National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for redox flow batteries

  1. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Tennessee Knoxville; U. Texas Austin; McGill U; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  2. Redox Flow Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Redox Flow Batteries Pacific Northwest National ... most promising of them is redox flow batteries because of the relatively low cost of ...

  3. Fact Sheet: Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (October 2012)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    temperature window Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Improving the performance and reducing the cost of vanadium redox flow batteries for large-scale energy storage Redox flow ...

  4. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  5. Estimating the System Price of Redox Flow Batteries for Grid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimating the System Price of Redox Flow Batteries for Grid Storage VRFB system price ... Significance and Impact Redox flow batteries have potential advantages to meet the ...

  6. Recent Developments and Trends in Redox Flow Batteries - Joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 1, 2015, Research Highlights Recent Developments and Trends in Redox Flow Batteries Different flow batteries schemes were investigated. The classic flow battery (top left, ...

  7. Redox Flow Batteries: An Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalamala, Babu R.; Soundappan, Thiagarajan; Fisher, Graham R.; Anstey, Mitchell A.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Perry, Mike L.

    2014-10-01

    Redox flow batteries are well suited to provide modular and scalable energy storage systems for a wide range of energy storage applications. In this paper, we review the development of redox flow battery technology including recent advances in new redox active materials and systems. We discuss cost, performance, and reliability metrics that are critical for deployment of large flow battery systems. The technology, while relatively young, has the potential for significant improvement through reduced materials costs, improved energy and power efficiency, and significant reduction in the overall system cost.

  8. Materials for Use with Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials for Use with Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries The invention provides a non-aqueous redox flow battery comprising a negative electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid ...

  9. Porous Polymeric Composite Separators for Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Bin; Wang, Wei

    2015-04-03

    This invited review paper describes the current status of the porous separator for redox flow battery application.

  10. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  11. Fe-V redox flow batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Xia, Guanguang

    2014-07-08

    A redox flow battery having a supporting solution that includes Cl.sup.- anions is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in the supporting solution, a catholyte having Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+ in the supporting solution, and a membrane separating the anolyte and the catholyte. The anolyte and catholyte can have V cations and Fe cations, respectively, or the anolyte and catholyte can each contain both V and Fe cations in a mixture. Furthermore, the supporting solution can contain a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- anions.

  12. Hybrid anodes for redox flow batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Wei, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-12-22

    RFBs having solid hybrid electrodes can address at least the problems of active material consumption, electrode passivation, and metal electrode dendrite growth that can be characteristic of traditional batteries, especially those operating at high current densities. The RFBs each have a first half cell containing a first redox couple dissolved in a solution or contained in a suspension. The solution or suspension can flow from a reservoir to the first half cell. A second half cell contains the solid hybrid electrode, which has a first electrode connected to a second electrode, thereby resulting in an equipotential between the first and second electrodes. The first and second half cells are separated by a separator or membrane.

  13. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2013-12-17

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  14. Hybrid anodes for redox flow batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Wei, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-12-15

    RFBs having solid hybrid electrodes can address at least the problems of active material consumption, electrode passivation, and metal electrode dendrite growth that can be characteristic of traditional batteries, especially those operating at high current densities. The RFBs each have a first half cell containing a first redox couple dissolved in a solution or contained in a suspension. The solution or suspension can flow from a reservoir to the first half cell. A second half cell contains the solid hybrid electrode, which has a first electrode connected to a second electrode, thereby resulting in an equipotential between the first and second electrodes. The first and second half cells are separated by a separator or membrane.

  15. Electrochemical Model of the Fe/V Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, David E.; Kim, Soowhan; Chen, Feng; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2012-11-05

    This paper presents a mathematical model for the new Fe/V redox flow battery chemistry. The model is designed to be useful for stack development and cost analysis purposes.

  16. Recent Progress in Redox Flow Battery Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-20

    With the increase need to seamlessly integrate the renewable energy with the current grid which itself is evolving into a more intelligent, efficient, and capable electrical power system, it is envisioned that the energy storage system will play a more prominent role in bridging the gap between the current technology and a clean sustainable future in grid reliability and utilization. Redox flow battery technology is leading the way in this perspective in providing a well balanced approach for current challenges. Recent progress in the research and development of redox flow battery technology is reviewed here with a focus on new chemistries and systems.

  17. Redox Flow Batteries for Grid-scale Energy Storage - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Redox Flow Batteries for Grid-scale Energy Storage ... the real-world deployment of redox flow batteries has been limited by their inability to ...

  18. Systems and methods for rebalancing redox flow battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Chang, On Kok

    2015-03-17

    Various methods of rebalancing electrolytes in a redox flow battery system include various systems using a catalyzed hydrogen rebalance cell configured to minimize the risk of dissolved catalyst negatively affecting flow battery performance. Some systems described herein reduce the chance of catalyst contamination of RFB electrolytes by employing a mediator solution to eliminate direct contact between the catalyzed membrane and the RFB electrolyte. Other methods use a rebalance cell chemistry that maintains the catalyzed electrode at a potential low enough to prevent the catalyst from dissolving.

  19. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  20. Microporous Separators for Fe/V Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Xia, Guanguang; Miller, Eric; Chambers, Jeff; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-06-28

    The Fe/V redox flow battery has demonstrated promising performance that is advantageous over other redox flow battery systems. The less oxidative nature of the Fe(III) species enables use of hydrocarbon - based ion exchange membranes or separators. Daramic(reg. sign) microporous polyethylene separators were tested on Fe/V flow cells using the sulphuric/chloric mixed acid - supporting electrolytes. Among them, Daramic(reg. sign) C exhibited good flow cell cycling performance with satisfactory repeatability over a broad temperature range of 5 - 50 degrees C. Energy efficiency (EE) of C remains above 67% at current densities of 50 - 80 cm{sup -2} in the temperature range from room temperature to 50 degrees C. The capacity decay problem could be circumvented through hydraulic pressure balancing by applying different pump rates to the positive and negative electrolytes. Stable capacity and energy were obtained over 40 cycles at room temperature and 40 degrees C. These results manifest that the extremely low-cost separators ($10/cm2) are applicable in the Fe/V flow battery system at an acceptable sacrifice of energy efficiency. This stands for a remarkable breakthrough in significant reduction of the capital cost of the Fe/V flow battery system, and is promising to promote its market penetration in grid stabilization and renewable integration.

  1. Numerical modeling of an all vanadium redox flow battery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausen, Jonathan R.; Brunini, Victor E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Martinez, Mario J.

    2014-01-01

    We develop a capability to simulate reduction-oxidation (redox) flow batteries in the Sierra Multi-Mechanics code base. Specifically, we focus on all-vanadium redox flow batteries; however, the capability is general in implementation and could be adopted to other chemistries. The electrochemical and porous flow models follow those developed in the recent publication by [28]. We review the model implemented in this work and its assumptions, and we show several verification cases including a binary electrolyte, and a battery half-cell. Then, we compare our model implementation with the experimental results shown in [28], with good agreement seen. Next, a sensitivity study is conducted for the major model parameters, which is beneficial in targeting specific features of the redox flow cell for improvement. Lastly, we simulate a three-dimensional version of the flow cell to determine the impact of plenum channels on the performance of the cell. Such channels are frequently seen in experimental designs where the current collector plates are borrowed from fuel cell designs. These designs use a serpentine channel etched into a solid collector plate.

  2. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2015-07-07

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  3. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Xia, Guanguang

    2014-01-14

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  4. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2015-09-01

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  5. Fe/V Redox Flow Battery Electrolyte Investigation and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Li, Liyu; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Yang, Zhenguo; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2013-05-01

    Recently invented Fe/V redox flow battery (IVBs) system has attracted more and more attentions due to its long-term cycling stability. In this paper, the factors (such as compositions, state of charge (SOC) and temperatures) influencing the stability of electrolytes in both positive and negative half-cells were investigated by an extensive matrix study. Thus an optimized electrolyte, which can be operated in the temperature ranges from -5oC to 50oC without any precipitations, was identified. The Fe/V flow cells using the optimized electrolytes and low-cost membranes exhibited satisfactory cycling performances at different temperatures. The efficiencies, capacities and energy densities of flow batteries with varying temperatures were discussed in detail.

  6. Monitoring electrolyte concentrations in redox flow battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, On Kok; Sopchak, David Andrew; Pham, Ai Quoc; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2015-03-17

    Methods, systems and structures for monitoring, managing electrolyte concentrations in redox flow batteries are provided by introducing a first quantity of a liquid electrolyte into a first chamber of a test cell and introducing a second quantity of the liquid electrolyte into a second chamber of the test cell. The method further provides for measuring a voltage of the test cell, measuring an elapsed time from the test cell reaching a first voltage until the test cell reaches a second voltage; and determining a degree of imbalance of the liquid electrolyte based on the elapsed time.

  7. Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Crawford, Aladsair J.; Stephenson, David E.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Coffey, Greg W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Graff, Gordon L.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-02-01

    A cost model was developed for all vanadium and iron-vanadium redox flow batteries. Electrochemical performance modeling was done to estimate stack performance at various power densities as a function of state of charge. This was supplemented with a shunt current model and a pumping loss model to estimate actual system efficiency. The operating parameters such as power density, flow rates and design parameters such as electrode aspect ratio, electrolyte flow channel dimensions were adjusted to maximize efficiency and minimize capital costs. Detailed cost estimates were obtained from various vendors to calculate cost estimates for present, realistic and optimistic scenarios. The main drivers for cost reduction for various chemistries were identified as a function of the energy to power ratio of the storage system. Levelized cost analysis further guided suitability of various chemistries for different applications.

  8. Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-06-08

    A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of {approx}82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes.

  9. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-12

    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  10. An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xia, Gordon; Kirby, Brent W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-11-13

    Aiming to explore low-cost redox flow battery systems, a novel iron-polysulfide (Fe/S) flow battery has been demonstrated in a laboratory cell. This system employs alkali metal ferri/ferrocyanide and alkali metal polysulfides as the redox electrolytes. When proper electrodes, such as pretreated graphite felts, are used, 78% energy efficiency and 99% columbic efficiency are achieved. The remarkable advantages of this system over current state-of-the-art redox flow batteries include: 1) less corrosive and relatively environmentally benign redox solutions used; 2) excellent energy and utilization efficiencies; 3) low cost for redox electrolytes and cell components. These attributes can lead to significantly reduced capital cost and make the Fe/S flow battery system a promising low-cost energy storage technology. The major drawbacks of the present cell design are relatively low power density and possible sulfur species crossover. Further work is underway to address these concerns.

  11. Hybrid anodes for redox flow batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a first half cell containing a first redox couple dissolved in a solution or contained in a suspension. The solution or suspension can flow from a reservoir to the first half cell. ...

  12. TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, M.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-03

    We will present a novel design lithium-organic non-aqueous redox flow battery based on a TEMPO catholyte. This RFB produced desired electrochemical performance exceeding most of the currently reported nonaqueous RFB systems.

  13. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Authors: Ha, Seungbum ; Gallagher, Kevin G. Publication Date: 2015-11-20 OSTI Identifier: 1237490 DOE Contract Number: AC02-06CH11357 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Power Sources; Journal Volume: 296 Publisher: Elsevier Research Org:

  14. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 27, 2017 Title: Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Authors: Ha, Seungbum ; Gallagher, Kevin G. Publication Date: 2015-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1250155 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Journal of Power Sources Additional Journal Information: Journal

  15. Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Huang, Jinhua; Zhang, Lu; Walter, Eric D.; Lawrence, Chad W.; Vijayakumar, M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Li, Bin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-07-20

    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries hold the promise to achieve higher energy density ascribed to the broader voltage window than their aqueous counterparts, but their current performance is limited by low redox material concentration, poor cell efficiency, and inferior cycling stability. We report a new nonaqueous total-organic flow battery based on high concentrations of 9-fluorenone as negative and 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1-methoxy-4-[2’-methoxyethoxy]benzene as positive redox materials. The supporting electrolytes are found to greatly affect the cycling stability of flow cells through varying chemical stabilities of the charged radical species, especially the 9-fluorenone radical anions, as confirmed by electron spin resonance. Such an electrolyte optimization sheds light on mechanistic understandings of capacity fading in flow batteries employing organic radical-based redox materials and demonstrates that rational design of supporting electrolyte is vital for stable cyclability.

  16. Operating a redox flow battery with a negative electrolyte imbalance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Quoc; Chang, On; Durairaj, Sumitha

    2015-03-31

    Loss of flow battery electrode catalyst layers during self-discharge or charge reversal may be prevented by establishing and maintaining a negative electrolyte imbalance during at least parts of a flow battery's operation. Negative imbalance may be established and/or maintained actively, passively or both. Actively establishing a negative imbalance may involve detecting an imbalance that is less negative than a desired threshold, and processing one or both electrolytes until the imbalance reaches a desired negative level. Negative imbalance may be effectively established and maintained passively within a cell by constructing a cell with a negative electrode chamber that is larger than the cell's positive electrode chamber, thereby providing a larger quantity of negative electrolyte for reaction with positive electrolyte.

  17. A Symmetric Organic - Based Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery and Its State

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Charge Diagnostics by FTIR - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research March 10, 2016, Research Highlights A Symmetric Organic - Based Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery and Its State of Charge Diagnostics by FTIR (1) Symmetric Nonaqueous flow battery based on ambipolar PTIO (cell voltage 1.7V; solubility 2.6M in MeCN; good cyclability) (2) FTIR-based state of charge monitoring Scientific Achievement A symmetric nonaqueous flow battery based on the highly soluble, ambipolar PTIO achieved a cell

  18. Comparative analysis for various redox flow batteries chemistries using a cost performance model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Aladsair J.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Stephenson, David E.; Wang, Wei; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Reed, David M.; Li, Bin; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-10-20

    A robust performance-based cost model is developed for all-vanadium, iron-vanadium and iron chromium redox flow batteries. Systems aspects such as shunt current losses, pumping losses and thermal management are accounted for. The objective function, set to minimize system cost, allows determination of stack design and operating parameters such as current density, flow rate and depth of discharge (DOD). Component costs obtained from vendors are used to calculate system costs for various time frames. A 2 kW stack data was used to estimate unit energy costs and compared with model estimates for the same size electrodes. The tool has been shared with the redox flow battery community to both validate their stack data and guide future direction.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Microporous Separator in Fe/V Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Miller, Eric; Chambers, Jeff; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-04-08

    The newly developed Fe/V redox flow battery has demonstrated attractive cell performance. However, the deliverable energy density is relatively inferior due to the low cell voltage. To compensate this disadvantage and compete with other redox flow battery systems, cost reduction of the Fe/V system is necessary. This paper describes evaluation of hydrocarbon-based Daramic® microporous separators for use in the Fe/V system. The separator B having ion exchange capacity demonstrated excellent capacity retention capability. Separator B exhibited energy efficiency above 65% over a broad temperature range of 5-50oC and at current densities up to 80mA/cm2. Plus, separator B is very inexpensive and has exceptional mechanical properties. Therefore, this separator shows great potential to replace the expensive Nafion® membrane. This will drive down the capital cost and make the Fe/V system a promising low-cost energy storage technology.

  20. Membrane Separator for Redox Flow Batteries that Utilize Anion Radical Mediators.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01

    A Na + ion conducting polyethylene oxide membrane is developed for an organic electrolyte redox flow battery that utilizes anion radical mediators. To achieve high specific ionic conductivity, tetraethyleneglycol dimethylether (TEGDME) is used as a plasticizer to reduce crystallinity and increase the free volume of the gel film. This membrane is physically and chemically stable in TEGDME electrolyte that contains highly reactive biphenyl anion radical mediators.

  1. Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica Nanoporous Composite Separator for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-04-22

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are capable of reversible conversion between electricity and chemical energy. Potential RFB applications resolve around mitigating the discrepancy between electricity production and consumption to improve the stability and utilization of the power infrastructure and tackling the intermittency of renewables such as photovoltaics or wind turbines to enable their reliable integration [1, 2]. Because the energy is stored in externally contained liquid electrolytes and the energy conversion reactions take place at the electrodes, RFBs hold a unique capability to separate energy and power and thus possess considerable design flexibility to meet either energy management driven or power rating oriented grid applications, which is considered to be a unparalleled advantage over conventional solid-state secondary batteries [3]. Other advantages of RFBs include fast response to load changes, high round-trip efficiency, long calender and cycle lives, safe operations, tolerance to deep discharge, etc. [4]. Among various flow battery chemistries, all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) was invented by Maria Skyllas-Kazacos at the University of New South Wales in the 1980s [5, 6] and have attracted substantial attention in both research and industrial communities today [7, 8]. A well-recognized advantage that makes VRB stands out among other redox chemistries is the reduced crossover contamination ascribed to employing four different oxidation states of the same vanadium element as the two redox couples. Recently, great progress has led to remarkably improved energy density of VRB by using sulfuric-chloric mixed acid supporting electrolytes that were stable at 2.5M vanadium and had wider operational temperature window of -5~50oC [9], compared with the traditional sulfuric acid VRB system [10].

  2. Room temperature, hybrid sodium-based flow batteries with multi-electron transfer redox reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamie, Jack S.; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-11

    We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage. Such HNFBs can operate at ambient temperature, allow catholytes to have multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, offer wide selection of catholyte chemistries with multiple active ions to couple with the highly negative Na alloy anode, and enable the use of both aqueous and non-aqueous catholytes. Further, the molten Na alloy anode permits the decoupled design of power and energy since a large volume of the molten Na alloy can be used with a limited ion-exchange membrane size. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of multielectron transfer redox reactions per active ion and multiple active ions for catholytes has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the critical barriers to mature this new HNFBs have also been explored.

  3. Room Temperature, Hybrid Sodium-Based Flow Batteries with Multi-Electron Transfer Redox Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamie, Jack S.; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-11

    We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage. Such HNFBs can operate at ambient temperature, allow catholytes to have multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, offer wide selection of catholyte chemistries with multiple active ions to couple with the highly negative Na alloy anode, and enable the use of both aqueous and non-aqueous catholytes. Further, the molten Na alloy anode permits the decoupled design of power and energy since a large volume of the molten Na alloy can be used with a limited ion-exchange membrane size. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of multielectron transfer redox reactions per active ion and multiple active ions for catholytes has been demonstrated. The critical barriers to mature this new HNFBs have also been explored.

  4. Nanoporous polysulfone membranes via a degradable block copolymer precursor for redox flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gindt, Brandon P.; Abebe, Daniel G.; Tang, Zhijiang J.; Lindsey, Melanie B.; Chen, Jihua; Elgammal, Ramez A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Fujiwara, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    In this study, nanoporous polysulfone (PSU) membranes were fabricated via post-hydrolysis of polylactide (PLA) from PLA–PSU–PLA triblock copolymer membranes. The PSU scaffold was thermally crosslinked before sacrificing PLA blocks. The resulting nanopore surface was chemically modified with sulfonic acid moieties. The membranes were analyzed and evaluated as separators for vanadium redox flow batteries. Nanoporous PSU membranes prepared by this new method and further chemically modified to a slight degree exhibited unique behavior with respect to their ionic conductivity when exposed to solutions of increasing acid concentration.

  5. Nanoporous polysulfone membranes via a degradable block copolymer precursor for redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gindt, Brandon P.; Abebe, Daniel G.; Tang, Zhijiang J.; Lindsey, Melanie B.; Chen, Jihua; Elgammal, Ramez A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Fujiwara, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    In this study, nanoporous polysulfone (PSU) membranes were fabricated via post-hydrolysis of polylactide (PLA) from PLA–PSU–PLA triblock copolymer membranes. The PSU scaffold was thermally crosslinked before sacrificing PLA blocks. The resulting nanopore surface was chemically modified with sulfonic acid moieties. The membranes were analyzed and evaluated as separators for vanadium redox flow batteries. Nanoporous PSU membranes prepared by this new method and further chemically modified to a slight degree exhibited unique behavior with respect to their ionic conductivity when exposed to solutions of increasing acid concentration.

