compared to systems without the linker. Reduction of these species produces a derivative whose EPR signal is only slightly influenced by the ^11 B center. These findings have been further substantiated by theoretical calculations. Finally, the redox properties of alpha-phosphonio- and alpha- phosphonyl-carbocations have been studied. Chemical reduction of both species leads to a predominately carbon centered radical with coupling to the ^31P center of 18 and 19.7 G respectively. The alpha-phosphonio carbocations, however, also undergo ligand exchange reactions with pyridine derivatives suggesting that these species can also be referred to as ligand stabilized carbodications.

Dorsey, Christopher L.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

flow_measurements_cryogenic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A dynamic weighing system is used to measure ... using liquid nitrogen at flow rates of 1 ... For volumetric flow rate measurement, the uncertainty in fluid ...

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

206

Multiphase flow calculation software  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Multiphase Flow Modeling Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Chris Guenther, Director Computational Science Division RUA Spring Meeting, Morgantown, WV March 2013 2 NETL's Multiphase Flow Science Team * The Multiphase Flow Science...

208

Redox-active Ionic Liquids in Energy Storage: Application to Li-ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric Cell-impedance Spectroscopy at the Biological-inorganic Interface, Shewanella Oneidensis - Gold, for Microbial Fuel Cell Applications Encapsulating...

209

Superlattice photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The application of superlattice semiconductors as photoelectrodes in photoelectrochemical energy conversion processes is described. The invention is comprised of a multiple quantum well, or superlattice, semiconductor positioned on a plate and encapsulated in an insulation material, except the top surface, which is left exposed. An opening in insulation exposes a portion of the plate. When the photoelectrochemical cell is immersed in a liquid electrolyte and exposed to solar radiation, a redox reaction occurs, producing gases such as hydrogen and oxygen from a water electrolyte, which bubble off the cathode and anode portions of the cell. (LEW)

Nozik, A.J.

1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

210

Heuristic optimality criterion algorithm for shape design of fluid flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a heuristic optimality criterion algorithm for shape design of fluid flow. In this algorithm, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is utilized to calculate the flow field of a fluid domain which is divided into elemental cells. A heuristic ... Keywords: Fluid flow, Heuristic optimality criterion, Lattice Boltzmann method, Pressure drop, Shape design

Limin Wang; Yilin Fan; Lingai Luo

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

The first cell sorter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The first cell sorter The first cell sorter 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit The first cell sorter About fifty years ago, a Los Alamos scientist invented a method-still important in cellular biology labs today-to separate out particular types of cells. November 25, 2013 The first cell sorter Flow cytometry (cell measurement) uses cell sorting to divert cells of a chosen type out of a mixed stream of cells, like the blood cells shown here, for collection and study. Los Alamos invented, and has regularly improved upon, the technology to isolate different kinds of cells. In the early-mid 1960s, Los Alamos physicist Mack Fulwyler invented a device to isolate different types of cells. His invention, still a vital aspect of flow cytometry (cell measurement) in biological laboratories

212

Portable wastewater flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

213

Portable wastewater flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

Hunter, Robert M. (320 S. Wilson Ave., Bozeman, MT 59715)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Amphiphilic mediated sample preparation for micro-flow cytometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flow cytometer includes a flow cell for detecting the sample, an oil phase in the flow cell, a water phase in the flow cell, an oil-water interface between the oil phase and the water phase, a detector for detecting the sample at the oil-water interface, and a hydrophobic unit operatively connected to the sample. The hydrophobic unit is attached to the sample. The sample and the hydrophobic unit are placed in an oil and water combination. The sample is detected at the interface between the oil phase and the water phase.

Clague, David S. (Livermore, CA); Wheeler, Elizabeth K. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Irvine, CA)

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

215

Amphiphilic mediated sample preparation for micro-flow cytometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flow cytometer includes a flow cell for detecting the sample, an oil phase in the flow cell, a water phase in the flow cell, an oil-water interface between the oil phase and the water phase, a detector for detecting the sample at the oil-water interface, and a hydrophobic unit operatively connected to the sample. The hydrophobic unit is attached to the sample. The sample and the hydrophobic unit are placed in an oil and water combination. The sample is detected at the interface between the oil phase and the water phase.

Clague, David S. (Livermore, CA); Wheeler, Elizabeth K. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Abraham P. (Irvine, CA)

2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

216

Unsteady flow volumes  

SciTech Connect

Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Stability of uranium incorporated into Fe(hydr)oxides under fluctuating redox conditions  

SciTech Connect

Reaction pathways resulting in uranium bearing solids that are stable (i.e., having limited solubility) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions will limit dissolved concentrations and migration of this toxin. Here we examine the sorption mechanism and propensity for release of uranium reacted with Fe (hydr)oxides under cyclic oxidizing and reducing conditions. Upon reaction of ferrihydrite with Fe(II) under conditions where aqueous Ca-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} species predominate (3 mM Ca and 3.8 mM CO{sub 3}-total), dissolved uranium concentrations decrease from 0.16 mM to below detection limit (BDL) after 5 to 15 d, depending on the Fe(II) concentration. In systems undergoing 3 successive redox cycles (15 d of reduction followed by 5 d of oxidation) and a pulsed decrease to 0.15 mM CO{sub 3}-total, dissolved uranium concentrations varied depending on the Fe(II) concentration during the initial and subsequent reduction phases - U concentrations resulting during the oxic 'rebound' varied inversely with the Fe(II) concentration during the reduction cycle. Uranium removed from solution remains in the oxidized form and is found both adsorbed on and incorporated into the structure of newly formed goethite and magnetite. Our 15 results reveal that the fate of uranium is dependent on anaerobic/aerobic conditions, aqueous uranium speciation, and the fate of iron.

Stewart, B.D.; Nico, P.S.; Fendorf, S.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Remediating explosive-contaminated groundwater by in situ redox manipulation (ISRM) of aquifer sediments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ chemical reduction of clays and iron oxides in subsurface environments is an emerging technology for treatment of contaminated groundwater. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of dithionite-reduced sediments from the perched Pantex Aquifer (Amarillo, TX) to abiotically degrade the explosives RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro- 1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), and TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene). The effects of dithionite/buffer concentrations, sediments-solution ratios, and the contribution of Fe(II) were evaluated in batch experiments. Results showed that reduced Pantex sediments were highly effective in degrading all three high explosives. Degradation rates increased with increasing dithionite/buffer concentrations and soil to solution ratios (1:801:10 w/v). When Fe(II) was partially removed from the reduced sediments by washing (citrate-bicarbonate buffer), RDX degradation slowed, but degradation efficiency could be restored by adding Fe(II) back to the treated sediments and maintaining an alkaline pH. These data support in situ redox manipulation as a remedial option for treating explosive-contaminated groundwater at the Pantex site.

Boparai, Hardiljeet K.; Comfort, Steve; Shea, Phyllis J.; Szecsody, James E.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Structure of Offshore Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The horizontal and vertical structure of the mean flow and turbulent fluxes are examined using aircraft observations taken near a barrier island on the east coast of the United States during offshore flow periods. The spatial structure is ...

Dean Vickers; L. Mahrt; Jielun Sun; Tim Crawford

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Ultrasonic flow metering system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for determining the density, flow velocity, and mass flow of a fluid comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the fluid. A system for determining flow velocity uses two of the inventive circuits with directional transmitters and receivers, one of which is set at an angle to the direction of flow that is different from the others.

Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mauseth, Jason A. (Pocatello, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than todays lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Electron Transfer Reactivity Patterns at Chemically Modified Electrodes: Fundamentals and Application to the Optimization of Redox Recycling Amplification Systems  

SciTech Connect

Electroanalytical chemistry is often utilized in chemical analysis and Fundamental studies. Important advances have been made in these areas since the advent of chemically modified electrodes: the coating of an electrode with a chemical film in order to impart desirable, and ideally, predictable properties. These procedures enable the exploitation of unique reactivity patterns. This dissertation presents studies that investigate novel reaction mechanisms at self-assembled monolayers on gold. In particular, a unique electrochemical current amplification scheme is detailed that relies on a selective electrode to enable a reactivity pattern that results in regeneration of the analyte (redox recycling). This regenerating reaction can occur up to 250 times for each analyte molecule, leading to a notable enhancement in the observed current. The requirements of electrode selectivity and the resulting amplification and detection limit improvements are described with respect to the heterogeneous and homogeneous electron transfer rates that characterize the system. These studies revealed that the heterogeneous electrolysis of the analyte should ideally be electrochemically reversible, while that for the regenerating agent should be held to a low level. Moreover, the homogeneous reaction that recycles the analyte should occur at a rapid rate. The physical selectivity mechanism is also detailed with respect to the properties of the electrode and redox probes utilized. It is shown that partitioning of the analyte into/onto the adlayer leads to the extraordinary selectivity of the alkanethiolate monolayer modified electrode. Collectively, these studies enable a thorough understanding of the complex electrode mechanism required for successful redox recycling amplification systems, Finally, in a separate (but related) study, the effect of the akyl chain length on the heterogeneous electron transfer behavior of solution-based redox probes is reported, where an odd-even oscillation (with respect to the number of methylene units in the alkyl chain) was observed. Characterization of the adlayers by infrared reflection spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and wetting revealed odd-even effects in the orientation of the terminal methyl group and hydrophobic character of the adlayers. Using these structural characterizations as a basis, several possible mechanisms that can account for the odd-even effect in the heterogeneous electron transfer rates of solution-based redox couples are discussed.

Adam Johan Bergren

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Elbow mass flow meter  

SciTech Connect

Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Waveguide detection of right-angle-scattered light in flow cytometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A transparent flow cell is used as an index-guided optical waveguide. A detector for the flow cell but not the liquid stream detects the Right-Angle-Scattered (RAS) Light exiting from one end of the flow cell. The detector(s) could view the trapped RAS light from the flow cell either directly or through intermediate optical light guides. If the light exits one end of the flow cell, then the other end of the flow cell can be given a high-reflectivity coating to approximately double the amount of light collected. This system is more robust in its alignment than the traditional flow cytometry systems which use imaging optics, such as microscope objectives.

Mariella, Jr., Raymond P. (Danville, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

TUTORIALS: Solar Cell Operation - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 21, 2008 ... This animated tutorial describes the basics of solar cell operation. It defines the photovoltaic effect, discusses electron and current flow within a...

226

Solids mass flow determination  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

Macko, Joseph E. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Turbulent flow in graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate the possibility of a turbulent flow of electrons in graphene in the hydrodynamic region, by calculating the corresponding turbulent probability density function. This is used to calculate the contribution of the turbulent flow to the conductivity within a quantum Boltzmann approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the system parameters arising from the turbulent flow is very different from that due to scattering.

Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

228

Heterogeneous electron transfer studies with ligninolytic redox enzymes and living bacteria. Applications in biosensors and biofuel cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The catalytic properties and the inter-domain electron transfer of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from the ascomycete fungus Myriococcum thermophilum adsorbed on graphite and thiol (SAM) modified (more)

Coman, Vasile

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Grafting onto wool. XX. Graft copolymerization of vinyl monomers by use of redox initiators. Comparison of monomer reactivities  

SciTech Connect

Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylacrylate (EA) have been graft copolymerized onto Himachali wool in aqueous medium by using a ferrous ammonium sulfate-hydrogen peroxide (FAS-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) system as redox initiator. Percentage of grafting has been determined as functions of concentration of monomer, molar ratio of (FAS)/(H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), time, and temperature. Percentage of grafting is found to depend upon the molar ratio of (FAS)/(H/sub 2/O/sub 2/). An attempt has been made to compare the reactivities of the acceptor monomer (MMA and EA) with that of the donor monomer (VAc) toward grafting onto wool.

Misra, B.N.; Singha, A.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Droplet Laden Flow Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Flow Past a Heated Cylinder, Atomization and Sprays, 2006, 16(6 ... Numerical Modeling and Experimental Measurements of Water Spray Impact and ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Black String Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an exact description of the steady flow of a black string into a planar horizon. The event horizon is out of equilibrium and provides a simple, exact instance of a `flowing black funnel' in any dimension D>=5. It is also an approximation to a smooth intersection between a black string and a black hole, in the limit in which the black hole is much larger than the black string thickness. The construction extends easily to more general flows, in particular charged flows.

Emparan, Roberto

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Visualization of Fluid Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Goujon and J. Devaney, Large Scale Simulations of Single and Multi- Component Flow in Porous Media in Proceedings of SPIE: The International ...

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

Coupled modeling of groundwater flow solute transport, chemical reactions and microbial processes in the 'SP' island  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Redox Zone Experiment was carried out at the Aespoe HRL in order to study the redox behavior and the hydrochemistry of an isolated vertical fracture zone disturbed by the excavation of an access tunnel. Overall results and interpretation of the Redox Zone Project were reported by /Banwart et al, 1995/. Later, /Banwart et al, 1999/ presented a summary of the hydrochemistry of the Redox Zone Experiment. Coupled groundwater flow and reactive transport models of this experiment were carried out by /Molinero, 2000/ who proposed a revised conceptual model for the hydrogeology of the Redox Zone Experiment which could explain simultaneously measured drawdown and salinity data. The numerical model was found useful to understand the natural system. Several conclusions were drawn about the redox conditions of recharge waters, cation exchange capacity of the fracture zone and the role of mineral phases such as pyrite, calcite, hematite and goethite. This model could reproduce the measured trends of dissolved species, except for bicarbonate and sulfate which are affected by microbially-mediated processes. In order to explore the role of microbial processes, a coupled numerical model has been constructed which accounts for water flow, reactive transport and microbial processes. The results of this model is presented in this report. This model accounts for groundwater flow and reactive transport in a manner similar to that of /Molinero, 2000/ and extends the preliminary microbial model of /Zhang, 2001/ by accounting for microbially-driven organic matter fermentation and organic matter oxidation. This updated microbial model considers simultaneously the fermentation of particulate organic matter by yeast and the oxidation of dissolved organic matter, a product of fermentation. Dissolved organic matter is produced by yeast and serves also as a substrate for iron-reducing bacteria. Model results reproduce the observed increase in bicarbonate and sulfate concentration, thus adding additional evidence for the possibility of organic matter oxidation as the main source of bicarbonate. Model results indicate that pH and Eh are relatively stable. The dissolution-precipitation trends of hematite, pyrite and calcite also coincide with those indicated by the conceptual model. A thorough sensitivity analysis has been performed for the most relevant microbial parameters as well as for initial and boundary POC and DOC concentrations. The results of such analysis indicate that computed concentrations of bicarbonate, sulfate and DOC are sensitive to most of the microbial parameters, including specific growth rates, half-saturation constants, proportionality coefficients and yield coefficients. Model results, however, are less sensitive to the yield coefficient of DOC to iron-reducer bacteria. The sensitivity analysis indicates that changes in fermentation microbial parameters affect the growth of the iron-reducer, thus confirming the interconnection of both microbial processes. Computed concentrations of bicarbonate and sulfate are found to be sensitive to changes in the initial concentration of POC and the boundary concentration of DOC, but they lack sensitivity to the initial concentration of DOC and the boundary concentration of POC. The explanation for such result is related to the fact that POC has a low mobility due to its large molecular weight. DOC, however, can migrate downwards. Although a coupled hydro-bio-geochemical 1-D model can reproduce the observed ''unexpected'' increase of concentrations of bicarbonate and sulfate at a depth of 70 m, further modeling work is required in order to obtain a similar conclusion under the more realistic two dimensional conditions of the fracture zone.

Samper, Javier; Molinero, Jorg; Changbing, Yang; Zhang, Guoxiang

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Phase-sensitive flow cytometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report describes phase-sensitive flow cytometer (FCM) which provides additional FCM capability to use the fluorescence lifetime of one or more fluorochromes bound to single cells to provide additional information regarding the cells. The resulting fluorescence emission can be resolved into individual fluorescence signals if two fluorochromes are present or can be converted directly to a decay lifetime from a single fluorochrome. The excitation light for the fluorochromes is modulated to produce an amplitude modulated fluorescence pulse as the fluorochrome is excited in the FCM. The modulation signal also forms a reference signal that is phase-shifted a selected amount for subsequent mixing with the output modulated fluorescence intensity signal in phase-sensitive detection circuitry. The output from the phase-sensitive circuitry is then an individual resolved fluorochrome signal or a single fluorochrome decay lifetime, depending on the applied phase shifts.

Steinkamp, J.A.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

235

Phase-sensitive flow cytometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A phase-sensitive flow cytometer (FCM) provides additional FCM capability to use the fluorescence lifetime of one or more fluorochromes bound to single cells to provide additional information regarding the cells. The resulting fluorescence emission can be resolved into individual fluorescence signals if two fluorochromes are present or can be converted directly to a decay lifetime from a single fluorochrome. The excitation light for the fluorochromes is modulated to produce an amplitude modulated fluorescence pulse as the fluorochrome is excited in the FCM. The modulation signal also forms a reference signal that is phase-shifted a selected amount for subsequent mixing with the output modulated fluorescence intensity signal in phase-sensitive detection circuitry. The output from the phase-sensitive circuitry is then an individual resolved fluorochrome signal or a single fluorochrome decay lifetime, depending on the applied phase shifts. 15 figures.

