Sample records for red liquor spent

  1. Ethanol production from spent sulfite liquor fortified by hydrolysis of pulp mill primary clarifier sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritz, J.W.; Duff, S.J.B. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Some low-yield sulfite pulping operations ferment spent sulfite liquor (SSL) to remove biochemical oxygen demand associated with dissolved sugars while at the same time generating ethanol as a salable product. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of primary clarifier sludge in a medium of SSL was proposed as a means of reducing the amount of sludge to be disposed of while at the same time increasing ethanol productivity. In this article, the option of fortifying existing SSL fermenting processes with the sugars produced via in situ enzymatic hydrolysis of sulfite primary clarifier sludge (PCS) has been explored. In 100% SSL PCS hydrolysis rates as high as 3.4 g/(L{center_dot}h) were observed at an initial enzyme loading of 10 filter paper units (FPU)/g PCS. To reduce the deleterious effects of glucose inhibition, single-stage SSF was carried out using cellulose enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The production rate of ethanol in SSL was increased by as much as 25% through the SSF process. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Kraft black liquor combustion: Advancement in fundamental understanding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clay, D.T.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-generated fuel streams plus purchased fossil fuel and power supply the pulp and paper industry with its energy requirements. The total industry energy use for 1986 was approximately 2.3 Quad (2300 trillion Btus). Self-generated and residue fuels accounted for 57% of the energy requirements. Spent pulping liquors provide the single largest self-generated energy source, approximately one Quad (900 trillion Btus). The pulp and paper industry also leads the nation in cogeneration performance. In 1986 eighty-nine percent (89%) of the 46 billion KWHs generated were produced by cogeneration. Spent pulping liquors supply the single largest fuel source (35%) to these cogeneration facilities. Spent pulping liquors consist of solubilized wood organics, spent inorganic chemicals, and water. Since kraft pulp dominates the North American market, 74%, kraft black liquor is the dominant spent pulping liquor. Effective recovery of high level energy and chemicals from black liquor contributes heavily toward dominance of kraft pulping. The kraft chemical recovery cycle centers around the recovery boiler. Kraft recovery boilers have been commercially available for over 50 years. The potential still exists, however, for significant improvements in energy recovery and black liquor throughput. Potential energy benefits from black liquor combustion research amount to 30 trillion Btus. Energy recovery increases often are an additional benefit from modifications made to increase black liquor throughput. Capacity increases of at least 5% are often achievable. Increased energy productivity of the kraft chemical recovery boiler will come by incorporation of improved fundamental knowledge into the technology used for boiler upgrades and new boiler construction. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Lowering kraft black liquor viscosity of ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, M.K.; Violette, D.A.; Woerner, D.L.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High viscosity is a major factor limiting the percentage total dissolved solids (%TDS) to which kraft black liquor (KBL), a spent pulping liquor, can be concentrated before it is burned to recover its fuel value and its inorganic chemicals. The effect on black liquor viscosity of removing high molecular weight lignin by ultrafiltration of 16% and 24% TDS liquors was studied. Viscosities of ultrafiltration permeates were reduced relative to feed black liquors. When a permeate was concentrated to higher %TDS levels, its viscosity decreased yet further relative to feed samples evaporated to similar solids levels. Retentate viscosity was very high relative to both feed and permeate. Ultrafiltration was carried out at 75/degrees/C using polysulfone membranes in a plate-and-frame or hollow fiber system. Flux rates varied greatly depending upon the specific liquor used. Flux was enhanced by increased temperature and increased linear velocity. The membrane molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) typically used was 50,000; increasing 100,000 or 200,000 did not enhance flux.

  4. Kraft Liquor Corrosion Margaret Gorog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    1 Kraft Liquor Corrosion Margaret Gorog Federal Way, WA Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute November 2014 · Brown Stock Corrosion · Alkaline Liquor Corrosion · Black Liquor Corrosion ­ Evaporators ­ Research · High Solids Black Liquor Corrosion of Stainless Steel

  5. Gasification of black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for treating a concentrated aqueous black liquor carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt comprising: (a) providing a gasifier vessel maintained at a pressure of from about 1 to 50 atmospheres and containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom within a sump equipped with an overflow discharge; (b) introducing into the top of the drying zone the concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds; (c) evaporating water from the concentrated aqueous black liquor in the drying zone by direct contact of the aqueous black liquor with the hot gas rising from the gasification zone to produce dried black liquor solids; (d) introducing a first portion of an oxygen-containing gas into the gas space in the gasification zone located below the drying zone immediately above the molten salt pool to partially oxidize and gasify a fraction of the carbonaceous material in the dried black liquor solids falling through the zone to form a hot combustible gas; (e) introducing a second portion of the oxygen-containing gas beneath the surface of the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of essentially all carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool; (f) withdrawing the cooled combustible gas having a higher heating value of at least about 90 Btu/scf (dry basis) from an upper portion of the drying zone; and (g) withdrawing from the overflow discharge in the molten salt reduction zone a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide.

  6. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  7. Gasification of black liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  8. Combustion of black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, W.T.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improvement in the combustion of black liquor in an existing Tomlison recovery boiler unit in which black liquor is sprayed into a furnace in which it is successively dried, pyrolyzed and converted to a bed of solid carbonaceous residue, using a primary air stream and a secondary air stream and the residue is subsequently converted to a smelt. The improvement comprises: the addition of between an effective amount up to 5% oxygen by volume to the primary air stream directed at the bed of solid carbonaceous residue, the amount of oxygen added being sufficient to increase the adiabatic flame temperature, the combustion rate of the solid carbonaceous material, the rate of pyrolysis, the temperature in the lower portion of the furnace, the the drying rate of black liquor droplets, and to decrease the temperature of the gases entering the heat transfer surfaces in the upper portion of the furnace and the rate of deposit formation on the surfaces and wherein the amount of black liquor combusted is increased as compared with the amount combusted in the same furnace operated without the addition of oxygen to the primary air.

  9. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

  10. Kraft black liquor delivery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  12. National Dioxin Study Tier 4 - combustion sources: final test report - Site 8, Black-liquor boiler BLB-C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamgochian, C.L.; Keller, L.E.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a dioxin/furan emissions test of a black-liquor recovery boiler equipped with a drybottom electrostatic precipitator for particulate emissions control. Black-liquor recovery boilers are used at kraft pulp mills to produce process steam and to reclaim inorganic chemicals from spent wood pulping liquors. The dioxin/furan emissions test was conducted under Tier 4 of the National Dioxin Study. The primary objective of Tier 4 is to determine if various combustion sources are sources of dioxin and/or furan emissions. If any of the combustion sources are found to emit dioxin or furan, the secondary objective of Tier 4 is to quantify these emissions. Black-liquor recovery boilers are one of 8 combustion-source categories that have been tested in the Tier 4 program. The tested black-liquor boiler, BLB-C, was selected for the test after an initial information screening and a one-day pretest survey visit. Boiler BLB-C is considered representative of black-liquor recovery boilers with dry-bottom electrostatic precipitators. The amount of chloride present in the black-liquor circuit at this site is considered intermediate to high relative to that found at other kraft pulp mills. Data presented in the report include dioxin (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDD) and furan (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDF) results for both stack samples and ash samples. In addition, process data collected during sampling are also presented.

  13. Black Liquor Research Program symposium: proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emerson, D.B.; Whitworth, B.A.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the paper pulp industry's recovery boilers, black liquor is sprayed in through nozzle guns near the top of the furnace. This report includes eight papers. (DLC)

  14. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping This factsheet describes a...

  15. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  16. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.3, Simulative corrosion of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1 and Task 1.2. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors were tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. The best performing materials in the cup testing were fused cast materials. However, 2 castables appear to outperforming any of the previously tested materials and may perform better than the fused cast materials in operation. The basis of the high performance of these materials is the low open porosity and permeability to black liquor smelt.

  17. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  18. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  19. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  20. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development were divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  1. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  2. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  3. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  4. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  5. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  6. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  7. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  8. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  9. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

  10. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

  11. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

  12. Black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Consonni, S. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dept. di Energetica; Larson, E.D.; Keutz, T.G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Berglin, N. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Technology

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kraft process dominates pulp and paper production worldwide. Black liquor, a mixture of lignin and inorganic chemicals, is generated in this process as fiber is extracted from wood. At most kraft mills today, black liquor is burned in Tomlinson boilers to produce steam for on-site heat and power and to recover the inorganic chemicals for reuse in the process. Globally, the black liquor generation rate is about 85,000 MW{sub fuel} (or 0.5 million tonnes of dry solids per day), with nearly 50% of this in North America. The majority of presently installed Tomlinson boilers will reach the end of their useful lives during the next 5 to 20 years. As a replacement for Tomlinson-based cogeneration, black liquor-gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration promises higher electrical efficiency, with prospective environmental, safety, and capital cost benefits for kraft mills. Several companies are pursuing commercialization of black liquor gasification for gas turbine applications. This paper presents results of detailed performance modeling of gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration systems using different black liquor gasifiers modeled on proposed commercial designs.

  13. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  14. Improved recovery of tall oil from black liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zucker, J.

    1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying a d.c. of less than 15 V to acidified black liquor separates a significant amount of tall oil remaining in the black liquor sludge. An apparatus with graphite electrodes for this process is described.

  15. In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Alan Sinquefield

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

  16. Electrochemical treatment of black liquor from straw pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco, M.A.; Negro, C.; Tijero, J. [Complutense Univ., Madrid (Spain)] [and others

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conventional black liquor regeneration process is not always suitable for pulping plants of nonwood fibers due to the unfavorable ratio of organic to inorganic solids. This paper presents an alternative treatment based on an electrolysis process of the soda black liquor from straw pulping. This alternative method minimizes the environmental impact by recovering the caustic at the same time that the liquor is acidified, which favors the later separation of the lignin.

  17. Thermal processing of black liquor from alkaline straw pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, J.L.; Garcia, L.; Gea, G.; Bilbao, R.; Arauzo, J. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor is the wastewater from the cooking of wood or straw in the production of pulp and paper. Nowadays new processes are being investigated as alternatives to the traditional recovery boiler used for black liquor treatment. One of the processes which appears to be more promising is gasification, for which further research is needed for its full industrial implementation. There is not much data about the behavior of soda black liquors from straw cooking in the literature. Therefore the thermal decomposition of one of these liquors has been studied in a thermobalance, in inert (N{sub 2}) atmosphere. The kinetic constants from isothermal experiments have been obtained.

  18. Physical properties of Kraft Black Liquor. Interim report, Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives are to determine the rheological, thermal, and surface properties of Kraft Black Liquors, and to relate these properties to the chemical composition and to pulping conditions. A four-variable, multi-level pulping experiment is being conducted. Pulping results are reported. Complete analyses of the liquors have been done. Thermal analyses have been done. DSC was employed to determine heat capacities of black liquors and lignins. Rheological (viscosity) studies are being conducted. Density and thermal expansion have been studied for seven liquors. Energy savings through more efficient recovery systems are appreciable.

  19. Fundamental studies of black liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clay, D.T.; Lien, S.J.; Grace, T.M.; Brown, C.A.; Empie, H.L.; Macek, A.; Amin, N.; Charangundla, S.R.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamentals of black liquor combustion are being studied in a project being carried out for the US Department of Energy by the Institute of Paper Science Technology (IPST, formerly the Institute of Paper Chemistry) and the National Institute of Science Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards). The project was divided into four phases. This report covers the completion of Phase 1 (in-flight processes), the results of all of the work on Phase 2 (char bed processes), Phase 3 (fume processes), and Phase 4 (furnace simulation). 41 refs., 62 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Effect of pulping conditions and black liquor composition on Newtonian viscosity of high solids kraft black liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of black liquor composition and solids concentrations on the Newtonian viscosity of slash pine black liquors over wide ranges of temperature (up to 140 C) and solids concentrations (between 50% and 83% solids) has been studied. It was found that the zero shear rate viscosity of high solids black liquors depends strongly on the cooking conditions and/or black liquor composition. Not only is high solids viscosity affected by lignin molecular weight and lignin concentration in the liquor but other organic and inorganic constituents of black liquor also make a significant contribution to viscosity. The dependency of zero shear rate viscosity on solids concentrations, and temperature is defined. The Newtonian viscosities vary over a wide range depending on temperature, solids concentrations and solids composition. The results indicate that, at fixed levels of effective alkali and sulfidity, the zero shear rate viscosities can be described as a function of both lignin concentration and lignin molecular weight. The viscosity of black liquor is an increasing function of the organics-to-inorganics ratio and is a decreasing function of the concentration of sodium and chloride ions and pH of the liquor.