  6. Diels Alder polyphenylene anion exchange membrane for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Anderson, Travis M.

    2015-10-23

    Here highly conductive, solvent-resistant anionic Diels Alder polyphenylene (DAPP) membranes were synthesized with three different ionic contents and tested in an ionic liquid-based nonaqueous redox flow battery (RFB). These membranes display 3–10× increase in conductivity in propylene carbonate compared to some commercially available (aqueous) anion exchange membranes. The membrane with an ion content of 1.5 meq/g (DAPP1.5) proved too brittle for operation in a RFB, while the membrane with an ion content of 2.5 meq/g (DAPP2.5) allowed excessive movement of solvent and poor electrochemical yields (capacity fade). Despite having lower voltage efficiencies compared to DAPP2.5, the membrane with an intermediatemore » ion content of 2.0 meq/g (DAPP2.0) exhibited higher coulombic efficiencies (96.4% vs. 89.1%) and electrochemical yields (21.6% vs. 10.9%) after 50 cycles. Crossover of the electroactive species was the primary reason for decreased electrochemical yields. Analysis of the anolyte and catholyte revealed degradation of the electroactive species and formation of a film at the membrane-solution interface. Increases in membrane resistance were attributed to mechanical and thermal aging of the membrane; no chemical change was observed. As a result, improvements in the ionic selectivity and ionic conductivity of the membrane will increase the electrochemical yield and voltage efficiency of future nonaqueous redox flow batteries.« less

  7. Diels Alder polyphenylene anion exchange membrane for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Anderson, Travis M.

    2015-10-23

    Here highly conductive, solvent-resistant anionic Diels Alder polyphenylene (DAPP) membranes were synthesized with three different ionic contents and tested in an ionic liquid-based nonaqueous redox flow battery (RFB). These membranes display 3–10× increase in conductivity in propylene carbonate compared to some commercially available (aqueous) anion exchange membranes. The membrane with an ion content of 1.5 meq/g (DAPP1.5) proved too brittle for operation in a RFB, while the membrane with an ion content of 2.5 meq/g (DAPP2.5) allowed excessive movement of solvent and poor electrochemical yields (capacity fade). Despite having lower voltage efficiencies compared to DAPP2.5, the membrane with an intermediate ion content of 2.0 meq/g (DAPP2.0) exhibited higher coulombic efficiencies (96.4% vs. 89.1%) and electrochemical yields (21.6% vs. 10.9%) after 50 cycles. Crossover of the electroactive species was the primary reason for decreased electrochemical yields. Analysis of the anolyte and catholyte revealed degradation of the electroactive species and formation of a film at the membrane-solution interface. Increases in membrane resistance were attributed to mechanical and thermal aging of the membrane; no chemical change was observed. As a result, improvements in the ionic selectivity and ionic conductivity of the membrane will increase the electrochemical yield and voltage efficiency of future nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

  8. Room Temperature, Hybrid Sodium-Based Flow Batteries with Multi-Electron Transfer Redox Reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shamie, Jack S.; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-11

    We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage. Such HNFBs can operate at ambient temperature, allow catholytes to have multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, offer wide selection of catholyte chemistries with multiple active ions to couple with the highly negative Na alloy anode, and enable the use of both aqueous and non-aqueous catholytes. Further, the molten Na alloy anode permits the decoupled design of power and energy since a large volumemoreof the molten Na alloy can be used with a limited ion-exchange membrane size. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of multielectron transfer redox reactions per active ion and multiple active ions for catholytes has been demonstrated. The critical barriers to mature this new HNFBs have also been explored.less

  9. Room temperature, hybrid sodium-based flow batteries with multi-electron transfer redox reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shamie, Jack S.; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-11

    We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage. Such HNFBs can operate at ambient temperature, allow catholytes to have multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, offer wide selection of catholyte chemistries with multiple active ions to couple with the highly negative Na alloy anode, and enable the use of both aqueous and non-aqueous catholytes. Further, the molten Na alloy anode permits the decoupled design of power and energy since a large volumemore » of the molten Na alloy can be used with a limited ion-exchange membrane size. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of multielectron transfer redox reactions per active ion and multiple active ions for catholytes has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the critical barriers to mature this new HNFBs have also been explored.« less

  10. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Large-scale energy storage systems are crucial for substantial deployment of renewable energy sources. Energy storage systems with high energy density, high safety, and low cost and environmental friendliness are desired. To overcome the major limitations of the current aqueous redox flow battery systems, namely lower energy density (~25 Wh L-1) and presence of strong acids and/or other hazardous, a high energy density aqueous zinc/polyiodide flow battery (ZIB) is designed with near neutral ZnI2 solutions as catholytes. The energy density of ZIB could reach 322 Wh L-1 at the solubility limit of ZnI2 in water (~7 M). We demonstrate charge and discharge energy densities of 245.9 Wh/L and 166.7 Wh L-1 with ZnI2 electrolyte at 5.0 M, respectively. The addition of ethanol (EtOH) in ZnI2 electrolyte can effectively mitigate the growth of zinc dendrite at the anode and improve the stability of catholytes with wider temperature window (-20 to 50°C), which enable ZIB system to be a promising alternative as a high-energy and high- safety stationary energy storage system.

  11. Through-plane conductivities of membranes for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2015-08-13

    In this study, nonaqueous redox flow batteries (RFB) leverage nonaqueous solvents to enable higher operating voltages compared to their aqueous counterparts. Most commercial components for flow batteries, however, are designed for aqueous use. One critical component, the ion-selective membrane, provides ionic conductance between electrodes while preventing crossover of electroactive species. Here we evaluate the area-specific conductances and through-plane conductivities of commercially available microporous separators (Celgard 2400, 2500) and anion exchange membranes (Neosepta AFX, Neosepta AHA, Fumasep FAP-450, Fumasep FAP-PK) soaked in acetonitrile, propylene carbonate, or two imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Fumasep membranes combined with acetonitrile-based electrolyte solutions provided the highest conductance values and conductivities by far. When tested in ionic liquids, all anion exchange membranes displayed conductivities greater than those of the Celgard microporous separators, though the separators’ decreased thickness-enabled conductances on par with the most conductive anion exchange membranes. Ionic conductivity is not the only consideration when choosing an anion exchange membrane; testing of FAP-450 and FAP-PK membranes in a nonaqueous RFB demonstrated that the increased mechanical stability of PEEK-supported FAP-PK minimized swelling, in turn decreasing solvent mediated crossover and enabling greater electrochemical yields (40% vs. 4%) and Coulombic efficiencies (94% vs. 90%) compared to the unsupported, higher conductance FAP-450.

  12. Through-plane conductivities of membranes for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2015-08-13

    In this study, nonaqueous redox flow batteries (RFB) leverage nonaqueous solvents to enable higher operating voltages compared to their aqueous counterparts. Most commercial components for flow batteries, however, are designed for aqueous use. One critical component, the ion-selective membrane, provides ionic conductance between electrodes while preventing crossover of electroactive species. Here we evaluate the area-specific conductances and through-plane conductivities of commercially available microporous separators (Celgard 2400, 2500) and anion exchange membranes (Neosepta AFX, Neosepta AHA, Fumasep FAP-450, Fumasep FAP-PK) soaked in acetonitrile, propylene carbonate, or two imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Fumasep membranes combined with acetonitrile-based electrolyte solutions provided the highest conductancemore » values and conductivities by far. When tested in ionic liquids, all anion exchange membranes displayed conductivities greater than those of the Celgard microporous separators, though the separators’ decreased thickness-enabled conductances on par with the most conductive anion exchange membranes. Ionic conductivity is not the only consideration when choosing an anion exchange membrane; testing of FAP-450 and FAP-PK membranes in a nonaqueous RFB demonstrated that the increased mechanical stability of PEEK-supported FAP-PK minimized swelling, in turn decreasing solvent mediated crossover and enabling greater electrochemical yields (40% vs. 4%) and Coulombic efficiencies (94% vs. 90%) compared to the unsupported, higher conductance FAP-450.« less

  13. A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang; Hu, Jian Z.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-05-01

    Low cost, high performance redox flow batteries are highly demanded for up to multi-megawatt levels of renewable and grid energy storage. Here, we report a new vanadium redox flow battery with a significant improvement over the current technologies. This new battery utilizes a sulfate-chloride mixed solution, which is capable of dissolving more than 2.5 M vanadium or about a 70% increase in the energy storage capacity over the current vanadium sulfate system. More importantly, the new electrolyte remains stable over a wide temperature range of -5 to 60oC, potentially eliminating the need of active heat management. Its high energy density, broad operational temperature window, and excellent electrochemical performance would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of energy storage, thus accelerating its market penetration.

  14. Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chong M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Graphite felts (GFs), as typical electrode materials for all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs), limit the cell operation to low current density because of their poor kinetic reversibility and electrochemical activity. Here, in order to address this issue we report an electrocatalyst, Nb2O5, decorating the surface of GFs to reduce the activation barrier for redox conversion. Nb2O5 nanofibers with monoclinic phases are synthesized by hydrothermal method and deposited on GFs, which is confirmed to have catalytic effects towards redox couples of V(II)/V(III) at the negative side and V(IV)/V(V) at the positive side, and thus applied in both electrodes of VRB cells. Due to the low conductivity of Nb2O5, the performance of electrodes heavily depends on the nano size and uniform distribution of catalysts on GFs surfaces. The addition of the water-soluble compounds containing W element into the precursor solutions facilitates the precipitation of nanofibers on the GFs. Accordingly, an optimal amount of W-doped Nb2O5 nanofibers with weaker agglomeration and better distribution on GFs surfaces are obtained, leading to significant improvement of the electrochemical performances of VRB cells particularly under the high power operation. The corresponding energy efficiency is enhanced by 10.7 % under the operation of high charge/discharge current density (150 mA•cm-2) owing to faster charge transfer as compared with that without catalysts. These results suggest that Nb2O5 based nanofibers-decorating GFs hold great promise as high-performance electrodes for VRB applications.

  15. Vanadium redox flow battery efficiency and durability studies of sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene)s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Kim, Soowhan; Stains, Ronald; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-07-01

    Sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP) was examined for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) use. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied from 1.4, 1.6 and 2.0 meq/g in order to tune the proton conductivity and vanadium permeability. Coulombic efficiencies between 92 to 99% were observed, depending on IEC (lower IEC, higher coulombic efficiencies). In all cases the SDAPP displayed comparable energy efficiencies (88 - 90%) to Nafion 117 (88%) at 50mA/cm2. Membrane durability also was dependent on IEC; SDAPP with the highest IEC lasted slightly over 50 cycles while SDAPP with the lowest IEC lasted over 400 cycles and testing was discontinued only due to time constraints. Accelerated vanadium lifetime studies were initialed with SDAPP, by soaking films in a 0.1 M V5+ and 5.0 M total SO4-2 solution. The rate of degradation was also proportional with IEC; the 2 meq/g sample dissolved within 376 hours, the 1.6 meq/g sample dissolved after 860 hours, while the 1.4 meq/g sample broke apart after 1527 hours.

  16. An Inexpensive Aqueous Flow Battery for Large-Scale Electrical Energy Storage Based on Water-Soluble Organic Redox Couples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, B; Hoober-Burkhardt, L; Wang, F; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2014-05-21

    We introduce a novel Organic Redox Flow Battery (ORBAT), for Meeting the demanding requirements of cost, eco-friendliness, and durability for large-scale energy storage. ORBAT employs two different water-soluble organic redox couples on the positive and negative side of a flow battery. Redox couples such as quinones are particularly attractive for this application. No precious metal catalyst is needed because of the fast proton-coupled electron transfer processes. Furthermore, in acid media, the quinones exhibit good chemical stability. These properties render quinone-based redox couples very attractive for high-efficiency metal-free rechargeable batteries. We demonstrate the rechargeability of ORBAT with anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid on the negative side, and 1,2-dihydrobenzoquinone- 3,5-disulfonic acid on the positive side. The ORBAT cell uses a membrane-electrode assembly configuration similar to that used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Such a battery can be charged and discharged multiple times at high faradaic efficiency without any noticeable degradation of performance. We show that solubility and mass transport properties of the reactants and products are paramount to achieving high current densities and high efficiency. The ORBAT configuration presents a unique opportunity for developing an inexpensive and sustainable metal-free rechargeable battery for large-scale electrical energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.orgilicenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanoporous Polytetrafluoroethylene/Silica Composite Separator as a High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Luo, Qingtao; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Simmons, Kevin L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-02

    Driven by the motivation of searching for low-cost membrane alternatives, a novel nanoporous polytetrafluoroethylene/silica composite separator has been prepared and evaluated for its use in all-vanadium mixed-acid redox flow battery. This separator consisting of silica particles enmeshed in a polytetrafluoroethylene fibril matrix has no ion exchange capacity and is featured with unique nanoporous structures, which function as the ion transport channels in redox flow battery operation, with an average pore size of 38nm and a porosity of 48%. This separator has produced excellent electrochemical performance in the all-vanadium mixed-acid system with energy efficiency delivery comparable to Nafion membrane and superior rate capability and temperature tolerance. The separator also demonstrates an exceptional capacity retention capability over extended cycling, offering additional operational latitude towards conveniently mitigating the capacity decay that is inevitable for Nafion. Because of the inexpensive raw materials and simple preparation protocol, the separator is particularly low-cost, estimated to be at least an order of magnitude more inexpensive than Nafion. Plus the proven chemical stability due to the same backbone material as Nafion, this separator possesses a good combination of critical membrane requirements and shows great potential to promote market penetration of the all-vanadium redox flow battery by enabling significant reduction of capital and cycle costs.

  18. Understanding Aqueous Electrolyte Stability through Combined Computational and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Case Study on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Nie, Zimin; Walter, Eric D.; Hu, Jian Z.; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Redox flow battery (RFB) is a promising candidate for energy storage component in designing resilient grid scale power supply due to the advantage of the separation of power and energy. However, poorly understood chemical and thermal stability issues of electrolytes currently limit the performance of RFB. Designing of high performance stable electrolytes requires comprehensive knowledge about the molecular level solvation structure and dynamics of their redox active species. The molecular level understanding of detrimental V2O5 precipitation process led to successful designing of mixed acid based electrolytes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB). The higher stability of mixed acid based electrolytes is attributed to the choice of hydrochloric acid as optimal co-solvent, which provides chloride anions for ligand exchange process in vanadium solvation structure. The role of chloride counter anion on solvation structure and dynamics of vanadium species were studied using combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and DFT based theoretical methods. Finally, the solvation phenomenon of multiple vanadium species and their impact on VRFB electrolyte chemical stability were discussed.

  19. Fact Sheet: Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration Program (August 2013) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration Program (August 2013) Fact Sheet: Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration Program (August 2013) DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to develop next-generation vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) that reduce costs by improving energy and power densities, widening the operating temperature window, and simplifying and optimizing stack/system designs. These efforts build on Pacific Northwest National Laboratory research that

  20. Full cell study of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion and cation exchange membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Fujimoto, Cy; Sun, Che -Nan; Mench, Matthew M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Tang, Z. J.

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we report on the performance of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries. The membranes were functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups to form an anion exchange membrane (QDAPP) and with sulfonic acid groups to form a cation exchange membrane (SDAPP). Both membrane classes showed similar conductivities in the battery environment, suggesting that the ion conduction mechanism in the material is not strongly affected by the moieties along the polymer backbone. The resistance to vanadium permeation in QDAPP was not improved relative to SDAPP, further suggesting that the polarity of the functional groups do not playmore » a significant role in the membrane materials tested. Both QDAPP and SDAPP outperformed Nafion membranes in cycling tests, with both achieving voltage efficiencies above 85% while maintaining 95% coulombic efficiency while at a current density of 200 mA/cm2.« less

  1. Full cell study of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion and cation exchange membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Fujimoto, Cy; Sun, Che -Nan; Mench, Matthew M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Tang, Z. J.

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we report on the performance of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries. The membranes were functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups to form an anion exchange membrane (QDAPP) and with sulfonic acid groups to form a cation exchange membrane (SDAPP). Both membrane classes showed similar conductivities in the battery environment, suggesting that the ion conduction mechanism in the material is not strongly affected by the moieties along the polymer backbone. The resistance to vanadium permeation in QDAPP was not improved relative to SDAPP, further suggesting that the polarity of the functional groups do not play a significant role in the membrane materials tested. Both QDAPP and SDAPP outperformed Nafion membranes in cycling tests, with both achieving voltage efficiencies above 85% while maintaining 95% coulombic efficiency while at a current density of 200 mA/cm2.

  2. Redox Flow - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Redox Flow JCESR investigates the replacement of solid electrodes with energy-dense liquids that charge and discharge as they flow through the battery and undergo reduction and oxidation ("redox") reactions. These redox flow batteries store large amounts of energy inexpensively and are well-suited to the grid. JCESR introduced a new direction in flow battery research: using inexpensive and versatile organic molecules as the energy storing redox materials. Organic molecules are highly

  3. Resolving Losses at the Negative Electrode in All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Che Nan; Delnick, Frank M; Aaron, D; Mench, Matthew M; Zawodzinski, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    We present an in situ electrochemical technique for the quantitative measurement and resolution of the ohmic, charge transfer and diffusion overvoltages at the negative electrode of an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mathematics describing the complex impedance of the V+2/V+3 redox reaction is derived and matches the experimental data. The voltage losses contributed by each process have been resolved and quantified at various flow rates and electrode thicknesses as a function of current density during anodic and cathodic polarization. The diffusion overvoltage was affected strongly by flow rate while the charge transfer and ohmic losses were invariant. On the other hand, adopting a thicker electrode significantly changed both the charge transfer and diffusion losses due to increased surface area. Furthermore, the Tafel plot obtained from the impedance resolved charge transfer overvoltage yielded the geometric exchange current density, anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes (135 5 and 121 5 mV/decade respectively) and corresponding transfer coefficients = 0.45 0.02 and = 0.50 0.02 in an operating cell.

  4. Flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lipka, Stephen M.; Swartz, Christopher R.

    2016-02-23

    An electrolyte system for a flow battery has an anolyte including [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.3- and [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.4- and a catholyte including Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+.

  5. Bismuth Nanoparticle Decorating Graphite Felt as a High-Performance Electrode for an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Luo, Qingtao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaolin; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2013-02-04

    The selection of electrode materials plays a great role in improving performances of all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs). Low-cost graphite felt (GF) as traditional electrode material has to be modified to address its issue of low electrocatalytic activity. In our paper, low-cost and highly conductive bismuth nanoparticles, as a powerful alternative electrocatalyst to noble metal, are proposed and synchronously electro-deposited onto the surface of GF while running flow cells employing the electrolytes containing suitable Bi3+. Although bismuth is proved to only take effect on the redox reaction of V(II)/V(III) and present at negative half-cell side, the whole cell electrochemical performances are significantly improved. In particular, the energy efficiency is increased by 11% owing to faster charge transfer as compared with one without Bi at high charge/discharge rate of 150 mA/cm2, which is prone to reduce stack size, thus dramatically reducing the cost. The excellent results show great promise of Bi nano-catalysts in the commercialization of VRBs in terms of product cost as well as electrochemical properties.