Steinkamp, J.A.

1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

236

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Experimental Physical Sciences Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

237

Molecular cloning and characterization of important stress and redox regulatory genes from Hydra vulgaris  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this research, important stress and redox regulatory genes present in Hydra vulgaris were isolated and characterized to facilitate our understanding of the evolution and mechanisms of stress response. H. vulgaris heat shock protein 70 (HvHSP70), extracellular copper zinc superoxide dismutase (HvECCuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (HvMnSOD), phospholipid peroxidase glutathione peroxidase (HvPHGPx) and monofunctional catalase (HvCatalase) were cloned and characterized with regard to stress response, phylogeny and molecular structure. The HSP70 gene isolated from H. vulgaris encodes a polypeptide of 650 amino acids (Mw=710,037) and is interrupted by three intron sequences. The 5' non-coding region of the HvHSP70 possessed the canonical heat shock elements. Phylogenetically HvHSP70 formed a distinct lineage. A molecular model generated for the N-terminal fragment of the HvHSP70 displayed the heat shock protein fold and domains of phosphotransferases. The EC-CuZnSOD cDNA isolated from H. vulgaris encodes a protein of 189 amino acids (Mw=20959.73); the first 19 amino acids constitute the presumed signal peptide. Phylogenetically HvEC-CuZnSOD is grouped with ECCuZnSODs from several organisms. A molecular model generated for the HvEC-CuZnSOD displayed the CuZnSOD (beta)-barrel fold. The MnSOD cDNA isolated from H. vulgaris encodes a protein of 219 amino acids (Mw=24348.75); the first 21 amino acids constitute the presumed mitochondria-targeting signal peptide. Phylogenetically HvMnSOD is clustered with mollusk and crustacean MnSODs. A molecular model generated for the HvMnSOD displayed the N-terminal long alpha antiparallel hairpin and the Cterminal mixed alpha/beta fold characteristic of MnSODs. The PHGPx gene isolated from H. vulgaris encodes a polypeptide of 168 amino acids (Mw=18746.51) including a TGA-encoded selenocysteine at residue 44 and lacks any intron. Phylogenetically HvPHGPx is grouped with PHGPxs from several organisms. A molecular model generated for the HvPHGPx displayed the thioredoxin fold. The 3'-end of a cDNA sequence encoding for 168 amino acids of the Cterminal end of a catalase was isolated from H. vulgaris. Phylogenetically HvCatalase is grouped with heme-containing monofunctional catalases. Hydrae exposed to thermal, starvation, oxidative and metal stress responded by regulating respective mRNA transcriptions suggesting that these genes are involved in stress and (anti)oxidative processes and may have potential as molecular biomarkers for assessing aquatic environment quality.

Dash, Bhagirathi

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Advanced Materials for Flow Batteries - Travis Anderson, SNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Materials for Advanced Materials for Flow Batteries Friday, September 28, 2012 Travis M. Anderson and Harry D. Pratt III Sandia National Laboratories Ionic Liquid Flow Batteries MetIL - + MetIL * 59 mV/n separation (ideally n > 1) * Viscosity < 500 cP * Conductivity > 0.5 mS cm -1 * Open Circuit Potential > 1.5 V Problem: Getting high concentrations of redox active species. MetILs * Transition Metal Cation * Weakly Coordinating Anions * Alkanolamine Ligands * Negligible Vapor Pressure * Non-toxic 2 FY12 Milestones Approach: Design electrolytes with charge storage species as part of their chemical composition. Energy Density/Costs SNL APPROACH: Consider a compound CuL 2 BF 4 (L = methanolamine, MW = 47 g/mol), measured density 1.6 g/mL, formula weight,

239

Capabilities for information flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a capability-based mechanism for permissive yet secure enforcement of information-flow policies. Language capabilities have been studied widely, and several popular implementations, such as Caja and Joe-E, are available. By making ... Keywords: capabilities, information flow control

Arnar Birgisson; Alejandro Russo; Andrei Sabelfeld

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Elbow mass flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

against * steady state and transient operational cell data. Complete fuel cell water transport model improvements * and code package development to include two phase flow....

242

Heat flow of Oregon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An extensive new heat flow and geothermal gradient data set for the State of Oregon is presented on a contour map of heat flow at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and is summarized in several figures and tables. The 1:1,000,000 scale heat flow map is contoured at 20 mW/m/sup 2/ (0.5 HFU) intervals. Also presented are maps of heat flow and temperature at a depth of 1 km averaged for 1/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ intervals. Histograms and averages of geothermal gradient and heat flow for the State of Oregon and for the various physiographic provinces within Oregon are also included. The unweighted mean flow for Oregon is 81.3 +- 2.7 mW/m/sup 2/ (1.94 +- 0.06 HFU). The average unweighted geothermal gradient is 65.3 +- 2.5/sup 0/C/km. The average heat flow value weighted on the basis of geographic area is 68 +- 5 mW/m/sup 2/ (1.63 +- 0.12 HFU) and the average weighted geothermal gradient is 55.0 +- 5/sup 0/C/km.

Blackwell, D.D.; Hull, D.A.; Bowen, R.G.; Steele, J.L.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Multiphase Flow Modeling Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Science Chris Guenther, Director Computational Science Division RUA Spring Meeting, Morgantown, WV March 2013 2 NETL's Multiphase Flow Science Team * The Multiphase Flow Science Team develops physics-based simulation models to conduct applied scientific research. - Development of new theory - Extensive on-site and collaborative V&V efforts and testing - Engages in technology transfer - Applies the models to industrial scale problems. 3 Why is Multiphase Flow Science Needed? * Industry is increasingly relying on multiphase technologies to produce clean and affordable energy with carbon capture. * Unfortunately, the presence of a solid phase reduces the operating capacity of a typical energy device from its original design on average by 40% [1].

244

Shroud leakage flow discouragers  

SciTech Connect

A turbine assembly includes a plurality of rotor blades comprising a root portion, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall, and a top portion having a cap. An outer shroud is concentrically disposed about said rotor blades, said shroud in combination with said tip portions defining a clearance gap. At least one circumferential shroud leakage discourager is disposed within the shroud. The leakage discourager(s) increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the clearance gap to improve overall turbine efficiency.

Bailey, Jeremy Clyde (Middle Grove, NY); Bunker, Ronald Scott (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

A stochastic flow rule for granular materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There have been many attempts to derive continuum models for dense granular flow, but a general theory is still lacking. Here, we start with Mohr-Coulomb plasticity for quasi-2D granular materials to calculate (average) stresses and slip planes, but we propose a "stochastic flow rule" (SFR) to replace the principle of coaxiality in classical plasticity. The SFR takes into account two crucial features of granular materials - discreteness and randomness - via diffusing "spots" of local fluidization, which act as carriers of plasticity. We postulate that spots perform random walks biased along slip-lines with a drift direction determined by the stress imbalance upon a local switch from static to dynamic friction. In the continuum limit (based on a Fokker-Planck equation for the spot concentration), this simple model is able to predict a variety of granular flow profiles in flat-bottom silos, annular Couette cells, flowing heaps, and plate-dragging experiments -- with essentially no fitting parameters -- although it is only expected to function where material is at incipient failure and slip-lines are inadmissible. For special cases of admissible slip-lines, such as plate dragging under a heavy load or flow down an inclined plane, we postulate a transition to rate-dependent Bagnold rheology, where flow occurs by sliding shear planes. With different yield criteria, the SFR provides a general framework for multiscale modeling of plasticity in amorphous materials, cycling between continuum limit-state stress calculations, meso-scale spot random walks, and microscopic particle relaxation.

Ken Kamrin; Martin Z. Bazant

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

246

Combining the vortex-in-cell and parallel fast multipole methods for efficient domain decomposition simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new combination of vortex-in-cell and parallel fast multipole methods is presented which allows to efficiently simulate, in parallel, unbounded and half-unbounded vortical flows (flows with one flat wall). In the classical vortex-in-cell (VIC) method, ... Keywords: Incompressible flows, Lagrangian methods, Parallel fast multipole method, Particle methods, Unbounded flows, Unsteady flows, Vortex methods, Vortex-in-cell method, Wall-bounded flows

Roger Cocle; Grgoire Winckelmans; Goric Daeninck

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

RMOTC - Testing - Flow Assurance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flow Assurance Flow Assurance RMOTC Flow Loop Facility Layout Notice: As of July 15th 2013, the Department of Energy announced the intent to sell Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR3). The sale of NPR-3 will also include the sale of all equipment and materials onsite. A decision has been made by the Department of Energy to complete testing at RMOTC by July 1st, 2014. RMOTC will complete testing in the coming year with the currently scheduled testing partners. For more information on the sale of NPR-3 and sale of RMOTC equipment and materials please join our mailing list here. Over a decade ago, RMOTC began cooperatively building a full-scale facility to test new flow assurance technology, mainly in the areas of hydrates and paraffins. Today, RMOTC's test facility consists of five individual loop

248

Maple Sap Flow  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

I know a little about this topic even though I am from Illinois which is far from the heart of maple syrup country. Sap flows from a maple tree by internal pressure caused by the...

249

Modons in Shear Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modons in shear flow are computed as equilibrium solutions of the equivalent barotropic vorticity equation using a numerical NewtonKantorovich iterative technique with double Fourier spectral expansion. The model is given a first guess of an ...

Sue Ellen Haupt; James C. McWilliams; Joseph J. Tribbia

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Stochastically scalable flow control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advances in the mathematical analysis of flow control have prompted the creation of the Scalable TCP (STCP) and Exponential RED (E-RED) algorithms. These are designed to be scalable under the popular deterministic delay ...

Thomas Voice

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

RG flows and instantons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In these two lectures I discuss RG flow solutions in (1,0) six dimensional supergravity involving SU(2) Yang-Mills instantons. in the conformally flat part of the 6D metric. The solutions interpolate between two (4,0) supersymmetric AdS{sub 3} Multiplication-Sign S{sup 3} backgrounds with different values of AdS{sub 3} and S{sup 3} radii and describe RG flows in the dual 2D SCFT. The flows described are of v.e.v. type, driven by a vacuum expectation value of a (not exactly) marginal operator of dimension 2 in the UV. We give an interpretation of the supergravity solution in terms of the D1/D5 system in type I string theory on K3, whose effective field theory is expected to flow to a (4,0) SCFT in the infrared.

Gava, Edi [INFN, Trieste (Italy)

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

252

Islands in Zonal Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of a meridional gradient in sea surface temperature (warm toward the equator, cold toward the pole) on the circulation around an island is investigated. The upper-ocean eastward geostrophic flow that balances such a meridional gradient ...

Michael A. Spall

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Casting Flow Chart  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Figure: ...Fig. 1 Simplified flow diagram of the basic operations for producing a steel casting. Similar diagrams can be applied to other ferrous and nonferrous alloys produced by sand

254

Photoelectrochemical investigation of a poly(ethylene oxide) cell  

SciTech Connect

The photoelectrochemical properties of cells based on the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) poly(ethylene oxide)/NaSCN with Na2S/S as a redox species are investigated experimentally. The preparation of the SPE is described in detail. Current/voltage curves or voltage/time are shown for cells using p-InP/SPE/conducting-glass, n-GaAs/SPE/conducting-glass, and p-InP/SPE/n-CdS structures. It is concluded that practical cells based on SPE of this type will require increases in the ionic conductivity of poly(ethylene oxide). 13 references.

Sammells, A.F.; Ang, G.P.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Electrochemical cell for in-situ x-ray characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell suitable for in-situ XRD analysis is presented. Qualitative information such as phase formation and phase stability can be easily monitored using the in-situ cell design. Quantitative information such as lattice parameters and kinetic behavior is also straightforward. Analysis of the LiMn&sub2;O&sub4; spinel using this cell design shows that the lattice undergoes two major structural shrinkages at approx. 4.0 V and approx. 4.07 V during charging. These shrinkages correlate well with the two electrochemical waves observed and indicate the likelihood of two separate redox processes which charging and discharging.

Doughty, D.H.; Ingersoll, D.; Rodriguez, M.A.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

256

Three dimensional flow processor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The 3D-flow processor is a general purpose programmable data stream pipelined device that allows fast data movement in six directions for digital signal processing applications such as identifying objects in a matrix in a programmable form. The 3D-flow processor can be used in one dimensional, two dimensional, and three dimensional topologies capable of sustaining an input data rate of up to 100 million data (or frames) per second in a parallel processing system.

Crosetto, D.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Increased Power Flow Guidebook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Increased Power Flow (IPF) Guidebook is a state-of-the-art and best practices guidebook on increasing power flow capacities of existing overhead transmission lines, underground cables, power transformers, and substation equipment without compromising safety and reliability. The Guidebook discusses power system concerns and limiting conditions to increasing capacity, reviews available technology options and methods, illustrates alternatives with case studies, and analyzes costs and benefits of differe...

2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

258

Advanced Flow-Battery Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Advanced Flow-Battery Systems ... Abstract Scope, Flow- battery systems (FBS) were originally developed over 30 years ago and have since...

259

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Water Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Water Flow. Water Flow Calibrations 18020C. ... NIST provides calibration services for water flow meters. ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

260

Precision electron flow measurements in a disk transmission line.  

SciTech Connect

An analytic model for electron flow in a system driving a fixed inductive load is described and evaluated with particle in cell simulations. The simple model allows determining the impedance profile for a magnetically insulated transmission line given the minimum gap desired, and the lumped inductance inside the transition to the minimum gap. The model allows specifying the relative electron flow along the power flow direction, including cases where the fractional electron flow decreases in the power flow direction. The electrons are able to return to the cathode because they gain energy from the temporally rising magnetic field. The simulations were done with small cell size to reduce numerical heating. An experiment to compare electron flow to the simulations was done. The measured electron flow is {approx}33% of the value from the simulations. The discrepancy is assumed to be due to a reversed electric field at the cathode because of the inductive load and falling electron drift velocity in the power flow direction. The simulations constrain the cathode electric field to zero, which gives the highest possible electron flow.

Clark, Waylon T.; Pelock, Michael D.; Martin, Jeremy Paul; Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.; Pointon, Timothy David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells. Project 65039 quarterly technical progress report, April 15-July 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid-junction photoelectrochemical cells can be used either for the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity or to generate stored chemical species available for later electrochemical discharge. The objectives of this program are to identify experimental approaches for electrochemical photovoltaic cells that not only show promise of high power-conversion efficiencies but also have the potential to achieve long life and the capacity for energy storage. The work is organized as follows: (1) selection of high-efficiency semiconductor photoelectrode/electrolyte systems, (2) development of long-life electrochemical photovoltaic cells, (3) all solid-state electrochemical photovoltaic cell with in situ storage, and (4) demonstration of laboratory-size photoelectrochemical cell with redox storage. This program is directed toward identifying a suitable match between the proposed semiconductor and the redox species present in aqueous, nonaqueous, and solid electrolytes for achieving the necessary performance and semiconductor stability requirements. Emphasis is on aqueous electrolyte-based systems where fast kinetics are favored. The proposed systems will be compatible with convenient storage of the electroactive species generated and its later electrochemical discharge in a redox cell. Progress is reported.

Ang, P. G.P.; Sammells, A. F.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells. Quarterly technical progress report, August 1-October 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid-junction photoelectrochemical cells can be used either for the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity or to generate stored chemical species available for later electrochemical discharge. The objective of this program is to identify experimental approaches for electrochemical photovoltaic cells that not only show promise of high power-conversion efficiencies but also have the potential to achieve long life and the capacity for energy storage. The work is organized as follows: (1) selection of high-efficiency semiconductor photoelectrode/electrolyte systems; (2) development of long-life electrochemical photovoltaic cells; (3) development of an all solid-state electrochemical photovoltaic cell with in-situ storage; and (4) demonstration of laboratory-size photoelectrochemical cell with redox storage. This program is directed toward identifying a suitable match between the proposed semiconductor and the redox species present in aqueous, nonaqueous, and solid electrolytes for achieving the necessary performance and semiconductor stability requirements. Emphasis is on aqueous electrolyte-based systems where fast kinetics are favored. The proposed systems will be compatible with convenient storage of the electroactive species generated and their later electrochemical discharge in a redox cell.

Ang, P. G.P.; Sammells, A. F.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Meridional Flow Field of Axisymmetric Flows in a Rotating Annulus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the flow field were made of the axisymmetric flow in a differentially heated rotating fluid annulus by using a long-term tracking of a tracer particle. Its meridional flow profile is composed of a flow circulating in a large ...

T. Tajima; T. Nakamura

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Electrochemical cell and separator plate thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell includes a separator plate having first and second flow channels extending therethrough contiguously with an electrode and respectively in flow communication with the cell electrolyte and in flow isolation with respect to such electrolyte. In fuel cell system arrangement, the diverse type channels are suplied in common with process gas for thermal control purposes. The separator plate is readily formed by corrugation of integral sheet material.