  1. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew [Sellafield Ltd, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  2. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  3. Char reactions during kraft black liquor pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Sricharoenchaikul, V.; Reis, V.V. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pyrolysis characteristics of dried black liquor particles were investigated at high heating rates in a laminar entrained-flow reactor at temperatures of 600-1100{degrees}C. Primary pyrolysis of the organic fraction occurred very rapidly, in less 0.5 seconds. Char yields at the end or volatiles evolution were 58-72%. The decreased with increasing reactor temperature to 900{degrees}C but remained constant at higher temperatures. 35-65% of the fuel nitrogen was volatilized, nearly all in less than 0.5 s. Relatively little fuel nitrogen was evolved from the char. Significant alkali metal chloride volatization from the char occurred at all temperatures, while additional sodium volatilization became important above 900{degrees}C. Reduction of sulfur species in the char increased rapidly with increasing temperature. A temperature-dependent delay time in the onset of Na{sub 2}S formation was observed.

  4. Demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Big Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert DeCarrera

    2007-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This Final Technical Report provides an account of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific LLC's Big Island, VA facility. This report covers the period from May 5, 2000 through November 30, 2006.

  5. Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

  6. Controlled black liquor viscosity reduction through salting-in

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor viscosity increases exponentially with solids content and therefore causes processing problems for the paper industry by being a limiting factor in the Kraft pulp process. This study investigates a new approach for achieving viscosity reduction by salting-in black liquor through the addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts generally increase the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor, leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several thiocyanate salts capable of reducing liquor viscosity by more than two orders of magnitude have been identified, with viscosity reduction greatest at high solids content. Salting-in of black liquor depends on the cation paired with the thiocyanate anion, as well as on solution pH and temperature. Comparative studies reveal the most effective viscosity-reducing agent of the series examined and that lignin plays an important role in the viscosity behavior of both unmodified and salted-in black liquor at high solids concentrations. These experimental findings are interpreted in terms of the underlying principles that describe salting-in and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

  7. Measurement of black liquor surface tension: Technical report No. 3. [Black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnagopalan, J.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface tension and density of two kraft black liquors were measured at a series of temperatures, from a minimum value when gas bubbles can be blown into the liquor to a maximum value near the elevated boiling point of a particular sample. Available methods for the measurement of surface tension were evaluated critically and, as a result, the maximum bubble pressure method was selected. Varying the flow rate of the gas changes the frequency of bubble formation and thereby the age of the surface. The parameter has been utilized by many researchers to monitor the diffusion of low surface energy components (e.g., surfactants) to the liquid/air interface. The effect of bubble frequency when tested with a few pure liquids, indicated that the dynamics of bubble formation had to be further examined to separate out inertial and viscous effects from purely surface tension related pressure. The pressure versus flow rate data were extrapolated to zero flow rate and surface tension and density were calculated using these extrapolated values. As expected, surface tension decreased with increasing temperature for all the samples. Surface tension decreases with increasing solids content (when compared with the value for water) to a certain level (about 20%) and it starts to increase again. The decrease in surface tension in the dilute black liquor, is probably due to the decrease in the concentration of water, which has a high surface tension value. The occurrence of the minimum is probably due to the effect of inorganic components dominating over the effect of surfactants and other components. Reduction in the solubilities of the inorganics, promotion of micelles of the surfactants and reduction in the diffusion of surfactants to the surface, also could contribute to this phenomenon. 54 refs., 54 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Recaustization of kraft black liquor via bipolar electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koumoundouros, J.A.; Oshen, S.; Lynch, J.D.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy in conjunction with HPD Inc. supported a research program to perform a laboratory feasibility study with various black liquor samples for the recaustization of these samples via bipolar electrodialysis. The research was conducted at the HPD pilot plant facility in Plainfield, Illinois, beginning in April 1989. This report is a summary of the work completed thru November 1989. The program was designed to operate the electrodialyzer in order to obtain performance and engineering data such as current efficiency, power consumption per gram of NaOH produced, and assess fouling and/or membrane durability. Prior to the electrodialysis laboratory runs, the black liquor samples were pretreated in order to remove as much lignin as possible. The black liquor samples were air oxidized, acidified to pH = 9.0 and pH = 2.0 and later filtered via a Buchner funnel under vacuum. The filtrate was then utilized to become the feed to the electrodialysis stack. Initial test runs were performed with synthetic solutions of either sodium sulfate or sodium bicarbonate in order to determine acceptable operating current, power, current efficiencies, and fouling behavior. A second set of test were conducted with a series of four Southern Kraft black liquor samples. Based on the results of this study, it was determined that the use of bipolar electrodialysis for producing a caustic stream and an acidified black liquor stream is feasible and was demonstrated. 9 refs., 27 figs., 32 tabs.

  9. Ultrafiltration of kraft black liquor: Final report, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, M.K.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1981, a research program has been in progress to determine the physical properties of kraft black liquors and to develop methods for reduction of data and correlation of properties with pumping conditions. The basic premise that has been used to direct the research program is that kraft black liquor behaves as a polymer solution, particularly at high solids, and that the behavior is dominated by the characteristics of the lignin present. This premise is proving to be correct, and the principles that follow from this premise are proving to be successful for data reduction and correlation. The research has been a complex program involving experimental pulping, chemical analysis, lignin separation and characterization, thermal analysis, rheological measurements, and considerable equipment and methods development. Due to the complexity of the program, the unforeseen need to expend a great deal of effort in development of experimental techniques for analysis, and the fact that our liquors proved to be unstable at high temperatures and solids, all of the original objectives could not be accomplished. However, our program has added substantially to the body of knowledge of physical properties of black liquor. Our results indicate that the goal of developing correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor is practical and can be realized through extension of the present work. 21 refs., 32 figs.

  10. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  11. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

  12. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  13. Report on the WORKSHOP ON COMMERCIALIZATION OF BLACK LIQUOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report on the WORKSHOP ON COMMERCIALIZATION OF BLACK LIQUOR AND BIOMASS GASIFICATION FOR GAS or industry cycle (BGCC) technologies for pulp and paper co~mitm~nt to the develo~ment of gasification systems (existing) technology with an greenhouse gas emissions mitigation measures. emerging (gasification

  14. CHAMPAIGN-URBANA FOOD AND LIQUOR GUIDE 1. Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athreya, Jayadev

    (217) 352-7467. Excellent Mexican and Latin American- influenced food. Service can be a bit slowCHAMPAIGN-URBANA FOOD AND LIQUOR GUIDE 1. Introduction This is a short, incomplete, and personally. It is standard to tip 15-20% for reasonable service. A indicates a place that we like, and indicates a place we

  15. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  16. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  17. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit them to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit them to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by UV-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. The paper describes the digestor, the large scale evaporation, liquor analysis, thermal studies, and viscosity results. 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Recovery of solvent and by-products from organosolv black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botello, J.I.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Rodriguez, F.; Oliet, M. [Univ. Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recovery of alcohol and by-products from ethanol-water and methanol-water pulping liquors was studied. The recovery system proposed consists of three stages: black liquor flashing, lignin precipitation, and precipitation distillation of mother liquor. At the flash stage, 47 and 51% of the alcohol in the black liquor are recovered for ethanol and methanol processes, respectively. The lignin recovery yield at the precipitation stage is 67% for ethanol black liquor and 73% for methanol black liquor. The distillation of precipitation mother liquors enables recovery of 98% ethanol and 96% methanol from this stream as distillate, whereas the distillation residue contains significant amounts of sugars, furfural, and acetic acid that can be recovered. The study concludes with the overall mass balance for the recovery system proposed.

  19. What is spent nuclear fuel?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What is Spent Nuclear Fuel? Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is irradiated fuel or targets containing uranium, plutonium, or thorium that is permanently withdrawn from a nuclear reactor or...

  20. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  1. Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, E. G.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

  2. Freeze crystallization technology for Kraft black liquor concentration. Third report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, W.E.; Rhodes, C.R.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About 25% of the purchased energy in the pulp and paper industry is used to concentrate black liquor. The technical feasibility of using freeze concentration to supplement evaporation has been successfully demonstrated, and results indicate that energy consumption can be reduced 45%. After compiling a considerable data base on the characteristics of black liquor at low temperature and after developing a computer program to aid analysis, the process chosen was vacuum freezing-vapor absorption (VFVA). A pilot plant was built and operated; however, due to problems with crystallization of the absorbent and contamination, it was found that maintaining the conditions necessary for a continuous process was not practical at the present state of development. Therefore, indirect freezing was used for all subsequent work. This required the design and fabrication of a simple shuttle crystallizer to replace scraped surface units conventionally used. CSI also developed an integrated ice separation column that combined crystal growth, a concentration gradient, and washing all in one unit. Finally, extensive heat transfer coefficient data were collected so that a preliminary design could be completed for a 350 TPD industrial freeze concentration unit. An economic analysis was calculated in order to compare using evaporation and freeze concentration to process the increased liquor flow from a pulp mill expansion. A 200,000 lb/hr freezing unit used to preconcentrate the mill's entire stream up to 18.7% solids would save $10 to $16 per ton of pulp.

  3. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  4. Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor: Phase II, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, M.K.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major justification for examining ultrafiltration was to lower the viscosity of the Kraft Black Liquor by recovering it as an ultrafiltration permeate from which the highest MW lignin had been removed. The liquor could then be concentrated to a higher percentage solids before firing into the recovery boiler. Consequent energy savings for the 1000 ton/day pulp mill would be 2.05 x 10 Btu/y for each percentage increase in TDS (total dissolved solids) to the recovery boiler. This Phase II report gives data on viscosity with percentage solids of KBL permeates. Another favorable effect of ultrafiltration on the permeate properties is disproportionate removal of multivalent ions including the major scaling ion CaS . If this high-viscosity high-Ca retentate could be treated to lower its viscosity and to release the Ca in a non-scaling form, this would enhance the possibility that ultrafiltration might be useful in a mill situation. Included in this report are data on the results of treating the retentate fraction. Other justifications for this program included further information in KBL properties: lignin MW in the KBL at high pH; elemental and sugar analyses; and differential properties of lignins in the retentate and the permeate fractions. A preliminary economic analysis of ultrafiltration is contained in this report. These analyses indicate that with flux rates now attainable, ultrafiltration would not be economically justified at this time if the only justification is to lower KBL viscosity. For certain situations where high Ca liquors present a scaling problem, especially in an evaporator-limited mill, the economics are more favorable. There are also unsolved problems relating to the use of the high viscosity retentate.

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFICATION AT BIG ISLAND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert DeCarrera

    2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This Technical Progress Report provides an account of the status of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific Corporation's Big Island, VA facility. The report also includes budget information and a milestone schedule. The project to be conducted by G-P is a comprehensive, complete commercial-scale demonstration that is divided into two phases. Phase I is the validation of the project scope and cost estimate. Phase II is project execution, data acquisition and reporting, and consists of procurement of major equipment, construction and start-up of the new system. Phase II also includes operation of the system for a period of time to demonstrate the safe operation and full integration of the energy and chemical recovery systems in a commercial environment. The objective of Phase I is to validate the process design and to engineer viable solutions to any technology gaps. This phase includes engineering and planning for the integration of the full-scale MTCI/StoneChem PulseEnhanced{trademark} black liquor steam-reformer chemical recovery system into G-P's operating pulp and paper mill at Big Island, Virginia. During this phase, the scope and cost estimate will be finalized to confirm the cost of the project and its integration into the existing system at the mill. The objective of Phase II of the project is the successful and safe completion of the engineering, construction and functional operation of the fully integrated full-scale steam reformer process system. This phase includes installation of all associated support systems and equipment required for the enhanced recovery of both energy and chemicals from all of the black liquor generated from the pulping process at the Big Island Mill. The objective also includes operation of the steam reformer system to demonstrate the ability of the system to operate reliably and achieve designed levels of energy and chemical recovery while maintaining environmental emissions at or below the limits set by the environmental permits.