  6. Mixed-Metal, Structural, and Substitution Effects of Polyoxometalates on Electrochemical Behavior in a Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Harry D; Pratt, William R; Fang, Xikui; Hudak, Nicholas S; Anderson, Travis M

    2014-08-01

    A pair of redox flow batteries containing polyoxometalates was tested as part of an ongoing program in stationary energy storage. The iron-containing dimer, (SiFe3W9(OH)3O34)2(OH)311−, cycled between (SiFe3W9(OH)3O34)2(OH)311−/(SiFe3W9(OH)3O34)2(OH)314−and (SiFe3W9(OH)3O34)2(OH)317−/(SiFe3W9(OH)3O34)2(OH)314− for the positive and negative electrode, respectively. This compound demonstrated a coulombic efficiency of 83% after 20 cycles with an electrochemical yield (measured discharge capacity as a percentage of theoretical capacity) of 55%. Cyclic voltammetry on the Lindqvist ion, cis-V2W4O194−, showed quasi-reversible vanadium electrochemistry, but tungsten reduction was mostly irreversible. In a flow cell configuration, cis-V2W4O194−had a coulombic efficiency of 45% (for a two-electron process) and an electrochemical yield of 16% after 20 cycles. The poor performance of cis-V2W4O194−was attributed primarily to its higher charge density. Collectively, the results showed that both polyoxometalate size and charge density are both important parameters to consider in battery material performance.

  7. Redox Flow - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Redox Flow March 10, 2016, Research Highlights A Symmetric Organic - Based Nonaqueous Redox Flow Battery and Its State of Charge Diagnostics by FTIR A symmetric nonaqueous flow battery based on the highly soluble, ambipolar PTIO achieved a cell voltage of ~1.7V and decent cyclability. We demonstrated FTIR as an effective method to monitor the state of charge (SOC) of this flow battery. Read More Redox Flow December 10, 2015, Research Highlights In-Situ XANES and EXAFS Analysis of Redox Active Fe

  8. Some Lessons Learned from 20 Years in RedOx Flow Battery R&d

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Steve Clarke, Applied Intellectual Capital, at the Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop held March 7-8, 2012, in Washington, DC.

  9. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, Brian A.; Taylor, A. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  10. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1998-11-24

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

  11. Performance of Nafion® N115, Nafion® NR-212, and Nafion® NR-211 in a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, David M.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Koeppel, Brian J.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-07-01

    Three Nafion membranes of similar composition but different thicknesses were operated in a 3-cell 1kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery. The influence of current density on the charge/discharge characteristics, coulombic and energy efficiency, capacity fade, operating temperature and pressure drop in the flow circuit will be discussed and correlated to the Nafion membrane thickness. Material costs associated with the Nafion membranes, ease of handling the membranes, and performance impacts will also be discussed.

  12. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  13. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-11-04

    Compounds may have general Formula IVA or IVB. ##STR00001## where, R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 are each independently selected from H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO.sub.2, alkyl, haloalkyl, and alkoxy groups; X and Y are each independently O, S, N, or P; and Z' is a linkage between X and Y. Such compounds may be used as redox shuttles in electrolytes for use in electrochemical cells, batteries and electronic devices.

  14. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  15. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  16. Flow Batteries: A Historical Perspective | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries: A Historical Perspective Flow Batteries: A Historical Perspective Presentation by Robert Savinell, Case Western Reserve University, at the Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop held March 7-8, 2012, in Washington, DC. PDF icon flowcells2012_savinell.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Storage Systems 2014 Peer Review Presentations - Poster Session 4 Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Summary Report Some Lessons Learned from 20 Years in RedOx Flow Battery R&d

  17. Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make ...

  18. Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte through Ionic Modification of Active Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Xu, Wu; Hu, Jian Z.; Vijayakumar, M.; Feng, Ju; Hu, Mary Y.; Deng, Xuchu; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We will present a novel design lithium-organic non-aqueous redox flow battery based on a modified ferrocene catholyte. This RFB produced desired electrochemical performance exceeding most of the currently reported nonaqueous RFB systems.

  19. Flow Battery Solution for Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-11-30

    To address future grid requirements, a U.S. Department of Energy ARRA Storage Demonstration program was launched in 2009 to commercialize promising technologies needed for stronger and more renewables-intensive grids. Raytheon Ktech and EnerVault received a cost-share grant award from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a grid-scale storage system based on EnerVault’s iron-chromium redox flow battery technology.

  20. Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles (electron transporters) for lithium-ion batteries Compatible with current battery technologies Provides overcharge protection, increased safety and long-term stability PDF icon redox_shuttles_overcharge

  1. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  2. Redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai; Wang, Qingzheng

    2010-12-14

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. The redox shuttles are capable of thousands hours of overcharge tolerance and have a redox potential at about 3-5.5 V vs. Li and particularly about 4.4-4.8 V vs. Li. Accordingly, in one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising an alkali metal salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and a redox shuttle additive that is an aromatic compound having at least one aromatic ring with four or more electronegative substituents, two or more oxygen atoms bonded to the aromatic ring, and no hydrogen atoms bonded to the aromatic ring; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  3. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  4. Rechargeable Nanoelectrofuels for Flow Batteries | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Nanoelectrofuels for Flow Batteries Four-page general brochure describing a groundbreaking energy storage concept that may revolutionize the world of batteries PDF...

  5. Redox Flow - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 17, 2014, Research Highlights New concepts in Redox Flow: "Impact of Redox-Active Polymer Molecular Weight on the Electrochemical Properties and Transport Across Porous Separators in Nonaqueous Solvents" Sized-based selective transport of supporting electrolyte across commercial Celgard porous separators is attainable by controlling the size of highly soluble (>2M) redox active polymers (RAPs) as storage material ... Read More Redox Flow September 30, 2014, Research

  6. A metal-free organic-inorganic aqueous flow battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskinson, B; Marshak, MP; Suh, C; Er, S; Gerhardt, MR; Galvin, CJ; Chen, XD; Aspuru-Guzik, A; Gordon, RG; Aziz, MJ

    2014-01-08

    As the fraction of electricity generation from intermittent renewable sources-such as solar or wind-grows, the ability to store large amounts of electrical energy is of increasing importance. Solid-electrode batteries maintain discharge at peak power for far too short a time to fully regulate wind or solar power output(1,2). In contrast, flow batteries can independently scale the power (electrode area) and energy (arbitrarily large storage volume) components of the system by maintaining all of the electro-active species in fluid form(3-5). Wide-scale utilization of flow batteries is, however, limited by the abundance and cost of these materials, particularly those using redox-active metals and precious-metal electrocatalysts(6,7). Here we describe a class of energy storage materials that exploits the favourable chemical and electro-chemical properties of a family of molecules known as quinones. The example we demonstrate is ametal-free flow battery based on the redox chemistry of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid (AQDS). AQDS undergoes extremely rapid and reversible two-electron two-proton reduction on a glassy carbon electrode in sulphuric acid. An aqueous flow battery with inexpensive carbon electrodes, combining the quinone/hydroquinone couple with the Br-2/Br- redox couple, yields a peak galvanic power density exceeding 0.6 W cm(-2) at 1.3 A cm(-2). Cycling of this quinone-bromide flow battery showed >99 per cent storage capacity retention per cycle. The organic anthraquinone species can be synthesized from inexpensive commodity chemicals(8). This organic approach permits tuning of important properties such as the reduction potential and solubility by adding functional groups: for example, we demonstrate that the addition of two hydroxy groups to AQDS increases the open circuit potential of the cell by 11% and we describe a pathway for further increases in cell voltage. The use of p-aromatic redox-active organic molecules instead of redox-active metals represents a new and promising direction for realizing massive electrical energy storage at greatly reduced cost.

  7. Nanoelectrofuels for Flow Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoelectrofuels for Flow Batteries Four-page technical brochure about Argonne's high-density rechargeable liquid fuel PDF icon esnanoelectrofuels-broch-tech...

  8. New concepts in Redox Flow: "Impact of Redox-Active Polymer Molecular

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weight on the Electrochemical Properties and Transport Across Porous Separators in Nonaqueous Solvents" - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research October 17, 2014, Research Highlights New concepts in Redox Flow: "Impact of Redox-Active Polymer Molecular Weight on the Electrochemical Properties and Transport Across Porous Separators in Nonaqueous Solvents" Simple porous Celgard separators allow ionic transport while rejecting redox-active polymer (RAP), thus avoiding

  9. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  10. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet -Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2015-10-06

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  11. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Some batteries can ... Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show ...

  12. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  13. Redox Flow - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 5, 2015, Research Highlights Biphasic Electrode Suspensions for Li-Ion Semi-Solid Flow Cells with High Energy Density, Fast Charge Transport, and Low-Dissipation Flow We created biphasic electrode suspensions composed of dispersed active particles and uniformly percolated conductive particles, different from the clustered suspensions using traditional suspension preparation procedures. Read More Chemical Transformation Redox Flow May 28, 2015, Research Highlights Complexes Containing Redox

  14. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    batteries and electronic devices. Inventors: Weng, Wei ; Zhang, Zhengcheng ; Amine, Khalil Issue Date: 2014-11-04 OSTI Identifier: 1163213 Assignee: UChicago Argonne, LLC ...

  15. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  16. Preparation of redox polymer cathodes for thin film rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-11-08

    The present invention relates to the manufacture of thin film solid state electrochemical devices using composite cathodes comprising a redox polymer capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction, a polymer solid electrolyte and conducting carbon. The polymeric cathode material is formed as a composite of radiation crosslinked polymer electrolytes and radiation crosslinked redox polymers based on polysiloxane backbones with attached organosulfur side groups capable of forming sulfur-sulfur bonds during electrochemical oxidation.

  17. Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Partnered with NETZSCH, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an Isothermal Battery Calorimeter (IBC) used to quantify heat flow in battery cells and modules.

  18. Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte via Ionic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modification of Active Species - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 14, 2014, Research Highlights Towards High-Performance Nonaqueous Redox Flow Electrolyte via Ionic Modification of Active Species (Top) Material Synthesis for Highly Soluble Ferrocene Derivative (Left) NMR Decoding Solvation (Right) Li-Graphite Hybrid Anode Decent cyclability at high conc. Scientific Achievement Material tailoring led to a significant increase in the solubility of the ferrocene redox material. NMR

  19. Lithium-Polysulfide Flow Battery Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Wesley

    2014-06-30

    In this video, Stanford graduate student Wesley Zheng demonstrates the new low-cost, long-lived flow battery he helped create. The researchers created this miniature system using simple glassware. Adding a lithium polysulfide solution to the flask immediately produces electricity that lights an LED. A utility version of the new battery would be scaled up to store many megawatt-hours of energy.

  20. Lithium-Polysulfide Flow Battery Demonstration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zheng, Wesley

    2014-07-16

    In this video, Stanford graduate student Wesley Zheng demonstrates the new low-cost, long-lived flow battery he helped create. The researchers created this miniature system using simple glassware. Adding a lithium polysulfide solution to the flask immediately produces electricity that lights an LED. A utility version of the new battery would be scaled up to store many megawatt-hours of energy.

  1. A high-fidelity multiphysics model for the new solid oxide iron-air redox battery part I: Bridging mass transport and charge transfer with redox cycle kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, XF; Zhao, X; Huang, K

    2015-04-15

    A high-fidelity two-dimensional axial symmetrical multi-physics model is described in this paper as an effort to simulate the cycle performance of a recently discovered solid oxide metal-air redox battery (SOMARB). The model collectively considers mass transport, charge transfer and chemical redox cycle kinetics occurring across the components of the battery, and is validated by experimental data obtained from independent research. In particular, the redox kinetics at the energy storage unit is well represented by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JIVIAK) and Shrinking Core models. The results explicitly show that the reduction of Fe3O4 during the charging cycle limits the overall performance. Distributions of electrode potential, overpotential, Nernst potential, and H-2/H2O-concentration across various components of the battery are also systematically investigated. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. October 29 ESTAP Webinar: Flow Battery Basics (Part 2)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Wednesday, October 29, 2014 from 1 - 2:30 p.m. ET, Clean Energy State Alliance will host the second in a series of webinars on flow batteries. OE's Imre Gyuk, Energy Storage Program Manager, will present an introduction to flow battery technology, and Dan Borneo of Sandia National Laboratories will discuss flow battery testing and technological readiness.

  3. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-31

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron–vanadium, and iron–chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantities measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. As a result, proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.

  4. Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-31

    A simple method for experimentally determining thermodynamic quantities for flow battery cell reactions is presented. Equilibrium cell potentials, temperature derivatives of cell potential (dE/dT), Gibbs free energies, and entropies are reported here for all-vanadium, iron–vanadium, and iron–chromium flow cells with state-of-the-art solution compositions. Proof is given that formal potentials and formal temperature coefficients can be used with modified forms of the Nernst Equation to quantify the thermodynamics of flow cell reactions as a function of state-of-charge. Such empirical quantities can be used in thermo-electrochemical models of flow batteries at the cell or system level. In most cases, the thermodynamic quantitiesmore » measured here are significantly different from standard values reported and used previously in the literature. The data reported here are also useful in the selection of operating temperatures for flow battery systems. Because higher temperatures correspond to lower equilibrium cell potentials for the battery chemistries studied here, it can be beneficial to charge a cell at higher temperature and discharge at lower temperature. As a result, proof-of-concept of improved voltage efficiency with the use of such non-isothermal cycling is given for the all-vanadium redox flow battery, and the effect is shown to be more pronounced at lower current densities.« less

  5. Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-09

    GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than today’s flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRC’s flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

  6. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases.

  7. Thermodynamics of Flow Battery Electrode Reactions. (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Thermodynamics of Flow Battery Electrode Reactions. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermodynamics of Flow Battery Electrode Reactions. Authors: Hudak, Nicholas Publication Date: 2012-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1067657 Report Number(s): SAND2012-4158C DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Proposed for presentation at the International Flow Battery Forum held June 25-28, 2012 in Munich, GERMANY

  8. EERE Success Story—Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Partnered with NETZSCH, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an Isothermal Battery Calorimeter (IBC) used to quantify heat flow in battery cells and modules.

  9. Complexes Containing Redox Non-Innocent Ligands for Symmetric,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multi-Electron Transfer Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research May 28, 2015, Research Highlights Complexes Containing Redox Non-Innocent Ligands for Symmetric, Multi-Electron Transfer Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries (Top) Functionalized chromium bipyridine complexes (left), and solubility data for the charged and neutral species (right). (Bottom) Charge-discharge curves for the Cr(L3)3 complex: A) Full H-cell potential, B) Positive electrode potential,

  10. Smoothing the Flow of Renewable Solar Energy in California's...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yesterday, an almond grove in California's Central Valley hosted the opening of the world's largest iron-chromium redox flow battery. Originally pioneered by NASA, these flow ...

  11. Hybrid anodes for redox flow batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    RFBs having solid hybrid electrodes can address at least the problems of active material consumption, electrode passivation, and metal electrode dendrite growth that can be ...

  12. A Polyoxometalate Flow Battery. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Polyoxometalate Flow Battery. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Polyoxometalate Flow Battery. Authors: Pratt, Harry ; Hudak, Nicholas ; Anderson, Travis Mark ; Fang, Xikui Publication Date: 2013-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1062868 Report Number(s): SAND2013-1139J DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Proposed for publication in Journal of Power Sources. Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories Sponsoring

  13. Transport Property Requirements for Flow Battery Separators (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Transport Property Requirements for Flow Battery Separators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport Property Requirements for Flow Battery Separators Authors: Darling, Robert M ; Gallagher, Kevin ; Xie, Wei ; Su, Liang ; Brushett, Fikile R. Publication Date: 2016-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1249542 DOE Contract Number: AC02-06CH11357 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of the Electrochemical Society; Journal Volume: 163;

  14. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  15. Synthesis of electroactive ionic liquids for flow battery applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Travis Mark; Ingersoll, David; Staiger, Chad; Pratt, Harry

    2015-09-01

    The present disclosure is directed to synthesizing metal ionic liquids with transition metal coordination cations, where such metal ionic liquids can be used in a flow battery. A cation of a metal ionic liquid includes a transition metal and a ligand coordinated to the transition metal.

  16. Progress in Grid Scale Flow Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Imre Gyuk, U.S. Department of Energy, at the Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop held March 7-8, 2012, in Washington, DC.

  17. Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

  18. Evaluation of Tris-Bipyridine Chromium Complexes for Flow Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications: Impact of Bipyridine Ligand Structure on Solubility and Electrochemistry - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 15, 2015, Research Highlights Evaluation of Tris-Bipyridine Chromium Complexes for Flow Battery Applications: Impact of Bipyridine Ligand Structure on Solubility and Electrochemistry (Top) Synthesis of a series of Cr-bipyridine complexes for the evaluation of solubility and electrochemistry as a function of the metal complex structure. (Bottom) Impact of the

  19. Transitioning from Fuel Cells to Redox Flow Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Tom Zawodzinski, University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, at the Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop held March 7-8, 2012, in Washington, DC.

  20. Flow Battery R&D at Sandia. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flow Battery R&D at Sandia. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow Battery R&D at Sandia. Authors: Anderson, Travis Mark ; Hudak, Nicholas Publication Date: 2012-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1064273 Report Number(s): SAND2012-5153C DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Proposed for presentation at the International Flow Battery Forum held June 23-28, 2012 in Munich, Germany

  1. Electroactive-Zone Extension in Flow-Battery Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, KC; Brunini, VE; Dong, YJ; Chiang, YM; Carter, WC

    2014-11-20

    Flowable suspensions that conduct both electrons and ions can enable the use of energy-dense electroactive species in flow batteries [M. Duduta et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 1, 511 (2011); Z. Li et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 15, 15,833 (2013); F. Fan et al., Nano Lett., 14, 2210 (2014)]. In comparison with conventional flow batteries where electrochemical reactions are confined to a fixed current-collector region, electronically conductive flow electrodes permit electrochemical reactions to extend outside of the physical confines of the stack. We have measured and modeled how mixed-conduction enables an electroactive zone (EAZ, in which electrochemical reactions occur) that is of greater spatial extent than current collectors, the extension being termed side zone, SZ. Electrochemical reactions in SZs can reduce coulombic and energetic efficiency. Here we show that for realistic suspension properties and operating conditions, the added inefficiency is small in practice, and can be further mitigated by using appropriate operating conditions and/or materials choices. For the specific example of a non-aqueous Li4Ti5O12 suspension, we show that EAZ extension contributes less than 1% additional efficiency loss at C/10 rates for current collectors greater than 20 mm long. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Redox Shuttle Additives | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    available for licensing: A series of novel redox shuttle additives for lithium-ion batteries Seven-technology suite helps reduce battery costs Provides overcharge...

  3. Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee ... Energy Storage Components and Systems Batteries Electric Drive Systems Hydrogen Materials ...

  4. Primus Power's Flow Battery Powered by $11 Million in Private Investment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Primus Power's Flow Battery Powered by $11 Million in Private Investment Primus Power's Flow Battery Powered by $11 Million in Private Investment June 14, 2011 - 10:00am Addthis Primus Power's energy cell stack. | Photo Courtesy of Primus Power Primus Power's energy cell stack. | Photo Courtesy of Primus Power Kristina Pflanz Writer & Contractor, Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy What does this mean for me? Will make renewable energy sources, such as solar

  5. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Seungbum; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueousmore » electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.« less

  6. Pathways to low-cost electrochemical energy storage: a comparison of aqueous and nonaqueous flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darling, Robert M.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Kowalski, Jeffrey A.; Ha, Seungbum; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2014-11-01

    Energy storage is increasingly seen as a valuable asset for electricity grids composed of high fractions of intermittent sources, such as wind power or, in developing economies, unreliable generation and transmission services. However, the potential of batteries to meet the stringent cost and durability requirements for grid applications is largely unquantified. We investigate electrochemical systems capable of economically storing energy for hours and present an analysis of the relationships among technological performance characteristics, component cost factors, and system price for established and conceptual aqueous and nonaqueous batteries. We identified potential advantages of nonaqueous flow batteries over those based on aqueous electrolytes; however, new challenging constraints burden the nonaqueous approach, including the solubility of the active material in the electrolyte. Requirements in harmony with economically effective energy storage are derived for aqueous and nonaqueous systems. The attributes of flow batteries are compared to those of aqueous and nonaqueous enclosed and hybrid (semi-flow) batteries. Flow batteries are a promising technology for reaching these challenging energy storage targets owing to their independent power and energy scaling, reliance on facile and reversible reactants, and potentially simpler manufacture as compared to established enclosed batteries such as lead–acid or lithium-ion.