Baker, Bernard S. (Brookfield Center, CT); Dharia, Dilip J. (Danbury, CT)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Electrochemical cell and separator plate thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell includes a separator plate having first and second flow channels extending there through contiguously with an electrode and respectively in flow communication with the cell electrolyte and in flow isolation with respect to such electrolyte. In fuel cell system arrangement, the diverse type channels are supplied in common with process gas for thermal control purposes. The separator plate is readily formed by corrugation of integral sheet material. 10 figs.

Baker, B.S.; Dharia, D.J.

1979-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

266

FINAL REPORT INTEGRATED DM1200 MELTER TESTING OF REDOX EFFECTS USING HLW AZ-101 AND C-106/AY-102 SIMULANTS VSL-04R4800-1 REV 0 5/6/  

SciTech Connect

This report documents melter and off-gas performance results obtained on the DM1200 HLW Pilot Melter during processing of AZ-101 and C-106/AY-102 HLW simulants. The tests reported herein are a subset of three tests from a larger series of tests described in the Test Plan for the work; results from the remaining tests will be reported separately. Three nine day tests, one with AZ-101 and two with C-106/AY-102 feeds were conducted with variable amounts of added sugar to address the effects of redox. The test with AZ-101 included ruthenium spikes to also address the effects of redox on ruthenium volatility. One of tests addressed the effects of increased flow-sheet nitrate levels using C-106/AY-102 feeds. With high nitrate/nitrite feeds (such as WTP LAW feeds), reductants are required to prevent melt foaming and deleterious effects on glass production rates. Sugar is the baseline WTP reductant for this purpose. WTP HLW feeds typically have relatively low nitrate/nitrite content in comparison to the organic carbon content and, therefore, have typically not required sugar additions. However, HLW feed variability, particularly with respect to nitrate levels, may necessitate the use of sugar in some instances. The tests reported here investigate the effects of variable sugar additions to the melter feed as well as elevated nitrate levels in the waste. Variables held constant to the extent possible included melt temperature, bubbling rate, plenum temperature, cold cap coverage, the waste simulant composition, and the target glass composition. The principal objectives of the DM1200 melter testing were to determine the achievable glass production rates for simulated HLW feeds with variable amounts of added sugar and increased nitrate levels; characterize melter off-gas emissions; characterize the performance of the prototypical off-gas system components as well as their integrated performance; characterize the feed, glass product, and off-gas effluents; and perform pre- and post test inspections of system components. The specific objectives (including test success criteria) of this testing, along with how each objective was met, are outlined in a table.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; GONG W; BARDAKCI T; D'ANGELO NA; LUTZE W; BIZOT PM; CALLOW RA; BRANDYS M; KOT WK; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

267

A non-hybrid method for the PDF equations of turbulent flows on unstructured grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In probability density function (PDF) methods of turbulent flows, the joint PDF of several flow variables is computed by numerically integrating a system of stochastic differential equations for Lagrangian particles. A set of parallel algorithms is proposed ... Keywords: Finite element method, Langevin equation, Monte-Carlo method, Particle tracking, Particle-in-cell method, Probability density function method, Scalar dispersion, Turbulent flow, Unstructured grids

J. Bakosi; P. Franzese; Z. Boybeyi

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Formation flow channel blocking  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed for selectively blocking high permeability flow channels in an underground hydrocarbon material bearing formation having flow channels of high permeability and having flow channels of lesser permeability. The method includes the following steps: introducing a blocking material fluid comprising a blocking material in a carrier into the flow channels through an injection well in communication with the formation; introducing a buffer fluid into the formation through the injection well for the buffer fluid to displace the blocking material fluid away from the injection well; allowing the blocking material to settle in the channels to resist displacement by fluid flowing through the channels; introducing a quantity of an activating fluid into the channels through the injection well at a sufficient rate for the activating fluid to displace the buffer fluid and finger into the high permeability channels to reach the blocking material in the high permeability channels without reaching the blocking material in the low permeability channels, the activating fluid being adapted to activate the blocking material which it reaches to cause blocking of the high permeability channels.

Kalina, A.I.

1982-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

269

Two-phase flow studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The two-phase flow program is directed at understanding the hydrodynamics of two-phase flows. The two-phase flow regime is characterized by a series of flow patterns that are designated as bubble, slug, churn, and annular flow. Churn flow has received very little scientific attention. This lack of attention cannot be justified because calculations predict that the churn flow pattern will exist over a substantial portion of the two-phase flow zone in producing geothermal wells. The University of Houston is experimentally investigating the dynamics of churn flow and is measuring the holdup over the full range of flow space for which churn flow exists. These experiments are being conducted in an air/water vertical two-phase flow loop. Brown University has constructed and is operating a unique two-phase flow research facility specifically designed to address flow problems of relevance to the geothermal industry. An important feature of the facility is that it is dedicated to two-phase flow of a single substance (including evaporation and condensation) as opposed to the case of a two-component two-phase flow. This facility can be operated with horizontal or vertical test sections of constant diameter or with step changes in diameter to simulate a geothermal well profile.

Hanold, R.J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Microwave fluid flow meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

Billeter, Thomas R. (Richland, WA); Philipp, Lee D. (Richland, WA); Schemmel, Richard R. (Lynchburg, VA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Flow Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flow Test Flow Test Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Flow Test Details Activities (38) Areas (33) Regions (1) NEPA(3) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Testing Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Flow tests provide information on permeability, recharge rates, reservoir pressures, fluid chemistry, and scaling. Thermal: Flow tests can measure temperature variations with time to estimate characteristics about the heat source. Dictionary.png Flow Test: Flow tests are typically conducted shortly after a well has been drilled to test its productivity. The well is opened and fluids are released, the

272

Mass-Loaded Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A key process within astronomy is the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between diffuse plasmas in many types of astronomical sources (including planetary nebulae, wind-blown bubbles, supernova remnants, starburst superwinds, and the intracluster medium) and dense, embedded clouds or clumps. This transfer affects the large scale flows of the diffuse plasmas as well as the evolution of the clumps. I review our current understanding of mass-injection processes, and examine intermediate-scale structure and the global effect of mass-loading on a flow. I then discuss mass-loading in a variety of diffuse sources.

J. M. Pittard

2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

273

Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I.Skillicorn 1 Azimuthal asymmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I.Skillicorn 1 Azimuthal asymmetry using energy flow method Azimuthal angle distribution at Q2 >100 GeV2 Energy flow method.Ukleja on behalf of the ZEUS Collaboration #12; Energy Flow Energy Flow Energy Flow A.Ukleja, T.Tymieniecka, I

274

Device for monitoring cell voltage  

SciTech Connect

A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

Doepke, Matthias (Garbsen, DE); Eisermann, Henning (Edermissen, DE)

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

275

How Fuel Cells Work  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Fuel Cells Work How Fuel Cells Work Diagram: How a PEM fuel cell works. 1. Hydrogen fuel is channeled through field flow plates to the anode on one side of the fuel cell, while oxygen from the air is channeled to the cathode on the other side of the cell. 2. At the anode, a platinum catalyst causes the hydrogen to split into positive hydrogen ions (protons) and negatively charged electrons. 3. The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) allows only the positively charged ions to pass through it to the cathode. The negatively charged electrons must travel along an external circuit to the cathode, creating an electrical current. 4. At the cathode, the electrons and positively charged hydrogen ions combine with oxygen to form water, which flows out of the cell.

276

US energy flow, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Trends in energy consumption and assessment of energy sources are discussed. Specific topics discussed include: energy flow charts; comparison of energy use with 1990 and earlier years; supply and demand of fossil fuels (oils, natural gas, coal); electrical supply and demand; and nuclear power.

Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

An integrative approach to energy, carbon, and redox metabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

SciTech Connect

The broader goal of this project was to merge knowledge from genomic, metabolic, ultrastructural and other perspectives to understand how cyanobacteria live, adapt and are regulated. This understanding aids in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology efforts using this group of organisms that contribute greatly to global photosynthetic CO2 fixation and that are closely related to the ancestors of chloroplasts. This project focused on photosynthesis and respiration in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which is spontaneously transformable and has a known genome sequence. Modification of these fundamental processes in this organism can lead to improved carbon sequestration and hydrogen production, as well as to generation of high-quality biomass. In our GTL-supported studies at Arizona State University we focus on cell structure and cell physiology in Synechocystis, with particular emphasis on thylakoid membrane formation and on metabolism related to photosynthesis and respiration. Results on (a) thylakoid membrane biogenesis, (b) fluxes through central carbon utilization pathways, and (c) distribution mechanisms between carbon storage compounds are presented. Together, these results help pave the way for metabolic engineering efforts that are likely to result in improved solar-powered carbon sequestration and bioenergy conversion. Fueled by the very encouraging results obtained in this project, we already have attracted interest from major companies in the use of cyanobacteria for biofuel production.

Vermaas, Willem F.J.

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

278

Reaction kinetics and product distributions in photoelectrochemical cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hot electron reaction studies at p-InP/CH[sub 3]CN interface revealed essential/desirable features for redox systems used to investigate hot carriers in photoelectrocehmical cells. Reduction of dibromoethylbenzene (DBEB) in presence of metallocene couples is being studied using rotating rink disk electrodes of n-and p-InP disks and Pt rings. At highly doped p-InP electrodes, reduction of DBEB can be very efficient (>30%). A minielectrochemical cell was used to investigate electron transfer at nonilluminated n-WSe[sub 2]/dimethylferrocene[sup +/0] interfaces.

Koval, C.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Self-Organized Network Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model for traffic flow in street networks or material flows in supply networks is presented, that takes into account the conservation of cars or materials and other significant features of traffic flows such as jam formation, spillovers, and load-dependent transportation times. Furthermore, conflicts or coordination problems of intersecting or merging flows are considered as well. Making assumptions regarding the permeability of the intersection as a function of the conflicting flows and the queue lengths, we find self-organized oscillations in the flows similar to the operation of traffic lights.

Helbing, D; Lmmer, S; Helbing, Dirk; Siegmeier, Jan; L\\"{a}mmer, Stefan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Designing Axial Flow Fan for Flow and Noise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comprehensive finite element methodology is developed to predict the compressible flow performance of a non-symmetric 7-blade axial flow fan, and to quantify the source strength and sound pressure levels at any location in the system. The acoustic and flow performances of the fan are predicted simultaneously using a computational aero-acoustic technique combining transient flow analysis and noise propagation. The calculated sound power levels compare favorably with the measured sound power data per AMCA 300-96 code.

Subrata Roy; Phillip Cho; Fred Pri; International Off-highway

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Lattice Boltzmann modeling of microchannel flow in slip flow regime  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with multiple relaxation times (MRT) to simulate pressure-driven gaseous flow in a long microchannel. We obtain analytic solutions of the MRT-LBE with various boundary conditions for the incompressible ... Keywords: Gas flow through microchannel, Lattice Boltzmann equation with multiple relaxation times, Slip flow

Frederik Verhaeghe; Li-Shi Luo; Bart Blanpain

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

flow_loop.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FLOW ASSURANCE TEST LOOP FLOW ASSURANCE TEST LOOP Objective O ver a decade ago, RMOTC began cooperatively building a full-scale facility to test new fl ow assurance technology, mainly in the areas of hydrates and paraffi ns. Today, RMOTC's test facility consists of fi ve individual loop sections, including chilling and heated pipe-in-pipe water sections, bare lines, and a mixing section. The facility was designed to represent typical deepwater production systems in order to simulate full-scale tests and apply the results to fl ow assurance fi eld applications and technology. The current facility design consists of a 6" x 3,600 maximum allowable operating pressure test pipeline in fi ve separate loops. The test loops begin and ter- minate at a central location just north

283

Modeling Turbulent Flow  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Turbulent Turbulent Flow with Implicit LES L.G. Margolin 1 Proceedings of the Joint Russian-American Five Laboratory Conference on Computational Mathematics/Physics 19-23 June, 2005 Vienna, Austria 1 Applied Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, len@lanl.gov 1 Abstract Implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) is a methodology for modeling high Reynolds' num- ber flows that combines computational efficiency and ease of implementation with predictive calculations and flexible application. Although ILES has been used for more than fifteen years, it is only recently that significant effort has gone into providing a physical rationale that speaks to its capabilities and its limitations. In this talk, we will present new theoret- ical results aimed toward building a justification and discuss some remaining gaps in our understanding and our practical

284

Flow cytometry: A powerful technology for measuring biomarkers  

SciTech Connect

A broad definition of a biomarker is that it is a measurable characteristic of a biological system that changes upon exposure to a physical or chemical insult. While the definition can be further refined, it is sufficient for the purposes of demonstrating the advantages of flow cytometry for making quantitative measurements of biomarkers. Flow cytometry and cell sorting technologies have emerged during the past 25 years to take their place alongside other essential tools used in biology such as optical and electron microscopy. This paper describes the basics of flow cytometry technology, provides illustrative examples of applications of the technology in the field of biomarkers, describes recent developments in flow cytometry that have not yet been applied to biomarker measurements, and projects future developments of the technology. The examples of uses of flow cytometry for biomarker quantification cited in this paper are meant to be illustrative and not exhaustive in the sense of providing a review of the field.

Jett, J.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Life Sciences Div.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

TEP process flow diagram  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Multi-processor including data flow accelerator module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An accelerator module for a data flow computer includes an intelligent memory. The module is added to a multiprocessor arrangement and uses a shared tagged memory architecture in the data flow computer. The intelligent memory module assigns locations for holding data values in correspondence with arcs leading to a node in a data dependency graph. Each primitive computation is associated with a corresponding memory cell, including a number of slots for operands needed to execute a primitive computation, a primitive identifying pointer, and linking slots for distributing the result of the cell computation to other cells requiring that result as an operand. Circuitry is provided for utilizing tag bits to determine automatically when all operands required by a processor are available and for scheduling the primitive for execution in a queue. Each memory cell of the module may be associated with any of the primitives, and the particular primitive to be executed by the processor associated with the cell is identified by providing an index, such as the cell number for the primitive, to the primitive lookup table of starting addresses. The module thus serves to perform functions previously performed by a number of sections of data flow architectures and coexists with conventional shared memory therein. A multiprocessing system including the module operates in a hybrid mode, wherein the same processing modules are used to perform some processing in a sequential mode, under immediate control of an operating system, while performing other processing in a data flow mode.

Davidson, George S. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierce, Paul E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Convective heat flow probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

1984-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

288

Momentum Balance of Gravity Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A unified scale analysis of the momentum balance of downslope gravity flows is developed to organize previous theories for the case of negligible ambient flow and fixed temperature deficit scale. The values of several nondimensional parameters ...

L. Mahrt

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBL-10090 UC-61 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING JimLBL-10090 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING Jim Wrathallconversion of hydrolyzed wood slurry to fuel oil, Based on

Wrathall, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Katabatic Wind in Opposing Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a one-dimensional model of katabatic winds in ambient flow and examines types of possible solutions. Results presented in dimensionless form indicate that 1) cooling along a slope with upslope ambient flow can lead to tranquil ...

David R. Fitzjarrald

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements for flowing particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Time-resolved fluorescence decay measurements are disclosed for flowing particles. An apparatus and method for the measurement and analysis of fluorescence for individual cells and particles in flow are described, wherein the rapid measurement capabilities of flow cytometry and the robust measurement and analysis procedures of time-domain fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy are combined. A pulse-modulated CW laser is employed for excitation of the particles. The characteristics and the repetition rate of the excitation pulses can be readily adjusted to accommodate for fluorescence decays having a wide range of lifetimes. 12 figs.

Deka, C.; Steinkamp, J.A.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Subsurface microbial community structure correlates with uranium redox phases during in situ field manipulation in a contaminated aquifer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-term field manipulation experiments investigating the effects of subsurface redox conditions on the fate and transport of soluble uranium(VI) were conducted over a 3 year period at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. In the highly contaminated source zone, introduction of ethanol to the subsurface stimulated native denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, iron-reducing and fermentative microorganisms and reduced U to below 0.03 mg/L. Subsequently, oxygen and nitrate were experimentally re-introduced into the subsurface to examine the potential for re-oxidation and re-mobilization of U(IV). Introduction of oxygen or nitrate caused changes in subsurface geochemistry and re-oxidation of U. After reoxidation, the subsurface experienced several months of starvation conditions before ethanol injection was restored to reduce the treatment zone. Subsurface microorganisms were characterized by community fingerprinting, targeted population analyses, and quantitative PCR of key functional groups in 50 samples taken during multiple phases of field manipulation. Statistical analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the microbial community would co-vary with the shifts in the subsurface geochemistry. The level of hydraulic connectivity of sampling wells to the injection well was readily tracked by microbial community analysis. We demonstrate quantitatively that specific populations, especially Desulfosporosinus, are heavily influenced by geochemical conditions and positively correlate with the immobilization of uranium. Following nitrate reoxidation, populations of Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate reducing organisms (Thiobacillus) showed an increase in relative abundance.