  6. Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, M.K.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kraft Black Liquor (KBL) is ultrafiltered to favorably affect the properties of the KBL permeate. The major property to be changed is viscosity. If the high molecular weight lignin is removed by ultrafiltration, the KBL permeate should show a significant drop in viscosity. An objective of the work reported was to examine how much KBL viscosity is lowered relative to membrane and membrane pore size used in the ultrafiltration. Another objective was an initial evaluation of ultrafiltration equipment and membranes. Operating characteristics were determined for selected equipment and membranes. Decreases in KBL permeate viscosity were indeed seen. (LEW)

  7. Freeze crystallization technology for black liquor concentration. Second interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest consumers of energy. Concentration of black liquor (the stream resulting from the chemical separation of wood fibers in the pulping operation) uses 25% of the purchased energy to produce pulp, an equivalent of 33 million barrels of oil in 1982. Here it is shown that freeze concentration, an emerging concentration technology, has the potential of reducing the energy consumption by at least 45%. This amounts to a cost savings of $5 to $15 per ton of pulp depending on the cost of energy, geographical location, and method of application.

  8. Vapor pressure and boiling point elevation of slash pine black liquors: Predictive models with statistical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaman, A.A.; McNally, T.W.; Fricke, A.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibria and boiling point elevation of slash pine kraft black liquors over a wide range of solid concentrations (up to 85% solids) has been studied. The liquors are from a statistically designed pulping experiment for pulping slash pine in a pilot scale digester with four cooking variables of effective alkali, sulfidity, cooking time, and cooking temperature. It was found that boiling point elevation of black liquors is pressure dependent, and this dependency is more significant at higher solids concentrations. The boiling point elevation data at different solids contents (at a fixed pressure) were correlated to the dissolved solids (S/(1 {minus} S)) in black liquor. Due to the solubility limit of some of the salts in black liquor, a change in the slope of the boiling point elevation as a function of the dissolved solids was observed at a concentration of around 65% solids. An empirical method was developed to describe the boiling point elevation of each liquor as a function of pressure and solids mass fraction. The boiling point elevation of slash pine black liquors was correlated quantitatively to the pulping variables, using different statistical procedures. These predictive models can be applied to determine the boiling point rise (and boiling point) of slash pine black liquors at processing conditions from the knowledge of pulping variables. The results are presented, and their utility is discussed.

  9. Effect of sulfidity on the corrosivity of white, green, and black liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wensley, A.; Champagne, P.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion testing was performed in white, green, and black liquors from a kraft mill. The liquors were modified in composition to simulate conditions of high (40%) sulfidity and low (30%) sulfidity, and then heated in laboratory autoclaves to the temperatures of the respective tanks from which the samples were taken. Specimens of carbon and stainless steels were exposed under free corrosion potential conditions, and their corrosion rates determined from weight loss measurements. In white, green, 45% solids black, and flash tank liquors, active corrosion rates for the carbon steels were typically 20 to 75% higher in the higher sulfidity liquors. In 15% solids weak black liquor there was no appreciable difference in corrosion rates, with carbon steels remaining passive in both low and high sulfidity. In 26% solids intermediate black liquor there were large increases in the corrosion rates of carbon steel between low and high sulfidity liquors, resulting from a change from passive to active conditions. Stainless steels UNS S30403, S32304, and S31803 had very low corrosion rates in all the liquors tested, regardless of sulfidity.

  10. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors. Interim report No.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The black liquor properties program has conducted a systematic collection data of properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics. Complete data, except for some density data, has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at a total of 25 different pulping conditions that cover the entire range used for commercial pulping. In addition, complete data has been collected for some mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors made at 16 different pulping conditions and some mill liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. While it has not proven to be possible to include research for comprehensive correlations for properties for liquors from other species, we have shown that the behavior of liquors made from other species is similar to that which has been explored extensively for Slash Pine liquors. This report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  11. Nuclear Spent Fuel Program Drivers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was created to plan and coordinate the management of Department of Energy-owned spent nuclear fuel. It was established as a result of a 1992 decision to stop spent nuclear fuel...

  12. National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    need to safely and efficiently manage all DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high level waste and prepare it for disposal. The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is addressing...

  13. Scintillator spent fuel monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, C.E.; Nixon, K.V.; Bernard, W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monitor for rapidly measuring the gross gamma-ray flux immediately above spent fuel assemblies in underwater storage racks has been developed. It consists of a plastic scintillator, photomultiplier, collimator, and a small battery-powered electronics package. The crosstalk from an isolated fuel assembly to an adjacent void is only about 2%. The mean difference between the measured gamma-ray flux and the flux estimated from the declared burnup and cooling time with a simple formula is 22%.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  15. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  16. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  17. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  18. Low temperature pyrolysis of black liquor and polymerization of products in alkali aqueous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A. (Dept. of Chemical Education, Karadeniz Teknik Univ., Trabzon (TR)); Ucan, H. (Dept. of Chemistry, Selcuk Univ., Konya (TR))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pressure pyrolysis for the production of liquids and gases from black liquor and its calcium salts and acidic precipitate have been carried out in a little stainless steel tube. Yields, sum of liquid and gas products, from black liquor and its calcium salts and acidic precipitate were 44.7%, 52.0% and 59.1% of dry basis respectively. The precipitates obtained from black liquor by acidifying with hydrochloric acid and passing carbon dioxide have been polymerized in aqueous acetone containing formaldehyde and ammonia, and converted a polymeric resin.

  19. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which bums the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  20. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which burns the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  1. Biomass gasification project gets funding to solve black liquor safety and landfill problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, N.P.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on biomass gasifications. The main by-product in pulp making is black liquor from virgin fiber; the main by-product in paper recycling is fiber residue. Although the black liquor is recycled for chemical and energy recovery, safety problems plague the boilers currently used to do this. The fiber residue is usually transported to a landfill. The system being developed by MTCI will convert black liquor and fiber residue into a combustible gas, which can then be used for a wide variety of thermal or power generation applications.

  2. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  3. Kinetics of gasification of black liquor char by steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; van Heiningen, A.R.P. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, McGill Univ., Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Montreal, Quebec (CA))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the steam gasification kinetics of kraft black liquor char that were studied in a thermogravimetric analysis reactor. The effect of steam and hydrogen concentration on gasification rate can be described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood type kinetics. An activation energy of 210 kJ/mol was obtained. Methane formation was negligible, and H{sub 2}S was the major gaseous sulfur-containing product obtained over the temperature range studied, 873-973 K. The CO{sub 2} concentration was higher than calculated for the water-shift reaction at equilibrium. A gasification mechanism is proposed whereby CO{sub 2} is one of the primary gasification products.

  4. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline black liquor Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkaline black liquor Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Journal of Membrane Science, 33 (1987) 83-95 Elsevier Science...

  6. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The black liquor properties program has been conducted over this last period so as to systematically collect data on properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics very carefully by methods that have developed during this program. Complete data has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at different pulping conditions. In addition, data has been collected for mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to. pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. In the near future, we fully expect to accomplish our goal of developing generalized correlations relating physical properties of Slash Pine kraft black liquors to liquor composition. This interim report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  7. Swelling of kraft black liquor: an understanding of the associated phenomena during pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, P.T.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this thesis were to quantify the swelling of black liquor during pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere and to determine what factors were responsible for swelling. The first part of the investigation studied the process variables: pyrolysis temperature, solid content, heating rate and particle size. A temperature of 500/sup 0/C resulted in maximum swelling for the investigated temperature range of 300-900/sup 0/C. The swelling of black liquor occurred during the evolution of pyrolysis gases; however, there was no correlation found between the amount of pyrolysis gases evolved and the change in char volume. The initial solid content of black liquor had a small influence on the swelling of black liquor. The heating rate was found to effect the rate of swelling but not the final volume. Particle size had no effect on the swollen volume per unit particle weight. The effect of black liquor composition was studied. An interaction between sugar acids and kraft lignin was responsible for swelling. The extractives interfered with the swelling mechanism of black liquor, while inorganic salts acted as a diluent. The swelling behavior of black liquor appeared to be dictated by the surface active and viscous forces present in black liquor during pyrolysis. Surface active forces were evidenced by the formation of small bubbles (50-150 microns in diameter) which appeared necessary for highly swollen chars. Low swelling chars did not exhibit this phenomenon. Bubble formation began at 250/sup 0/C, which closely corresponded to the thermal decomposition temperature of sugar acids. The sugar acids formed bubbles when pyrolyzed but did not swell significantly during pyrolysis. Kraft lignin appeared to enhance the swelling of the sugar acids by increasing the viscosity and stabilizing the bubbles during pyrolysis.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel Fact Sheets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    management needs. By coordinating common needs for research, technology development, and testing programs, the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is achieving cost efficiencies...

  9. Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 1: Laboratory measurements at different conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aho, K.; Vakkilainen, E. (A. Ahistrom Corp., Varkaus (Finland)); Hupa, M. (Abo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis is high. There is only minor release during the drying stage. Ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen species formed. The rate of fixed nitrogen release increases with increasing temperature. The level of fixed nitrogen released by birch liquor is almost twice the level for pine liquor. Assuming complete conversion to NO, fixed nitrogen yields gave NO concentrations near typically measured values for flue gases in full scale recovery boilers. The purpose of this work was to gain more detailed information about the behavior of the fuel nitrogen in black liquor combustion. The work focused on the pyrolysis or devolatilization of the combustion process. Devolatilization is the stage at which the majority (typically 50--80%) of the liquor organics release from a fuel particle or droplet as gaseous species due to the rapid destruction of the organic macromolecules in the liquor. In this paper, the authors use the terms devolatilization and pyrolysis interchangeably with no difference in their meaning.

  10. Effect of pulsation on black liquor gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.; Jeong, H.; Kushari, A.; Rosen, L.J.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrolysis is an endothermic process. The heat of reaction is provided either by partial combustion of the waste or by heat transfer from an external combustion process. In one proposed system black liquor is pyrolized in a fluidized bed to which heat is added through a series of pulse combustor tail pipes submerged in the bed material. This system appears promising because of the relatively high heat transfer in pulse combustors and in fluidized beds. Other advantages of pulse combustors are discussed elsewhere. The process is, however, only economically viable if a part of the pyrolysis products can be used to fire the pulse combustors. The overall goals of this study were to determine: (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tail pipe to the bed and through the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the heat transfer benefits of the pulse combustor can be utilized while maintaining the temperature in the bed within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

  11. Research on droplet formation for application to kraft black liquors: Final report: Tasks I and III, report No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stockel, I.H.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to generate technical data with which to design nozzles for kraft black liquor recovery boilers which can reduce under and over size droplets and adjust for changing black liquor properties and production requirements. The research is organized into five tasks: Droplet formation from a single jet, theoretical and experimental--ambient gas medium; Surface tensions of black liquor; Aerodynamic/hydrodynamic stability/instability of droplets once formed; Black liquor droplet formation from a single jet--furnace gas medium; Prototype of a new nozzle design. 88 figs.

  12. Physical properties of kraft black liquor: Summary report, Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1981, a research program has been in progress to determine the physical properties of kraft black liquors and to develop methods for reduction of data and correlation of properties with pumping conditions. The basic premise that has been used to direct the research program is that kraft black liquor behaves as a polymer solution, particularly at high solids, and that the behavior is dominated by the characteristics of the lignin present. This premise is proving to be correct, and the principles that follow from this premise are proving to be successful for data reduction and correlation. The research has been a complex program involving experimental pulping, chemical analysis, lignin separation and characterization, thermal analysis, rheological measurements, and considerable equipment and methods development. Due to the complexity of the program, the unforeseen need to expend a great deal of effort in development of experimental techniques for analysis, and the fact that our liquors proved to be unstable at high temperatures and solids, all of the original objectives could not be accomplished. However, our program has added substantially to the body of knowledge of physical properties of black liquor. Our results indicate that the goal of developing correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor is practical and can be realized through extension of the present work.