  7. Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L.

    2011-07-15

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with ?-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical.

  8. Thermal characteristics of air flow cooling in the lithium ion batteries experimental chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukhanin A.; Rohatgi U.; Belyaev, A.; Fedorchenko, D.; Khazhmuradov, M.; Lukhanin, O; Rudychev, I.

    2012-07-08

    A battery pack prototype has been designed and built to evaluate various air cooling concepts for the thermal management of Li-ion batteries. The heat generation from the Li-Ion batteries was simulated with electrical heat generation devices with the same dimensions as the Li-Ion battery (200 mm x 150 mm x 12 mm). Each battery simulator generates up to 15W of heat. There are 20 temperature probes placed uniformly on the surface of the battery simulator, which can measure temperatures in the range from -40 C to +120 C. The prototype for the pack has up to 100 battery simulators and temperature probes are recorder using a PC based DAQ system. We can measure the average surface temperature of the simulator, temperature distribution on each surface and temperature distributions in the pack. The pack which holds the battery simulators is built as a crate, with adjustable gap (varies from 2mm to 5mm) between the simulators for air flow channel studies. The total system flow rate and the inlet flow temperature are controlled during the test. The cooling channel with various heat transfer enhancing devices can be installed between the simulators to investigate the cooling performance. The prototype was designed to configure the number of cooling channels from one to hundred Li-ion battery simulators. The pack is thermally isolated which prevents heat transfer from the pack to the surroundings. The flow device can provide the air flow rate in the gap of up to 5m/s velocity and air temperature in the range from -30 C to +50 C. Test results are compared with computational modeling of the test configurations. The present test set up will be used for future tests for developing and validating new cooling concepts such as surface conditions or heat pipes.

  9. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  10. Electrochemical overcharge protection of rechargeable lithium batteries: I. Kinetics of iodide/tri-iodide/iodine redox reactions on platinum in LiAsF/sub 6//tetrahydrofuran solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behl, W.K.; Chin, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, lithium iodide has been suggested as an additive for secondary lithium batteries to prevent the oxidation of organic electrolytes during charging operations. In this study, the charge and discharge reactions of lithium iodide in 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6//tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution on platinum are investigated with the cyclic voltammetric and rotating disk electrode techniques. At the anodic potentials, lithium iodide is found to undergo a two-step process of oxidation of iodide ion to tri-iodide ion and further oxidation of tri-iodide ion to iodine. The diffusion coefficients of iodide and tri-iodide ions in the electrolyte and the kinetic parameters of the redox reactions on platinum are evaluated from the rotating disk data. It is found that iodine initiates the polymerization of THF in the presence of lithium hexafluoroarsenate. To provide overcharge protection of the lithium batteries using LiAsF/sub 6//THF electrolytes, the large excess of lithium iodide must be present in the cell to form stable lithium tri-iodide with the iodine generated during the charging of lithium batteries.

  11. CRADA final report: Technical assessment of roll-to-roll operation of lamination process, thermal treatment, and alternative carbon fiber precursors for low-cost, high-efficiency manufacturing of flow battery stacks and other energy devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus; Madden, Thomas; Wood, III, David L; Muth, Thomas R.; Warrington, Curtis; Ozcan, Soydan; Manson, Hunter; Tekinalp, Halil L.; Smith, Mark A.; Lu, Yuan; Loretz, Jeremy

    2015-09-23

    Among the various stationary-storage technologies under development, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer the greatest potential to deliver inexpensive, scalable, and efficient grid-scale electrical-energy storage. Unlike traditional sealed batteries, in a flow battery power and energy are decoupled. Cell area and cell count in the stack determine the device power, and the chemical storage volume determines the total energy. Grid-scale energy-storage applications require megawatt-scale devices, which require the assembly of hundreds of large-area, bipolar cells per power plant. The cell-stack is the single system component with the largest impact on capital cost (due to the large number of highly engineered components) and operating costs (determined by overall round-trip efficiency).

  12. Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles (electron transporters) for lithium-ion batteries ...

  13. Voltage clustering in redox-active ligand complexes: mitigating electronic communication through choice of metal ion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkesh, Ryan A.; Ichimura, Andrew S.; Monson, Todd C.; Tomson, Neil C.; Anstey, Mitchell R.

    2016-02-01

    We used the redox-active bis(imino)acenapthene (BIAN) ligand to synthesize homoleptic aluminum, chromium, and gallium complexes of the general formula (BIAN)3M. The resulting compounds were characterized using X-ray crystallography, NMR, EPR, magnetic susceptibility and cyclic voltammetry measurements and modeled using both DFT and ab initio wavefunction calculations to compare the orbital contributions of main group elements and transition metals in ligand-based redox events. Ultimately, complexes of this type have the potential to improve the energy density and electrolyte stability of grid-scale energy storage technologies, such as redox flow batteries, through thermodynamically-clustered redox events.

  14. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br₂/H₂ redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2014-10-17

    The Br₂/H₂ redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (–) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (–) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon-paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm-2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2. Maximum energy efficiency of 79% is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (–) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  15. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, MC; Cho, KT; Weber, AZ; Lin, GY; Nguyen, TV

    2014-10-17

    The Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (-) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (-) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm(-2) and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm(-2). Maximum energy efficiency of 79 % is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (-) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  16. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br?/H? redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2015-01-01

    The Br?/H? redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and () electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the () catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon-paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm-2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2. Maximum energy efficiency of 79% is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt () electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  17. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br₂/H₂ redox flow cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2014-10-17

    The Br₂/H₂ redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (–) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (–) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon-paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm-2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2. Maximum energy efficiencymore » of 79% is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (–) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.« less

  18. Semi-Solid Flowable Battery Electrodes: Semi-Solid Flow Cells for Automotive and Grid-Level Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEEST Project: Scientists at 24M are crossing a Li-Ion battery with a fuel cell to develop a semi-solid flow battery. This system relies on some of the same basic chemistry as a standard Li-Ion battery, but in a flow battery the energy storage material is held in external tanks, so storage capacity is not limited by the size of the battery itself. The design makes it easier to add storage capacity by simply increasing the size of the tanks and adding more paste. In addition, 24M's design also is able to extract more energy from the semi-solid paste than conventional Li-Ion batteries. This creates a cost-effective, energy-dense battery that can improve the driving range of EVs or be used to store energy on the electric grid.

  19. Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-11-01

    The Vanadium (V) cation structures in mixed acid based electrolyte solution were analysed by density functional theory (DFT) based computational modelling and 51V and 35Cl Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Vanadium (V) cation exists as di-nuclear [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound at higher vanadium concentrations (≥1.75M). In particular, at high temperatures (>295K) this di-nuclear compound undergoes ligand exchange process with nearby solvent chlorine molecule and forms chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound. This chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be resistant to the de-protonation reaction which is the initial step in the precipitation reaction in Vanadium based electrolyte solutions. The combined theoretical and experimental approach reveals that formation of chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be central to the observed higher thermal stability of mixed acid based Vanadium (V) electrolyte solutions.

  20. Liquid Catholyte Molecules for Non-aqueous Redox Flow Batteries - Joint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquefied Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Natural gas plays a vital role in the U.S. energy supply and in achieving the nation's economic and environmental goals. One of several supply options involves increasing imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to ensure that American consumers have adequate supplies of natural gas for the future. Natural gas consumption in the United States is expected to increase slightly from about 24.3 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in 2011 to 26.6

  1. Redox Shuttle Additives - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    so does the demand for lithium-ion batteries that are safer, more powerful, and less ... A series of novel redox shuttle additives for lithium ion batteries for the purpose of ...

  2. The Influence of Electrode and Channel Configurations on Flow Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darling, RM; Perry, ML

    2014-05-21

    Flow batteries with flow-through porous electrodes are compared to cells with porous electrodes adjacent to either parallel or interdigitated channels. Resistances and pressure drops are measured for different configurations to augment the electrochemical data. Cell tests are done with an electrolyte containing VO2+ and VO2+ in sulfuric acid that is circulated through both anode and cathode from a single reservoir. Performance is found to depend sensitively on the combination of electrode and flow field. Theoretical explanations for this dependence are provided. Scale-up of flow through and interdigitated designs to large active areas is also discussed. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization and Analysis of High-Power Hydrogen/Bromine-Flow Batteries for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, KT; Albertus, P; Battaglia, V; Kojic, A; Srinivasan, V; Weber, AZ

    2013-10-07

    For storage of grid-scale electrical energy, redox-flow batteries (RFBs) are considered promising technologies. This paper explores the influence of electrolyte composition and ion transport on cell performance by using an integrated approach of experiments and cost modeling. In particular, the impact of the area-specific resistance on system capability is elucidated for the hydrogen/bromine RFB. The experimental data demonstrate very good performance with 1.46 W cm(-2) peak power and 4 A cm(-2) limiting current density at ambient conditions for an optimal cell design and reactant concentrations. The data and cost model results show that higher concentrations of RFB reactants do not necessarily result in lower capital cost as there is a tradeoff between cell performance and storage (tank) requirements. In addition, the discharge time and overall efficiency demonstrate nonlinear effects on system cost, with a 3 to 4 hour minimum discharge time showing a key transition to a plateau in terms of cost for typical RFB systems. The presented results are applicable to many different RFB chemistries and technologies and highlight the importance of ohmic effects and associated area-specific resistance on RFB viability.

  4. Impact of membrane characteristics on the performance and cycling of the Br-2-H-2 redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, MC; Cho, KT; Spingler, FB; Weber, AZ; Lin, GY

    2015-06-15

    The Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. In this paper, the effect of various aspects of material selection and processing of proton exchange membranes on the operation of the Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell is determined. Membrane properties have a significant impact on the performance and efficiency of the system. In particular, there is a tradeoff between conductivity and crossover, where conductivity limits system efficiency at high current density and crossover limits efficiency at low current density. The impact of thickness, pretreatment procedure, swelling state during cell assembly, equivalent weight, membrane reinforcement, and addition of a microporous separator layer on this tradeoff is assessed. NR212 (50 mu m) pretreated by soaking in 70 degrees C water is found to be optimal for the studied operating conditions. For this case, an energy efficiency of greater than 75% is achieved for current density up to 400 mA cm(-2), with a maximum obtainable energy efficiency of 88%. A cell with this membrane was cycled continuously for 3164 h. Membrane transport properties, including conductivity and bromine and water crossover, were found to decrease moderately upon cycling but remained higher than those for the as-received membrane. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of membrane characteristics on the performance and cycling of the Br₂–H₂ redox flow cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Spingler, Franz B.; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu

    2015-03-04

    The Br₂/H₂ redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. In this paper, the effect of various aspects of material selection and processing of proton exchange membranes on the operation of the Br₂/H₂ redox flow cell is determined. Membrane properties have a significant impact on the performance and efficiency of the system. In particular, there is a tradeoff between conductivity and crossover, where conductivity limits system efficiency at high current density and crossover limits efficiency at low current density. The impact of thickness, pretreatment procedure, swelling state during cell assembly, equivalent weight, membrane reinforcement, and additionmore » of a microporous separator layer on this tradeoff is assessed. NR212 (50 μm) pretreated by soaking in 70 °C water is found to be optimal for the studied operating conditions. For this case, an energy efficiency of greater than 75% is achieved for current density up to 400 mA cm⁻², with a maximum obtainable energy efficiency of 88%. A cell with this membrane was cycled continuously for 3164 h. Membrane transport properties, including conductivity and bromine and water crossover, were found to decrease moderately upon cycling but remained higher than those for the as-received membrane.« less

  6. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  7. The influence of current collectors on Tayler instability and electro-vortex flows in liquid metal batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, N.; Galindo, V.; Stefani, F.; Weier, T.; Priede, J.

    2015-01-15

    The Tayler instability (TI) is a kink-type flow instability which occurs when the electrical current through a conducting fluid exceeds a certain critical value. Originally studied in the astrophysical context, the instability was recently discussed as a possible limiting factor for the upward scalability of liquid metal batteries. In this paper, we continue our efforts to simulate this instability for liquid metals within the framework of an integro-differential equation approach. The original solver is enhanced by multi-domain support with Dirichlet-Neumann partitioning for the static boundaries. Particular focus is laid on the detailed influence of the axial electrical boundary conditions on the characteristic features of the Tayler instability and, second, on the occurrence of electro-vortex flows and their relevance for liquid metal batteries. Electro-vortex flows might pose a larger risk to the integrity of the battery than the TI.

  8. Flow-Assisted Alkaline Battery: Low-Cost Grid-Scale Electrical Storage using a Flow-Assisted Rechargeable Zinc-Manganese Dioxide Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-15

    GRIDS Project: Traditional consumer-grade disposable batteries are made of Zinc and Manganese, 2 inexpensive, abundant, and non-toxic metals. But these disposable batteries can only be used once. If they are recharged, the Zinc in the battery develops filaments called dendrites that grow haphazardly and disrupt battery performance, while the Manganese quickly loses its ability to store energy. CUNY Energy Institute is working to tame dendrite formation and to enhance the lifetime of Manganese in order to create a long-lasting, fully rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. CUNY Energy Institute is also working to reduce dendrite formation by pumping fluid through the battery, enabling researchers to fix the dendrites as theyre forming. The team has already tested its Zinc battery through 3,000 recharge cycles (and counting). CUNY Energy Institute aims to demonstrate a better cycle life than lithium-ion batteries, which can be up to 20 times more expensive than Zinc-based batteries.

  9. Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J.

    2012-06-21

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  10. Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End-of-Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; Gaines, Linda; Barnes, Matthew; Sullivan, John L.; Wang, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn₂O₄). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn₂O₄ as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  11. Leading experts to speak at battery & energy storage technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including: new battery chemistries, battery longevity and performance, energy storage in electric grid applications and the latest developments in fuel cells and flow batteries. ...

  12. EERE Success Story-Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries EERE Success Story-Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries August 19, 2013 - ...

  13. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  14. The Science of Battery Degradation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, John P; Fenton, Kyle R; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid; Harris, Charles Thomas; Hayden, Carl C.; Hudak, Nicholas; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse; Leung, Kevin; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Sugar, Joshua Daniel; Talin, Albert Alec; Tenney, Craig M; Zavadil, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy changes little with degradation but the origin of degradation in cathodes is kinetic in nature, i.e. lower rate cycling recovers lost capacity. Finally, our modeling of electrode-electrolyte interfaces revealed that electrolyte degradation may occur by either a single or double electron transfer process depending on thickness of the solid-electrolyte- interphase layer, and this cross-over can be modeled and predicted.

  15. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-05

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

  16. Redox Mediators that Promote Three-Dimensional Growth of Li2S on Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Collectors in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 21, 2015, Research Highlights Redox Mediators that Promote Three-Dimensional Growth of Li2S on Carbon Current Collectors in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Controlling the electrodeposition of Li2S onto C using a redox mediator, BPI. With BPI, sulfur utilization improves in Li-S cells due to remote reduction of polysulfides to Li2S. Scientific Achievement Developed, from computation and experiment, redox

  17. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, James H.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  18. Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Battery Management System (BMS) for Grid-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawder, M. T.; Suthar, B.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Hoff, C. M.; Leitermann, O.; Crow, M. L.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Subramanian, V. R.

    2014-05-07

    The current electric grid is an inefficient system that wastes significant amounts of the electricity it produces because there is a disconnect between the amount of energy consumers require and the amount of energy produced from generation sources. Power plants typically produce more power than necessary to ensure adequate power quality. By taking advantage of energy storage within the grid, many of these inefficiencies can be removed. Advanced modeling is required when using battery energy storage systems (BESS) for grid storage in order to accurately monitor and control the storage system. Battery management systems (BMS) control how the storage system will be used and a BMS that utilizes advanced physics-based models will offer for much more robust operation of the storage system. The paper outlines the current state of the art for modeling in BMS and the advanced models required to fully utilize BMS for both lithium-ion batteries and vanadium redox-flow batteries. In addition, system architecture and how it can be useful in monitoring and control is discussed. A pathway for advancing BMS to better utilize BESS for grid-scale applications is outlined.

  19. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2016-03-22

    An electrolyte may include compounds of general Formula IVA or IVB. ##STR00001## where, R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 are each independently selected from H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO.sub.2, alkyl, haloalkyl, and alkoxy groups; X and Y are each independently O, S, N, or P; and Z' is a linkage between X and Y, and at least one of R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 is other than H.

  20. Battery separator assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faust, M.A.; Suchanski, M.R.; Osterhoudt, H.W.

    1988-05-03

    A separator assembly for use in batteries is described comprising a film bearing a thermal fuse in the form of a layer of wax coated fibers; wherein the assembly is sufficiently porous to allow continuous flow of ions in the battery.

  1. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    no influence on the selection of batteries. * The battery charger could be used to charge a single battery, single battery bank, multiple batteries or multiple battery banks * The ...

  2. Electrolyte Genome Could Be Battery Game-Changer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Electrolytes are a stumbling block for many battery technologies, whether the platform is designed for electric vehicles or a flow battery for grid applications," Persson said. ...

  3. Battery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B; Andrew, Michael G

    2013-08-27

    A battery module includes a plurality of battery cells and a system configured for passing a fluid past at least a portion of the plurality of battery cells in a parallel manner.

  4. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information...

  5. Stack developments in a kW class all vanadium mixed acid redox flow battery at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reed, David M.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Li, Bin; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Kizewski, James P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-11-21

    Over the past several years, efforts have been focused on improving the performance of kW class stacks with increasing current density. The influence of the Nafion membrane resistance, an interdigitated design to reduce the pressure drop in the electrolyte circuit, the temperature of the electrolyte, and the electrode structure will be discussed and correlated to the electrical performance. Furthermore, improvements to the stack energy efficiency and how those translate to the overall system efficiency will also be discussed.

  6. Flow Battery Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through a cell that converts chemical energy to electricity. ... variability of windsolar power generation (load leveling), ... Sandia has created a family of liquid salt electrolytes, ...

  7. Research Highlights - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 1, 2015, Research Highlights Recent Developments and Trends in Redox Flow Batteries The recent activity for redox flow batteries and semi-flow systems was compiled and ...

  8. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information The Department of Energy's 'Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed high-performance thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high energy densities, can be recharged thousands of times, and are only 10 microns thick. They can be made in essentially any size

  9. battery2.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safe Battery for Replacing Lithium Batteries 1. Submitting Organization Sandia ... battery that improves on traditional batteries in consumer and environmental safety ...

  10. Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries hold the promise to achieve higher energy density ascribed ... of capacity fading in flow batteries employing organic radical-based redox ...

  11. Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - Poster...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Based Blend Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Alan Cisar, Lynntech PDF icon ESS 2012 ... Composite Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Alan Cisar, Lynntech PDF icon ESS 2012 ...

  12. NREL to Research Revolutionary Battery Storage Approaches in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that operates similar to a flow battery, where chemical energy is stored in liquid anolytes and catholytes that flow through an electrode to charge and discharge the system. ...

  13. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  14. Battery Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management ...

  15. Linkages of DOE'S Energy Storage R & D to Batteries and Ultracapacitor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and EVs, and NiMH and Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. ... by expert and document review, supplemented by selected ... the Stability of Aromatic Redox Shuttles for Overcharge ...