Kostka, Joel [Florida State University; Green, Stefan [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Evaluation of fall chinook salmon spawning adjacent to the In-Situ Redox Manipulation treatability test site, Hanford Site, Washington  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) experiment is being evaluated as a potential method to remove contaminants from groundwater adjacent to the Columbia River near the 100-D Area. The ISRM experiment involves using sodium dithionate (Na{sub 2}O{sub 6}S{sub 2}) to precipitate chromate from the groundwater. The treatment will likely create anoxic conditions in the groundwater down-gradient of the ISRM treatability test site; however, the spatial extent of this anoxic plume is not exactly known. Surveys were conducted in November 1997, following the peak spawning of fall chinook salmon. Aerial surveys documented 210 redds (spawning nests) near the downstream island in locations consistent with previous surveys. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented fall chinook spawning in the vicinity of the ISRM treatability test site. Based on measurements of depth, velocity, and substrate, less than 1% of the study area contained suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat, indicating low potential for fall chinook salmon to spawn in the vicinity of the ISRM experiment.

Mueller, R.P.; Geist, D.R.

1998-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

294

Development of electrochemical photovoltaic cells. Third technical progress report, November 1, 1979-January 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of stable, efficient, electrochemical photovoltaic cells based on silicon and gallium arsenide in non-aqueous electrolyte systems is being investigated. The effect of surface condition of silicon electrodes on electrochemical and physical characteristics has been studied. An electrode-supporting electrolyte interaction in acetonitrile has been identified which leads to etching of the surface. Improved performance can result, which has practical significance. Gallium arsenide electrodes have been electrochemically characterized in cells containing propylene carbonate with a ferrocene/ferricenium redox additive. Degradation of the ferricenium salt under illumination has been investigated. Other redox couples studied to date have not given promising results. Long-term stability experiments have been deferred while a better understanding of electrode behavior is being obtained.

Byker, H.J.; Schwerzel, R.E.; Wood, V.E.; Austin, A.E.; Brooman, E.W.

1980-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

295

Motivation for a combined data flow-control flow processor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data flow sequencing and the directed graph program representation provide two important tools for the development of computer architectures which can exploit problem parallelism. Classical (control flow) architecture deal efficiently with other problems such as serial sequences and data storage which are not handled so well by a data flow architecture. A hybrid which incorporates features of a data flow architecture along with features of a control flow architecture has the potential to become an effective parallel architecture for a wide class of problems. 10 references.

Oxley, D.W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Information flow analysis for javascript  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern Web 2.0 pages combine scripts from several sources into a single client-side JavaScript program with almost no isolation. In order to prevent attacks from an untrusted third-party script or cross-site scripting, tracking provenance of data is ... Keywords: eval, hybrid program analysis, implicit flow, information flow control, unstructured control flow

Seth Just; Alan Cleary; Brandon Shirley; Christian Hammer

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan Characterizing the homogenized sample groups Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

298

UZ Flow Models and Submodels  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.

Y. Wu

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Fluid flow monitoring device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention consists of a flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.

1991-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

300

Radial flow heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Modeling the Geometric Electronic and Redox Properties of Iron(lll)-Containing Amphiphiles with Asymmetric [NNO] Headgroups  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two iron(III)-containing amphiphiles 1 and 2 have been synthesized with the [NN'O] ligands HL{sup tBu-ODA} (2-((octadecyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol) and HL{sup I-ODA} (2-((octadecyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)methyl)-4,6-diiodophenol), respectively. Compound 1 is monometallic, whereas EXAFS data suggest that 2 is a mixture of mono- and bimetallic species. The archetypical [Fe{sup III}(L{sup NN'O}){sub 2}]{sup +} complexes 3-9 have been isolated and characterized in order to understand the geometric, electronic, and redox properties of the amphiphiles. Preference for a monometallic or bimetallic nuclearity is dependent on (i) the nature of the solvent used for synthesis and (ii) the type of the substituent in the phenol moiety. In methanol, the tert-butyl-, methoxy-, and chloro-substituted 3, 4, and 5 are monometallic species, whereas the bromo- and iodo-substituted 6 and 7 form bimetallic complexes taking advantage of stabilizing methoxo bridges generated by solvent deprotonation. In dichloromethane, the bromo- and iodo-substituted 8 and 9 are monometallic species; however, these species favor meridional coordination in opposition to the facial coordination observed for the tert-butyl- and methoxy-substituted compounds. Molecular structures for species 5, 7, 8, and 9 have been solved by X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the electronic spectrum of the amphiphile 1 was expected to be similar to those of facial/cis archetypes with similar substituents, but close resemblance was observed with the profile for those meridional/cis species, suggesting a similar coordination mode. This trend is discussed based on DFT calculations, where preference for the meridional/cis coordination mode appears related to the presence of tertiary amine nitrogen on the ligand, as when a long alkyl chain is attached to the [NN'O] headgroup.

R Shakya; M Allard; M Johann; M Heeg; E Rentschler; J Shearer; B McGarvey; C Verani

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Uranyl Nitrate Flow Loop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of the work discussed in this report were to: (1) develop a flow loop that would simulate the purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP); (2) develop a test plan that would simulate normal operation and disturbances that could be anticipated in an NUCP; (3) use the flow loop to test commercially available flowmeters for use as safeguards monitors; and (4) recommend a flowmeter for production-scale testing at an NUCP. There has been interest in safeguarding conversion plants because the intermediate products [uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}), and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6})] are all suitable uranium feedstocks for producing special nuclear materials. Furthermore, if safeguards are not applied virtually any nuclear weapons program can obtain these feedstocks without detection by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Historically, IAEA had not implemented safeguards until the purified UF{sub 6} product was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. H. A. Elayat et al. provide a basic definition of a safeguards system: 'The function of a safeguards system on a chemical conversion plant is in general terms to verify that no useful nuclear material is being diverted to use in a nuclear weapons program'. The IAEA now considers all highly purified uranium compounds as candidates for safeguarding. DOE is currently interested in 'developing instruments, tools, strategies, and methods that could be of use to the IAEA in the application of safeguards' for materials found in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle-prior to the production of the uranium hexafluoride or oxides that have been the traditional starting point for IAEA safeguards. Several national laboratories, including Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Brookhaven, have been involved in developing tools or techniques for safeguarding conversion plants. This study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) NA-241, Office of Dismantlement and Transparency.

Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L [ORNL

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Instrumentation for Increased Power Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the second Technical Update of the Instrumentation for Managing Increased Power Flow project, part of EPRI's Increased Power Flow (IPF) program. The project, initiated in 2006 and expected to continue for several years, studies the feasibility of new instrumentation to support increased power flow strategies. In 2007 the work focused on two primary developments: the Backscatter Sensor for the real-time measurement of transmission line temperature and current and the Emissivity Test Instrum...

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

304

HYDROCARBON LIQUID FLOW CALIBRATION SERVICE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and is the cross correlation coefficient ... a NIST Hydrocarbon Liquid Flow Calibration Facility ... FED2004-56790, 2004 Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering ...

2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

305

EPRI Coal-Flow Loop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is targeted at plant personnel responsible for coal-flow measurement and mill balancing that are using or are considering the use of online, in situ measurement technologies. Optimum combustion in a boiler requires careful control of coal and air flow to individual burners. Measuring in near real-time the mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed pulverized coal in burner feed pipes is a critical element of such control. This report summarizes the findings for two online coal-flow instruments ...

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Electrolytic cell. [For separating anolyte and catholyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end being located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

Bullock, J.S.; Hale, B.D.

1984-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

307

Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test plan and procedure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this test plan and procedure is to test the Whittaker electrochemical cell and the Sierra Monitor Corp. flammable gas monitors in a simulated field flow configuration. The sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Flammable Gas Interlock (FGI), to detect flammable gases, including hydrogen and teminate the core sampling activity at a predetermined concentration level.

Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

308

BULK FLOW OF HALOS IN {Lambda}CDM SIMULATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of the Pangu N-body simulation validates that the bulk flow of halos follows a Maxwellian distribution with variance that is consistent with the prediction of the linear theory of structure formation. We propose that the consistency between the observed bulk velocity and theories should be examined at the effective scale of the radius of a spherical top-hat window function yielding the same smoothed velocity variance in linear theory as the sample window function does. We compared some recently estimated bulk flows from observational samples with the prediction of the {Lambda}CDM model we used; some results deviate from expectation at a level of {approx}3{sigma}, but the discrepancy is not as severe as previously claimed. We show that bulk flow is only weakly correlated with the dipole of the internal mass distribution, that the alignment angle between the mass dipole and the bulk flow has a broad distribution peaked at {approx}30 Degree-Sign -50 Degree-Sign , and also that the bulk flow shows little dependence on the mass of the halos used in the estimation. In a simulation of box size 1 h {sup -1} Gpc, for a cell of radius 100 h {sup -1} Mpc the maximal bulk velocity is >500 km s{sup -1}; dipoles of the environmental mass outside the cell are not tightly aligned with the bulk flow, but are rather located randomly around it with separation angles {approx}20 Degree-Sign -40 Degree-Sign . In the fastest cell there is a slightly smaller number of low-mass halos; however, halos inside are clustered more strongly at scales {approx}> 20 h {sup -1} Mpc, which might be a significant feature since the correlation between bulk flow and halo clustering actually increases in significance beyond such scales.

Li Ming; Pan Jun; Feng Longlong; Kang Xi [Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Gao Liang [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Jing Yipeng; Yang Xiaohu; Lin Weipeng; Zhao Donghai; Zhang Pengjie [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Chi Xuebin; Shan Guihua; Wang Long, E-mail: jpan@bao.ac.cn [Supercomputing Center, Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4 Zhongguancun Nansijie, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

309

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Patterns in Flowing Sand: Understanding the Physics of Granular Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dense granular flows are often unstable and form inhomogeneous structures. Although significant advances have been recently made in understanding simple flows, instabilities of such flows are often not understood. We present experimental and numerical results that show the formation of longitudinal stripes that arise from instability of the uniform flowing state of granular media on a rough inclined plane. The form of the stripes depends critically on the mean density of the flow with a robust form of stripes at high density that consists of fast sliding plug-like regions (stripes) on top of highly agitated boiling material - a configuration reminiscent of the Leidenfrost effect when a droplet of liquid lifted by its vapor is hovering above a hot surface.

Tamas Borzsonyi; Robert E. Ecke; Jim N. McElwaine

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Fuel Cells publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells » Fuel Cells Publications Fuel Cells publications Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electorchemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Chemistry Communications Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

313

Water Outlet Control Mechanism for Fuel Cell System Operation ...  

Self-Regulating Water Separation System for Fuel Cells Innovators at NASAs Johnson Space ... Solar Thermal; Startup ... The system uses the flow energy of the fuel ...

314

Split flow gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A-moving bed coal gasifier for the production of tar-free, low ammonia fuel gas is described. The gasifier employs a combustion zone in a free-aboard area above the moving bed to burn coal fines to provide hot combustion gases for pyrolyzing and gasifying coal particulates in the moving bed to form fuel gas as the hot gases move co-currently with the downwardly moving coal particulates. The fuel gas contains entrained tars and ammonia compounds which contact hot char and ash in the moving bed and are cracked so that the fuel gas removed from the gasifier at a midpoint off-take is essentially tar-free and of low ammonia content. Concurrently with this gasification reaction, steam and an oxidant are introduced into a region below the moving bed to flow countercurrently to the downwardly moving bed to contact and react with carbon remaining in the char to create additional fuel gas which is also extracted from the gasifier at the mid-point off-take.

Halow, J.S.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

315

Experimental studies of the flow of concentrated hard sphere suspensions into a constriction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental studies of the flow of concentrated hard sphere suspensions into a constriction L Isa1 driven flow of dense suspensions of micron­ sized hard spheres into glass capillaries. The first one the presence of "particles" (blood cells) is taken into account, the scenario acquires more complexity

Weeks, Eric R.

316

Single-cell bioluminescence and GFP in biofilm research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using flow cells and a combination of microscopy techniques, we can unequivocally identify single bacterial cells that express bioluminescent and fluorescent bioreporters. We have shown that, for attached cells, bioluminescence output within a bacterial strain can vary greatly from cell to cell.

Palmer, R.J. Jr, Sayler, G., White, D.C. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States), Ctr. Env. Biotech; Phiefer, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States), Environmental Sciences Div.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

Redox Shuttle Additives  

As the demand for hybrid and electric vehicles continues to grow, so does the demand for lithium-ion batteries that are safer, more powerful, and less expensive. These Argonne additives will help meet that demand.

318

Redox Shuttle Additives  

Reduce cost, and Increase battery reliability. Applications and Industries Electrodes used in batteries for Electric and plug-in hybrid electric ...

319

Turbine blade tip flow discouragers  

SciTech Connect

A turbine assembly comprises a plurality of rotating blade portions in a spaced relation with a stationery shroud. The rotating blade portions comprise a root section, a tip portion and an airfoil. The tip portion has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall. A number of flow discouragers are disposed on the blade tip portion. In one embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. In an alternative embodiment, the flow discouragers extend circumferentially from the pressure side wall to the suction side wall so as to be aligned at an angle in the range between about 0.degree. to about 60.degree. with respect to a reference axis aligned generally parallel to the direction of rotation. The flow discouragers increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the blade tip portion so as to improve overall turbine efficiency.

Bunker, Ronald Scott (Niskayuna, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Physics of two-phase flow: choked flow  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is shown that the basic equations governing the flow of a two-phase fluid, i.e., liquid and vapor, are natural extensions of those equations that describe single-phase flow. The exact form of the equations depends on the particular assumptions used to characterize the two-phase flow, i.e., the equations depend on the model chosen. In general the mathematical model is selected so as to retain as much of the physics of the phenomena as possible while at the same time permitting solutions to be obtained without undue complexity. The following quantities were computed for saturated water substance over the temperature range 100 to 250/sup 0/C and for saturated Refrigerant -114 over the range -20 to +70/sup 0/C: choking velocity, critical or choking flow density, and saturation properties. Tables of the results are given along with graphs of selected functions.

Maeder, P.F.; DiPippo, R.; Delor, M.; Dickinson, D.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The transition from two phase bubble flow to slug flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The process of transition from bubble to slug flow in a vertical pipe has been studied analytically and experimentally. An equation is presented which gives the agglomeration time as a function of void fraction, channel ...

Radovcich, Nick A.

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

HYDROGEN ELECTROLYZER FLOW DISTRIBUTOR MODEL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hybrid sulfur process (HyS) hydrogen electrolyzer consists of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) sandwiched between two porous graphite layers. An aqueous solution of sulfuric acid with dissolved SO{sub 2} gas flows parallel to the PEM through the porous graphite layer on the anode side of the electrolyzer. A flow distributor, consisting of a number of parallel channels acting as headers, promotes uniform flow of the anolyte fluid through the porous graphite layer. A numerical model of the hydraulic behavior of the flow distributor is herein described. This model was developed to be a tool to aid the design of flow distributors. The primary design objective is to minimize spatial variations in the flow through the porous graphite layer. The hydraulic data from electrolyzer tests consists of overall flowrate and pressure drop. Internal pressure and flow distributions are not measured, but these details are provided by the model. The model has been benchmarked against data from tests of the current electrolyzer. The model reasonably predicts the viscosity effect of changing the fluid from water to an aqueous solution of 30 % sulfuric acid. The permeability of the graphite layer was the independent variable used to fit the model to the test data, and the required permeability for a good fit is within the range literature values for carbon paper. The model predicts that reducing the number of parallel channels by 50 % will substantially improve the uniformity of the flow in the porous graphite layer, while maintaining an acceptable pressure drop across the electrolyzer. When the size of the electrolyzer is doubled from 2.75 inches square to 5.5 inches square, the same number of channels as in the current design will be adequate, but it is advisable to increase the channel cross-sectional flow area. This is due to the increased length of the channels.

Shadday, M

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

323

EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 02 Microfabrication ­ A combination · Photolithograpy · Depostion · Etching 1 Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 2: Microfabrication Flow Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 2: Microfabrication Questions · What is heat? · Heat

Kaiser, Todd J.

324

Variable area fuel cell process channels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement having a non-uniform distribution of fuel and oxidant flow paths, on opposite sides of an electrolyte matrix, sized and positioned to provide approximately uniform fuel and oxidant utilization rates, and cell conditions, across the entire cell.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Proper planning improves flow drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Underbalanced operations reduce formation damage, especially in horizontal wells where zones are exposed to mud for longer time periods. Benefits, risks, well control concerns, equipment and issues associated with these operations are addressed in this paper. Flow drilling raises many concerns, but little has been published on horizontal well control and flow drilling operations. This article covers planning considerations for flow drilling, but does not address horizontal ''overbalanced'' drilling because considerations and equipment are the same as in vertical overbalanced drilling and many references address that subject. The difference in well control between vertical and horizontal overbalanced drilling is fluid influx behavior and how that behavior affects kill operations.

Collins, G.J. (Marathon Oil Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Meridional flow profile measurements with SOHO/MDI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present meridional flow measurements of the Sun using a novel helioseismic approach for analyzing SOHO/MDI data in order to push the current limits in radial depth. Analyzing three consecutive months of data during solar minimum, we find that the meridional flow is as expected poleward in the upper convection zone, turns equatorward at a depth of around 40 Mm (~0.95 Rsol), and possibly changes direction again in the lower convection zone. This may indicate two meridional circulation cells in each hemisphere, one beneath the other.