  13. Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

    2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The laboratory immersion test system built and operated at ORNL was found to successfully screen samples from numerous refractory suppliers, including both commercially available and experimental materials. This system was found to provide an accurate prediction of how these materials would perform in the actual gasifier environment. Test materials included mullites, alumino-silicate bricks, fusion-cast aluminas, alumina-based and chrome-containing mortars, phosphate-bonded mortars, coated samples provided under an MPLUS-funded project, bonded spinels, different fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinels with magnesia content ranging from 2.5% to about 60%, high-MgO castable and brick materials, spinel castables, and alkali-aluminate materials. This testing identified several candidate material systems that perform well in the New Bern gasifier. Fusion-cast aluminas were found to survive for nearly one year, and magnesia-alumina spinels have operated successfully for 18 months and are expected to survive for two years. Alkali-aluminates and high-MgO-content materials have also been identified for backup lining applications. No other material with a similar structure and chemical composition to that of the fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel brick currently being used for the hot-face lining is commercially available. Other materials used for this application have been found to have inferior service lives, as previously discussed. Further, over 100 laboratory immersion tests have been performed on other materials (both commercial and experimental), but none to date has performed as well as the material currently being used for the hot-face lining. Operating experience accumulated with the high-temperature gasifier at New Bern, North Carolina, has confirmed that the molten alkali salts degrade many types of refractories. Fusion-cast alumina materials were shown to provide a great improvement in lifetime over materials used previously. Further improvement was realized with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the refractory material systems identified for lining material applications may be applicable for use in this

  14. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  15. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate.

  16. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

  17. Formation of fuel NO[sub x] during black-liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, K.M. (Weyerhaeuser Paper Co., Tacoma, WA (United States)); Lien, S.J. (Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel NOx and thermal NOx were measured in combustion gases from black liquors in two laboratory furnaces. Combustion at 950 C in air (8% O[sub 2]) produced NOx concentrations of 40-80ppm. Combustion at 950 C in synthetic air containing no nitrogen (21% 0[sub 2] in Ar) produced the same result, demonstrating that all of the NOx produced during combustion at 950 C was fuel NOx. Formation of fuel NOx increased moderately with increasing temperature in the range of 800-1,000 C, but temperature sensitivity of fuel NOx was much less than that of thermal NOx. The results imply that the major source of NOx in recovery furnace emissions is the fuel NOx in recovery furnace formed by conversion of liquor-bound nitrogen during combustion. This is consistent with thermal NOx theory, which postulates that black-liquor combustion temperatures are too low to generate significant amounts of thermal NOx.

  18. Research on droplet formation for application to kraft black liquors---Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bousfield, D.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to generate technical data to guide the design of new nozzles for kraft black liquor recovery boilers. The goal of new nozzle designs would be to narrow the droplet size distribution compared to current nozzles and to adjust for changing black liquor properties and production requirements. Uniform droplets in a recovery boiler should reduce fouling of superheater tubes and caused a more efficient burning of the black liquor, both of which result in improved energy efficiency. The research was organized into five tasks which are described in the next chapter. This fifth and final project report contains the details of Task 4 and 5 and further analysis of Task 1 results. The details of the other tasks are reported in previous technical reports. The major results from the entire project are highlighted in this section in order of significance.

  19. Red Giant Red Giant White Giant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bechtold, Jill

    Red Giant Red Giant White Giant Red Giant White Giant White Giant Blue Giant Blue Giant Blue Giant. Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Sun, is a red giant. Mass: 1- 4 Solar Mass StarPower Points: 7

  20. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  1. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems` Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  2. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

  3. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers. Quarterly report, Phase 1a: Black liquor gasifier evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project phase addresses the following workscope: Conduct bench-scale tests of a low temperature, partial combustion gasifier; Prepare a gasifier pilot-plant preliminary design and cost estimate and prepare a budgetary cost estimate of the balance of the program; Outline a test program to evaluate gasification; Prepare an economic/market analysis of gasification and solicit pulp and paper industry support for subsequent phases; and Prepare a final report and conduct a project review prior to commencement of work leading to construction of any pilot scale components or facilities. The primary accomplishments included completion of installation of the bench-scale black liquor gasifier and supporting systems, preparing test plans and related safety procedures and detailed operating procedures, defining the functional design requirements and outlining the test plans for the pilot-scale gasifier, and preparing a preliminary economic assessment of the black liquor gasifier. This work accomplished under Phase 1a during this period is further described by task.

  4. Energy conservation in black-liquor evaporator of pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, V.K.; Gupta, S.C. [Univ. of Roorkee (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is an attempt on energy conservation in a quintuple effect evaporator used to concentrate dilute black liquor solution by raising their steam economy through the changes in the operating variables. It also describes the steam economy of the evaporator for the various feed arrangements so as to determine the ranges of the variables for which evaporation occurs profitable.

  5. Assessment of the release of atomic Na from a burning black liquor droplet using quantitative PLIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The Environment Institute, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The Environment Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantitative measurement of atomic sodium (Na) release, at high concentration, from a burning black liquor droplet has been demonstrated using a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique, corrected for fluorescence trapping. The local temperature of the particle was measured to be approximately 1700 C, at a height of 10 mm above a flat flame burner. The PLIF technique was used to assess the temporal release of atomic Na from the combustion of black liquor and compare it with the Na concentration in the remaining smelt. A first-order model was made to provide insight using a simple Plug Flow Reactor model based on the independently measured concentration of residual Na in the smelt as a function of time. This model also required the dilution ratio of the combustion products in the flat flame entrained into the plume gas from the black liquor particle to be estimated. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the peak concentration of atomic Na from the combustion of the black liquor droplets is around 1.4 ppm; (ii) very little atomic Na is present during the drying, devolatilisation or char combustion stages; and (iii) the presence of atomic Na during smelt phase dominates over that from the other combustion stages. (author)

  6. Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

    1999-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

  7. Black liquor viscosity reduction through salt additives: A novel environmentally benign processing alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Processing black liquor at high solids would reduce SO{sub x} emissions, facilitate the use of non-chlorine bleaching techniques and enhance the energy efficiency of the pulping process. However, black liquor exhibits and exponential increase in viscosity as its solids content rises, thus hindering its processability in the composition range of interest (>70% solids). In this study, we present a new approach for controlling viscosity at high solids content by {open_quotes}salting in{close_quotes} black liquor through addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts increases the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several salts capable of viscosity reduction by as much as two orders of magnitude have been identified. The effects of cation size, solution pH and temperature on viscosity reduction is presented and interpreted in terms of the underlying principles of {open_quotes}salting in{close_quotes} and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

  8. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1996-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  9. Separation of kraft lignin from kraft black liquor: Final report, July 1984-April 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurple, K.R.

    1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    All the objectives were accomplished: a high-quality kraft lignin containing less than 50 ppM sodium was separated into a solvent phase (freon) from as much as 1000 lb kraft black liquor. Supporting data (infrared spectra, chemical analyses, etc.) are included. (DLC)

  10. Coliquefaction of coal and black liquor to environmentally acceptable liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Akash, B.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous work in the laboratories has demonstrated that addition to lignin to coal during liquefaction significantly increases the depolymerization of coal and enhances the quality of the liquid products. It is believed that thermolysis of the lignin results in the formation of phenoxyl and other reactive radicals at temperatures too low for significant thermolysis of the coal matrix; such radicals are effective and active intermediates that depolymerize coal by cleaving methylene bridges. It has been reported that alkali is also effective for extraction of liquids from coal. The work presented here combines these two reactive agents by utilizing the black liquor waste stream from the Kraft pulping process for coal depolymerization. That waste stream contains large amounts of lignin and sodium hydroxide, as well as other components. To permit comparative evaluations of the extent of coal depolymerization by coprocessing coal and black liquor, reference runs were performed with tetralin alone, sodium hydroxide in tetralin, and lignin in tetralin. Results indicated that the sodium hydroxide-tetralin system resulted in almost 67% conversion at 375 C, 1 hour. The black liquor system exhibited a lower conversion of 60%, indicating some inhibition of the depolymerization reactions by components in the black liquor.

  11. BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS ERIC D. LARSON modeling of gasifier/gas turbine pulp-mill cogeneration systemsusing gasifier designs under commercial gasification. The use of biomass fuels with gas turbines could transform a typical pulp mill from a net

  12. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  13. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  14. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  15. Combustion processes in black liquor recovery: Analysis and interpretation of combustion rate data and an engineering design model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredrick, W.J.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop computational models for predicting the combustion times for black liquor droplets in a recovery furnace environment. These models are needed as an important component of large-scale, global recovery boiler models. The work is divided into two tasks: interpretation of experimental black liquor single droplet combustion data from two laboratories; and formulation and evaluation of computational models for the stages of combustion of black liquor droplets. This report contains the results of the project. 109 refs., 64 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Spent Fuel Disposal Trust Fund (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any licensee operating a nuclear power plant in this State shall establish a segregated Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Trust Fund in accordance with this subchapter for the eventual disposal of spent...

  17. Fundamental Study of Black Liquor Gasification Kinetics. Quarterly progress report for the period October 1999 to December 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this research is to evaluate the kinetics of gasification of kraft black liquor under laboratory conditions simulating pressurized, oxygen-blown gasification. The significant independent variables are gasifier temperature, black liquor composition particle size, and particle residence time. The authors will quantify their impact on the concentration of major and trace gas phase species, as well as the composition of condensed phase inorganic products, including specification of the Na- and S-containing compounds and overall carbon conversion.

  18. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  19. Spent fuel integrity during transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funk, C.W.; Jacobson, L.D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conditions of recent shipments of light water reactor spent fuel were surveyed. The radioactivity level of cask coolant was examined in an attempt to find the effects of transportation on LWR fuel assemblies. Discussion included potential cladding integrity loss mechanisms, canning requirements, changes of radioactivity levels, and comparison of transportation in wet or dry media. Although integrity loss or degradation has not been identified, radioactivity levels usually increase during transportation, especially for leaking assemblies.

  20. Development of viscometers for kraft black liquor. Summary report, Phase 2 and 2A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.; Crisalle, O.D.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the on-line prototype viscometers for kraft black liquors carried out at the Pilot Plant facilities of the University of Florida. The original plan called for the evaluation of five prototype on-line viscometers along with laboratory bench versions. At a later stage in the project an additional experimental prototype under development at Southwest Research Institute was added. The viscometers are evaluated for accuracy and repeatability under varying process conditions, such as black liquor species, solids content, temperature, flow rate, and contaminants, as well as for maintenance and reliability. This document reports extensive results of the evaluations and recommendations for design modifications and for the installation of the instruments in industrial pulping mills for further field evaluations in Phase 3 of the project. The report also documents relevant details of the final design of the pilot flow loop used to support the experiments.

  1. Comparison of Refractory Performance in Black Liquor Gasifiers and a Smelt Test System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peascoe, RA

    2001-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior laboratory corrosion studies along with experience at the black liquor gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina, clearly demonstrate that serious material problems exist with the gasifier's refractory lining. Mullite-based and alumina-based refractories used at the New Bern facility suffered significant degradation even though they reportedly performed adequately in smaller scale systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's involvement in the failure analysis, and the initial exploration of suitable replacement materials, led to the realization that a simple and reliable, complementary method for refractory screening was needed. The development of a laboratory test system and its suitability for simulating the environment of black liquor gasifiers was undertaken. Identification and characterization of corrosion products were used to evaluate the test system as a rapid screening tool for refractory performance and as a predictor of refractory lifetime. Results from the test systems and pl ants were qualitatively similar.

  2. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, J. D.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10/sup -7/ spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10/sup -9//mile.

  3. Feasibility of black liquor gasification in combined cycle cogeneration. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, E.G.

    1983-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A small-scale test program of 65% solids black liquor gasification was conducted in the bench-scale molten salt gasifier. Nine tests were performed using both air and oxygen as the oxidant. The black liquor gasified readily and the product gas had a dry-basis heating value of 70 Btu/scf with air and about 250 Btu/scf with oxygen. These values were almost identical to values predicted on the basis of thermodynamic equilibrium in the gas phase, indicating that the system had achieved near-equilibrium. However, the reduction of the melt to sodium sulfide was generally low. An independent research program aimed at improving the performance of air-blown black liquor gasification was conducted. That work resulted in a modified gasifier system design which increased the off-gas heating value to 120 Btu/scf and the reduction of the melt to over 95%. This was an improvement that would potentially allow use of the scrubbed product gas as a feed to a combustion gas turbine without prior enrichment.