  16. Circulating current battery heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  17. Extended Battery Life in Electric Vehicles | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Fuel Cell Bus Uses New Durathon(tm) Battery 3-4-2-v A World-Class Traction Motor for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Q&A About Electric Vehicle Flow Battery Technology

  18. An Organophosphine Oxide Redox Shuttle Additive that Delivers Long-term

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium-ion Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 4, 2015, Research Highlights An Organophosphine Oxide Redox Shuttle Additive that Delivers Long-term Overcharge Protection for 4 V Lithium-ion Batteries Organophosphine oxide groups not only can provide suitable steric protection of the generated radical cation, but also can increase the redox potential to 4.5 V, which is suitable for overcharge protection of LiMn2O4 cathode material Scientific

  19. Lithium battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, H.; Nakaido, S.; Narukara, S.

    1983-08-16

    In a lithium battery having a negative electrode formed with lithium as active material and the positive electrode formed with manganese dioxide, carbon fluoride or the like as the active material, the discharge capacity of the negative electrode is made smaller than the discharge capacity of the positive electrode, whereby a drop in the battery voltage during the final discharge stage is steepened, and prevents a device using such a lithium battery as a power supply from operating in an unstable manner, thereby improving the reliability of such device.

  20. Primary and secondary battery consumption trends in Sweden 1996–2013: Method development and detailed accounting by battery type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrício, João; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Berg, Per E.O.; Rosado, Leonardo; Åberg, Helena

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Developed MFA method was validated by the national statistics. • Exponential increase of EEE sales leads to increase in integrated battery consumption. • Digital convergence is likely to be a cause for primary batteries consumption decline. • Factors for estimation of integrated batteries in EE are provided. • Sweden reached the collection rates defined by European Union. - Abstract: In this article, a new method based on Material Flow Accounting is proposed to study detailed material flows in battery consumption that can be replicated for other countries. The method uses regularly available statistics on import, industrial production and export of batteries and battery-containing electric and electronic equipment (EEE). To promote method use by other scholars with no access to such data, several empirically results and their trends over time, for different types of batteries occurrence among the EEE types are provided. The information provided by the method can be used to: identify drivers of battery consumption; study the dynamic behavior of battery flows – due to technology development, policies, consumers behavior and infrastructures. The method is exemplified by the study of battery flows in Sweden for years 1996–2013. The batteries were accounted, both in units and weight, as primary and secondary batteries; loose and integrated; by electrochemical composition and share of battery use between different types of EEE. Results show that, despite a fivefold increase in the consumption of rechargeable batteries, they account for only about 14% of total use of portable batteries. Recent increase in digital convergence has resulted in a sharp decline in the consumption of primary batteries, which has now stabilized at a fairly low level. Conversely, the consumption of integrated batteries has increased sharply. In 2013, 61% of the total weight of batteries sold in Sweden was collected, and for the particular case of alkaline manganese dioxide batteries, the value achieved 74%.

  1. Bipolar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  2. Redox Biochemistry | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Redox Biochemistry We study biomolecular reactions that convert electrochemical energy into chemical bonds of reduced products. This research advances the development of enzyme-based and microbial-based systems for the production of energy compounds and carriers. Illustration of an H-cluster and the conserved proton-transfer pathway (labeled with an arrow as PT) in [FeFe]-hydrogenase. A cartoon of a grey blob represents the structure with surface representations of blue spirals and helixes. An

  3. YIA6 - Potash > Young Investigator Program > Research > The Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid Power: Utilizing Redox Active Liquids as Active Material in Redox Flow Batteries ... are highly soluble in common battery solvents and can even be liquids themselves. ...

  4. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies 2012 DOE ...

  5. New Battery Testing Facility Could Boost Future of Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat transfer and fluid flow experiments have been used to design battery packs. The laboratory's computer-aided design expertise can project the thermal performance of modules and ...

  6. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffat, Harry K.; John Hewson, Victor Brunini

    2013-09-24

    CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery adds constitutive models on top of the CanTrilBat framework. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery contains constitutive models for the electrode behavior when more than one electrode heterogeneous surface is reacting. This is a novel capability within the battery community. These models are named as the “Electrode_MultiPlateau” model.

  7. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-24

    CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery adds constitutive models on top of the CanTrilBat framework. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery contains constitutive models for the electrode behavior when more than one electrode heterogeneous surface is reacting. This is a novel capability within the battery community. These models are named as the “Electrode_MultiPlateau”more » model.« less

  8. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet requirements for all applications, research into cathodes for Li-ion batteries is, as of this writing, a very active field.

  9. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inventors: Weng, Wei ; Zhang, Zhengcheng ; Amine, Khalil Issue Date: 2016-03-22 OSTI Identifier: 1243310 Assignee: UCHICAGO ARGONNE, LLC (Chicago, IL) CHO Patent Number(s): ...

  10. City of Painesville, Ohio Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    with an additional 212 created by 2016 Energy costs will be reduced Power quality will be improved Carbon emissions will be reduced by 24,000 metric tons ...

  11. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  12. Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-17

    Sodium-metal chloride batteries, ZEBRA, are considered as one of the most important electrochemical devices for stationary energy storage applications because of its advantages of good cycle life, safety, and reliability. However, sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries, the most promising redox chemistry in ZEBRA batteries, still face great challenges for the practical application due to its inevitable feature of using Ni cathode (high materials cost). In this work, a novel intermediate-temperature sodium-iron chloride (Na-FeCl2) battery using a molten sodium anode and Fe cathode is proposed and demonstrated. The first use of unique sulfur-based additives in Fe cathode enables Na-FeCl2 batteries can be assembled in the discharged state and operated at intermediate-temperature (<200°C). The results in this work demonstrate that intermediate-temperature Na-FeCl2 battery technology could be a propitious solution for ZEBRA battery technologies by replacing the traditional Na-NiCl2 chemistry.

  13. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  14. Piezonuclear battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  15. Zinc-chlorine battery plant system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whittlesey, Curtis C.; Mashikian, Matthew S.

    1981-01-01

    A zinc-chlorine battery plant system and method of redirecting the electrical current around a failed battery module. The battery plant includes a power conditioning unit, a plurality of battery modules connected electrically in series to form battery strings, a plurality of battery strings electrically connected in parallel to the power conditioning unit, and a bypass switch for each battery module in the battery plant. The bypass switch includes a normally open main contact across the power terminals of the battery module, and a set of normally closed auxiliary contacts for controlling the supply of reactants electrochemically transformed in the cells of the battery module. Upon the determination of a failure condition, the bypass switch for the failed battery module is energized to close the main contact and open the auxiliary contacts. Within a short time, the electrical current through the battery module will substantially decrease due to the cutoff of the supply of reactants, and the electrical current flow through the battery string will be redirected through the main contact of the bypass switch.

  16. Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries Foam-base graphene keeps oxygen flowing in batteries that holds promise for electric vehicles January 25, 2012 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 Using a new approach, the team built a graphene membrane for use in lithium-air batteries, which could, one day, replace conventional batteries in electric vehicles. Resembling coral, this porous graphene material

  17. Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries Foam-base graphene keeps oxygen flowing in ...

  18. Optima Batteries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Optima Batteries Jump to: navigation, search Name: Optima Batteries Place: Milwaukee, WI Website: www.optimabatteries.com References: Optima Batteries1 Information About...

  19. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Authors: ...

  20. A Subtractive Approach to Molecular Engineering of Dimethoxybenzene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Subtractive Approach to Molecular Engineering of Dimethoxybenzene-based Redox Materials for Nonaqueous Flow Batteries Images for Nonaqueous Flow Batteries Scientific Achievement ...

  1. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  2. Anodes for Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Charles F.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss, "constructive corrosion" as it occurs in power generated devices, specifically batteries.

  3. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  4. Redox probing study of the potential dependence of charge transport through Li2O2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knudsen, Kristian B.; Luntz, Alan C.; Jensen, Søren H.; Vegge, Tejs; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-11-20

    In the field of energy storage devices the pursuit for cheap, high energy density, reliable secondary batteries is at the top of the agenda. The Li–O2 battery is one of the possible technologies that, in theory, should be able to close the gap, which exists between the present state-of-the-art Li-ion technologies and the demand placed on batteries by technologies such as electrical vehicles. Here we present a redox probing study of the charge transfer across the main deposition product lithium peroxide, Li2O2, in the Li–O2 battery using outer-sphere redox shuttles. The change in heterogeneous electron transfer exchange rate as amore » function of the potential and the Li2O2 layer thickness (~depth-of-discharge) was determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the attenuation of the electron transfer exchange rate with film thickness is dependent on the probing potential, providing evidence that hole transport is the dominant process for charge transfer through Li2O2 and showing that the origin of the sudden death observed upon discharge is due to charge transport limitations.« less

  5. In the wake of high-profile battery fires, a safer approach emerges...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of LIBs originates with their electrolytes, the substance that allows ions to flow between the electrodes of the battery. The electrolyte usually contains a flammable liquid. ...

  6. AGM Batteries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: AGM Batteries Ltd Place: United Kingdom Product: Manufactures lithium-ion cells and batteries for AEA Battery Systems Ltd. References: AGM Batteries Ltd1...

  7. Lower Cost, Nanoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separator - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Although the polyolefin polymer material often used for lithium battery separators costs approximately 1.30kg, the difficult process used to make it porous, to allow the flow of ...

  8. A class of polysulfide catholytes for lithium-sulfur batteries: energy density, cyclability, and voltage enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, XW; Manthiram, A

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-phase polysulfide catholytes are attracting much attention in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries as they provide a facile dispersion and homogeneous distribution of the sulfur active material in the conductive matrix. However, the organic solvents used in lithium-polysulfide (Li-PS) batteries play an important role and have an impact on the physico-chemical characteristics of polysulfides. For instance, significantly higher voltages (similar to 2.7 V) of the S/S-n(2-) (4 <= n <= 8) redox couple are observed in Li-PS batteries with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvents. Accordingly, high power Li-PS batteries are presented here with the catholyte prepared with NMP solvent and operated with the highly reversible sulfur/long-chain polysulfide redox couple. On the other hand, a remarkable cyclability enhancement of the Li-PS battery is observed with the long-chain, ether-based tetraglyme (TEGDME) solvent. The voltage enhancement and the cyclability enhancement of the Li-PS batteries are attributed to the solvation effect, viscosity, and volatility of the solvents. Finally, highly concentrated polysulfide catholytes are successfully synthesized, with which high energy density Li-PS batteries are demonstrated by employing a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) fabric electrode.

  9. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  10. Energy Storage Systems 2014 Peer Review Presentations - Session...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Energy Storage Systems 2014 Peer Review Presentations - Session 2 OE's Energy Storage ... Advances in PNNL's Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery Stack - David Reed, PNNL PDF icon Redox ...

  11. Electric Vehicle Battery Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-20

    DIANE is used to analyze battery performance in electric vehicle (EV) applications. The principal objective of DIANE is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile. Two releases are included with the package. Diane21 has a graphics capability; DIANENP has no graphics capability.

  12. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Batteries from Brine Batteries from Brine March 31, 2014 - 2:59pm Addthis Low-temp geothermal technologies are meeting a growing demand for strategic materials in clean manufacturing. Here, lithium is extracted from geothermal brines in California. Low-temp geothermal technologies are meeting a growing demand for strategic materials in clean manufacturing. Here, lithium is extracted from geothermal brines in California. Consumer uses of lithium batteries have soared over the last decade,

  13. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  14. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  15. RedFlow | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in order to 'commercialise the proprietary flowing electrolyte battery and the integrated energy storage systems'. Coordinates: -27.46888, 153.022827 Show Map Loading map......

  16. Battery Cathodes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on new cathodes for lithium-ion batteries has long been directed towards ... processes occurring in operational batteries, including in-situ x-ray techniques at ...

  17. Battery Anodes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The most promising types of advanced batteries currently under production are based on ... Therefore, lithium batteries possess the highest voltage and energy density of all other ...

  18. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    describes DC fast charging's effects on plug-in electric vehicle batteries. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory. PDF icon DC Fast Charge Effects on Battery ...

  19. GBP Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GBP Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: GBP Battery Place: China Product: Shenzhen-China-based maker of Li-Poly and Li-ion batteries suitable for EVs and other applications....

  20. Batteries Breakout Session

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Barriers and Reach Performance Targets Technology Breakthroughs Needed * Get rid of battery thermal management system - Need chemistry stable at high temp (good at low T) * Low...

  1. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update of NREL's battery thermal characterization efforts for the 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Annual Merit Reviews.

  2. Battery SEAB Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery SEAB Presentation Battery SEAB Presentation PDF icon Battery SEAB Presentation More Documents & Publications Overview of Battery R&D Activities Hybrid Electric Systems Overview of Battery R&D Activities

  3. Prieto Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Zip: 80526 Product: Colorado-based startup company that is developing lithium ion batteries based on nano-structured materials. References: Prieto Battery1 This...

  4. Phylion Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phylion Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: Phylion Battery Place: Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 215011 Sector: Vehicles Product: Jiangsu-province-based producer of...

  5. Battery Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Ventures (Boston) Name: Battery Ventures (Boston) Address: 930 Winter Street, Suite 2500 Place: Waltham, Massachusetts Zip: 02451 Region: Greater Boston Area Product:...

  6. Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture in chemical form makes it storable and transportable January 11, 2011 Contact: John ...

  7. Redox Active Layer-by-Layer Structures containing MnO2 Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazito, Fernanda; O'Brien, Robert; Buttry, Daniel A.

    2005-02-01

    Nanoscale materials provide unique properties that will enable new technologies and enhance older ones. One area of intense activity in which nanoscale materials are being used is in the development of new functional materials for battery applications. This effort promises superior materials with properties that circumvent many of the problems associated with traditional battery materials. Previously we have worked on several approaches for using nanoscale materials for application as cathode materials in rechargeable Li batteries. Our recent work has focused on synthesizing MnO2 nanoparticles and using these in layer-by-layer (LbL) structures to probe the redox properties of the nanoparticles. We show that the aqueous colloidal nanoparticles produced by butanol reduction of tetramethylammonium permanganate can be trapped in thin films using a layer-by-layer deposition approach, and that these films are both redox active and exhibit kinetically facile electrochemical responses. We show cyclic voltammetry of MnO2 colloidal nanoparticles entrapped in a LbL thin film at an ITO electrode surface using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). CV experiments demonstrate that Li+ insertion accompanies Mn(IV) reduction in LiClO4 supporting electrolytes, and that reduction is hindered in supporting electrolytes containing only tetrabutylammonium cations. We also show that electron propagation through multilayer films is facile, suggesting that electrons percolate through the films via electron exchange between nanoparticles.

  8. Presentations | JCESR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Viable Lithium-Sulfur Transportation Battery Kevin Zavadil, JCESR Thrust PI, Chemical Transformation Pathways to Non-aqueous Redox Flow (NRF) Batteries for Grid Storage Fikile ...

  9. Session Chair: John Boyes, SNL TIME PROJECT ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of High Performance Redox Flow Batteries Liu Li - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 11:10 Low Cost, Long Cycle Life, Li-ion Batteries for Stationary Applications Daiwon ...

  10. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  11. Method for characterization of the redox condition of cementitious materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almond, Philip M.; Langton, Christine A.; Stefanko, David B.

    2015-12-22

    Disclosed are methods for determining the redox condition of cementitious materials. The methods are leaching methods that utilize an in situ redox indicator that is present in the cementitious materials as formed. The in situ redox indicator leaches from cementitious material and, when the leaching process is carried out under anaerobic conditions can be utilized to determine the redox condition of the material. The in situ redox indicator can exhibit distinct characteristics in the leachate depending upon the redox condition of the indicator.

  12. Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption ...

  13. Redox systematics of martian magmas with implications for magnetite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Redox systematics of martian magmas with implications for magnetite stability Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Redox ...

  14. Final Report: Manganese Redox Mediation of UO2 Stability and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Redox Mediation of UO2 Stability and Uranium Fate in the Subsurface: Molecular and Meter Scale Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Report: Manganese Redox ...

  15. Research Highlight: Let the Good Times Flow - Joint Center for Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Research October 1, 2015, News Articles Research Highlight: Let the Good Times Flow There are two electrodes in every battery. One electrode, called the cathode, connects to the positive end of the battery and is where the electric current leaves the battery. The other electrode, the anode, connects to the negative end of the battery and is where the electric current enters the battery. The flow of these electrons through an external circuit is what produces the electric current.

  16. Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries Batteries A small New York City startup is hoping it has the next big solution in energy storage. A video documents what the company's breakthrough means for the future of grid-scale energy storage. Learn more. Batteries have changed a lot in the past century, but there is still work to do. Improving this type of energy storage technology will have dramatic impacts on the way Americans travel and the ability to incorporate renewable energy into the nation's electric grid. On the

  17. Polymeric battery separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchak, R. J.; Schenk, W. N.

    1985-06-11

    Configurations of cross-linked or vulcanized amphophilic or quaternized block copolymer of haloalkyl epoxides and hydroxyl terminated alkadiene polymers are useful as battery separators in both primary and secondary batteries, particularly nickel-zinc batteries. The quaternized block copolymers are prepared by polymerizing a haloalkyl epoxide in the presence of a hydroxyl terminated 1,3-alkadiene to form a block copolymer that is then reacted with an amine to form the quaternized or amphophilic block copolymer that is then cured or cross-linked with sulfur, polyamines, metal oxides, organic peroxides and the like.

  18. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  19. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  20. A Hybrid Redox-Supercapacitor System with Anionic Catholyte and Cationic Anolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, B; Macia-Agullo, JA; Prendiville, DG; Zheng, X; Liu, D; Zhang, Y; Boettcher, SW; Ji, X; Stucky, GD

    2014-04-11

    A significant challenge for energy storage technologies is to realize battery-level energy density and capacitor-level durability and power density in one device. By introducing an electrolyte composed of an anionic catholyte and a cationic anolyte into a symmetric carbon-based supercapacitor configuration, a hybrid electrochemical battery-supercapacitor system using soluble redox species delivers significantly improved energy density from 20 to 42 W.h/kg (based on the electrode mass) and stable capacities for > 10(4) cycles. The ionic species formed in the electrolyte are studied by UV-Vis, Raman and mass spectroscopy to probe the energy storage mechanism. The strategy is general and may provide a route to critically-needed fast-charging devices with both high energy density and power. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  1. GP Batteries International Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Limited is principally engaged in the development, manufacture and marketing of batteries and battery-related products. References: GP Batteries International...

  2. Laor Batteries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laor Batteries Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Laor Batteries Ltd. Place: Upper Nazareth, Israel Zip: 17105 Product: develops and distributes lead-acid batteries for variety...

  3. Aerospatiale Batteries ASB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aerospatiale Batteries ASB Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aerospatiale Batteries (ASB) Place: France Product: Research, design and manufacture of Thermal Batteries. References:...

  4. Advanced Battery Factory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Factory Place: Shen Zhen City, Guangdong Province, China Product: Producers of lithium polymer batteries, established in 1958. References: Advanced Battery Factory1 This...

  5. Ningbo Veken Battery Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Ningbo Veken Battery Company Place: China Product: Ningbo-based maker of Lithium polymer, aluminum-shell and lithium power batteries. References: Ningbo Veken Battery...

  6. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  7. RPM Flywheel Battery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RPM Flywheel Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: RPM Flywheel Battery Place: California Product: Start-up planning to develop, produce, and market flywheel batteries for...

  8. Ford Electric Battery Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Battery Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ford Electric Battery Group Place: Dearborn, MI References: Ford Battery1 Information About Partnership with NREL...

  9. Carbon Micro Battery LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro Battery LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC Place: California Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC, technology developer of micro and...

  10. Intellect Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Intellect Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Intellect Battery Co Ltd Place: Guangdong Province, China Product: Producer of NiMH rechargeable batteries and...