U. Mitra-Kraev; M. J. Thompson

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

Magnetically insulated theory with both electron and ion flows  

SciTech Connect

Both the ion emission from anode surface and the electron emission from cathode surface may occur in the magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) with a very high pulsed power and a very large current density. A model for the MITL with both electron and ion flow is developed. In this model, physical quantities (such as space-charge sheath thicknesses and flow currents) in the MITL are theoretically analyzed, and the specific expression for the voltage on the line by the terms of currents is derived. Furthermore, particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to verify the theoretical results.

Wang Huihui; Meng Lin; Liu Dagang; Liu Laqun; Yang Chao [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

NREL: Learning - Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Fuel cells and their ability to cleanly produce electricity from hydrogen and oxygen are what make hydrogen attractive as a "fuel" for transportation use particularly, but also as a general energy carrier for homes and other uses, and for storing and transporting otherwise intermittent renewable energy. Fuel cells function somewhat like a battery-with external fuel being supplied rather than stored electricity-to generate power by chemical reaction rather than combustion. Hydrogen fuel cells, for instance, feed hydrogen gas into an electrode that contains a catalyst, such as platinum, which helps to break up the hydrogen molecules into positively charged hydrogen ions and negatively charged electrons. The electrons flow from the electrode to a terminal that

330

Role of structural Fe in nontronite NAu-1 and dissolved Fe(II) in redox transformations of arsenic and antimony  

SciTech Connect

Oxidation state is a major factor affecting the mobility of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in soil and aquatic systems. Metal (hydr)oxides and clay minerals are effective sorbents, and may also promote redox reactions on their surfaces via direct or indirect facilitation of electron transfer. Iron substituted for Al in the octahedral sites of aluminosilicate clay minerals has the potential to be in variable oxidation states and is a key constituent of electron transfer reactions in clay minerals. This experimental work was conducted to determine whether structural Fe in clays can affect the oxidation state of As and Sb adsorbed at the clay surface. Another goal of our study was to compare the reactivity of clay structural Fe(II) with systems containing Fe(II) present in dissolved/adsorbed forms. The experimental systems included batch reactors with various concentrations of As(III), Sb(III), As(V), or Sb(V) equilibrated with oxidized (NAu-1) or partially reduced (NAu-1-Red) nontronite, hydrous aluminum oxide (HAO) and kaolinite (KGa-1b) suspensions under oxic and anoxic conditions. The reaction times ranged from 0.5 to 720 h, and pH was constrained at 5.5 (for As) and at 5.5 or 8.0 (for Sb). The oxidation state of As and Sb in the liquid phase was determined by liquid chromatography in line with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and in the solid phase by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Our findings show that structural Fe(II) in NAu-1-Red was not able to reduce As(V)/Sb(V) under the conditions examined, but reduction was seen when aqueous Fe(II) was present in the systems with kaolinite (KGa-1b) and nontronite (NAu-1). The ability of the structural Fe in nontronite clay NAu-1 to promote oxidation of As(III)/Sb(III) was greatly affected by its oxidation state: if all structural Fe was in the oxidized Fe(III) form, no oxidation was observed; however, when the clay was partially reduced ({approx}20% of structural Fe was reduced to Fe(II)), NAu-1-Red promoted the most extensive oxidation under both oxic and anoxic conditions. Electron balance considerations suggest that structural Fe(III) in the NAu-1-Red was the sole oxidant in the anoxic setup, while dissolved O{sub 2} also contributes in oxic conditions. Long-term batch experiments revealed the complex dynamics of As aqueous speciation in anoxic and oxic systems when reduced arsenic was initially added: rapid disappearance of As(III) was observed due to oxidation to As(V) followed by a slow increase of aqueous As(III). This behavior is explained by two reactions: fast initial oxidation of As(III) by structural Fe(III) (anoxic) or Fe(III) and dissolved O2 (oxic) followed by the slow reduction of As(V) by dissolved Fe(II). The resulting re-mobilization of As due to As(V) reduction by aqueous Fe(II) occurs on time scales on the order of days. These reactions are likely significant in a natural soil or aquifer environment with seasonal cycling or slightly reducing conditions with an abundance of clay minerals and dissolved Fe(II).

Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Foster, Andrea L.; Trainor, Thomas P. (Alaska Fairbanks); (USGS)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Definition: Flow Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flow Test Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Flow Test Flow tests are typically conducted shortly after a well has been drilled to test its productivity. The well is opened...

332

Transitions between Baroclinic Flow Regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

we use truncated spectral Eady models with two Ekman layers of different strength to investigate the baroclinic flow transitions observed in annulus experiments. Our analysis is both analytical and numerical As the dissipation parameter is varied ...

H-Y. Weng; A. Barcilon; J. Magnan

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Coal flows | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal flows Coal flows Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 142, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million short tons. The data is broken down into steam coal exports to Europe, Asia and America. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Coal flows countries EIA exporting importing Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: World Steam Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries- Reference Case (xls, 103.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period 2008-2035 License

334

Essays on international capital flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation consists of three chapters on international capital flows. Chapter 1 emphasizes the importance of innovations in the investment opportunity set, captured by changes in expected asset returns, as an important ...

Brando, Tatiana Glindmeier Didier

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Lattice splitting under intermittent flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the splitting of regular square lattices subject to stochastic intermittent flows. By extensive Monte Carlo simulations we reveal how the time span until the occurence of a splitting depends on various flow patterns imposed on the lattices. Increasing the flow fluctuation frequencies shortens this time span which reaches a minimum before rising again due to inertia effects incorporated in the model. The size of the largest connected component after the splitting is rather independent of the flow fluctuations but sligthly decreases with the link capacities. Our results are relevant for assessing the robustness of real-life systems, such as electric power grids with a large share of renewable energy sources including wind turbines and photovoltaic systems.

Schlpfer, Markus

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Flow Acceleration and Mountain Drag*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic explanations of mountain drag usually invoke viscous effects and/or wave momentum flux by either Rossby or internal gravity waves. This paper explores an alternative mechanism in terms of the unsteadiness of the incident flow. The ...

Peter R. Bannon

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Studies of Flows in Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Note a pdf document "DOE-flow-final-report' should be attached. If it somehow is not please notify Walter Gekelman (gekelman@physics.ucla.edu) who will e mail it directly

Gekelman, Walter; Morales, George; Maggs, James

2009-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

338

Longitudinal dispersion in vegetated flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vegetation is ubiquitous in rivers, estuaries and wetlands, strongly influencing both water conveyance and mass transport. The plant canopy affects both mean and turbulent flow structure, and thus both advection and ...

Murphy, Enda

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Parabolic flows on complex manifolds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 2 Convergence of the parabolic complex Monge-Amp`ere65] Streets, J. , Tian, G. A parabolic flow of pluriclosedGill, M. Convergence of the parabolic complex Monge-Amp` ere

Gill, Matthew Franklin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Multiscale modeling in granular flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Granular materials are common in everyday experience, but have long-resisted a complete theoretical description. Here, we consider the regime of slow, dense granular flow, for which there is no general model, representing ...

Rycroft, Christopher Harley

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Subcooled flow boiling of fluorocarbons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study was conducted of heat transfer and hydrodynamic behavior for subcooled flow boiling of Freon-113, one of a group of fluorocarbons suitable for use in cooling of high-power-density electronic components. Problems ...

Murphy, Richard Walter

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

2007 Estimated International Energy Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

343

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Reducing the Costs of Manufacturing Flow Batteries - Dhruv Bhatnagar, SNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Costs of Manufacturing Flow Batteries the Costs of Manufacturing Flow Batteries Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND No. 2011-XXXXP Next Steps 1. Continued outreach with other with other manufacturers 2. Characterization of the flow battery manufacturing process and determination of process issues 3. Evaluation of the fuel cell, other battery and other industry manufacturing process to address issues identified 4. Coordination with PNNL flow battery component cost

344

Increased Power Flow Guidebook - 2012  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Increased Power Flow (IPF) Guidebook is a state-of-the-art and best- practices reference and guidebook on increasing the power flow capacities of existing overhead transmission lines, underground cables, power transformers, and substation equipment, without compromising safety and reliability. The Guidebook discusses power system concerns and limiting conditions to increasing capacity, reviews available technology options and methods, illustrates the alternatives with case ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

345

Increased Power Flow Guidebook - 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Increased Power Flow (IPF) Guidebook is a state-of-the-art and best- practices reference and guidebook on increasing the power flow capacities of existing overhead transmission lines, underground cables, power transformers, and substation equipment, without compromising safety and reliability. The Guidebook discusses power system concerns and limiting conditions to increasing capacity, reviews available technology options and methods, illustrates the alternatives with case ...

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

346

Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Powers flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

Ward, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

348

Pertechnetate (TcO4-) reduction by reactive ferrous iron forms in naturally anoxic, redox transition zone sediments from the Hanford Site, USA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technetium is an important environmental contaminant introduced by the processing and disposal of irradiated nuclear fuel and atmospheric nuclear tests. Under oxic conditions technetium is soluble and exists as pertechnatate anion (TcO4-), while under anoxic conditions Tc is usually insoluble and exists as precipitated Tc(IV). Here we investigated abiotic Tc(VII) reduction in mineralogically heterogeneous, Fe(II)-containing sediments. The sediments were collected from a 55 m borehole that sampled a semi-confined aquifer at the Hanford Site, USA that contained a dramatic redox transition zone. One oxic facies (18.0-18.3 m) and five anoxic facies (18.3-18.6 m, 30.8-31.1 m, 39.0-39.3 m, 47.2-47.5 m and 51.5-51.8 m) were selected for this study. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and Mssbauer spectroscopy were applied to characterize the Fe(II) mineral suite that included: Fe(II)-phyllosilicates, pyrite, magnetite and siderite. The Fe(II) mineral phase distribution differed between the sediments. Sediment suspensions were adjusted to the same 0.5 M HCl extracted Fe(II) concentration (0.6 mM) for Tc(VII) reduction experiments. Aqueous Fe was low in all sediment suspensions (Technetium(VII) reduction occurred in all anoxic sediments at depths greater than 18.3 m and reaction time differed significantly between the sediments (8-219 d). Mssbauer analysis of the Tc-reacted, 30.8-31.1 m sediment confirmed that Tc(VII) was reduced by solid-phase Fe(II), with siderite and Fe(II)-containing phyllosilicates implicated as redox reactive phases. Technetium-XAS analysis demonstrated that Tc associated with sediments was in the Tc(IV) valence state and immobilized as clusters of a TcO2nH2O-like phase. The speciation of redox product Tc(IV) was not affected by reduction rate or Fe(II) mineralogy.

Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Heald, Steve M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Resch, Charles T.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Kovarik, Libor; Phillips, Jerry L.; Moore, Dean A.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Zhang, Gong (Murrysville, PA)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

350

Method for sensing and measuring a concentration or partial pressure of a reactant used in a redox reaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for sensing or measuring the partial pressure or concentration of an electroactive species used in conjunction with an electrolyte, the method being characterized by providing a constant current between an anode and a cathode of an electrolyte-containing cell, while measuring changes in voltage that occur between either the anode and cathode or between a reference electrode and one of the main electrodes of the cell, thereby to determine the concentration or partial pressure of the electro-active species as a function of said measured voltage changes. The method of the invention can be practiced using either a cell having only an anode and a cathode, or using a cell having an anode and a cathode in combination with a reference electrode. Accurate measurements of small concentrations or partial pressures of electro-active species are obtainable with the method of the invention, by using constant currents of only a few microamperes between the anode and cathode of the cell, while the concentration-determining voltage is measured.

Findl, E.

1984-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

351

Accuracy of flow hoods in residential applications  

SciTech Connect

To assess whether houses can meet performance expectations, the new practice of residential commissioning will likely use flow hoods to measure supply and return grille airflows in HVAC systems. Depending on hood accuracy, these measurements can be used to determine if individual rooms receive adequate airflow for heating and cooling, to determine flow imbalances between different building spaces, to estimate total air handler flow and supply/return imbalances, and to assess duct air leakage. This paper discusses these flow hood applications and the accuracy requirements in each case. Laboratory tests of several residential flow hoods showed that these hoods can be inadequate to measure flows in residential systems. Potential errors are about 20% to 30% of measured flow, due to poor calibrations, sensitivity to grille flow non-uniformities, and flow changes from added flow resistance. Active flow hoods equipped with measurement devices that are insensitive to grille airflow patterns have an order of magnitude less error, and are more reliable and consistent in most cases. Our tests also show that current calibration procedures for flow hoods do not account for field application problems. As a result, a new standard for flow hood calibration needs to be developed, along with a new measurement standard to address field use of flow hoods. Lastly, field evaluation of a selection of flow hoods showed that it is possible to obtain reasonable results using some flow hoods if the field tests are carefully done, the grilles are appropriate, and grille location does not restrict flow hood placement.

Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

SOFC seal and cell thermal management  

SciTech Connect

The solid oxide fuel cell module includes a manifold, a plate, a cathode electrode, a fuel cell and an anode electrode. The manifold includes an air or oxygen inlet in communication with divergent passages above the periphery of the cell which combine to flow the air or oxygen radially or inwardly for reception in the center of the cathode flow field. The latter has interconnects providing circuitous cooling passages in a generally radial outward direction cooling the fuel cell and which interconnects are formed of different thermal conductivity materials for a preferential cooling.

Potnis, Shailesh Vijay (Neenah, WI); Rehg, Timothy Joseph (Huntington Beach, CA)

2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

353

Flow assurance and multiphase pumping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A robust understanding and planning of production enhancement and flow assurance is required as petroleum E&P activities are targeting deepwaters and long distances. Different flow assurance issues and their solutions are put together in this work. The use of multiphase pumps as a flow assurance solution is emphasized. Multiphase pumping aids flow assurance in different ways. However, the problem causing most concern is sand erosion. This work involved a detection-based sand monitoring method. Our objectives are to investigate the reliability of an acoustic sand detector and analyze the feasibility of gel injection as a method to mitigate sand erosion. Use of a sand detector coupled with twin-screw pumps is studied under varying flow conditions. The feasibility of gel injection to reduce slip and transport produced solids through twin-screw pump is investigated. A unique full-scale laboratory with multiphase pumps was utilized to carry out the experimental tests. The test results indicate that acoustic sand detection works in a narrow window around the calibration signature. An empirical correlation for predicting the twin-screw pump performance with viscous fluids was developed. It shows good agreement in the practical operational limits 50% to 100% speed. The results indicate that viscous gel injection should be an effective erosion mitigation approach as it reduces slip, the principle cause of erosive wear. To correlate the performance of viscous fluid injection to hydroabrasive wear, further experimental investigation is needed.

Nikhar, Hemant G.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Oxygen Absorption in Cooling Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inhomogeneous cooling flow scenario predicts the existence of large quantities of gas in massive elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters that have cooled and dropped out of the flow. Using spatially resolved, deprojected X-ray spectra from the ROSAT PSPC we have detected strong absorption over energies ~0.4-0.8 keV intrinsic to the central ~1 arcmin of the galaxy, NGC 1399, the group, NGC 5044, and the cluster, A1795. These systems have amongst the largest nearby cooling flows in their respective classes and low Galactic columns. Since no excess absorption is indicated for energies below ~0.4 keV the most reasonable model for the absorber is warm, collisionally ionized gas with T=10^{5-6} K where ionized states of oxygen provide most of the absorption. Attributing the absorption only to ionized gas reconciles the large columns of cold H and He inferred from Einstein and ASCA with the lack of such columns inferred from ROSAT, and also is consistent with the negligible atomic and molecular H inferred from HI, and CO observations of cooling flows. The prediction of warm ionized gas as the product of mass drop-out in these and other cooling flows can be verified by Chandra, XMM, and ASTRO-E.

David A. Buote

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

355

Understanding the redox shuttle stability of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene (DBDB) has been synthesized as a new redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. DBDB can easily dissolve in carbonate-based electrolytes, which facilitates its practical use in lithium-ion batteries; however, it has poor electrochemical stability compared to 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB). The structures of DBDB and DDB were investigated using X-ray crystallography and density functional calculations. The structures differ in the conformations of the alkoxy bonds probably due to the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond in the case of DBDB. We investigated reaction energies for decomposition pathways of neutral DBDB and DDB and their radical cations and found little difference in the reaction energies, although it is clear that kinetically, decomposition of DBDB is more favorable.

Zhang, Z.; Zhang, L.; Schlueter, J. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Curtiss, L.; Amine, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Charge-transfer interfaces between metal and redox arylamine molecular films: As probed with anode interfacial engineering approach in single-layer organic diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the charge-transfer interfaces between metal and redox arylamine molecular films through studying the current-voltage characteristics of single-layer organic diodes with the aid of anode interfacial engineering method. The diode turn-on voltage is shown to be highly sensitive to the arylamine/metal charge-transfer interfaces and thus can serve as a probe in detecting such organic/metal interfaces. We show that the diode electrical performance could be tuned through engineering the arylamine/metal interfaces via controlling the factors of anode work function, arylamine substitute groups, and active layer surface morphology etc. The conduction mechanism of the diodes is shown to be injection limited, which could be well described with Richardson-Schottky thermonic emission model. Our work may provide some insight into the use of single-layer organic diode and interfacial engineering method to rapidly probe the organic/metal and even organic/organic charge-transfer interfaces.