  4. Combined biomass and black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration at pulp and paper mills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, E.D.; Kreutz, T.G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies; Consonni, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kraft pulp and paper mills generate large quantities of black liquor and byproduct biomass suitable for gasification. These fuels are used today for onsite cogeneration of heat and power in boiler/steam turbine systems. Gasification technologies under development would enable these fuels to be used in gas turbines. This paper reports results of detailed full-load performance modeling of pulp-mill cogeneration systems based on gasifier/gas turbine technologies. Pressurized, oxygen-blown black liquor gasification, the most advanced of proposed commercial black liquor gasifier designs, is considered, together with three alternative biomass gasifier designs under commercial development (high-pressure air-blown, low-pressure air-blown, and low-pressure indirectly-heated). Heavy-duty industrial gas turbines of the 70-MW{sub e} and 25-MW {sub e} class are included in the analysis. Results indicate that gasification-based cogeneration with biomass-derived fuels would transform a typical pulp mill into significant power exporter and would also offer possibilities for net reductions in emissions of carbon dioxide relative to present practice.

  5. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification. Second annual report, [November 1990--February 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This second annual report summarizes the work accomplished during the period November 1990 through February 1992 for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-90CE40893. The overall project objective is to field test an energy-efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system at a significant industrial scale. This is intended to demonstrate the maturity of the technology in an industrial environment and serve as an example to the industry of the safer and more energy-efficient processing technique. The project structure is comprised of three primary activities: process characterization testing, scale-up hardware development, and field testing. The objective of the process characterization testing was to resolve key technical issues regarding the black liquor recovery process that were identified during earlier laboratory verification tests. This was intended to provide a sound engineering data base for the design, construction and testing of a nominal 1.0 TPH integrated black liquor recovery gasifier. The objective of the scale-up hardware development effort was to ensure that key hardware components, in particular the pulse heater module, would perform reliably and safely in the field. Finally, the objective of the field test is to develop an industrial data base sufficient to demonstrate the capabilities and performance of the operating system with respect to thermal efficiency, product quality, fuel handling, system control, reliability and cost. These tests are to provide long-term and continuous operating data at a capacity unattainable in the bench-scale apparatus.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel sampling strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergmann, D.W.

    1995-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report proposes a strategy for sampling the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored in the 105-K Basins (105-K East and 105-K West). This strategy will support decisions concerning the path forward SNF disposition efforts in the following areas: (1) SNF isolation activities such as repackaging/overpacking to a newly constructed staging facility; (2) conditioning processes for fuel stabilization; and (3) interim storage options. This strategy was developed without following the Data Quality Objective (DQO) methodology. It is, however, intended to augment the SNF project DQOS. The SNF sampling is derived by evaluating the current storage condition of the SNF and the factors that effected SNF corrosion/degradation.

  7. Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned Small Business Webinar June 20,Department ofSpecialEnergy SpelmanSpent

  8. Red Cabbage Smoothie Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    Red Cabbage Smoothie Ingredients · 1 1/2 cups cold water · 1/2 small head red cabbage, quartered: http://www.accordingtoelle.com/2014/05/red-cabbage-smoothie/ Recipe provided by former chef

  9. Red River Compact (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Red River Compact Commission administers the Red River Compact to ensure that Texas receives its equitable share of quality water from the Red River and its tributaries as apportioned by the...

  10. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

  11. Effect of pulsations on black liquor gasification. Progress report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushari, A.; Jeong, H.; Jagoda, J.I.; Zinn, B.T.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to investigate the use of pulse combustion to provide the energy required for the endothermic gasification of black liquor in a fluidized bed. In this process it is critical that the temperature remain in the small window above the gasification temperature but below the smelting temperature of the inorganic salts in the black liquor. Pulse combustors have been shown to have high heat transfer rates between the hot combustion products and the combustor tailpipe. Similarly, fluidized beds have high heat transfer rates within the bed itself, promoting temperature uniformity throughout. Typical analysis of the gasified black liquor shows there is a large percentage of combustible gases in the products of the gasification process (approximately 70%). The potential exists, therefore, for using this fuel mixture to fire the pulse combustor. This makes the entire process more efficient and may be necessary to make it economically feasible. The overall goals of this study are to determine (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring the heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tailpipe to the bed and then throughout the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the temperature distribution in the bed can be maintained within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed even if the heat transfer from the pulse combustor is significantly increased; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

  12. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.

    2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

  13. Conversion of a black liquor recovery boiler to wood firing: A case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eleniewski, M.A. [Detroit Stoker Company, Monroe, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1983 a large integrated pulp and paper mill in southeastern United States retired an older chemical recovery boiler when it was replaced by a newer and larger unit as part of a mill expansion. At that time the mill was generating steam and power using wood waste, natural gas and black liquor, a common fuel mix for pulp mills. The retirement of the recovery boiler presented an opportunity for the mill and corporate engineering to evaluate various mixes of fuels for the mill.

  14. Eucalyptus kraft black liquor enhances growth and productivity of Spirulina in outdoor cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauhan, V.S.; Singh, G.; Ramamurthy, V. [Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala (India)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass cultivation of microalgae for commercial applications suffers from poor productivities when measured against laboratory results or theoretical projections. In an effort to reduce this gap it was discovered that addition of eucalyptus kraft black liquor (BL) enhanced biomass productivity in outdoor cultures of Spirulina by increasing growth rate by 38% and biomass yield by 43%. BL treatment resulted in elevation of nitrogen assimilating enzyme activities and efficiency of phosphate utilization. Analyses of forenoon and afternoon oxygen production rates (OPRs) indicated higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity in BL-treated cultures compared to untreated cultures. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  16. Electronic nose with a new feature reduction method and a multi-linear classifier for Chinese liquor classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, Yaqi; Meng, Qinghao, E-mail: qh-meng@tju.edu.cn; Qi, Peifeng; Zeng, Ming; Li, Wei; Ma, Shugen [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)] [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Institute of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was designed to classify Chinese liquors of the same aroma style. A new method of feature reduction which combined feature selection with feature extraction was proposed. Feature selection method used 8 feature-selection algorithms based on information theory and reduced the dimension of the feature space to 41. Kernel entropy component analysis was introduced into the e-nose system as a feature extraction method and the dimension of feature space was reduced to 12. Classification of Chinese liquors was performed by using back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), and a multi-linear classifier. The classification rate of the multi-linear classifier was 97.22%, which was higher than LDA and BP-ANN. Finally the classification of Chinese liquors according to their raw materials and geographical origins was performed using the proposed multi-linear classifier and classification rate was 98.75% and 100%, respectively.

  17. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinccarbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, Mara V., E-mail: plapimu@yahoo.com.ar [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropsito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Falco, Lorena R., E-mail: mlfalco@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropsito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Peluso, Miguel A., E-mail: apelu@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigacin y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Dr. J. Ronco CINDECA (CONICET CCT La Plata), 47 N257, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sambeth, Jorge E., E-mail: sambeth@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigacin y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Dr. J. Ronco CINDECA (CONICET CCT La Plata), 47 N257, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomas, Horacio J. [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropsito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. Spent alkaline and zinccarbon size AA batteries were used. A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinccarbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 C, while heptane requires more than 400 C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinccarbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  18. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  19. Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used In Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Gorog, John Peter [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials, and particularly the refractory lining of the reactor vessel, have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for this application.

  20. Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used in Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials such as the refractory lining of the reactor vessel have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, an updated summary of the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for both the hot-face and back-up linings used in this application.

  1. Separation and characterization of lignins from the black liquor of oil palm trunk fiber pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, R.; Tomkinson, J.; Bolton, J.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six lignin preparations, isolated by a novel two-step precipitation method instead of the traditional one-step precipitation method from the oil palm trunk fiber pulping (OPTFP) black liquor, were found to be relatively free of nonlignin materials such as polysaccharide degradation products, ash, and salts. A lignin fraction with a purity of 99.5% was obtained at an optimum precipitation pH 1.5 after isolation of the nonlignin materials in ethanol. About 94% of the total lignin was recovered by this novel method at this condition, and the value of COD in the treated black liquor reduced significantly to lower 250. The isolated lignin fractions contained syringyl, guaiacyl, and p-hydroxyphenyl units in an approximate molar ratio of 16--20:5:1 on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Small amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic acids were found to be esterified to lignin, while ferulic acids were associated to lignin by ether linkage. {sup 13}C-NMR indicated the presence of {beta}-O-4 ether bonds, and {beta}-5 and 5-5{prime} carbon-carbon linkages between the lignin molecules.

  2. National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent...

  3. Idaho Spent Fuel Facility (ISFF) Project, Appropriate Acquisition...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Idaho Spent Fuel Facility (ISFF) Project, Appropriate Acquisition Strategy Lessons Learned Report, NNSA, Feb 2010 Idaho Spent Fuel Facility (ISFF) Project, Appropriate Acquisition...

  4. MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University of Tennessee Georgia Tech SURF 2010 Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University If the temperature is above the first melting point of the scale, severe corrosion of the tubes can result temperatures, reducing efficiency. The corrosive nature of the superheater environment arises primarily from

  5. Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradeep Agrawal

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

  6. PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP high-temperature gasifiers for gas turbine applications. ABB and MTCr/Stonechem are developing low-load performance of gasifier/gas turbine systemsincorporating the four above-noted gasifier designs are reported

  7. Fluoride removal from water with spent catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Y.D.; Liu, J.C. [National Taiwan Institute of Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adsorption of fluoride from water with spent catalyst was studied. Adsorption density of fluoride decreased with increasing pH. Linear adsorption isotherm was utilized to describe the adsorption reaction. The adsorption was a first-order reaction, and the rate constant increased with decreasing surface loading. Adsorption reaction of fluoride onto spent catalyst was endothermic, and the reaction rate increased slightly with increasing temperature. Fluoro-alumino complex and free fluoride ion were involved in the adsorption reaction. It is proposed that both the silica and alumina fractions of spent catalyst contribute to the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. Coulombic interaction is proposed as the major driving force of the adsorption reaction of fluoride onto spent catalyst.

  8. Spent fuel storage requirements 1993--2040

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements through the year 2040. The needs are estimated for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the reactor storage pools. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of spent fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. The nuclear utilities provide historical data through December 1992 on the end of reactor life are based on the DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges.

  9. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p. 54S,Colorado's primary oil shale resource for vertical modifiedSimulated effects of oil-shale development on the hydrology

  10. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydraulic cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p.J. W. , "Colorado's primary oil shale resource for verticalSimulated effects of oil-shale development on the hydrology

  11. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tretyakova, S.; Shmidt, O.; Podymova, T.; Shadrin, A.; Tkachenko, V. [Bochvar Institute, 5 Rogova str., Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Makeyeva, I.; Tkachenko, V.; Verbitskaya, O.; Schultz, O.; Peshkichev, I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIITF E.I. Zababakhin, p.o.box 245, Snezhinsk, 456770 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term wide development of nuclear power requires new approaches towards the realization of nuclear fuel cycle, namely, closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with respect to fission materials. Plant nuclear fuel cycle (PNFC), which is in fact the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel unloaded from the reactor and the production of new nuclear fuel (NF) at the same place together with reactor plant, can be one variant of CNFC. Developing and projecting of PNFC is a complicated high-technology innovative process that requires modern information support. One of the components of this information support is developed by the authors. This component is the programme conducting calculations for various variants of process flow sheets for reprocessing SNF and production of NF. Central in this programme is the blocks library, where the blocks contain mathematical description of separate processes and operations. The calculating programme itself has such a structure that one can configure the complex of blocks and correlations between blocks, appropriate for any given flow sheet. For the ready sequence of operations balance calculations are made of all flows, i.e. expenses, element and substance makeup, heat emission and radiation rate are determined. The programme is open and the block library can be updated. This means that more complicated and detailed models of technological processes will be added to the library basing on the results of testing processes using real equipment, in test operating mode. The development of the model for the realization of technical-economic analysis of various variants of technologic PNFC schemes and the organization of 'operator's advisor' is expected. (authors)

  13. Refractory Testing and Evaluation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for Black Liquor Gasifier Applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work is on-going at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate refractory containment and smelt contact materials for black liquor gasification applications. Materials have been evaluated and selected for low temperature gasification processes, with a number of materials being installed in commercial units currently under construction. For high temperature low pressure gasification processes, efforts have focused on screening candidate lining materials through immersion testing, improving existing refractory performance through the application of surface treatments, and the installation and evaluation of samples in an operating gasifier in New Bern, NC. Efforts concerning high temperature high pressure gasification have involved the identification and testing of suitable refractory materials for the coating of a helical carbon steel cooling coil arrangment.

  14. Separation of kraft lignin from kraft black liquor: Final report, July 1984-April 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurple, K.R.