  11. Batteries and Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPOTLIGHT Batteries and Energy Storage Argonne's all- encompassing battery research ... We develop more robust, safer and higher-energy density lithium-ion batteries, while using ...

  12. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Battery Basics Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid ... Batteries have three main parts, each of which plays a different role: the anode, cathode, ...

  13. Depletion Aggregation > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Depletion Aggregation We are exploring a number of synthetic strategies to ...

  14. NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries A genomics approach to materials research could speed up advancements in battery performance December ...

  15. Overcharge Protection Prevents Exploding Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overcharge Protection Prevents Exploding Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National ... conditions in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, i.e., exploding lithium ion batteries. ...

  16. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  17. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  18. Battery Life Predictive Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a model used to predict battery capacity fade and resistance growth for arbitrary cycling and temperature profiles. It allows the user to extrapolate from experimental data to predict actual life cycle.

  19. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  20. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  1. battery electrode percolating network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery electrode percolating network - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  2. battery2.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-1982J Solid-State Environmentally Safe Battery for Replacing Lithium Batteries 1. Submitting Organization Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800, MS 1033 Albuquerque, NM USA 87158-1033 Randy A. Normann (505) 845-9675, (505) 844-3952 (fax), ranorma@sandia.gov Affi rmation I affi rm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is fair and accurate representation of this product. ________________________________________________________________ Submitter Signature

  3. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Title Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

  4. Electrode-active material for electrochemical batteries and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Ravi

    1987-01-01

    A battery electrode material comprising a non-stoichiometric electrode-active material which forms a redox pair with the battery electrolyte, an electrically conductive polymer present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 5% by weight of the electrode-active material, and a binder. The conductive polymer provides improved proton or ion conductivity and is a ligand resulting in metal ion or negative ion vacancies of less than about 0.1 atom percent. Specific electrodes of nickel and lead are disclosed.

  5. Electrode-active material for electrochemical batteries and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, R.

    1983-11-07

    A battery electrode material comprises a non-stoichiometric electrode-active material which forms a redox pair with the battery electrolyte, an electrically conductive polymer present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 5% by weight of the electrode-active material, and a binder. The conductive polymer provides improved proton or ion conductivity and is a ligand resulting in metal ion or negative ion vacancies of less than about 0.1 atom percent. Specific electrodes of nickel and lead are disclosed.

  6. New sealed rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, B.M. ); Dowgiallo, E. ); Halpert, G. ); Matsuda, Y. ); Takehara, Z.I. )

    1993-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: supercapacitors; nickel-metal hydride batteries; lithium polymer batteries; lithium/carbon batteries; cathode materials; and lithium batteries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers of this conference.

  7. Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

    2014-07-29

    A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

  8. Category:Battery makers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery makers Jump to: navigation, search Pages in category "Battery makers" The following 5 pages are in this category, out of 5 total. B Battery Ventures F Ford Electric Battery...

  9. Testimonials- Partnerships in Battery Technologies- CalBattery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Phil Roberts, CEO and Founder of California Lithium Battery (CalBattery), describes the new growth and development that was possible through partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Battery, heal thyself: Inventing self-repairing batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery, heal thyself: Inventing self-repairing batteries By Louise Lerner * January 11, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Imagine dropping your phone on the hard concrete sidewalk-but when...

  11. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Fact ...

  12. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  13. Battery venting system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  14. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  15. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  16. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Breakout Session Report | Department of Energy next-generation_li-ion_b.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and Manufacturing Breakout Session Report Overview and Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies

  17. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  18. Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell > Research Highlights...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced...

  19. MICROSCALE METABOLIC, REDOX AND ABIOTIC REACTIONS IN HANFORD 300 AREA SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beyenal, Haluk; McLEan, Jeff; Majors, Paul; Fredrickson, Jim

    2013-11-14

    The Hanford 300 Area is a unique site due to periodic hydrologic influence of river water resulting in changes in groundwater elevation and flow direction. This area is also highly subject to uranium remobilization, the source of which is currently believed to be the region at the base of the vadose zone that is subject to period saturation due to the changes in the water levels in the Columbia River. We found that microbial processes and redox and abiotic reactions which operate at the microscale were critical to understanding factors controlling the macroscopic fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. The combined laboratory and field research showed how microscale conditions control uranium mobility and how biotic, abiotic and redox reactions relate to each other. Our findings extended the current knowledge to examine U(VI) reduction and immobilization using natural 300 Area communities as well as selected model organisms on redox-sensitive and redox-insensitive minerals. Using innovative techniques developed specifically to probe biogeochemical processes at the microscale, our research expanded our current understanding of the roles played by mineral surfaces, bacterial competition, and local biotic, abiotic and redox reaction rates on the reduction and immobilization of uranium.

  20. Safe battery solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  1. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  2. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  3. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paquette, David G.

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  4. Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoog, Roelof; Barbotin, Jean-Loup

    1999-11-16

    The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

  5. China Hyper Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Hyper Battery Co Ltd Place: Shenzhen, China Zip: 518048 Product: Manufacturer and exporter of batteries and battery packs....

  6. Closure device for lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1983-01-01

    A closure device for lead-acid batteries includes a filter of granulated activated carbon treated to be hydrophobic combined with means for preventing explosion of emitted hydrogen and oxygen gas. The explosion prevention means includes a vertical open-end tube within the closure housing for maintaining a liquid level above side wall openings in an adjacent closed end tube. Gases vent from the battery through a nozzle directed inside the closed end tube against an impingement surface to remove acid droplets. The gases then flow through the side wall openings and the liquid level to quench any possible ignition prior to entering the activated carbon filter. A wick in the activated carbon filter conducts condensed liquid back to the closure housing to replenish the liquid level limited by the open-end tube.

  7. Transitions from near-surface to interior redox upon lithiation in conversion electrode materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Kai; Xin, Huolin L.; Zhao, Kejie; Yu, Xiqian; Norlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Li, Jing; Jiang, Yi; Cadigan, Christopher A.; Richards, Ryan M.; et al

    2015-01-29

    Nanoparticle electrodes in lithium-ion batteries have both near-surface and interior contributions to their redox capacity, each with distinct rate capabilities. Using combined electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray methods and ab initio calculations, we have investigated the lithiation pathways that occur in NiO electrodes. We find that the near-surface electroactive (Ni²⁺→Ni⁰) sites saturated very quickly, and then encounter unexpected difficulty in propagating the phase transition into the electrode (referred to as a “shrinking-core” mode). However, the interior capacity for Ni²⁺→Ni⁰ can be accessed efficiently following the nucleation of lithiation “fingers” which propagate into the sample bulk, but only after a certain incubationmore » time. Our microstructural observations of the transition from a slow shrinking-core mode to a faster lithiation finger mode corroborate with synchrotron characterization of large-format batteries, and can be rationalized by stress effects on transport at high-rate discharge. The finite incubation time of the lithiation fingers sets the intrinsic limitation for the rate capability (and thus the power) of NiO for electrochemical energy storage devices. The present work unravels the link between the nanoscale reaction pathways and the C-rate-dependent capacity loss, and provides guidance for the further design of battery materials that favors high C-rate charging.« less

  8. Transitions from near-surface to interior redox upon lithiation in conversion electrode materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Kai; Xin, Huolin L.; Zhao, Kejie; Yu, Xiqian; Norlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Li, Jing; Jiang, Yi; Cadigan, Christopher A.; Richards, Ryan M.; Doeff, Marca M.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Stach, Eric A.; Li, Ju; Lin, Feng; Su, Dong

    2015-01-29

    Nanoparticle electrodes in lithium-ion batteries have both near-surface and interior contributions to their redox capacity, each with distinct rate capabilities. Using combined electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray methods and ab initio calculations, we have investigated the lithiation pathways that occur in NiO electrodes. We find that the near-surface electroactive (Ni²⁺→Ni⁰) sites saturated very quickly, and then encounter unexpected difficulty in propagating the phase transition into the electrode (referred to as a “shrinking-core” mode). However, the interior capacity for Ni²⁺→Ni⁰ can be accessed efficiently following the nucleation of lithiation “fingers” which propagate into the sample bulk, but only after a certain incubation time. Our microstructural observations of the transition from a slow shrinking-core mode to a faster lithiation finger mode corroborate with synchrotron characterization of large-format batteries, and can be rationalized by stress effects on transport at high-rate discharge. The finite incubation time of the lithiation fingers sets the intrinsic limitation for the rate capability (and thus the power) of NiO for electrochemical energy storage devices. The present work unravels the link between the nanoscale reaction pathways and the C-rate-dependent capacity loss, and provides guidance for the further design of battery materials that favors high C-rate charging.

  9. Evolutionary Design of Low Molecular Weight Organic Anolyte Materials for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications in Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 30, 2015, Research Highlights Evolutionary Design of Low Molecular Weight Organic Anolyte Materials for Applications in Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries Images for Organic Anolyte Materials Scientific Achievement All-organic anolyte materials for nonaqueous redox flow batteries with high stability at all redox states were designed through an iterative study. Anolyte materials exhibit two chemically

  10. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  11. Analysis of Battery Wear and V2G Benefits Using Real-world Drive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Battery Wear and V2G Benefits Using Real-world Drive Cycles and Ambient Data Analysis ... More Documents & Publications AVTA: Vehicle to Grid Power Flow Regulations and Building ...

  12. Redox chemistry and metal-insulator transitions intertwined | Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Redox chemistry and metal-insulator transitions intertwined

  13. Methods for using redox liposome biosensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Quan; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and compositions for detecting the presence of biologically-important analytes by using redox liposome biosensors. In particular, the present invention provides liposome/sol-gel electrodes suitable for the detection of a wide variety of organic molecules, including but not limited to bacterial toxins.

  14. High Energy Density Na-S/NiCl2 Hybrid Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Lemmon, John P.; Kim, Jin Yong; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-15

    High temperature (250-350C) sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) are attractive energy storage devices for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications. Currently, two technologies are commercially available in NBBs, e.g., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. In this study, we investigated the combination of these two chemistries with a mixed cathode. In particular, the cathode of the cell consisted of molten NaAlCl4 as a catholyte and a mixture of Ni, NaCl and Na2S as active materials. During cycling, two reversible plateaus were observed in cell voltage profiles, which matched electrochemical reactions for Na-S and Na-NiCl2 redox couples. An irreversible reaction between sulfur species and Ni was identified during initial charge at 280C, which caused a decrease in cell capacity. The final products on discharge included Na2Sn with 1< n < 3, which differed from Na2S3 found in traditional Na-S battery. Reduction of sulfur in the mixed cathode led to an increase in overall energy density over ZEBRA batteries. Despite of the initial drop in cell capacity, the mixed cathode demonstrated relatively stable cycling with more than 95% of capacity retained over 60 cycles under 10mA/cm2. Optimization of the cathode may lead to further improvements in battery performance.

  15. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATTs products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATTs work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease payments for space to the IDA. A commercial venture is being formed to utilize the LiFeBATT product for consumer use in enabling photovoltaic powered boat lifts. Field tests of the system have proven to be very effective and commercially promising. This venture is expected to result in significant sales within the next six months.

  16. Method of assembling and sealing an alkali metal battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, Perry E.; Bell, Jerry E.; Harlow, Richard A.; Chase, Gordon G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of initially assembling and then subsequently hermetically sealing a container portion of an alkali metal battery to a ceramic portion of such a battery is disclosed. Sealing surfaces are formed respectively on a container portion and a ceramic portion of an alkali metal battery. These sealing surfaces are brought into juxtaposition and a material is interposed therebetween. This interposed material is one which will diffuse into sealing relationship with both the container portion and the ceramic portion of the alkali metal battery at operational temperatures of such a battery. A pressure is applied between these sealing surfaces to cause the interposed material to be brought into intimate physical contact with such juxtaposed surfaces. A temporary sealing material which will provide a seal against a flow of alkali metal battery reactants therethrough at room temperatures and is applied over the juxtaposed sealing surfaces and material interposed therebetween. The entire assembly is heated to an operational temperature so that the interposed material diffuses into the container portion and the ceramic portion to form a hermetic seal therebetween. The pressure applied to the juxtaposed sealing surfaces is maintained in order to ensure the continuation of the hermetic seal.

  17. Method of assembling and sealing an alkali metal battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P.E.; Bell, J.E.; Harlow, R.A.; Chase, G.G.

    1983-03-01

    A method of initially assembling and then subsequently hermetically sealing a container portion of an alkali metal battery to a ceramic portion of such a battery is disclosed. Sealing surfaces are formed respectively on a container portion and a ceramic portion of an alkali metal battery. These sealing surfaces are brought into juxtaposition and a material is interposed there between. This interposed material is one which will diffuse into sealing relationship with both the container portion and the ceramic portion of the alkali metal battery at operational temperatures of such a battery. A pressure is applied between these sealing surfaces to cause the interposed material to be brought into intimate physical contact with such juxtaposed surfaces. A temporary sealing material which will provide a seal against a flow of alkali metal battery reactants there through at room temperatures and is applied over the juxtaposed sealing surfaces and material interposed there between. The entire assembly is heated to an operational temperature so that the interposed material diffuses into the container portion and the ceramic portion to form a hermetic seal there between. The pressure applied to the juxtaposed sealing surfaces is maintained in order to ensure the continuation of the hermetic seal. 4 figs.

  18. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  19. Redox probing study of the potential dependence of charge transport through Li2O2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudsen, Kristian B.; Luntz, Alan C.; Jensen, Søren H.; Vegge, Tejs; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-11-20

    In the field of energy storage devices the pursuit for cheap, high energy density, reliable secondary batteries is at the top of the agenda. The Li–O2 battery is one of the possible technologies that, in theory, should be able to close the gap, which exists between the present state-of-the-art Li-ion technologies and the demand placed on batteries by technologies such as electrical vehicles. Here we present a redox probing study of the charge transfer across the main deposition product lithium peroxide, Li2O2, in the Li–O2 battery using outer-sphere redox shuttles. The change in heterogeneous electron transfer exchange rate as a function of the potential and the Li2O2 layer thickness (~depth-of-discharge) was determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the attenuation of the electron transfer exchange rate with film thickness is dependent on the probing potential, providing evidence that hole transport is the dominant process for charge transfer through Li2O2 and showing that the origin of the sudden death observed upon discharge is due to charge transport limitations.

  20. Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture in chemical form makes it storable and transportable January 11, 2011 Contact: John Hules, JAHules@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 6008 2011-01-11-Heat-Battery.jpg A molecule of fulvalene diruthenium, seen in diagram, changes its configuration when it absorbs heat, and later releases heat when it snaps back to its original shape. Image: Jeffrey Grossman Broadly speaking, there have been two approaches to capturing the

  1. Battery Chargers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Chargers Battery Chargers The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. File Battery Chargers -- v1.0 More Documents & Publications Illuminated Exit Signs

  2. Washington: Battery Manufacturer Brings Material Production Home...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    can be used in ultracapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and advanced lead acid batteries. ... EnerG2 Ribbon Cutting Ceremony for new battery materials plant in Albany, Oregon. Photo ...

  3. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery...

  4. Category:Batteries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    9 pages are in this category, out of 9 total. * Definition:Battery B Batteries and Energy Storage Technology BEST L Definition:Lead-acid battery L cont. Definition:DIY...

  5. SANIK Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SANIK Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: SANIK Battery Co., Ltd. Place: China Product: Foshan City-based NiCd and NiMH rechargeable batteries producer for smaller...

  6. JYH Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    JYH Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: JYH Battery Co, Ltd Place: China Product: China-based maker of NiMH rechargeable batteries, also with some NiCd and Li-ion...

  7. Beijing Tianruichi Battery TRC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianruichi Battery TRC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Tianruichi Battery (TRC) Place: China Product: China-based maker of Li-Poly, Li-Iron and Li-Ion batteries....

  8. Overview of Battery R&D Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    US Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program Overview of Battery R&D Activities ... eere.energy.gov VTP Battery R&D Battery affordability and performance are the keys. ...

  9. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  10. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  11. Battery Abuse Testing Laboratory (BATLab)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management ...

  12. EV Everywhere Challenge Battery Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Backsplash for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree O'Hare, Chicago, IL.

  13. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes Computations at NERSC show how multiply charged metal ions impact battery capacity June 30, 2014 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov PCCPxantheascover Imagine a cell phone battery that lasted a whole week on a single charge. A car battery that worked for months between charges. A massive battery that stores the intermittent electricity from wind turbines and releases it when

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  15. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  16. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  17. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  18. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how

  19. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  20. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  1. Horizon Batteries formerly Electrosource | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Batteries formerly Electrosource Jump to: navigation, search Name: Horizon Batteries (formerly Electrosource) Place: Texas Sector: Vehicles Product: Manufacturer of high-power,...

  2. Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies ...

  3. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic ...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Battery Development, System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Battery Environment (VIBE) platform are playing key roles in developing flexible and expandable modular architectures that enable battery performance prediction and design. ...

  5. Kayo Battery Industries Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    started by Hong Kong Highpower Technology and Japan Kayo Group, active in producing Lithium and NiMH batteries for various applications including batteries suitable for...

  6. Bullith Batteries AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Batteries AG Place: Ismaning, Germany Zip: 85737 Product: Batteries producer using the lithium-polymer technology. Coordinates: 48.22727, 11.676305 Show Map Loading map......

  7. TCL Hyperpower Batteries Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Batteries, Inc Place: China Product: China-based subsidiary of TCL Group, they make Lithium Polymer, NiMH and Primary batteries, primarily for smaller devices. References: TCL...

  8. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results

  9. Zibo Storage Battery Factory | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Storage Battery Factory Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zibo Storage Battery Factory Place: Zibo, Shandong Province, China Zip: 255056 Product: China-based affiliate of CSIC...

  10. Electric Fuel Battery Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Battery Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electric Fuel Battery Corporation Place: Auburn, Alabama Zip: 36832 Product: Develops and manufactures BA-8180U high...

  11. American Battery Charging Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Battery Charging Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Battery Charging Inc Place: Smithfield, Rhode Island Zip: 2917 Product: Manufacturer of industrial and railroad...

  12. Cathode material for lithium batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Cathode material for lithium batteries A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium ...

  13. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries Title: Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium ...

  14. ETA-UTP008 - Battery Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    conduct of charging the main propulsion batteries installed in an electric vehicle while ... The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance on charging traction batteries during ...

  15. ETA-NTP008 Battery Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    conduct of charging the main propulsion batteries installed in an electric vehicle while ... provide guidance on charging traction batteries during the time the vehicle is being ...

  16. LEESS Battery Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LEESS Battery Development LEESS Battery Development 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ... More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Energy Storage Systems for High Power, ...

  17. Dual Functional Cathode Additives for Battery Technologies -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Marketing Summary Lithium ion batteries are currently the most widely used ... The batteries must be able to charge and discharge quickly as they react to sudden changes ...

  18. Modular Electromechanical Batteries for Storage of Electrical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Modular Electromechanical Batteries for Storage of Electrical Energy for ... "electromechanical batteries" (EMB) designed for land-based vehicular applications. ...

  19. Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium-Ion Batteries Predictive computer models for ... Technology Marketing SummaryDesign. Build. Test. Break. Repeat. Developing batteries is an ...

  20. Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance ...

  1. BIFUNCTIONAL ELECTROLYTES FOR LITHIUM ION BATTERIES | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Bifunctional Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries Bifunctional Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries Progress in Electrolyte Component R&D within ...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Battery Research Partner Requests...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (Li-ion) batteries used in vehicle applications while still meeting the USABC goals. ... Management System for Lithium-ion Batteries Used in Vehicle Applications," visit the ...

  3. Self-Regulating, Nonflamable Rechargeable Lithium Batteries ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryRechargeable lithium batteries are superior to ...