J. C. Li; S. C. Blackstock; G. J. Szulczewski

2005-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

357

Visualization and Diagnostics of Thermal Plasma Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow visualization is a key tool for the study of thermal plasma flows. Because of their high temperature and associated self emission, standard and high speed photography is commonly used for flow and temperature field visualization. Tracer techniques ... Keywords: d.c. plasma jet, enthalpy probe techniques, induction plasma, laser strobe, photographic techniques, schlieren, thermal plasma flows

M. I. Boulos

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Numerical length estimation for tubular flow reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: free boundary value problems, noniterative and iterative numerical methods, tubular flow reactors

Riccardo Fazio

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Valve for controlling solids flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A valve for controlling the flow of solids comprises a vessel having an overflow point, an inlet line for discharging solids into the vessel positioned within the vessel such that the inlet line's discharge point is lower than the vessel's overflow point, and apparatus for introducing a fluidizing fluid into the vessel. The fluidizing fluid fluidizes the solids within the vessel so that they overflow at the vessel's overflow point. For the removal of nuclear waste product the vessel may be placed within a sealed container having a bottom connected transport line for transporting the solids to storage or other sites. The rate of solids flow is controlled by the flow rate of the fluidizing fluid and by V-notch weirs of different sizes spaced about the top of the vessel.

Staiger, M. Daniel (Idaho Falls, ID)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Monitoring probe for groundwater flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow.

Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Ballard, Sanford (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Fuel cell system combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode and cathode effluents. The combustor includes a turbulator section at its input end for intimately mixing the anode and cathode effluents before they contact the combustors primary catalyst bed. The turbulator comprises at least one porous bed of mixing media that provides a tortuous path therethrough for creating turbulent flow and intimate mixing of the anode and cathode effluents therein.

Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

PEM FUEL CELL TURBOCOMPRESSOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is to assist the Department of Energy in the development of a low cost, reliable and high performance air compressor/expander. Technical Objective 1: Perform a turbocompressor systems PEM fuel cell trade study to determine the enhanced turbocompressor approach. Technical Objective 2: Using the results from technical objective 1, an enhanced turbocompressor will be fabricated. The design may be modified to match the flow requirements of a selected fuel cell system developer. Technical Objective 3: Design a cost and performance enhanced compact motor and motor controller. Technical Objective 4: Turbocompressor/motor controller development.

Mark K. Gee

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Fuel cell stack arrangements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Arrangements of stacks of fuel cells and ducts, for fuel cells operating with separate fuel, oxidant and coolant streams. An even number of stacks are arranged generally end-to-end in a loop. Ducts located at the juncture of consecutive stacks of the loop feed oxidant or fuel to or from the two consecutive stacks, each individual duct communicating with two stacks. A coolant fluid flows from outside the loop, into and through cooling channels of the stack, and is discharged into an enclosure duct formed within the loop by the stacks and seals at the junctures at the stacks.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Boro, PA); Somers, Edward V. (Murrysville, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Electron flow stability in magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluate the stability of electron current flow in high-power magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). A detailed model of electron flow in cross-field gaps yields a dispersion relation for electromagnetic (EM) transverse magnetic waves [R. C. Davidson et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 2332 (1984)] which is solved numerically to obtain growth rates for unstable modes in various sheath profiles. These results are compared with two-dimensional (2D) EM particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of electron flow in high-power MITLs. We find that the macroscopic properties (charge and current densities and self-fields) of the equilibrium profiles observed in the simulations are well represented by the laminar-flow model of Davidson et al. Idealized simulations of sheared flow in electron sheaths yield growth rates for both long (diocotron) and short (magnetron) wavelength instabilities that are in good agreement with the dispersion analysis. We conclude that electron sheaths that evolve self-consistently from space-charged-limited emission of electrons from the cathode in well-resolved 2D EM PIC simulations form stable profiles.

Genoni, Thomas C. (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Stygar, William A.; Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Clark, R. E. (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Rose, David V. (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

Weisbrod, Kirk R. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Single chamber fuel cells: Flow geometry, rate and composition considerations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the key technical hurdles in SOFC development. Furthermore,bellow those of dual chamber SOFC, and increase even moresmaller than that of other SOFC, but the heat generated by

Stefan, Ionel C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Renaissance in Flow-Cell Technologies: Recent Advancements and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Grand Challenges in Electrical Energy Storage (EES) SCALE & COST: Want to go from Wh to kWh to MWh... El tri Vehicl Grid-Scale 100kWh GRIDS Program Target Portable...

368

Flow in geothermal wells. Part IV. Transition criteria for two-phase flow patterns  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed considerations justifying the criteria for transitions between flow patterns are presented. The following are covered: transition from bubble to plug (or slug) flow, transition from plug flow to froth flow, transition from froth to annular mist flow, and model comparisons. (MHR)

Bilicki, Z.; Kestin, J.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Rinse trough with improved flow  

SciTech Connect

Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects' surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

O' Hern, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Grasser, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

WaveMean Flow Statistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A relation between the statistics of large-scale waves and the mean flow is derived from the potential enstrophy equations integrated over an isobaric surface. The difference between time-averaged zonal-mean state and the radiative-dynamical ...

Mark R. Schoeberl

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Shallow Water Flows in Channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the shallow water equations for flows through channels with arbitrary cross section. The system forms a hyperbolic set of balance laws. Exact steady-state solutions are available and are controlled by the relation between the bottom topography ... Keywords: Balance laws, Hyperbolic conservation laws, Steady-state solutions, Upwind schemes

Gerardo Hernndez-Dueas; Smadar Karni

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Superconducting flux flow digital circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

373

Superconducting flux flow digital circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Martens, Jon S. (Sunnyvale, CA); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Variable area fuel cell cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement having cooling fluid flow passages which vary in surface area from the inlet to the outlet of the passages. A smaller surface area is provided at the passage inlet, which increases toward the passage outlet, so as to provide more uniform cooling of the entire fuel cell. The cooling passages can also be spaced from one another in an uneven fashion.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Fluid Flow Within Fractured Porous Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractures provide preferential flow paths to subterranean fluid flows. In reservoir scale modeling of geologic flows fractures must be approximated by fairly simple formulations. Often this is accomplished by assuming fractures are parallel plates subjected to an applied pressure gradient. This is known as the cubic law. An induced fracture in Berea sandstone has been digitized to perform numerical flow simulations. A commercially available computational fluid dynamics software package has been used to solve the flow through this model. Single phase flows have been compared to experimental works in the literature to evaluate the accuracy with which this model can be applied. Common methods of fracture geometry classification are also calculated and compared to experimentally obtained values. Flow through regions of the fracture where the upper and lower fracture walls meet (zero aperture) are shown to induce a strong channeling effect on the flow. This model is expanded to include a domain of surrounding porous media through which the flow can travel. The inclusion of a realistic permeability in this media shows that the regions of small and zero apertures contribute to the greatest pressure losses over the fracture length and flow through the porous media is most prevalent in these regions. The flow through the fracture is shown to be the largest contributor to the net flow through the media. From this work, a novel flow relationship is proposed for flow through fractured media.

Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.; Bromhal, G.S.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Effect of radial transport on compressor tip clearance flow structures and enhancement of stable flow range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relation between tip clearance flow structure and axial compressor stall is interrogated via numerical simulations, to determine how casing treatment can result in improved flow range. Both geometry changes and flow ...

Nolan, Sean Patrick Rock

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

A laboratory scale supersonic combustive flow system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A laboratory scale supersonic flow system [Combustive Flow System (CFS)] which utilizes the gaseous products of methane-air and/or liquid fuel-air combustion has been assembled to provide a propulsion type exhaust flow field for various applications. Such applications include providing a testbed for the study of planar two-dimensional nozzle flow fields with chemistry, three-dimensional flow field mixing near the exit of rectangular nozzles, benchmarking the predictive capability of various computational fluid dynamic codes, and the development and testing of advanced diagnostic techniques. This paper will provide a detailed description of the flow system and data related to its operation.

Sams, E.C.; Zerkle, D.K.; Fry, H.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

A summary report on feed preparation offgas and glass redox data for Hanford waste vitrification plant: Letter report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tests to evaluate feed processing options for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) were conducted by a number of investigators, and considerable data were acquired for tests of different scale, including recent full-scale tests. In this report, a comparison was made of the characteristics of feed preparation observed in tests of scale ranging from 57 ml to full-scale of 28,000 liters. These tests included Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) laboratory-scale tests, Kernforschungszentrums Karlsruhe (KfK) melter feed preparation, Research Scale Melter (RSM) feed preparation, Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) feed preparation, Slurry Integrated Performance Testing (SIPT) feed preparation, and formic acid addition to Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) care samples.` The data presented herein were drawn mainly from draft reports and include system characteristics such as slurry volume and depth, sweep gas flow rate, headspace, and heating and stirring characteristics. Operating conditions such as acid feed rate, temperature, starting pH, final pH, quantities and type of frit, nitrite, nitrate, and carbonate concentrations, noble metal content, and waste oxide loading were tabulated. Offgas data for CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} were tabulated on a common basis. Observation and non-observation of other species were also noted.

Merz, M.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Flow Battery Solution for Smart Grid Renewable Energy Applications - Sheri Nevins, Raytheon & Ron Moss, EnerVault  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2012, Raytheon Proprietary and EnerVault Corporation, All Rights Reserved. 2012, Raytheon Proprietary and EnerVault Corporation, All Rights Reserved. 1 Sheri Nevins Raytheon Ktech Ron Mosso EnerVault Corporation DEMONSTRATION OF ENERGY STORAGE USING A BREAKTHROUGH REDOX FLOW BATTERY TECHNOLOGY v. 1-0 Copyright ©2012, Raytheon Proprietary and EnerVault Corporation, All Rights Reserved. 2 Disclaimer This material is partially based upon work supported by NYSERDA under PON1200 Project 15880 NYSERDA has not reviewed the information contained herein, and the opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect those of NYSERDA or the State of New York. This material is partially based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-OE0000225. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprises corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant. 6 figs.

Neutzler, J.K.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

382

Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprising corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant.

Neutzler, Jay Kevin (Rochester, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Cell separator and cell  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed a novel cell separator made of a grafted membrane comprising a polyethylene film which is graft copolymerized with a monomer having an ion exchange group, characterized in that said membrane has an area which is not grafted at all or an area of low degree grafting. By making use of this membrane, a small size and thin cell having excellent performance as well as satisfactory mechanical strength can be produced at low cost with great advantages.

Ishigaki, I.; Machi, S.; Murata, K.; Okada, T.; Senoo, K.; Sugo, T.; Tanso, S.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Vertical Flow Wetland Pilot Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is an interim report to present the preliminary results of a study conducted by Duke Energy to test the potential effectiveness of vertical flow wetlands (VFWs) for the removal of selenium, mercury, and other related compounds from a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) discharge. These compounds commonly are found in and regulated for coal-fired utility water discharges. There is a widespread need for a cost-effective alternative to physiochemical treatment to maintain compliance for these parameters, on...

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

385

Economics of Increased Power Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report focuses on methodologies for evaluating the costs and benefits of the diverse technologies that can be used either individually or jointly to increase the flow of power through the transmission system. It begins by describing a broad slate of potential technologies and approaches for increasing transmission capacity and improving system efficiency and then provides an overall framework for assessing the benefits and costs of these technologies. Later sections cover the practical implementatio...

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

386

Flow duct for nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved liquid sodium flow ducts for nuclear reactors are described wherein the improvement comprises varying the wall thickness of each of the walls of a polygonal tubular duct structure so that each of the walls is of reduced cross-section along the longitudinal center line and of a greater cross-section along wall junctions with the other walls to form the polygonal tubular configuration.

Straalsund, Jerry L. (Richland, WA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

Wilkinson, W.H.

1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

388

NETL: Gasifipedia - Entrained Flow Gasifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Entrained Flow Gasifiers Entrained Flow Gasifiers Uhde - Prenflo PRENFLO(tm) is a pressurized (>40 bar), entrained-flow gasification technology first demonstrated in the late 1980s, and currently offered by Uhde (Krupp Koppers merged with Uhde in 1997). Notably, PRENFLO(tm) is the gasification technology used at the world's largest solid feedstock-based gasifier at ELCOGAS's Puertollano IGCC plant in Spain (which is fueled with a 50%/50% mix of petcoke and coal). PRENFLO(tm) is offered in two varieties, the PRENFLO(tm) PSG (with steam generation) depicted in Figures 1 & 2, and PRENFLO(tm) PDQ (direct quench) as depicted in Figures 3 & 4. The gasifier conditions and feed characteristics are similar, but PRENFLO(tm) PSG includes an integrated waste heat boiler and uses compressed recirculated quench gas as illustrated in Figure 2, resulting in relatively low moisture raw syngas at relatively high exit temperature. PRENFLO(tm) PDQ uses direct quench, resulting in considerably lower raw syngas exit temperature (200-250°C) which is saturated. Uhde notes that PDQ has lower investment cost and shorter construction and supply schedule than PSG, though this would be at the performance expense of somewhat lower thermal efficiency and slightly higher concentration of CO2 in raw syngas.

389

Effects of Varying RedoxConditions on Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (U)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide geochemical parameters to characterize the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) sediment as a potential source term. It is anticipated that the measured values will be used in risk calculations and will provide additional technical support for imposing Monitored Natural Attenuation at D-Area. This study provides a detailed evaluation of the DCPRB sediment and is part of another study that quantified the Monitored Natural Attenuation of inorganic contaminants more broadly at the D-Area Expanded Operable Unit, which includes the DCPRB (Powell et al. 2004). Distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values; a solid to liquid contaminant concentration ratio) and the Potentially Leachable Fraction (the percent of the total contaminant concentration in the sediment that can likely contribute to a contaminant plume) were measured in a DCPRB sediment as a function of redox conditions. Redox conditions at the DCPRB are expected to vary greatly as the system undergoes varying drying and flooding conditions. Conservative values; K{sub d} values that err on the side of being too low and Potentially Leachable Fraction values that err on the side of being too high, are presented. The K{sub d} values are high compared to conservative literature values, and underscores the importance of measuring site-specific values to provide estimates of sediments natural attenuation/sorption capacities. The Potentially Leachable Fraction indicates that as little as 27% of the As, but all of the Cu and Tl will be part of the source term. In the case of the As, the remaining 83% will likely never leach out of the sediment, thereby providing a form of natural attenuation. Importantly, Be, Cr, Cu, Ni, and V concentrations in the sediment were less-than twice background levels, indicating this sediment was not a potential source for these contaminants. K{sub d} values generally increased significantly (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se, and Tl) when the sediment was flooded and after 36 days biostimulated through the addition of molasses. However, the contaminants that were newly sorbed tended to bind to weaker binding sites as the system was converted from an oxidizing to a reducing system. This redistribution of contaminants resulted in increased Potentially Leachable Fractions. In conclusion, these tests clearly indicate that the DCPRB sediment has a relatively high affinity to sorb most of the contaminants and that when evaluating the risk associated with this as a source term that only the Potentially Leachable Fraction of the total sediment contaminants concentration be used as the actual source term.

Kaplan, D

2004-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

390

The hidden geometry of ocean flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a new global Lagrangian descriptor that is applied to flows with general time dependence (altimetric datasets). It succeeds in detecting simultaneously, with great accuracy, invariant manifolds, hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic flow regions.

Carolina Mendoza; Ana M Mancho

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Deep-Flow Variability at Drake Passage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rotary empirical orthogonal function analysis of the currents measured in central Drake Passage during DRAKE 79 shows that the deep (2500 m) flow has the same spatial and temporal structure as the flow at 500 m, suggesting that current ...

John M. Klinck; Eileen E. Hofmann

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Flow interference in bluff body wakes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical simulation of fluid flow around a couple of identical circular cylinders aligned, respectively, along and orthogonal to the main-flow direction, at several distances. A lattice-Boltzmann method (LB) is ...

Rodrigo Surmas; Lus Orlando Emerich Dos Santos; Paulo Cesar Philippi

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Regional Drainage Flows in the Pacific Northwest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of regional drainage flows in the Pacific Northwest is presented using results from a network of surface observations and a series of simulations carried out with a nested mesoscale model. The flows, which occur regularly in ...

J. C. Doran; S. Zhong

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Preservation of probabilistic information flow under refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information flow properties, which describe confidentiality requirements, are not generally preserved under behavior refinement. This article describes a formal framework for refinement relations between nondeterministic probabilistic processes that ... Keywords: CSP, Confidentiality, Information flow property, Information theory, Process calculus, Refinement, Security

Thomas Santen

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Turbulent Channel Flows on a Rotating Earth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with flow in a rectilinear channel on a rotating earth. The flow is directed perpendicular to the background planetary vorticity; both an analytical theory and numerical simulations are employed. The analytical approach assumes ...