    1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of this work is related to the fact that with over 16 million tons of kraft lignin available annually, practically all of it is burned just for its heat value. In essence, kraft lignin has no real value except its heat value. The major accomplishments of this research has shown that it is possible to produce high purity kraft lignin from kraft black liquor. This patented technology represents a way of producing a material that can be utilized in a wide variety of markets. Kraft lignin that was produced using this technology was sent to major corporations who used this kraft lignin as a starting material in their chemical processes. 3 figs.

  15. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jett, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  16. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  17. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 5: Appendix V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  18. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 4: Appendix IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  19. Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxson, Vern

    #12;#12;Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1 Code Red 2 settles into weekly pattern Nimda enters the ecosystem Code Red 2 dies off as programmed CR 1 returns thanks to bad clocks #12;Code Red 2 dies off as programmed Nimda hums along, slowly cleaned up With its predator gone, Code Red 1 comes back, still

  20. Spent fuel integrity during dry storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinnon, M.A.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information on spent fuel integrity is of interest in evaluating the impact of long-term dry storage on the behavior of spent fuel rods. Spent fuel used during cask performance tests at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offers significant opportunities for confirmation of the benign nature of long-term dry storage. The cask performance tests conducted at INEL included visual observation and ultrasonic examination of the condition of cladding, fuel rods, and fuel assembly hardware before dry storage and consolidation of the fuel; and a qualitative determination of the effect of dry storage and fuel consolidation on fission gas release from the spent fuel rods. A variety of cover gases and cask orientations were used during the cask performance tests. Cover gases included vacuum, nitrogen, and helium. The nitrogen and helium backfills were sampled and analyzed to detect leaking spent fuel rods. At the conclusion of each performance test, periodic gas sampling was conducted on each cask as part of a surveillance and monitoring activity. Continued surveillance and monitoring activities are being conducted for intact fuel in a CASTOR V/21 cask and for consolidated fuel in a VSC-17 cask. The results of the gas sampling activities are reported in this paper.

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  2. 69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d) Location This established (fig. 139). Ecological subsection ­ High Cascades (M261Df). Target Element Red Fir (Abies magnifica) Distinctive Features Shasta Red Fir Forest: Taxonomically, the description of Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica

  3. Spent Fuel Background Report Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, D.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an overview of current spent nuclear fuel management in the DOE complex. Sources of information include published literature, internal DOE documents, interviews with site personnel, and information provided by individual sites. Much of the specific information on facilities and fuels was provided by the DOE sites in response to the questionnaire for data for spent fuels and facilities data bases. This information is as accurate as is currently available, but is subject to revision pending results of further data calls. Spent fuel is broadly classified into three categories: (a) production fuels, (b) special fuels, and (c) naval fuels. Production fuels, comprising about 80% of the total inventory, are those used at Hanford and Savannah River to produce nuclear materials for defense. Special fuels are those used in a wide variety of research, development, and testing activities. Special fuels include fuel from DOE and commercial reactors used in research activities at DOE sites. Naval fuels are those developed and used for nuclear-powered naval vessels and for related research and development. Given the recent DOE decision to curtail reprocessing, the topic of main concern in the management of spent fuel is its storage. Of the DOE sites that have spent nuclear fuel, the vast majority is located at three sites-Hanford, INEL, and Savannah River. Other sites with spent fuel include Oak Ridge, West Valley, Brookhaven, Argonne, Los Alamos, and Sandia. B&W NESI Lynchburg Technology Center and General Atomics are commercial facilities with DOE fuel. DOE may also receive fuel from foreign research reactors, university reactors, and other commercial and government research reactors. Most DOE spent fuel is stored in water-filled pools at the reactor facilities. Currently an engineering study is being performed to determine the feasibility of using dry storage for DOE-owned spent fuel currently stored at various facilities. Delays in opening the deep geologic repository and the decision to phase out reprocessing of production fuels are extending the need for interim storage. The report describes the basic storage conditions and the general SNF inventory at individual DOE facilities.

  4. Gasification of kraft black liquor and use of the products in combined cycle cogeneration. Final report, Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelleher, E.G.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Phase II study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in combined cycle cogeneration based on combustion gas turbines was motivated by the very promising results of the Phase I feasibility study. The Phase I study indicated that the alternative technology to the Tomlinson recovery furnace had the potential of improving the energy efficiency and safety of combusting black liquor, reducing the capital and operating costs, increasing the electric power output, and providing an economical system for incremental kraft capacity additions. During Phase II, additional bench-scale experiments were run, pilot-scale experiments were conducted, equipment systems were investigated, and performance and economics were reanalyzed. All of the objectives of the Phase II project were met. Recommendations are summarized.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

  6. Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. syngas) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950C), but was limited to pressures below about 5 bar. It is desirable however to operate BLG at 20-30 bar for efficiency reasons related to either firing the syngas in a turbine, or catalytically forming liquid fuels. This work focused on achieving high direct causticizing yields at 20 bars pressure. The titanate direct causticizing reactions are inhibited by CO2. Previous work has shown that the partial pressure of CO2 should be kept below about 0.5 bar in order for the process to work. This translates to a total reactor pressure limit of about 5 bar for airblown BLG, and only 2 bar for O2-blown BLG. In this work a process was developed in which the CO2 partial pressure could be manipulated to a level under 0.5 bar with the total system pressure at 10 bar during O2-blown BLG. This fell short of our 20 bar goal but still represents a substantial increase in the pressure limit. A material and energy balance was performed, as well as first-pass economics based on capital and utilities costs. Compared to a reference case of using BLG with a conventional lime cycle [Larson, 2003], the IRR and NVP were estimated for further replacing the lime kiln with direct causticizing. The economics are strongly dependent on the price of lime kiln fuel. At $6/mmBTU the lime cycle is the clear choice. At $8/mmBTU the NPV is $10M with IRR of 17%. At $12/mmBTU the NPV is $45M with IRR of 36%. To further increase the total allowable pressure, the CO2 could be further decreased by further decreasing the temperature. Testing should be done at 750C. Also a small pilot should be built.

  7. Are red 2MASS QSOs young?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Georgakakis; D. L. Clements; G. Bendo; M. Rowan-Robinson; K. Nandra; M. S. Brotherton

    2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We use photometric data from Spitzer to explore the mid- and far-IR properties of 10 red QSOs (J-K>2, R-K>5) selected by combining the 2MASS in the NIR with the SDSS at optical wavelengths. Optical and/or near-infrared spectra are available for 8/10 sources. Modeling the SED from UV to far-IR shows that moderate dust reddening (A_V=1.3-3.2) can explain the red optical and near-IR colours of the sources in the sample. There is also evidence that red QSOs have 60/12micron luminosity ratio higher than PG QSOs (97% significance). This can be interpreted as a higher level of star-formation in these systems (measured by the 60micron luminosity) for a given AGN power (approximated by the 12micron luminosity). This is consistent with a picture where red QSOs represent an early phase of AGN evolution, when the supermassive black hole is enshrouded in dust and gas clouds, which will eventually be blown out (possibly by AGN driven outflows) and the system will appear as typical optically luminous QSO. There is also tentative evidence significant at the 96% level that red 2MASS QSOs are more often associated with radio emission than optically selected SDSS QSOs. This may indicate outflows, also consistent with the young AGN interpretation. We also estimate the space density of red QSOs relative to optically selected SDSS QSOs, taking into account the effect of dust extinction and the intrinsic luminosity of the sources. We estimate that the fraction of red QSOs in the overall population increases from 3% at M_K=-27.5mag to 12% at M_K=-29.5mag. This suggests that reddened QSOs become more important at the bright end of the Luminosity Function. If red QSOs are transition objects on the way to becoming typical optically luminous QSOs, the low fractions above suggest that these systems spent <12% of their lifetime at the "reddened" stage.

  8. CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER BY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS LEACHED FROM IN-SITU SPENT SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from Characterization of Spent Shale s . , , . . . ,4. Preparation of Spent Shale Samples and Procedure forof Particular Types of Spent Shale References Appendix A.

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  10. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P, K, Mehta Civil Engineering

  11. Mechanical Design of Steel Tubing for Use in Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taljat, B.; Zacharaia, T.; Wang, X.; Kesier, J.; Swindeman, R.; Hubbard, C.

    1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Finite element models were developed for thermal-mechanical analysis of black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes. Residual stresses in boiler floors due to various manufacturing processes were analyzed. The modeling results were verified by X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature on as-manufactured tubes as well as tubes after service. The established finite element models were then used to evaluate stress conditions during boiler operation. Using these finite element models, a parametric response surface study was performed to investigate the influence of material properties of the clad layer on stresses in the floor tubes during various boiler operating conditions, which yielded a generalized solution of stresses in the composite tube floors. The results of the study are useful for identifying the mechanisms of cracking experienced by recovery boilers. Based on the results of the response surface study, a recommendation was made for more suitable materials in terms of the analyzed mechanical properties. Alternative materials and manufacturing processes are being considered to improve the resistance to cracking and the in-service life of composite tubes. To avoid numerous FE stress-strain analyses of composite tubes made of different material combinations, a response surface study was performed that considered two essential mechanical properties of the clad material - coefficient of thermal expansion and yield stress - as independent variables. The response surface study provided a generalized solution of stresses in the floor in terms of the two selected parameters.

  12. Dynamic air deposited coatings for power and black liquor recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verstak, A.A.; Baranovski, V.E. [Advanced Surface Technologies Inc., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic Air Deposition (DyAir) is a novel coating method designed to protect the tubing of power and black liquor recovery boilers against corrosion attack at elevated temperatures. The method utilizes the energy of combustion of gaseous fuel and air to heat the powder material to a temperature just below its melting point and accelerate it over 600 m/s to form a coating. The Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Mo DyAir coatings revealed no gas permeability and extremely low oxygen content. Compared to the electric arc and HVOF-sprayed coatings, the DyAir coatings exhibited higher hardness and better crack resistance. During aging at 400 and 700 C the bond strength and crack resistance of the DyAir coatings increased dramatically due to intensive diffusion processes in absence of internal corrosion attack. The DyAir coatings revealed outstanding resistance to corrosion, such as sulfidation attack in presence of hydrochloric acid gas at 400 C, oxidation attack at 700 C and oxidation attack in presence of chlorine at 400 C.

  13. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 5 (Appendix V)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 5 contains model validation simulations and comparison with data.

  14. Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

  15. The Suitable Geological Formations for Spent Fuel Disposal in Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marunteanu, C. [Bucharest Univ. (Romania); Ionita, G. [ANDRAD, Bucharest (Romania); Durdun, I. [S.C. GEOTEC S.A., Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the experience in the field of advanced countries and formerly Romanian program data, ANDRAD, the agency responsible for the disposal of radioactive wastes, started the program for spent fuel disposal in deep geological formations with a documentary analysis at the national scale. The potential geological formations properly characterized elsewhere in the world: salt, clay, volcanic tuff, granite and crystalline rocks,. are all present in Romania. Using general or specific selection criteria, we presently consider the following two areas for candidate geological formations: 1. Clay formations in two areas in the western part of Romania: (1) The Pannonian basin Socodor - Zarand, where the clay formation is 3000 m thick, with many bentonitic strata and undisturbed structure, and (2) The Eocene Red Clay on the Somes River, extending 1200 m below the surface. They both need a large investigation program in order to establish and select the required homogeneous, dry and undisturbed zones at a suitable depth. 2. Old platform green schist formations, low metamorphosed, quartz and feldspar rich rocks, in the Central Dobrogea structural unit, not far from Cernavoda NPP (30 km average distance), 3000 m thick and including many homogeneous, fine granular, undisturbed, up to 300 m thick layers. (authors)

  16. EIS-0015: U.S. Spent Fuel Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Subsumed DOE/EIS-0040 and DOE/EIS-0041. The Savannah River Laboratory prepared this EIS to analyze the impacts of implementing or not implementing the policy for interim storage of spent power reactor fuel. This Final EIS is a compilation of three Draft EISs and one Supplemental Draft EIS: DOE/EIS-0015-D, Storage of U.S. Spent Power Reactor Fuel; DOE/EIS-0015-DS, Storage of U.S. Spent Power Reactor Fuel - Supplement; DOE/EIS-0040-D, Storage of Foreign Spent Power Reactor Fuel; and DOE/EIS-0041-D, Charge for Spent Fuel Storage.