  4. Battery Life Predictor Model - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current practices require that batteries be oversized by design in order to meet the ... NREL scientists have developed a software model that analyzes the performance of batteries ...

  5. Disordered Materials Hold Promise for Better Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disordered materials hold promise for better batteries Disordered Materials Hold Promise for Better Batteries February 21, 2014 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov ...

  6. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: ... Improving charge time and these other battery characteristics could significantly expand ...

  7. Ovonic Battery Company Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Ovonic Battery Company Inc Place: Michigan Zip: 48309 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Focused on commercializing its patented and proprietary NiMH battery...

  8. Battery resource assessment. Subtask II. 5. Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pemsler, P.

    1981-02-01

    Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process has been designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs have been developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year. These costs have been developed based on material and energy balances, equipment lists, factored installation costs, and manpower estimates. In general, there are no technological barriers for recycling in the Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine and Zinc/Bromine battery systems. The recycling processes are based on essentially conventional, demonstrate technology. The lead times required to build battery recycling plants based on these processes is comparable to that of any other new plant. The total elapsed time required from inception to plant operation is approximately 3 to 5 y. The recycling process for the sodium/sulfur and lithium-aluminum/sulfide battery systems are not based on conventional technology. In particular, mechanical systems for dismantling these batteries must be developed.

  9. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  10. First-Principles Study of Redox End-Members in Li-Sulfur Batteries - Joint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration First wind turbine blade delivered to Pantex Tuesday, January 14, 2014 - 3:00pm Work crews began to erect the first of five wind turbines that will make up the Pantex Renewable Energy Project (PREP). The first wind turbine blade was delivered to the site last week. When completed this spring, PREP will be the largest federally owned wind farm in the country and will provide approximately 60 percent of the average annual electricity need for the Pantex Plant. First wind turbine

  11. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-10

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  12. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  13. Hydraulic seal battery terminal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadnick, S.J.

    1980-09-23

    A self-sealing battery terminal is described that includes a hydroformed Inconel outer case, a low shear strength sealant material, and a central post in the form of a bolt which acts as both a conductor and transmits the preload from a pair of Belleville washers to a lower ceramic washer. The lower ceramic washer acts like a piston to compress the sealant when the nut on the central post is tightened. The Belleville washers serve to maintain a minimum tension on the central post. A top ceramic washer is held in place by the tension in the central bolt as long as the tension exceeds a minimum value.

  14. Test Report : GS battery, EPC power HES RESCU.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  15. Preparation of ionic membranes for zinc/bromine storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assink, R.A.; Arnold, C. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Zinc/bromine flow batteries are being developed for vehicular and utility load leveling applications. During charge, an aqueous zinc bromide salt is electolyzed to zinc metal and molecular bromine. During discharge, the zinc and bromine react to again form the zinc bromide salt. One serious disadvantage of the microporous separators presently used in the zinc/bromine battery is that modest amounts of bromine and negatively charged bromine moieties permeate through these materials and react with the zinc anode. This results in partial self-discharge of the battery and low coulombic efficiencies. Our approach to this problem is to impregnate the microporous separators with a soluble cationic polyelectrolyte. In laboratory screening tests a sulfonated polysulfone resin and fully fluorinated sulfonic acid polymer substantially reduced bromine permeation with only modest increases in the area resistance. 5 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Battery Life Data Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    The FreedomCar Partnership has established life goals for batteries. Among them is a 15 year calendar life. The software and the underlying methodology attempt to predict cell and battery life using, at most, two years of test data. The software uses statistical models based on data from accelerated aging experiments to estimate cell life. The life model reflects the average cell performance under a given set of stress conditions with time. No specific form ofmore » the life model is assumed. The software will fit the model to experimental data. An error model, reflecting the cell-to-cell variability and measurement errors, is included in the software. Monte Carlo simulations, based on the developed models, are used to assess Lack-of-fit and develop uncertainty limis for the average cell life. The software has three operating modes: fit only, fit and simulation and simulation only. The user is given these options by means of means and alert boxes.« less

  17. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents the objectives and motivations for a battery thermal management vehicle system design study.

  18. BEST (Battery Economics for more Sustainable Transportation)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    Computer software for the simulation of battery economics based on various transportation business models.

  19. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulenova, Alena; Vandegrift, III, George F.

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  20. Fast, Efficient Isothermal Redox to Split Water or Carbon Dioxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast, Efficient Isothermal Redox to Split Water or Carbon Dioxide using Solar Energy ... the hercynite cycle allows faster, more efficient cycling and less wear on the equipment ...

  1. Redox chemistry and metal-insulator transitions intertwined in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Redox chemistry and metal-insulator transitions intertwined in a nano-porous material Previous Next List Sergey N. Maximoff and Berend Smit, Nature Communications 5, 4032 (2014)...

  2. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  3. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, S.J.; Liu, M.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1992-11-10

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145 C (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium trifluorate (PEO[sub 8]LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS)[sub n], and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte. 2 figs.

  4. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Liu, Meilin; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145.degree. C. (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium triflate (PEO.sub.8 LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS).sub.n, and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte.

  5. Solid polymer battery electrolyte and reactive metal-water battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Peterson, Eric S.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2000-01-01

    In one implementation, a reactive metal-water battery includes an anode comprising a metal in atomic or alloy form selected from the group consisting of periodic table Group 1A metals, periodic table Group 2A metals and mixtures thereof. The battery includes a cathode comprising water. Such also includes a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a polyphosphazene comprising ligands bonded with a phosphazene polymer backbone. The ligands comprise an aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion and a metal ion carrier portion. The metal ion carrier portion is bonded at one location with the polymer backbone and at another location with the aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion. The invention also contemplates such solid polymer electrolytes use in reactive metal/water batteries, and in any other battery.

  6. Compact, Interactive Electric Vehicle Charger: Gallium-Nitride Switch Technology for Bi-directional Battery-to-Grid Charger Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    ADEPT Project: HRL Laboratories is using gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors to create battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs) that are more compact and efficient than traditional EV chargers. Reducing the size and weight of the battery charger is important because it would help improve the overall performance of the EV. GaN semiconductors process electricity faster than the silicon semiconductors used in most conventional EV battery chargers. These high-speed semiconductors can be paired with lighter-weight electrical circuit components, which helps decrease the overall weight of the EV battery charger. HRL Laboratories is combining the performance advantages of GaN semiconductors with an innovative, interactive battery-to-grid energy distribution design. This design would support 2-way power flow, enabling EV battery chargers to not only draw energy from the power grid, but also store and feed energy back into it.

  7. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  8. Use of Conducting Polymers for Electronic Communication with Redox Active Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazito, Fernanda; O'Brien, Robert; Buttry, Daniel A.

    2004-08-08

    Nanoscale materials provide unique properties that will enable new technologies and enhance older ones. One area of intense activity in which nanoscale materials are being used is in the development of new functional materials for battery applications.1-4 This effort promises superior materials with properties that circumvent many of the problems associated with traditional battery materials. Previously we have worked on several approaches for using nanoscale materials for application as cathode materials in rechargeable Li batteries.5-11 Our recent work has focused on synthesizing MnO2 nanoparticles and using conducting polymers to electronically address these particles in nanoparticle assemblies. This presentation will focus on those efforts. MnO2 nanoparticles that are encapsulated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) are prepared using 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) as a chemical reductant for permanganate anion. This non-aqueous preparation is based on a recent report of a similar method for preparation of PEDOT-encapsulated Au nanoparticles.12 We also describe the synthesis of MnO2 colloidal nanoparticles prepared using an aqueous route involving reduction of permanganate anion with butanol using a previously described route.13 We report the synthesis and characterization of the PEDOT material, and the aqueous colloidal material. We show that the aqueous colloidal nanoparticles can be trapped in thin films using a layer-by-layer deposition approach, and that these films are both redox active and exhibit kinetically facile electrochemical responses. This is illustrated in Figure 1 below, which shows cyclic voltammetry of MnO2 colloidal nanoparticles entrapped in a thin film at an ITO electrode surface using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA). Finally, we report on the use of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) to characterize the oxidation state and coordination environment around Mn in these materials.

  9. New Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid New Battery Design Could Help Solar and Wind Power the Grid April 24, 2013 - 4:20pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have designed a low-cost, long-life "flow" battery that could enable solar and wind energy to become major suppliers to the electrical grid. The research, led by Yi

  10. Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Henderson, Wesley 25 ENERGY STORAGE battery, electrolyte, solvation, ionic association battery, electrolyte,...

  11. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation Neubauer, J. 25 ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY; LITHIUM-ION; STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE; BLAST; BATTERY DEGRADATION;...

  12. ZAP Advanced Battery Technologies JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    battery manufacturer Advanced Battery Technologies focusing on manufacturing and marketing of advanced batteries for electric cars using the latest in nanotechnology....

  13. PHEV and LEESS Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A 12V Start-Stop Li Polymer Battery Pack PHEV Battery Cost Assessment

  14. Guangzhou Fullriver Battery New Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fullriver Battery New Technology Co, Ltd Place: China Product: China-based maker of Lithium Polymer and Lithium Iron batteries as well protection circuit modules and battery...

  15. KAir Battery Wins Southwest Regional Clean Energy Business Plan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KAir Battery Wins Southwest Regional Clean Energy Business Plan Competition KAir Battery Wins ... According to KAir, these batteries store generated electricity and return 98% of the ...

  16. Hunan Copower EV Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Copower EV Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hunan Copower EV Battery Co Ltd Place: Hunan Province, China Sector: Vehicles Product: Producer of batteries and...

  17. Membranes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Membranes Fig. 1 PEM Fuel Cell Fuel cells are highly efficient devices that ...

  18. EERE Success Story-Washington: Battery Manufacturer Brings Material...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    nano-engineered carbon materials for batteries and other energy storage devices that ... can be used in ultracapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and advanced lead acid batteries. ...

  19. Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) and Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Battery Thermal Modeling ...

  20. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and Manufactur...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion ...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office: Plug-In Electric Vehicles and Batteries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plug-In Electric Vehicles and Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: Plug-In Electric Vehicles and Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: Plug-In Electric Vehicles and Batteries ...

  2. Innovative lithium-titanium-oxide anodes improve battery safety...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have become the battery of ... the specific energy of advanced batteries, while simultaneously providing enhanced ...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery Recycling March 23, 2011 Lead Acid Batteries on secondary containment pallet Lead Acid Batteries on secondary containment pallet In 2004, the US...

  4. Method of determining the open circuit voltage of a battery in a closed circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William E.

    1980-01-01

    The open circuit voltage of a battery which is connected in a closed circuit is determined without breaking the circuit or causing voltage upsets therein. The closed circuit voltage across the battery and the current flowing through it are determined under normal load and then a fractional change is made in the load and the new current and voltage values determined. The open circuit voltage is then calculated, according to known principles, from the two sets of values.

  5. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  6. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-05-29

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  7. Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01

    The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  8. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  9. Consortium for Advanced Battery Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery Simulation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  10. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  11. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  12. Alkali metal/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Joginder N.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

  13. Johnson Controls Develops an Improved Vehicle Battery, Works to Cut Battery Costs in Half

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Johnson Controls is working to increase energy density of vehicle batteries while reducing manufacturing costs for lithium-ion battery cells.

  14. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Ahmad, P.; Brooker, A.; Wood, E.; Smith, K.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.

    2012-05-01

    This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the application of the Battery Ownership Model for strategies for optimal battery use in electric drive vehicles (PEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs).

  15. Insight into Sulfur Reactions in Li–S Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Rui; Belharouak, Ilias; Zhang, Xiaofeng; chamoun, rita; Yu, Cun; Ren, Yang; Nie, Anmin; Reza, Shahbazian-Yassar; Lu, Jun; Li, James C.M.; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-09

    Understanding and controlling the sulfur reduction species (Li2Sx, 1 ≤ x ≤ 8) under realistic battery conditions are essential for the development of advanced practical Li–S cells that can reach their full theoretical capacity. However, it has been a great challenge to probe the sulfur reduction intermediates and products because of the lack of methods. This work employed various ex situ and in situ methods to study the mechanism of the Li–S redox reactions and the properties of Li2Sx and Li2S. Synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction analysis used to characterize dry powder deposits from lithium polysulfide solution suggests that the new crystallite phase may be lithium polysulfides. The formation of Li2S crystallites with a polyhedral structure was observed in cells with both the conventional (LiTFSI) electrolyte and polysulfide-based electrolyte. In addition, an in situ transmission electron microscopy experiment observed that the lithium diffusion to sulfur during discharge preferentially occurred at the sulfur surface and formed a solid Li2S crust. This may be the reason for the capacity fade in Li–S cells (as also suggested by EIS experiment in Supporting Information). The results can be a guide for future studies and control of the sulfur species and meanwhile a baseline for approaching the theoretical capacity of the Li–S battery.

  16. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austins thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  17. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  18. We have created a new family of ionic-liquid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have created a new family of ionic-liquid based electrolytes with accompanying non- aqueous compatible membranes and flow cell designs for higher energy density redox flow batteries targeted to support increasing demands for stationary energy storage. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a method to produce reduction-oxidation (redox) active ionic liquids for redox flow batteries using inexpensive, non-toxic, and highly abundant precursors. By incorporating the redox active species into

  19. Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Overview Overview presentation by Adam Weber, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, at the Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop held March 7-8, 2012, in Washington, DC. PDF icon flowcells2012_overview.pdf More Documents & Publications Meeting Agenda Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Summary Report Flow Batteries: A Historical Perspective

  20. Ultracapacitor/battery electronic interface development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, R.D.; Salasoo, L.; Schwartz, J.; Cardinal, M.

    1998-06-30

    A flexible, highly efficient laboratory proof-of-concept Ultracapacitor/Battery Interface power electronic circuit with associated controls was developed on a cost-shared contract funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), and the General Electric Company (GE). This power electronic interface translates the varying dc voltage on an ultracapacitor with bi-directional power flow to the dc bus of an inverter-supplied ac propulsion system in an electric vehicle application. In a related application, the electronic interface can also be utilized to interface a low-voltage battery to a dc bus of an inverter supplied ac propulsion system. Variations in voltage for these two intended applications occur (1) while extracting energy (discharge) or supplying energy (charge) to an ultracapacitor, and (2) while extracting energy (discharge) or supplying energy (charge) to a low-voltage battery. The control electronics of this interface is designed to be operated as a stand-alone unit acting in response to an external power command. However, the interface unit`s control is not configured to provide any of the vehicle system control functions associated with load leveling or power splitting between the propulsion battery and the ultracapacitor in an electric or hybrid vehicle application. A system study/preliminary design effort established the functional specification of the interface unit, including voltage, current, and power ratings, to meet the program objectives and technical goals for the development of a highly efficient ultracapacitor/battery electronic interface unit; and performed a system/application study of a hybrid-electric transit bus including an ultracapacitor and appropriate electronic interface. The maximum power capability of the ultracapacitor/battery electronic interface unit is 25 kW.

  1. 'Underground battery' could store renewable energy, sequester CO2 |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration 'Underground battery' could store renewable energy, sequester CO2 Wednesday, January 6, 2016 - 2:40pm NNSA Blog This integrated system would store carbon dioxide in an underground reservoir, with concentric rings of horizontal wells confining the pressurized CO2 beneath the caprock. Stored CO2 displaces brine that flows up wells to the surface where it is heated by thermal plants (e.g., solar farms) and reinjected into the reservoir to store thermal

  2. Pore and Continuum Scale Study of the Effect of Subgrid Transport Heterogeneity on Redox Reaction Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhang, Changyong; Yang, Xiaofan; Zachara, John M.

    2015-08-01

    A micromodel system with a pore structure for heterogeneous flow and transport was used to investigate the effect of subgrid transport heterogeneity on redox reaction rates. Hematite reductive dissolution by injecting a reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) at variable flow rates was used as an example to probe the variations of redox reaction rates in different subgrid transport domains. Experiments, pore-scale simulations, and macroscopic modeling were performed to measure and simulate in-situ hematite reduction and to evaluate the scaling behavior of the redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. The results indicated that the measured pore-scale rates of hematite reduction were consistent with the predictions from a pore scale reactive transport model. A general trend is that hematite reduction followed reductant transport pathways, starting from the advection-dominated pores toward the interior of diffusion-dominated domains. Two types of diffusion domains were considered in the micromodel: a micropore diffusion domain, which locates inside solid grains or aggregates where reactant transport is limited by diffusion; and a macropore diffusion domain, which locates at wedged, dead-end pore spaces created by the grain-grain contacts. The rate of hematite reduction in the advection-dominated domain was faster than those in the diffusion-controlled domains, and the rate in the macropore diffusion domain was faster than that in the micropore domain. The reduction rates in the advection and macropore diffusion domains increased with increasing flow rate, but were affected by different mechanisms. The rate increase in the advection domain was controlled by the mass action effect as a faster flow supplied more reactants, and the rate increase in the macropore domain was more affected by the rate of mass exchange with the advection domain, which increased with increasing flow rate. The hematite reduction rate in the micropore domain was, however, not affected by the flow rate because molecular diffusion limits reductant supply to the micropore domain interior. Domain-based macroscopic models were evaluated to scale redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. A single domain model, which ignores subgrid transport heterogeneity deviated significantly from the pore-scale results. Further analysis revealed that the rate expression for hematite reduction was not scalable from the pore to porous media using the single domain model. A three-domain model, which effectively considers subgrid reactive diffusion in the micropore and macropore domains, significantly improved model description. Overall this study revealed the importance of subgrid transport heterogeneity in the manifestation of redox reaction rates in porous media and in scaling reactions from the pore to porous media. The research also supported that the domain-based scaling approach can be used to directly scale redox reactions in porous media with subgrid transport heterogeneity.

  3. Optimal management of batteries in electric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley; Butler, Paul C.; Corey, Garth P.; Symons, Philip C.

    2002-01-01

    An electric system including at least a pair of battery strings and an AC source minimizes the use and maximizes the efficiency of the AC source by using the AC source only to charge all battery strings at the same time. Then one or more battery strings is used to power the load while management, such as application of a finish charge, is provided to one battery string. After another charge cycle, the roles of the battery strings are reversed so that each battery string receives regular management.

  4. Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Batteries & Fuel Cells Here are the details of what we're doing in the labs ...

  5. Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sodium-Beta Batteries Improving the performance and reducing the cost of sodium-beta batteries for large-scale energy storage Sodium-beta batteries (Na-beta batteries or NBBs) use ...

  6. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2014-04-23

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid.

  7. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Porous Polymeric Composite Separators for Redox Flow Batteries Wei, Xiaoliang ; Li, Bin ; Wang, Wei This invited review paper describes the current status of the porous separator ...

  8. Rebecca Potash > Graduate Student - Abrua Group > Researchers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rebecca Potash Graduate Student - Abrua Group rap335@cornell.edu Rebecca works on redox flow batteries in the Abrua lab...

  9. Ktech Corporation Smart Grid Demonstration Project | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a proven redox flow battery chemistry with a unique, patented design to yield an energy storage system that meets the combined safety, reliability, and cost requirements for...

  10. EnerVault | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sunnyvale, California Zip: 94089 Product: California-based stealth mode redox flow battery power storage systems developer. Coordinates: 32.780338, -96.547405 Show Map...

  11. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2014-06-12

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid.

  12. Energy Storage Systems 2014 Peer Review Presentations - Poster...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Energy Storage Systems 2014 Peer Review Presentations - Poster Session 4 OE's Energy ... PDF icon Manufacturing Cost Model Tool for Redox Flow Battery Stacks - Scott Whalen, PNNL ...

  13. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and ...

  14. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Authors: Dunn, Jennifer B. ; James, Christine ; Gaines, L G ; Gallagher, Kevin Publication Date: 2014-09-30 OSTI Identifier: 1172039 Report

  15. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2010-01-08

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Battery Wireless Solutions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Battery & Wireless Solutions Inc Place: New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada Zip: V3M 5V9 Product: Distributor of battery and...