Robert A. Handler; Richard P. Mied; Gloria J. Lindemann; Thomas E. Evans

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Information Flow in Ensemble Weather Predictions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a weather prediction, information flows from the initial conditions to a later prediction. The uncertainty in the initial conditions implies that such a flow should be quantified with tools from probability theory. Using several recent ...

Richard Kleeman

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Turbulent Mixing in Stably Stratified Shear Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertical mixing of momentum and heat is investigated in turbulent stratified shear flows. It is assumed that the flow has uniform shear and stratification with homogeneous turbulence and that an equilibrium is reached between kinetic and ...

U. Schumann; T. Gerz

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Optical flow using phase information for deblurring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a method for reconstructing motion-degraded images by using velocity information generated with a phase-based optical flow calculation. The optical flow method applies a set of frequency-tuned Gabor ...

Texin, Cheryl (Cheryl A.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.

Sheppard, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tong, Long S. (Gaithersburg, MD)

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Stratified Tidal Flow over a Bump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of a stratified flow with an isolated topographic feature can introduce numerous disturbances into the flow, including turbulent wakes, internal waves, and eddies. Measurements made near a bump east of Race Rocks, Vancouver ...

Richard Dewey; David Richmond; Chris Garrett

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Large Scale Simulation of Particulate Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations of particles in fluid flows are of great interest to numerous industries using sedimentation, fluidization, lubricated transport, and hydraulic fracturing of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Simulating incompressible viscoelastic flows with millions ...

Ahmed H. Sameh; Vivek Sarin

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

A Simple Heat-Flow Quality Function And Appraisal Of Heat-Flow Measurements  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Simple Heat-Flow Quality Function And Appraisal Of Heat-Flow Measurements Simple Heat-Flow Quality Function And Appraisal Of Heat-Flow Measurements And Heat-Flow Estimates From The Uk Geothermal Catalogue Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Simple Heat-Flow Quality Function And Appraisal Of Heat-Flow Measurements And Heat-Flow Estimates From The Uk Geothermal Catalogue Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: A comprehensive database of temperature, heat flow, thermal conductivity and geochemistry is the basis of geothermal modelling. The latest revision (1987) of the UK Geothermal Catalogue (UKGC) contains over 2600 temperatures at over 1150 sites and over 200 observations of heat flow. About 93% of the temperature data are from depths less than 2000 m and about 50% are Bottom Hole Temperatures (BHT). Heat-flow density

403

Anisotropic collective flow of a Lorentz gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analytical results for the anisotropic collective flow of a Lorentz gas of massless particles scattering on fixed centres are presented.

Nicolas Borghini; Clement Gombeaud

2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

404

Toeplitz CAR flows and type I factorizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Toeplitz CAR flows are a class of E_0-semigroups including the first type III example constructed by R. T. Powers. We show that the Toeplitz CAR flows contain uncountably many mutually non cocycle conjugate E_0-semigroups of type III. We also generalize the type III criterion for Toeplitz CAR flows employed by Powers (and later refined by W. Arveson), and show that Toeplitz CAR flows are always either of type I or type III.

Izumi, Masaki

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Multiphase Turbulent Flow Ken Kiger -UMCP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the dispersion: · Size & geometry · Volume fraction #12;Bubbly Pipe Flow ­ heat exchangers in power plants, A/C units Gas-Liquid Flow #12;Aeration: -produced by wave action - used as reactor in chemical processing delivery Liquid-Gas Flow http://www.mywindpowersystem.com/2009/07/wind-power-when-nature

Gruner, Daniel S.

406

Hydromagnetic Instability in Differentially Rotating Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the stability of a compressible differentially rotating flows in the presence of the magnetic field, and we show that the compressibility profoundly alters the previous results for a magnetized incompressible flow. The necessary condition of newly found instability can be easily satisfied in various flows in laboratory and astrophysical conditions and reads $B_{s} B_{\\phi} \\Omega' \

Bonanno, A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Pebble Flow Experiments For Pebble Bed Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pebble Flow Experiments For Pebble Bed Reactors Andrew C. Kadak1 Department of Nuclear Engineering of Technology 2nd International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology Institute of Nuclear in such a reactor would conform to granular flow theory which suggested rapid mixing as opposed to linear flow lines

Bazant, Martin Z.

408

Liquid cooled counter flow turbine bucket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Means and a method are provided whereby liquid coolant flows radially outward through coolant passages in a liquid cooled turbine bucket under the influence of centrifugal force while in contact with countercurrently flowing coolant vapor such that liquid is entrained in the flow of vapor resulting in an increase in the wetted cooling area of the individual passages.

Dakin, James T. (Schenectady, NY)

1982-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

409

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of a algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a liqid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 35 figs.

Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groupsplutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

412

article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Performance and cycling of the iron ion hydrogen redox flow cell Performance and cycling of the iron ion hydrogen redox flow cell with various catholyte salts journal Journal of Applied Electrochemistry volume year month pages abstract p A redox flow cell utilizing the Fe2 Fe3 and H H couples is investigated as an energy storage device A conventional polymer electrolyte fuel cell anode and membrane design is employed with a cathode chamber containing a carbon felt flooded with aqueous acidic solution of iron salt The maximum power densities achieved for iron sulfate iron chloride and iron nitrate are and mW cm respectively It is found that the capacity of the iron nitrate solution decreases rapidly during cycling Stable cycling is observed for more than h with iron chloride and iron sulfate solutions Both iron sulfate and iron chloride

413

Low hydrostatic head electrolyte addition to fuel cell stacks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell and system for supply electrolyte, as well as fuel and an oxidant to a fuel cell stack having at least two fuel cells, each of the cells having a pair of spaced electrodes and a matrix sandwiched therebetween, fuel and oxidant paths associated with a bipolar plate separating each pair of adjacent fuel cells and an electrolyte fill path for adding electrolyte to the cells and wetting said matrices. Electrolyte is flowed through the fuel cell stack in a back and forth fashion in a path in each cell substantially parallel to one face of opposite faces of the bipolar plate exposed to one of the electrodes and the matrices to produce an overall head uniformly between cells due to frictional pressure drop in the path for each cell free of a large hydrostatic head to thereby avoid flooding of the electrodes. The bipolar plate is provided with channels forming paths for the flow of the fuel and oxidant on opposite faces thereof, and the fuel and the oxidant are flowed along a first side of the bipolar plate and a second side of the bipolar plate through channels formed into the opposite faces of the bipolar plate, the fuel flowing through channels formed into one of the opposite faces and the oxidant flowing through channels formed into the other of the opposite faces.

Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Flow dynamics and solute transport in unsaturated rock fractures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and H. Brenner, Multiphase flow in porous media, Ann. Rev.to describe multiphase flow in porous media, involvingflow in porous media, can be generalized for multiphase flow

Su, G.W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Development of photoelectrochemical cells based on compound semiconductors and nonaqueous electrolytes. Semiannual report, May 1, 1981-October 31, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A reproducible procedure for chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdSe has been documented in detail, allowing a consistent production of photoelectrode yielding 5.5 to 6.5% conversion efficiency in alkaline polysulfide electrolyte (employing a tungsten halogen lamp/KG-2 filter solar simulated light source). The CBD films of n-CdSe on Ti have achieved an efficiency of approx. 10% under both solar simulated and real sunlight conditions using an Fe(CN)/sub 6//sup -3///sup -4/ electrolyte at pH 13. For an initial current density of 16 mA/cm/sup 2/ (approx. 80 mW/cm/sup 2/ illumination), a decrease of approx. 25% is observed after 3 hours illumination. Research was completed on developing a stable Cu/sup +///sup +2/ redox electrolyte in CH/sub 3/CN, which contains excess Cl/sup -/, to promote photochemical stability. For poly-n-GaAs, best results were obtained for electrolytes containing approx. 0.5M Cucl, 0.05M CuCl/sub 2/, 1M tetrabutylammonium chloride, viz: at 80 mW/cm/sup 2/, j/sub sc/ = 19 mA/cm/sup 2/, V/sub oc/ = 0.74V, P/sub max/ = 3.78 mW/cm/sup 2/, ff = 0.27 and eta = 4.8% (eta = 8.1% at 8 mW/cm/sup 2/ irradiation). Five encapsulated sealed cells have been tested with 15 cm/sup 2/ photoelectrodes comprised of CBD CdSe on Ti. The cells are frontwall illuminated with various configurations for ion flow to the rear-placed Ni/CoS electrode. For one design, an efficiency of 4.3% was achieved under 63 mW/cm/sup 2/ real solar illumination. Laser spot scanning has been developed as a technique for evaluation of both large area geometrical effects and microscopic photoelectrode morphological effects on the performance of PECs.

Rauh, R. D.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Self-regulating flow control device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

Humphreys, Duane A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Automated flow-temperature-humidity control system  

SciTech Connect

An automated system that controls air flow, temperature, and humidity was developed from a commercially available temperature-humidity indicator and a specially built flow-temperature-humidity control module. Parameters are set using direct-reading dials on the control module. The air flow is maintained using a mass-flow controller while process controllers connected to the indicator regulate humidity and temperature. The system will run indefinitely without need for operator intervention. If the module and indicator are calibrated properly, accurate air flows (+-2% of full scale), temperatures (+-0.3/sup 0/C), and humidities (+-2% RH) can be achieved.

Nelson, G.O.; Taylor, R.D.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Momentum Transport in Granular Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the error induced by only considering binary collisions in the momentum transport of hard-sphere granular materials, as is done in kinetic theories. In this process, we first present a general microscopic derivation of the momentum transport equation and compare it to the kinetic theory derivation, which relies on the binary collision assumption. These two derivations yield different microscopic expressions for the stress tensor, which we compare using simulations. This provides a quantitative bound on the regime where binary collisions dominate momentum transport and reveals that most realistic granular flows occur in the region of phase space where the binary collision assumption does not apply.

Gregg Lois; Anael Lemaitre; Jean M. Carlson

2006-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

420

Liquid hydrogen flow problems in Kiwi reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Kiwi series of reactors were the first ones tested in the US Rover Program in the development of nuclear rocket engines for space propulsion. The early experiments with liquid hydrogen showed that parallel flow systems were prone to uneven flow distributions and violent fluctuations in pressure and flow that were capable of destroying a reactor core. Kiwi flow distribution problems were solved by using multiple feed lines into the nozzle cooling system and carefully balancing impedance among them. The violent pressure and flow fluctuations were eliminated after their cause was identified as resonance phenomena driven by the response to flow disturbances of heat transfer through a superheated hydrogen layer. Smooth flow operations were assured by rapidly bringing operating pressures beyond several times the critical pressure of hydrogen. After this initial rough start, solid core nuclear rocket engines successfully passed milestones of achievements during the remainder of the Rover program.

Thurston, R.S.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Photovoltaic Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Photovoltaic (PV) cells, or solar cells, take advantage of the photoelectric effect to produce electricity. PV cells are the building blocks of all PV systems because they are the devices that...

422

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

423

Analysis of Real World Fuel Cell Degradation (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation about the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Hydrogen Secure Data Center and its work with fuel cell vehicles, fuel cell early market demonstrations, and fuel cell bus demonstrations. This presentation includes results of composite data products and a summary of the analysis objectives and data flow for the projects.

Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

424

DECORRELATION TIMES OF PHOTOSPHERIC FIELDS AND FLOWS  

SciTech Connect

We use autocorrelation to investigate evolution in flow fields inferred by applying Fourier local correlation tracking (FLCT) to a sequence of high-resolution (0.''3), high-cadence ({approx_equal} 2 minute) line-of-sight magnetograms of NOAA active region (AR) 10930 recorded by the narrowband filter imager of the Solar Optical Telescope aboard the Hinode satellite over 2006 December 12 and 13. To baseline the timescales of flow evolution, we also autocorrelated the magnetograms, at several spatial binnings, to characterize the lifetimes of active region magnetic structures versus spatial scale. Autocorrelation of flow maps can be used to optimize tracking parameters, to understand tracking algorithms' susceptibility to noise, and to estimate flow lifetimes. Tracking parameters varied include: time interval {Delta}t between magnetogram pairs tracked, spatial binning applied to the magnetograms, and windowing parameter {sigma} used in FLCT. Flow structures vary over a range of spatial and temporal scales (including unresolved scales), so tracked flows represent a local average of the flow over a particular range of space and time. We define flow lifetime to be the flow decorrelation time, {tau}. For {Delta}t > {tau}, tracking results represent the average velocity over one or more flow lifetimes. We analyze lifetimes of flow components, divergences, and curls as functions of magnetic field strength and spatial scale. We find a significant trend of increasing lifetimes of flow components, divergences, and curls with field strength, consistent with Lorentz forces partially governing flows in the active photosphere, as well as strong trends of increasing flow lifetime and decreasing magnitudes with increases in both spatial scale and {Delta}t.

Welsch, B. T. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Kusano, K.; Yamamoto, T. T. [Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Muglach, K. [Code 674, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

425

cell tree  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST. cell tree. (data structure). ... Concave objects are decomposed into convex pieces. Each convex piece is indexed in every cell which it overlaps. ...

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

426

The Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A high-energy e+e- collider, such as the ILC or CLIC, is arguably the best option to complement and extend the LHC physics programme. A lepton collider will allow for exploration of Standard Model Physics, such as precise measurements of the Higgs, top and gauge sectors, in addition to enabling a multitude of New Physics searches. However, physics analyses at such a collider will place unprecedented demands on calorimetry, with a required jet energy resolution of \\sigma(E)/E energy resolution by fully reconstructing the paths of individual particles through the detector. The energies of charged particles can then be extracted from precise inner detector tracker measurements, whilst photon energies will be measured in the ECAL, and only neutral hadron energies (10% of jet energies) will be measured in the HCAL, largely avoiding the typically poor HCAL resolution. This document introduces the Pandora particle flow algorithms, which offer the current state of the art in particle flow calorimetry for the ILC and CLIC. The performance of the algorithms is investigated by examining the reconstructed jet energy resolution and the ability to separate the hadronic decays of W and Z bosons.

J. S. Marshall; M. A. Thomson

2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

427

Thermal Inertia of Conductivity Cells: Observations with a Sea-Bird Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have examined the magnitude and relaxation time of the thermal anomaly of the fluid flowing through the conductivity cell manufactured by Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE) that is induced by the heat stored in the wall of this cell using oceanic data ...

Rolf G. Lueck; James J. Picklo

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Thin films flowing down inverted substrates: two dimensional flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider free surface instabilities of films flowing on inverted substrates within the framework of lubrication approximation. We allow for the presence of fronts and related contact lines, and explore the role which they play in instability development. It is found that a contact line, modeled by a commonly used precursor film model, leads to free surface instabilities of convective type without any additional natural or excited perturbations. A single parameter D=(3Ca)^{1/3}cot\\alpha, where Ca is the capillary number and \\alpha is the inclination angle, is identified as a governing parameter in the problem. This parameter may be interpreted to reflect the combined effect of inclination angle, film thickness, Reynolds number and the fluid flux. Variation of D leads to change of the wave-like properties of the instabilities, allowing to observe traveling wave behavior, mixed waves, and the waves resembling solitary ones.

Lin, Te-sheng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS  

SciTech Connect

In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in which flow regime transition occurs.

X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Apparatus for measuring resistance change only in a cell analyzer and method for calibrating it  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to resistance only monitoring and calibration in an electrical cell analyzer. Sample and sheath fluid flows of different salinities are utilized, the sample flow being diameter modulated to produce a selected pattern which is compared to the resistance measured across the flows.

Hoffman, Robert A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Advances in gas-liquid flows 1990  

SciTech Connect

Gas-liquid two-phase flows commonly occur in nature and industrial applications. Rain, clouds, geysers, and waterfalls are examples of natural gas-liquid flow phenomena, whereas industrial applications can be found in nuclear reactors, steam generators, boilers, condensers, evaporators, fuel atomization, heat pipes, electronic equipment cooling, petroleum engineering, chemical process engineering, and many others. The household-variety phenomena such as garden sprinklers, shower, whirlpool bath, dripping faucet, boiling tea pot, and bubbling beer provide daily experience of gas-liquid flows. The papers presented in this volume reflect the variety and richness of gas-liquid two-phase flow and the increasing role it plays in modern technology. This volume contains papers dealing with some recent development in gas-liquid flow science and technology, covering basic gas-liquid flows, measurements and instrumentation, cavitation and flashing flows, countercurrent flow and flooding, flow in various components and geometries liquid metals and thermocapillary effects, heat transfer, nonlinear phenomena, instability, and other special and general topics related to gas-liquid flows.

Kim, J.M. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.); Rohatgi, U.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hashemi, A. (Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

A constitutive law for dense granular flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

Pierre Jop; Yol Forterre; Olivier Pouliquen

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

433

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel...