  17. Spent Sealed Sources Management in Switzerland - 12011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, H.F. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is provided about the international recommendations for the safe management of disused and spent sealed radioactive sources wherein the return to the supplier or manufacturer is encouraged for large radioactive sources. The legal situation in Switzerland is described mentioning the demand of minimization of radioactive waste as well as the situation with respect to the interim storage facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Based on this information and on the market situation with a shortage of some medical radionuclides the management of spent sealed sources is provided. The sources are sorted according to their activity in relation to the nuclide-specific A2-value and either recycled as in the case of high active sources or conditioned as in the case for sources with lower activity. The results are presented as comparison between recycled and conditioned activity for three selected nuclides, i.e. Cs-137, Co-60 and Am-241. (author)

  18. Spent Fuel Working Group Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Toole, T.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary`s initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group`s Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities.

  19. Alkali salt ash formation during black liquor combustion at kraft recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikkanen, P. Kauppinen, E.I.; Pyykoenen, J.; Jokiniemi, J.K. [VTT (Finland); Maekinen, M. [Finnish Meterological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recovery boiler is an essential part of paper pulping process, where waste sludge called black liquor is burned for chemical recovery and energy production. This study was carried out at an operating industrial recovery boiler in Finland. Measurement of aerosol particles was carried out at bullnose level of furnace, at boiler exit, and at outlet of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Aerosol mass size distributions in size range 0.02--50 {micro}m were measured with Berner type low pressure impactor (BLPI) operated with precyclone. BLPI samples were further analyzed with ion chromatography for water soluble Na, K, SO{sub 4}, and Cl. Particle morphology was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phase composition of crystalline salts was measured with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particles larger than 1 {micro}m were analyzed with computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) to derive particle composition classes. At ESP inlet mass size distribution was bimodal with a major mode at about 1.2 {micro}m and a minor mode at about 5 {micro}m (aerodynamic diameter). At ESP outlet the mass size distribution showed only one peak at about 1.2 {micro}m. Both submicron and supermicron particles were agglomerates formed from 0.3 to 0.5 {micro}m spherical primary particles. XRD analyses indicated that particles were crystalline with two phases of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (thenardite and sodium sulphate) and K{sub 3}Na(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. CCSEM results of individual particles larger than 1 {micro}m showed that 79 to 88 volume percent of particles contained mainly Na and S, 7 to 10 volume percent Na, K, and S with minor amount of particles containing Na, S, and Ca.

  20. Red Pepper Sauce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... chopped 2 cloves garlic, minced 1/4 cup water 1/2 Tbs. white wine vinegar 1/8 tsp. crushed red pepper 1/8 tsp. white pepper dash or two Tabasco sauce 1/2 to...

  1. Pyrometric temperature measurement method and apparatus for measuring particle temperatures in hot furnaces: Application to reacting black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenberg, J. [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland); Frederick, W.J. [Oregon State University, Gleeson 103, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)] [Oregon State University, Gleeson 103, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Bostroem, S. [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)] [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland); Hernberg, R. [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland); Hupa, M. [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)] [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A specialized two-color pyrometric method has been developed for the measurement of particle surface temperatures in hot, radiating environments. In this work, the method has been applied to the measurement of surface temperatures of single reacting black liquor char particles in an electrically heated muffle furnace. Black liquor was introduced into the hot furnace as wet droplets. After drying, the resulted particles were processed in different atmospheres corresponding to combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification at furnace temperatures of 700{endash}900{degree}C. The pyrometric measurement is performed using two silicon photodiode detectors and 10 nm bandpass filters centered at 650 and 1050 nm. Thermal radiation is transferred using an uncooled fiberoptic probe brought into the vicinity of the char particle. The key features of the pyrometric apparatus and analysis method are: (1) Single particle temperature is resolved temporally at high speed. (2) The thermal radiation originating from the furnace and reflected by the particle is accounted for in the measurement of the surface temperature. (3) Particle temperatures above or below the furnace temperature can be measured without the need of a cooled background assisting the measurement in the hot furnace. To accomplish this, a minimum particle size is needed that is a function of the temperature difference between the particle and furnace. Particles cooler than the furnace can be measured if their diameter is more than 0.7 mm. Surface temperatures of 300{endash}400{degree}C above the furnace temperature were measured during combustion of black liquor char particles in air. In atmospheres corresponding to gasification, endothermic reactions occurred, and char temperature remained typically 40{degree} below the furnace temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Causes and solutions for cracking of coextruded and weld overlay floor tubes in black liquor recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Taljat, B.; Wang, X.L. [and others

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cracking of coextruded, black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes is both a safety and an economic issue to mill operators. In an effort to determine the cause of the cracking and to identify a solution, extensive studies, described in this and three accompanying papers, are being conducted. In this paper, results of studies to characterize both the cracking and the chemical and thermal environment are reported. Based on the results described in this series of papers, a possible mechanism is presented and means to lessen the likelihood of cracking or to totally avoid cracking of floor tubes are offered.

  3. Electrolysis of weak black liquor: Part II. Effect of process parameters on the energy efficiency of the electrolytic cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cloutier, J.N.; Azarniouch, M.K.; Callender, D.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory study of the effect of eight process parameters on the performance of the electrolytic cell when electrolyzing weak black liquor (WBL) showed that current density and temperature are critical to the operation. These two variables showed an interaction effect upon the operation of the cell. The addition of sodium sulfate to the WBL was beneficial to the energy efficiency. No chlorine gas was produced when electrolyzing WBL containing sodium chloride within the pH range of 5.4 to 13.

  4. Study of soluble scale fouling control in high solids black liquor concentrators. Progress report, quarter 5 (October 1, 1999 - December 31, 1999)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.J. Frederick; F. Chen; G. Hsieh; S. Lien; R.W. Murphy; R.W. Rousseau; W. Schmidl

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this quarter, work has finally resumed on the black liquor solubility experiments, but no new data have been generated. The crystallization experiments with inorganic model solutions have been completed, and crystallization experiments with kraft black liquor have been started. The Annular Test Cell apparatus is now fully operational, while construction of the falling film evaporator pilot plant is nearly complete. Startup of this unit is planned for late in Quarter 6. In the CFD model development work, the relaxation of simplifying assumptions in the falling film model have been completed, and expressions were developed to estimate film velocity/film Reynolds number relations. Also, thin film data taken for a range of conventional fluids were compared to predictions using selected methods, and attempts were initiated to extrapolate to approximate black liquor evaporator conditions.

  5. Surrogate Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must meet safety requirements under normal and accident conditions as specified by federal regulations. During transportation, SNF experiences unique conditions and challenges to cladding integrity due to the vibrational and impact loading encountered during road or rail shipment. ORNL has been developing testing capabilities that can be used to improve our understanding of the impacts of vibration loading on SNF integrity, especially for high burn-up SNF in normal transportation operation conditions. This information can be used to meet nuclear industry and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission needs in the area of safety of SNF storage and transportation operations.

  6. Spent fuel management fee methodology and computer code user's manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, R.L.; White, M.K.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methodology and computer model described here were developed to analyze the cash flows for the federal government taking title to and managing spent nuclear fuel. The methodology has been used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the spent fuel disposal fee that will provide full cost recovery. Although the methodology was designed to analyze interim storage followed by spent fuel disposal, it could be used to calculate a fee for reprocessing spent fuel and disposing of the waste. The methodology consists of two phases. The first phase estimates government expenditures for spent fuel management. The second phase determines the fees that will result in revenues such that the government attains full cost recovery assuming various revenue collection philosophies. These two phases are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Each of the two phases constitute a computer module, called SPADE (SPent fuel Analysis and Disposal Economics) and FEAN (FEe ANalysis), respectively.

  7. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  8. Controlling emissions from a black liquor fluidized bed evaporator (Copeland reactor) using a regenerative thermal oxidizer and a prefilter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grzanka, R.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on an intriguing pilot project developed to control air emissions from a pulp mill. Testing is complete, and the results show favorable emissions reductions. Stone Container Corporation, REECO, NCASI, the Ohio DEP, and the US EPA, have all worked together and approved the installation of control equipment, for VOC and HAP emissions under Presumptive MACT, setting the standard for the Copeland Reactor process in a semi chem pulp mill. The equipment, once operational, will reduce VOC and CO emissions by greater than 90%. This installation will be done at one seventh the cost of the significant process modifications required to accomplish the same emission reduction. In addition, increased process operating efficiency will be achieved with the use of an energy recovery system. The process is a black liquor fluidized bed boiler, which is used to generate sodium carbonate from the black liquor. The vapor emissions were high in VOCs, CO and particulate. After much study and testing, a wet electrostatic precipitator was chosen as the filter system for particulate control, followed by a regenerative thermal oxidizer for VOC and HAP control, finally an air-to-air heat exchanger is being used to preheat the combustion air entering the process.

  9. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  10. Spent nuclear fuel project - criteria document spent nuclear fuel final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The criteria document provides the criteria and planning guidance for developing the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). This FSAR will support the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office decision to authorize the procurement, installation, installation acceptance testing, startup, and operation of the SNF Project facilities (K Basins, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, and Canister Storage Building).

  11. Evaluation of Options for Permanent Geologic Disposal of Spent...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    policy decisions regarding strategies for the management and permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in the United States requiring...

  12. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W. [Packaging Technology, Inc., Tacoma, WA (United States); Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel project integrated safety management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daschke, K.D.

    1996-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is being revised in its entirety and the document title is being revised to ``Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Integrated Safety Management Plan.

  14. President Reagan Calls for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Spent Fuel Storage Facility Washington, DC The Reagan Administration announces a nuclear energy policy that anticipates the establishment of a facility for the storage of...

  15. US Spent (Used) Fuel Status, Management and Likely Directions- 12522

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, Leslie J. [L. J. Jardine Services, Consultant, Dublin CA, 94568 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As of 2010, the US has accumulated 65,200 MTU (42,300 MTU of PWR's; 23,000 MTU of BWR's) of spent (irradiated or used) fuel from 104 operating commercial nuclear power plants situated at 65 sites in 31 States and from previously shutdown commercial nuclear power plants. Further, the Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for an additional 2458 MTU of DOE-owned defense and non defense spent fuel from naval nuclear power reactors, various non-commercial test reactors and reactor demonstrations. The US has no centralized large spent fuel storage facility for either commercial spent fuel or DOE-owned spent fuel. The 65,200 MTU of US spent fuel is being safely stored by US utilities at numerous reactor sites in (wet) pools or (dry) metal or concrete casks. As of November 2010, the US had 63 'independent spent fuel storage installations' (or ISFSI's) licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission located at 57 sites in 33 states. Over 1400 casks loaded with spent fuel for dry storage are at these licensed ISFSI's; 47 sites are located at commercial reactor sites and 10 are located 'away' from a reactor (AFR's) site. DOE's small fraction of a 2458 MTU spent fuel inventory, which is not commercial spent fuel, is with the exception of 2 MTU, being stored at 4 sites in 4 States. The decades old US policy of a 'once through' fuel cycle with no recycle of spent fuel was set into a state of 'mass confusion or disruption' when the new US President Obama's administration started in early 2010 stopping the only US geologic disposal repository at the Yucca Mountain site in the State of Nevada from being developed and licensed. The practical result is that US nuclear power plant operators will have to continue to be responsible for managing and storing their own spent fuel for an indefinite period of time at many different sites in order to continue to generate electricity because there is no current US government plan, schedule or policy for taking possession of accumulated spent fuel from the utilities. There are technical solutions for continuing the safe storage of spent fuel for 100 years or more and these solutions will be implemented by the US utilities that need to keep their nuclear power plants operating while the unknown political events are played out to establish future US policy decisions that can remain in place long enough regarding accumulated spent fuel inventories to implement any new US spent fuel centralized storage or disposition policy by the US government. (author)

  16. Pyroprocess for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a pyroprocess for processing spent nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel is chopped into pieces and placed in a basket which is lowered in to a liquid salt solution. The salt is rich in ZrF.sub.4 and containing alkali or alkaline earth fluorides, and in particular, the salt chosen was LiF-50 mol % ZrF.sub.4 with a eutectic melting point of 500.degree. C. Prior to lowering the basket, the salt is heated to a temperature of between 550.degree. C. and 700.degree. C. in order to obtain a molten solution. After dissolution the oxides of U, Th, rare earth and other like oxides, the salt bath solution is subject to hydro-fluorination to remove the oxygen and then to a fluorination step to remove U as gaseous UF.sub.6. In addition, after dissolution, the basket contains PuO.sub.2 and undissolved parts of the fuel rods, and the basket and its contents are processed to remove the Pu.