  19. Forever Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Forever Battery Co, Ltd Place: China Product: China-based producer of NiMH, NiCd and Li-ion batteries and packs primarily for smaller...

  20. Axion Battery Products Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Axion Battery Products Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Axion Battery Products Inc Place: Woodbridge, Ontario, Canada Zip: L4L 5Y9 Product: Subsidiary of Axion Power...

  1. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion...

  2. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Metal-Air Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Metal-Air Battery Battelle Memorial Institute Contact ... The open electrochemical cells may function as metal-air batteries.Benefits Metal-air ...

  4. Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1313 transcriptional responses to redox perturbation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sander, Kyle B.; Wilson, Charlotte M.; M. Rodriquez, Jr.; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Davison, Brian H.; Brown, Steven D.; Rydzak, T.

    2015-12-12

    Clostridium thermocellum is a promising consolidated bioprocessing candidate organism capable of directly converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Current ethanol yields, productivities, and growth inhibitions are industrial deployment impediments for commodity fuel production by this bacterium. Redox imbalance under certain conditions and in engineered strains may contribute to incomplete substrate utilization and may direct fermentation products to undesirable overflow metabolites. As a result, towards a better understanding of redox metabolism in C. thermocellum, we established continuous growth conditions and analyzed global gene expression during addition of two stress chemicals (methyl viologen and hydrogen peroxide) which changed the fermentation redox potential.

  5. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing development and application of processing and process control for nanocomposite materials for lithium ion batteries

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office: Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: Batteries Improving the batteries for electric drive vehicles, including hybrid electric (HEV) and plug-in electric (PEV) cars, is key to improving vehicles' economic, social, and environmental sustainability. In fact, transitioning to a light-duty fleet of HEVs and PEVs could reduce U.S. foreign oil dependence by 30-60% and greenhouse gas emissions by 30-45%, depending on the exact mix of technologies. For a general

  7. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

    2006-11-01

    Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

  8. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  9. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL battery thermal modeling and testing work for the DOE Annual Merit Review, May 9, 2011.

  10. California Lithium Battery, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California Lithium Battery, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 626 likes California Lithium Battery, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory California Lithium Battery ("CALBattery") is a start-up California company established in 2011 to develop and manufacture a breakthrough high energy density and long cycle life lithium battery for utility energy storage, transportation, and defense industries. The company is a joint venture between California-based Ionex Energy Storage

  11. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Hope, Mark E.; Zou, Zhanjiang; Kang, Xiaosong

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  12. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material and Energy Flows in the ...

  13. Alternator control for battery charging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  14. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  15. Search for: All records | DOE Patents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Full Text Available May 2014 Hybrid anodes for redox flow batteries Wang, Wei ; Xiao, Jie ... The RFBs each have a first half cell containing a first redox couple dissolved in a ...

  16. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  17. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  18. Electrothermal Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Vlahinos, A.; Bharathan, D.; Duong, T.

    2006-03-01

    This report presents the electrothermal analysis and testing of lithium ion battery performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) develop an electrothermal process/model for predicting thermal performance of real battery cells and modules; and (2) use the electrothermal model to evaluate various designs to improve battery thermal performance.

  19. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2013-04-19

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  20. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  1. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  2. Sodium Battery | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sodium Battery Technology Improves Performance and Safety Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Sodium Battery Technology Improves Performance and Safety Imagination and innovation have always been in GE's DNA. While exploring the expanded use of hybrid power in the rail, mining and marine industries, GE began

  3. Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-499

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2013-10-01

    Under this CRADA NREL will support Creare's project for the Department of Energy entitled 'Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density' which involves the development of an air-flow based cooling product that increases energy density, safety, and reliability of hybrid electric vehicle battery packs.

  4. Computation of the Redox and Protonation Properties of Quinones: Towards the Prediction of Redox Cycling Natural Products.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cape, Jonathan L.; Bowman, Michael K.; Kramer, David M.

    2006-08-01

    Quinone metabolites perform a variety of key functions in plants, including pathogen protection, oxidative phosphorylation, and redox signaling. Many of these structurally diverse compounds have been shown to exhibit potent antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, although the exact mechanisms of action are far from understood. Redox cycling has been proposed as a possible mechanism of action for many quinine species. Experimental determination of the essential thermodynamic data (i.e. electrochemical and pKa values) required to predict the propensity towards redox cycling is often difficult or impossible to obtain due to the experimental limitations. We demonstrate a practical computational approach to obtain reasonable estimates of these parameters.

  5. A bioinspired redox relay that mimics radical interactions of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M.J., Kodis, G., Poluektov, O.G., Rajh, T., Mujica, V., Groy, T. L., Gust, D., Moore, T.A., Moore, A.L. Title: A bioinspired redox relay that mimics radical interactions...

  6. Structural effect on the redox thermodynamics of poly(thiophenes)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marque, P. ); Roncali, J. )

    1990-11-15

    The redox thermodynamics of poly(thiophene) (PT), poly(3-methylthiophene) (MeT), and poly(3-nonylthiophene) (PNT) have been analyzed by using the Nernst plots E vs log (O)/(R) constructed from the in situ absorbance measurements performed at various doping levels. The apparent standard potential E{degree}{prime} and the initial slope of the Nernst plots of the oxidation process decrease in the order PT > PMeT > PNT. Concurrently, the redox process becomes progressively more complex with an increasing deviation from linearity above E{degree}{prime} and the appearance of two distinct oxidation stages for PMeT and PNT. Whereas hysteresis is evident for PT and PMeT, the redox process appears fully reversible in the case of PNT. Although the slope corresponding to initial step of the charging process decreases from PT to PNT, it remains of much larger magnitude than expected for a simple one-electron redox couple.

  7. Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments Plutonium subsurface mobility is primarily controlled by its oxidation state, which in turn is loosely coupled to the oxidation state of iron in the system. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of sediment iron mineral composition and oxidation state on

  8. Redox Active Catalysts Utilizing Earth Abundant Metals | Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production Redox Active Catalysts Utilizing Earth Abundant Metals 14 Mar 2014 Ryan Trovitch has recently joined the team of the BISfuel PIs. He is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University. Focus of his research group is design of homogeneous catalysts that can be used in a wide range of energy- and sustainability-focused initiatives. "My group is working to develop redox-active ligand supported catalysts

  9. Redox systematics of martian magmas with implications for magnetite

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    stability (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Redox systematics of martian magmas with implications for magnetite stability Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Redox systematics of martian magmas with implications for magnetite stability Authors: Righter, Kevin ; Danielson, Lisa R. ; Pando, Kellye ; Morris, Richard V. ; Graff, Trevor G. ; Agresti, David G. ; Martin, Audrey M. ; Sutton, Stephen R. ; Newville, Matt ; Lanzirotti, Antonio

  10. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  11. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  12. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  13. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  14. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Battery Development, System Analysis,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Testing | Department of Energy Battery Development, System Analysis, and Testing Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Battery Development, System Analysis, and Testing To develop better lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries for plug-in electric vehicles, researchers must integrate the advances made in exploratory battery materials and applied battery research into full battery systems. The Vehicle Technologies Office's (VTO) Advanced Battery Development, System Analysis, and Testing activity

  16. Lithium-Air Battery: High Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-01

    BEEST Project: Researchers at Missouri S&T are developing an affordable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery that could enable an EV to travel up to 350 miles on a single charge. Todays EVs run on Li-Ion batteries, which are expensive and suffer from low energy density compared with gasoline. This new Li-Air battery could perform as well as gasoline and store 3 times more energy than current Li-Ion batteries. A Li-Air battery uses an air cathode to breathe oxygen into the battery from the surrounding air, like a human lung. The oxygen and lithium react in the battery to produce electricity. Current Li-Air batteries are limited by the rate at which they can draw oxygen from the air. The team is designing a battery using hierarchical electrode structures to enhance air breathing and effective catalysts to accelerate electricity production.

  17. Energy Storage | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    components for lithium-ion, llithium-air, lithium-sulfur, sodium-ion, and flow batteries. ... Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Compatible with ...

  18. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2014-10-28

    Method of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electrolytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  19. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  20. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodie, Brad

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the system is integrated with the vehicle cabin air conditioning system. The reason why we were not able to achieve the 20% reduction target is because of the natural decay of the battery cell due to the number of cycles. Perhaps newer battery chemistries that are not so sensitive to cycling would have more potential for reducing the battery size due to thermal issues.

  1. AVTA: Battery Testing- DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report describes DC fast charging's effects on plug-in electric vehicle batteries. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  2. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraft, H.; Ledjeff, K.

    1984-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive the discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  3. Recombination device for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraft, Helmut; Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1985-01-01

    A recombination device including a gas-tight enclosure connected to receive he discharge gases from a rechargeable storage battery. Catalytic material for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water is supported within the enclosure. The enclosure is sealed from the atmosphere by a liquid seal including two vertical chambers interconnected with an inverted U-shaped overflow tube. The first chamber is connected at its upper portion to the enclosure and the second chamber communicates at its upper portion with the atmosphere. If the pressure within the enclosure differs as overpressure or vacuum by more than the liquid level, the liquid is forced into one of the two chambers and the overpressure is vented or the vacuum is relieved. The recombination device also includes means for returning recombined liquid to the battery and for absorbing metal hydrides.

  4. An inner membrane cytochrome required only for reduction of high redox potential extracellular electron acceptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levar, Caleb E.; Chan, Chi Ho; Mehta-Kolte, Misha G.; Bond, Daniel R.

    2014-10-28

    Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria, such as Geobacter sulfurreducens, transfer electrons beyond their outer membranes to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, heavy metals, and electrodes in electrochemical devices. In the environment, metal acceptors exist in multiple chelated and insoluble forms that span a range of redox potentials and offer different amounts of available energy. Despite this, metal-reducing bacteria have not been shown to alter their electron transfer strategies to take advantage of these energy differences. Disruption of imcH, encoding an inner membrane c-type cytochrome, eliminated the ability of G. sulfurreducens to reduce Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III)-EDTA, and insoluble Mn(IV) oxides, electron acceptors with potentials greater than 0.1 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), but the imcH mutant retained the ability to reduce Fe(III) oxides with potentials of ≤–0.1 V versus SHE. The imcH mutant failed to grow on electrodes poised at +0.24 V versus SHE, but switching electrodes to –0.1 V versus SHE triggered exponential growth. At potentials of ≤–0.1 V versus SHE, both the wild type and the imcH mutant doubled 60% slower than at higher potentials. Electrodes poised even 100 mV higher (0.0 V versus SHE) could not trigger imcH mutant growth. These results demonstrate that G. sulfurreducens possesses multiple respiratory pathways, that some of these pathways are in operation only after exposure to low redox potentials, and that electron flow can be coupled to generation of different amounts of energy for growth. Redox potentials that trigger these behaviors mirror those of metal acceptors common in subsurface environments where Geobacter is found.

  5. An inner membrane cytochrome required only for reduction of high redox potential extracellular electron acceptors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levar, Caleb E.; Chan, Chi Ho; Mehta-Kolte, Misha G.; Bond, Daniel R.

    2014-10-28

    Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria, such as Geobacter sulfurreducens, transfer electrons beyond their outer membranes to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, heavy metals, and electrodes in electrochemical devices. In the environment, metal acceptors exist in multiple chelated and insoluble forms that span a range of redox potentials and offer different amounts of available energy. Despite this, metal-reducing bacteria have not been shown to alter their electron transfer strategies to take advantage of these energy differences. Disruption of imcH, encoding an inner membrane c-type cytochrome, eliminated the ability of G. sulfurreducens to reduce Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III)-EDTA, and insoluble Mn(IV) oxides, electron acceptors with potentialsmore » greater than 0.1 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), but the imcH mutant retained the ability to reduce Fe(III) oxides with potentials of ≤–0.1 V versus SHE. The imcH mutant failed to grow on electrodes poised at +0.24 V versus SHE, but switching electrodes to –0.1 V versus SHE triggered exponential growth. At potentials of ≤–0.1 V versus SHE, both the wild type and the imcH mutant doubled 60% slower than at higher potentials. Electrodes poised even 100 mV higher (0.0 V versus SHE) could not trigger imcH mutant growth. These results demonstrate that G. sulfurreducens possesses multiple respiratory pathways, that some of these pathways are in operation only after exposure to low redox potentials, and that electron flow can be coupled to generation of different amounts of energy for growth. Redox potentials that trigger these behaviors mirror those of metal acceptors common in subsurface environments where Geobacter is found.« less

  6. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  7. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B

    2014-02-04

    A battery system includes a platform having an aperture formed therethrough, a flexible member having a generally planar configuration and extending across the aperture, wherein a portion of the flexible member is coextensive with the aperture, a cell provided adjacent the platform, and a sensor coupled to the flexible member and positioned proximate the cell. The sensor is configured to detect a temperature of the cell.

  8. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  9. NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries A genomics approach to materials research could speed up advancements in battery performance December 18, 2012 Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 XBD201110-01310.jpg Kristin Persson To reduce the United States' reliance on foreign oil and lower consumer energy costs, the Department of Energy (DOE) is bringing together five national laboratories, five universities and four private firms to revolutionize

  10. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  11. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt002_es_flicker_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results

  12. Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt002_es_flicker_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Advanced Battery Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment Program Fact Sheet: Grid-Scale Energy Storage Demonstration Using UltraBattery Technology (August 2013)

  13. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher than NMC) and the DDB is useful for lithium ion cells with LFP cathodes (potential that is lower than NMC). A 4.5 V class redox shuttle provided by Argonne National Laboratory was evaluated which provides a few cycles of overcharge protection for lithium ion cells containing NMC cathodes but it is not stable enough for consideration. Thus, a redox shuttle with an appropriate redox potential and sufficient chemical and electrochemical stability for commercial use in larger format lithium ion cells with NMC cathodes was not found. Molecular imprinting of the redox shuttle molecule during solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation likely contributes to the successful reduction of oxidized redox shuttle species at carbon anodes. This helps to understand how a carbon anode covered with an SEI layer, that is supposed to be electrically insulating, can reduce the oxidized form of a redox shuttle.

  14. NREL: Distributed Grid Integration - Wind2Battery Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind2Battery Project photo of the Wind2Battery site near Luverne, Minnesota. Wind2Battery site near Luverne, Minnesota. Courtesy of Xcel Energy NREL is working with Xcel Energy to ...

  15. Japan Storage Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Storage Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Japan Storage Battery Co Ltd Place: Kyoto-shi, Kyoto, Japan Zip: 601-8520 Product: Japan Storage Battery offers full...

  16. YaoAn Battery Potech | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: YaoAn Battery Potech Place: China Product: China-based maker of various types of Lithium rechargeable batteries. References: YaoAn Battery Potech1 This article is a stub....

  17. Zhuhai Hange Battery Tech Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zhuhai Hange Battery Tech Co, Ltd Place: China Product: ZhuHai City - based maker of Lithium Polymer batteries. References: Zhuhai Hange Battery Tech Co, Ltd1 This article is a...

  18. Shenzhen Better Power Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shenzhen Better Power Battery Co, Ltd Place: China Product: China-based maker of NiMH batteries. References: Shenzhen Better...

  19. Shida Battery Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shida Battery Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shida Battery Technology Co, Ltd Place: China Product: Shida is a China-based maker of NiMH and Li-Poly batteries...

  20. Zhejiang KAN Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    KAN Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zhejiang KAN Battery Co Ltd Place: Suichang, Zhejiang Province, China Zip: 323300 &1228 Product: Zhejiang - based NiMH battery...

  1. In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of High Energy Density Li-Air Batteries In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High Energy Density Li-Air Batteries 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies ...

  2. In situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and the Studies of Li-Air Batteries In Situ Characterizations of New Battery Materials and the Studies of High Energy Density Li-Air Batteries FY 2011 Annual Progress Report ...

  3. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart ...

  4. EERE Success Story-Battery Company Puts New Nanowire Technology...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    nanowire material for lithium-ion batteries on a commercial scale for the first time. ... EaglePicher Technologies, a U.S. company that manufactures battery cells and batteries. ...

  5. Electric Vehicle Technology and Batteries | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    batteries occur in electrochemical cells separated from energy storing tanks, which makes them safer. The new battery could be just one-fourth the cost of comparable car batteries ...

  6. High-energy metal air batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-energy metal air batteries Title: High-energy metal air batteries Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithiumair batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain ...

  7. Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy 62_tenent_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings

  8. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime: Applications in Design and Health Management (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Jun, M.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation discusses models for battery reliability and lifetime and the Battery Ownership Model.

  9. Impedance studies for separators in rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laman, F.C.; Gee, M.A.; Denovan, J. )

    1993-04-01

    Melting of separators, causing closure of separator pores, will result in a strong reduction in current flow. When this process is initiated at the appropriate time it can prevent thermal runaway of lithium batteries during electrical abuse. For this reason, a separator can act as an internal safety device. The effective depends on a number of separator parameters such as melting temperature, rate of pore fusion, and dimensional stability temperature. Measurement of the electrical impedance of electrolyte-filled separators and separator combinations in the temperature range from room temperature to 200 C can be used to determine these parameters.

  10. Method and apparatus for storage battery electrolyte circulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Inkmann, Mark S.

    1980-09-09

    An electrolyte reservoir in fluid communication with the cell of a storage battery is intermittently pressurized with a pulse of compressed gas to cause a flow of electrolyte from the reservoir to the upper region of less dense electrolyte in the cell. Upon termination of the pressure pulse, more dense electrolyte is forced into the reservoir from the lower region of the cell by the differential pressure head between the cell and reservoir electrolyte levels. The compressed gas pulse is controlled to prevent the entry of gas from the reservoir into the cell.

  11. Sealed One Piece Battery Having A Prism Shape Container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Barbotin, Jean-Loup (Pompignac, FR)

    2000-03-28

    A sealed one-piece battery having a prism-shaped container including: a tank consisting of a single plastic material, a member fixed and sealed to the tank and to partitions on the side of the tank opposite the transverse wall to seal the tank, two flanges fixed and sealed to longitudinal walls defining flow compartments for a heat-conducting fluid, and two tubes on the transverse wall of the tank forming an inlet and an outlet for fluid common to the compartments.

  12. Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Improved spinel-containing "layered-layered" lithium metal oxide electrodes Materials ...

  13. Ultralife Corporation formerly Ultralife Batteries Inc | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    14513 Product: New Jersey-based developer and manufacturer of standard and customised lithium primary, lithium ion and lithium polymer rechargeable batteries. References:...

  14. China BAK Battery Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Zip: 518119 Product: Guangdong- based manufacturer of standard and customized Lithium Ion rechargeable batteries. Coordinates: 22.546789, 114.112556 Show Map Loading...

  15. Blue Sky Batteries Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Laramie, Wyoming Zip: 82072-3 Product: Nanoengineers materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Coordinates: 41.310808, -105.590324 Show Map Loading map......

  16. Coda Battery Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Connecticut Sector: Vehicles Product: Connecticut-based joint venture producing lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. Coordinates: 36.181032, -77.662805 Show Map...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: Exploratory Battery Materials Research...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for future battery chemistries. They research a number of areas that contribute to this body of knowledge: Advanced cell chemistries that promise higher energy density than...

  18. Ultracapacitors and Batteries in Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.

    2005-08-01

    Using an ultracapacitor in conjunction with a battery in a hybrid vehicle combines the power performance of the former with the greater energy storage capability of the latter.

  19. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Inventors: ...

  20. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Workshop Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7252012 EV Everywhere Grand Challenge -- Battery Workshop Thursday, July 26, 2012 - Doubletree O'Hare, Chicago, IL Event Objective: DOE aims to obtain stakeholder input on the...