434

Potential Flow Calculations of Axisymmetric Ducted Wind Turbines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An incompressible potential-flow vortex method has been constructed to analyze the flow field of a ducted

Widnall, Sheila

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

435

NIST Pipeline-Scale Flow Measurement Standards for Natural ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pipeline-Scale Flow Measurement Standards for Natural Gas. Summary: NIST natural gas flow calibrations are performed ...

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

436

NETL: Gasifipedia - Entrained Flow Gasifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Siemens Gasifier Siemens Gasifier (source: Siemens) Siemens Gasifiers Siemens gasification technology was originally developed by Deutsches Brennstoffinstitut (DBI) in Freiberg, Germany for the gasification of pulverized local brown coal and other solid feedstocks in 1975. The Noell group acquired the technology in 1991 and developed it further to handle liquid residues and wastes. The gasifier also operated under the name of Babcock Borsig and Future Energy before being acquired by Siemens in 2006. Operation The Siemens gasifier is a dry-feed, pressurized, entrained-flow reactor, which can be supplied with either a refractory lining for low ash feedstocks or with a cooling screen in the gasification section of the gasifier. The cooling screen consists of a gas-tight membrane wall

437

Flow cytometer jet monitor system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A direct jet monitor illuminates the jet of a flow cytometer in a monitor wavelength band which is substantially separate from the substance wavelength band. When a laser is used to cause fluorescence of the substance, it may be appropriate to use an infrared source to illuminate the jet and thus optically monitor the conditions within the jet through a CCD camera or the like. This optical monitoring may be provided to some type of controller or feedback system which automatically changes either the horizontal location of the jet, the point at which droplet separation occurs, or some other condition within the jet in order to maintain optimum conditions. The direct jet monitor may be operated simultaneously with the substance property sensing and analysis system so that continuous monitoring may be achieved without interfering with the substance data gathering and may be configured so as to allow the front of the analysis or free fall area to be unobstructed during processing.

Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Simulation of air flow in the typical boiler windbox segments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulation of turbulent air flow distribution in CFBC furnace, wherein primary air is entrained through inlet duct system called windbox, is attempted through state of art CAD/CFD softwares. Establishment of flow in windbox channel, distributed plate ... Keywords: CFBC boiler, air flow, combustor geometry, distributed plate nozzles, multi-block grids, recirculation flow, simulation of flow, unequal air flow, windbox channel

C. Bhasker

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

LLNL Energy Flow Charts | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LLNL Energy Flow Charts LLNL Energy Flow Charts Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: LLNL Energy Flow Charts Agency/Company /Organization: Lawrence Livermore National Lab Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Pathways analysis References: LLNL Energy Flow Charts [1] Decision makers have long recognized the importance of visualizing energy and material flows in a way that distinguishes between resources, transformations and services. Research priorities can be defined in terms of changes to the flows, and the consequences of policy or technology shifts can be traced both upstream and downstream. The usefulness of this top-down view is limited by the level of detail that can be conveyed in a single image. We use two techniques to balance information content with readability. First we employe visualization

440

Two-Phase Flow Simulations In a Natural Rock Fracture using the VOF Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to exhibit several shortcomings that might be partially overcome with a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles (Hassanizadeh and Gray, 1990). This alternative two-phase flow model contains a set of new and non-standard parameters, including specific interfacial area. By incorporating interfacial area production, destruction, and propagation into functional relationships that describe the capillary pressure and saturation, a more physical model has been developed. Niessner and Hassanizadeh (2008) have examined this model numerically and have shown that the model captures saturation hysteresis with drainage/imbibition cycles. Several static experimental studies have been performed to examine the validity of this new thermodynamically based approach; these allow the determination of static parameters of the model. To date, no experimental studies have obtained information about the dynamic parameters required for the model. A new experimental porous flow cell has been constructed using stereolithography to study two-phase flow phenomena (Crandall et al. 2008). A novel image analysis tool was developed for an examination of the evolution of flow patterns during displacement experiments (Crandall et al. 2009). This analysis tool enables the direct quantification of interfacial area between fluids by matching known geometrical properties of the constructed flow cell with locations identified as interfaces from images of flowing fluids. Numerous images were obtained from two-phase experiments within the flow cell. The dynamic evolution of the fluid distribution and the fluid-fluid interface locations were determined by analyzing these images. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the thermodynamically based two-phase flow model, review the properties of the stereolithography flow cell, and show how the image analysis procedure has been used to obtain dynamic parameters for the numerical model. These parameters include production/destruction of interfacial area as a function of saturation and capillary pressure. Our preliminary results for primary drainage in porous media show that the specific interfacial area increased linearly with increasing gas saturation until breakthrough of the displacing gas into the exit manifold occurred.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "redox flow cell" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Method for single-cell mass and electrophoretic mobility measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of single cells using flow cytometry techniques has created a wealth of knowledge about cellular phenomena that could not be obtained by population average measurements. As these techniques are integrated with ...

Dextras, Philip

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Polymer selection and cell design for electric-vehicle supercapacitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Supercapacitors are devices for applications requiring high operating power levels, such as secondary power sources in electric vehicles (EVs) to provide peak power for acceleration and hill climbing. While electronically conducting polymers yield different redox supercapacitor configurations, devices with the n-doped polymer as the negative electrode and the p-doped polymer as the positive one are the most promising for EV applications. Indeed, this type of supercapacitor has a high operating potential, is able to deliver all the doping charge and, when charged, has both electrodes in the conducting (p- and n-doped) states. This study reports selection criteria for polymer materials and cell design for high performance EV supercapacitors and experimental results of selected polymer materials.

Mastragostino, M.; Arbizzani, C.; Paraventi, R.; Zanelli, A.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

The gradient flow in a twisted box  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the perturbative behavior of the gradient flow in a twisted box. We apply this information to define a running coupling using the energy density of the flow field. We study the step-scaling function and the size of cutoff effects in SU(2) pure gauge theory. We conclude that the twisted gradient flow running coupling scheme is a valid strategy for step-scaling purposes due to the relatively mild cutoff effects and high precision.

Ramos, A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Segregation of granular particles in suspension flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experiment was conducted to investigate the development of longitudinal stripes of granular particles due to instabilities in particle suspension flow. Research was conducted to characterize environmental phenomena ...

Tsay, Jessica, 1983-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Geologic flow characterization...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Geologic flow characterization using tracer techniques Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search About...

446

Flow-Through Electrode Capacitive Desalination  

LLNL has developed an innovative technology known as flow-through electrode capacitive desalination (FTE-CD) that promises to unlock an almost ...

447

NETL: News Release - Keeping Deepwater Pipelines Flowing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

remediation problem for offshore oil producers. Wax deposits can restrict the flow of crude oil and natural gas liquids, curtailing operations from offshore platforms that can...

448

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Flow Studies ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 26, 2008 ... This 2004 circular presents the results of flow studies for recycling of 26 metal commodities, including chromium, magnesium, niobium,...

449

Probabilistic computation of Poiseuille flow velocity fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... pipe flux in the analog flow problem. ... the torsional rigidity and the cross sectional shape ... we note applications involving heat transfer through pipes ...

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

450

Entrained Flow Gasification of Oil Sand Coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effect of blending woody biomass material with fluid coke and coal on the co-pyrolysis process was investigated in an entrained flow gasifier. The SEM (more)

Vejahati, Farshid

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

VALIDATING UNCERTAINTY ANALYSES FOR GAS FLOW ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... tank volume to obtain the initial and final mass of gas in the tank ... during a crossover test, but laminar flow elements (LFE) and turbine flowmeters are ...

2012-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

452

Concerted Flows: Infrastructure for Terabits Data Networks |...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concerted Flows: Infrastructure for Terabits Data Networks High-performance application use of emerging 100G networks and future terabit networks will require substantial and...

453

Flow visualisation in inclined louvered fins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the flow within an interrupted fin design, the inclined louvered fin, is investigated experimentally through visualisation. The inclined louvered fin is a hybrid of the offset strip fin and standard louvered fin, aimed at improved performance at low Reynolds numbers for compact heat exchangers. The flow behaviour is studied in six geometrically different configurations over a range of Reynolds numbers and quantified using the concept of 'fin angle alignment factor'. The transition from steady laminar to unsteady flow was studied in detail. The fin geometry had a very large impact on the transitional flow behaviour, especially on vortex shedding. (author)

T'Joen, C.; De Paepe, M. [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Jacobi, A. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

454

Algebraic Characterizations of Flow-Network Typings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A flow network N is a capacited finite directed graph, with multiple input ports/arcs and multiple output ports/arcs. A flow f in N assigns a non-negative real number to every arc and is feasible if it satisfies flow conservation at every node and respects lower-bound/upper-bound capacities at every arc. We develop an algebraic theory of feasible flows in such networks with several beneficial consequences. We define algorithms to infer, from a given flow network N, an algebraic classification, which we call a typing for N, of all assignments f0 of values to the input and output arcs of N that can be extended to a feasible flow f. We then establish necessary and sufficient conditions on an arbitrary typing T guaranteeing that T is a valid typing for some flow network N. Based on these necessary and sufficient conditions, we define operations on typings that preserve their validity (to be typings for flow networks), and examine the implications for a typing theory of flow networks.

Assaf Kfoury

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Liquid flow through a reactive packed bed.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The flow phenomena of liquid iron and slag in the lower zone of an iron making blast furnace influences the permeability of the coke bed, (more)

George, Hazem Labib

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Primus Power's Flow Battery Powered by $11 Million in Private Investment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Primus Power's Flow Battery Powered by $11 Million in Private Primus Power's Flow Battery Powered by $11 Million in Private Investment Primus Power's Flow Battery Powered by $11 Million in Private Investment June 14, 2011 - 10:00am Addthis Primus Power's energy cell stack. | Photo Courtesy of Primus Power Primus Power's energy cell stack. | Photo Courtesy of Primus Power Kristina Pflanz Writer & Contractor, Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy What does this mean for me? Will make renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, available to more utility customers. In February, the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) announced that six of its projects, which initially received a total of $23.6 million in agency seed funding, had collectively generated more than $100 million in outside private capital investment. ARPA-E recently

457

Laboratory Measurements of Axial Pressures in Two-Celled Tornado-like Vortices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study of two-celled vortex flows was conducted in a Ward-type tornado vortex chamber (TVC). Time-averaged, stream-static pressure measurements on the vortex axis and observations of the visualized flow in two-celled vortices are ...

Randal L. Pauley

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Three-dimensional simulation of elastic capsules in shear flow by the penalty immersed boundary method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved penalty immersed boundary method (pIBM) has been proposed for simulation of flow-induced deformation of three-dimensional (3D) elastic capsules. The motion of the capsule membrane is described in the Lagrangian coordinates. The membrane deformation ... Keywords: Elastic capsule, Fluid-structure interaction, Penalty immersed boundary method, Red blood cell, Subdivision surface

Wei-Xi Huang; Cheong Bong Chang; Hyung Jin Sung

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Electrochemical photovoltaic cells. Project 65021 quarterly technical progress report, July 15-October 15, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the second quarter of this program we have evaluated the photoelectrochemical performance of single-crystal MoSe/sub 2/ and GaAs, polycrystalline CdSe, and cells with RbAg/sub 4/I/sub 5/ solid electrolyte. MoSe/sub 2/ electrode exhibited very good photoresponse in electrolytes containing Br/sup -//Br/sub 2/ redox couple. The photopotential and photocurrent were larger in acid than in alkaline electrolyte. A power conversion efficiency of about 5% was achieved under 200 mW/cm/sup 2/ Xenon light illumination in the acid medium. The catalytic activity of a platinized platinum electrode toward Br/sup -//Br/sub 2/ redox couple was also better in acid electrolyte than in alkaline electrolyte. Higher current densities were obtained in the acid medium. The MoSe/sub 2/ was found to have good stability in acid and alkaline electrolytes; however, it will be necessary to protect the electrolyte against evaporation of the bromine, oxidation by air, or photodecomposition. GaAs was tested in alkaline electrolytes containing Se/sup 2 -//Se/sub n//sup 2 -/, I/sup -//I/sub 2/ or Br/sup -//Br/sub 2/ redox couple and in acid electrolytes containing Fe/sup +2//Fe/sup +3/, Cr/sup +2//Cr/sup +3/, Sn/sup +2//Sn/sup +4/, Cu/sup +1//Cu/sup +2/, Ti/sup +3//Ti/sup +4/, I/sup -//I/sub 2/ or Br/sup -//Br/sub 2/. Large anodic dark currents were observed in solutions containing Sn/sup +2//Sn/sup +4/ or Cu/sup +1//Cu/sup +2/. The large photoeffects found with the other redox couples were usually accompanied by electrode darkening and decrease in photocurrent with time. Polycrystalline electrodes have been made by thermal vacuum evaporation of CdSe on titanium foil or SnO/sub 2/-coated glass. The CdSe still suffered from poor adherence to the substrates and, therefore, poor photoresponse. A solid electrolyte photoelectrochemical cell was fabricated giving photopotentials of about 300 mV at current densities of about 0.1 mA/cm/sup 2/ under 200 mW/cm/sup 2/ Xenon light illumination.

Ang, P.G.P.; Sammells, A.F.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

ENERGY EFFICIENT THERMAL MANAGEMENT FOR NATURAL GAS ENGINE AFTERTREATMENT VIA ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control  

SciTech Connect

The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control  

SciTech Connect

The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Flow Regimes and Transient Dynamics of Two-Dimensional Stratified Flow over an Isolated Mountain Ridge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four regimes are identified for two-dimensional, unstructured, nonrotating, continuously stratified, hydrostatic, uniform Boussinesq flow over an isolated mountain ridge: (I) flow with neither wave breaking aloft nor upstream blocking (F?1.12, ...

Yuh-Lang Lin; Ting-An Wang

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Fuel cell applications for novel metalloporphyrin catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project utilized Computer-Aided Molecular Design (CAMD) to develop a new class of metalloporphyrin materials for use as catalysts for two fuel cell reactions. The first reaction is the reduction of oxygen at the fuel cell cathode, and this reaction was the main focus of the research. The second reaction we attempted to catalyze was the oxidation of methanol at the anode. Two classes of novel metalloporphyrins were developed. The first class comprised the dodecaphenylporphyrins whose steric bulk forces them into a non-planar geometry having a pocket where oxygen or methanol is more tightly bound to the porphyrin than it is in the case of planar porphyrins. Significant improvements in the catalytic reduction of oxygen by the dodecaphenyl porphyrins were measured in electrochemical cells. The dodecaphenylporphyrins were further modified by fluorinating the peripheral phenyl groups to varying degrees. The fluorination strongly affected their redox potential, but no effect on their catalytic activity towards oxygen was observed. The second class of porphyrin catalysts was a series of hydrogen-bonding porphyrins whose interaction with oxygen is enhanced. Enhancements in the interaction of oxygen with the porphyrins having hydrogen bonding groups were observed spectroscopically. Computer modeling was performed using Molecular Simulations new CERIUS2 Version 1.6 and a research version of POLYGRAF from Bill Goddard`s research group at the California Institute of Technology. We reoptimized the force field because of an error that was in POLYGRAF and corrected a problem in treatment of the metal in early versions of the program. This improved force field was reported in a J. Am. Chem. Soc. manuscript. Experimental measurements made on the newly developed catalysts included the electrochemical testing in a fuel cell configuration and spectroscopic measurements (UV-Vis, Raman and XPS) to characterize the catalysts.

Ryba, G.; Shelnutt, J.; Doddapaneni, N.; Zavadil, K.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Prediction of flow pattern of gas-liquid flow through circular microchannel using probabilistic neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study attempts to develop a flow pattern indicator for gas-liquid flow in microchannel with the help of artificial neural network (ANN). Out of many neural networks present in literature, probabilistic neural network (PNN) has been chosen ... Keywords: Hydrodynamics, Microchannel, Microstructure, Multiphase flow, Probabilistic neural network, Transition boundary, Turbulence

Seim Timung; Tapas K. Mandal

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

DevoFlow: scaling flow management for high-performance networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OpenFlow is a great concept, but its original design imposes excessive overheads. It can simplify network and traffic management in enterprise and data center environments, because it enables flow-level control over Ethernet switching and provides global ... Keywords: data center, flow-based networking, switch design

Andrew R. Curtis; Jeffrey C. Mogul; Jean Tourrilhes; Praveen Yalagandula; Puneet Sharma; Sujata Banerjee

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

MONOCULAR OPTICAL FLOW FOR REALTIME VISION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MONOCULAR OPTICAL FLOW FOR REAL­TIME VISION SYSTEMS Stephen M. Benoit and Frank P. Ferrie TR­CIM­96 268510 FAX: (514) 398­7348 Email: cim@cim.mcgill.ca #12; MONOCULAR OPTICAL FLOW FOR REAL­TIME VISION

Dudek, Gregory

468

Passenger Flow Model for Airline Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a model that rapidly finds an approximation of the expected passenger flow on an airline network, given forecast data concerning (1) the distribution of the demand for each itinerary, seen as a random variable; (2) the time distribution of ... Keywords: airline transportation, equilibrium model, passenger flow, recapture, spill

Jonathan Dumas; Franois Soumis

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z