  17. Fundamental study of black liquor gasification kinetics using a pressurized entrained-flow reactor (PEFR). Quarterly progress report for the period July 1999 to September 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the program is to identify the optimal operating window for black liquor gasification. The goals during this year are to prepare the PEFR for operation, conduct a series of preliminary screening tests to bracket BLG operating conditions, and develop a process model that can guide identification of the optimal operating window.

  18. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry Kraft recovery boilers. Final report, Phase 1, Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The objectives are to develop a preliminary design of a recovery furnace simulator; evaluate the economics of high-solids; and delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies to improve chemical recovery.

  19. Testing of the CANDU Spent Fuel Storage Basket Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vieru, G.

    2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper described the results of testing for a CANDU Spent Fuel Storage Basket Package Prototype intended to be used for transport and storage of the CANDU spent fuel bundles within NPP CANDU Cernavoda, Romania. The results obtained proved that the objectives of those tests were achieved

  20. Breeder Spent Fuel Handling Program multipurpose cask design basis document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duckett, A.J.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling (BSFH) Program multipurpose cask Design Basis Document defines the performance requirements essential to the development of a legal weight truck cask to transport FFTF spent fuel from reactor to a reprocessing facility and the resultant High Level Waste (HLW) to a repository. 1 ref.

  1. Ayrshire Red Squirrel Group Squirrelpox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayrshire Red Squirrel Group SSG Report 1st March 2012 Squirrelpox Sero-positive grey squirrels. Concerns are also rising that there may be outbreaks of pox in red squirrel populations which have gone

  2. Characterization plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrefah, J.; Thornton, T.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Berting, F.M.; Marschman, S.C.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) was terminated in 1972. Since that time a significant quantity of N Reactor and Single-Pass Reactor SNF has been stored in the 100 Area K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactor basins. Approximately 80% of all US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF resides at Hanford, the largest portion of which is in the water-filled KE and KW reactor basins. The basins were not designed for long-term storage of the SNF and it has become a priority to move the SNF to a more suitable location. As part of the project plan, SNF inventories will be chemically and physically characterized to provide information that will be used to resolve safety and technical issues for development of an environmentally benign and efficient extended interim storage and final disposition strategy for this defense production-reactor SNF.

  3. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  4. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 3: Appendix II, Sections 2 & 3 and Appendix III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Grace, W.J. Frederick, M. Salcudean, R.A. Wessel

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  6. The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear Fuel Handling, Storage, Transportation, and Disposal in the U.S. The Impacts of Dry-Storage Canister Designs on Spent Nuclear Fuel...

  7. Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yangjun

    Advanced Algorithm Design Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia #12;Red-Black Tree A red-black tree is a binary search tree, and each node contains one extra field: its color, it can be either black or red of the binary search tree. If a binary search tree satisfies all the following red-black properties, it is a red

  8. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making hydraulic cements from spent oil shale is described in this paper. Inexpensive cement is needed to grout abandoned in-situ retorts of spent shale for subsidence control, mitigation of leaching, and strengthening the retorted mass in order to recover oil from adjacent pillars of raw shale. A hydraulic cement was produced by heating a 1:1 mixture of Lurgi spent shale and CaCO{sub 3} at 1000 C for one hour. This cement would be less expensive than ordinary portland cement and is expected to fulfill the above requirements.

  9. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.K.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    20 to 40% of the oil shale, and explosively rubblizing andCEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,

  10. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W. Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose.

  11. Inventory of LWR spent nuclear fuel in the 324 Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenquin, U.P.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the results of calculations to estimate the decay heat, neutron source term, photon source term, and radioactive inventory of light-water-reactor spent nuclear fuel in the 324 Building at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  12. Risk and Responsibility Sharing in Nuclear Spent Fuel Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Roo, Guillaume

    With the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the responsibility of American utilities in the long-term management of spent nuclear fuel was limited to the payment of a fee. This narrow involvement did not result in faster ...

  13. www.vopen.net 1994 Young Mark Ewing Red Hat Red H

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tiejun

    www.vopen.net Linux --- 1994 Young Mark Ewing Red Hat Red H at Linux Linux Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux MandrakeSOT BestConnectivaAbit KondaraRed Hat Linux 2001 4 16 Red Hat Red Hat Linux 7.1 Red Hat Linux 1 1.1 1 Linux 2.4.2 2 Xfree86 4.0.3 3 4 Big5 5 CPU CPU 4

  14. Extraction of uranium from spent fuels using liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a novel method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. As a fundamental study, the nitrate conversion with liquefied nitrogen dioxide and the nitrate extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide were demonstrated by using uranium dioxide powder, uranyl nitrate and tri-n-butylphosphate complex in the present study. (authors)

  15. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

  16. Detection of estrogen- and dioxin-like activity in pulp and paper mill black liquor and effluent using in vitro bioassays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharewski, T.; Berhane, K.; Gillesby, B.; Burnison, K. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology; [National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystem Conservation Branch

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulp and paper mill effluent contains a complex mixture of compounds which adversely affect fish physiologically and at the population level. These effects include compromised reproductive fitness and the induction of mixed-function oxidase activities; two classic responses mediated by the estrogen and/or Ah receptor. In vitro recombinant receptor/reporter gene assays were used to examine pulp and paper mill black liquor and effluent for estrogenic, dioxin-like and antiestrogenic activities. Using MCF7 cells transiently transfected with a Gal4-estrogen receptor chimeric construct (Gal4-HEGO) and a Gal4-regulated luciferase reporter gene (17m5-G-Luc), it was estimated that black liquor contains 4 {+-} 2 ppb ``estrogen equivalents``, while negligible estrogenic activity was observed in a methanol-extracted pulp and paper mill effluent fraction (MF). A dioxin response element (DRE)-regulated luciferase reporter gene (pGudLucl.1) transiently transfected into Hepalclc7 wild type cells exhibited a dose-dependent increase in luciferase activity following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDO), black liquor and MF. Based on the dose response curves, black liquor and MF contain 10 {+-} 4 ppb and 20 {+-} 6 ppt ``TCDD equivalents``, respectively. Moreover, MF exhibited significant AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity. These results demonstrate the utility of these bioassays and suggest that the effects observed in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluent may be due to unidentified ER and AhR ligands not detected by conventional chemical analysis due to the lack of appropriate chemical standards.

  17. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1985 to 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The creation of four spent-fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No New Orders with Extended Burnup, (2) No New Orders with Constant Burnup, (3) Middle Case with Extended Burnup, and (4) Middle Case with Constant Burnup. Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel.

  18. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. The united kingdom's changing requirements for spent fuel storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Z.; Hambley, D.I.; Gregg, R.; Ross, D.N. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Birchwood Park, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6AE (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UK is adopting an open fuel cycle, and is necessarily moving to a regime of long term storage of spent fuel, followed by geological disposal once a geological disposal facility (GDF) is available. The earliest GDF receipt date for legacy spent fuel is assumed to be 2075. The UK is set to embark on a programme of new nuclear build to maintain a nuclear energy contribution of 16 GW. Additionally, the UK are considering a significant expansion of nuclear energy in order to meet carbon reduction targets and it is plausible to foresee a scenario where up to 75 GW from nuclear power production could be deployed in the UK by the mid 21. century. Such an expansion, could lead to spent fuel storage and its disposal being a dominant issue for the UK Government, the utilities and the public. If the UK were to transition a closed fuel cycle, then spent fuel storage should become less onerous depending on the timescales. The UK has demonstrated a preference for wet storage of spent fuel on an interim basis. The UK has adopted an approach of centralised storage, but a 16 GW new build programme and any significant expansion of this may push the UK towards distributed spent fuel storage at a number of reactors station sites across the UK.

  20. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1987-2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walling, R.C.; Heeb, C.M.; Purcell, W.L.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from U.S. commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water eactors (BWR), and one existing high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the U.S. reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: No New Orders (assumes increasing burnup), No New Orders with No Increased Burnup, Upper Reference (assumes increasing burnup), Upper Reference with No Increased Burnup, and Lower Reference (assumes increasing burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister System Description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978 and 1979, a total of 72 blanket fuel assemblies (BFAs), irradiated during the operating cycles of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station's Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 from April 1965 to February 1974, were transferred to the Hanford Site and stored in underwater storage racks in Cell 2R at the 221-T Canyon (T-Plant). The initial objective was to recover the produced plutonium in the BFAs, but this never occurred and the fuel assemblies have remained within the water storage pool to the present time. The Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister (SSFC) is a confinement system that provides safe transport functions (in conjunction with the TN-WHC cask) and storage for the BFAs at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The current plan is for these BFAs to be retrieved from wet storage and loaded into SSFCs for dry storage. The sealed SSFCs containing BFAs will be vacuum dried, internally backfilled with helium, and leak tested to provide suitable confinement for the BFAs during transport and storage. Following completion of the drying and inerting process, the SSFCs are to be delivered to the CSB for closure welding and long-term interim storage. The CSB will provide safe handling and dry storage for the SSFCs containing the BFAs. The purpose of this document is to describe the SSFC system and interface equipment, including the technical basis for the system, design descriptions, and operations requirements. It is intended that this document will be periodically updated as more equipment design and performance specification information becomes available.

  2. Development of an alternative kraft black liquor recovery process based on low-temperature processing in fluidized beds. Final technical report on Annex 9, Task 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubes, G.J.

    1994-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this research program was to provide the fundamental knowledge and experimental data from pilot scale operation for an alternative black liquor recovery technology which would have a higher overall energy efficiency, would not suffer from the smelt-water explosion hazard and would be lower in capital cost. In addition, the alternative process would be more flexible and well suited for incremental recovery capacity or for new pulping processes, such as the new sulfide-sulfide-AQ process. The research program consists of number of specific research objectives with the aim to achieve the ultimate objective of developing an alternative recovery process which is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives are linked to individual unit operations and they represent the following research topics: (1) superheated steam drying of kraft black liquors; (2) fast pyrolysis of black liquor; (3) hydrogen sulfide absorption from flue gas; (4) reduction of sodium sulfate in solid phase with gaseous hydrogen; and (5) verification of the fundamental results in fluidized bed pilot plant. The accomplishments in each of these objectives are described.

  3. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

  4. Ambiguous Red Shifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carl E. Wulfman

    2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E. L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies, they do not alter the energy and momentum conservations laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bialynicki-Birula.

  5. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 3 (Appendices II, sections 2--3 and III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 3 contains the following appendix sections: Formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides in recovery boilers; Sintering and densification of recovery boiler deposits laboratory data and a rate model; and Experimental data on rates of particulate formation during char bed burning.

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major sub-system. Section 4.0--Specific technical basis description for each product specification. The scope of this product specification does not include data collection requirements to support accountability or environmental compliance activities.

  7. Red Means Go Structural Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Red Means Go Structural Engineering: An Overview of Global Directions Marc Hoit, Ph.D. Vice Chancellor for IT Professor of Civil Engineering #12;Red Means Go Overview · Global trends affecting on advanced degrees · Educate for the "Smile" Creativity as fundamental education Entrepreneurs ­ Need

  8. Red Raider Orientation COLLEGE DISMISSAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    and Management Wildlife Science #12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION University Studies University Studies Wind Energy Center, City of Lubbock · Information Sessions and Campus Resource Fair · Dinner on your own and Parent Communications, etc.) #12;#12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION Business Administration Accounting Energy Commerce

  9. White Baneberry and Red Baneberry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landweber, Laura

    1 White Baneberry and Red Baneberry Actaea pachypoda and Actaea rubra buttercup family (ranunculaceae) both white baneberry and red baneberry are poisonous plants native to the northeast inhabit swamps. Range: white baneberry--parts of the canadian mari- times and the southern border

  10. Red Rice Research and Control.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, John B.; Baldwin, Ford L.; Bourgeois, W.J.; Cox, Clodis H.; Craigmiles, Julian P.; Dishman, William D.; Eastin, E. Ford; Helpert, Charles W.; Hill, Lewis C.; Huey, Bobby A.; Klosterboer, Arlen D.; Sonnier, Earl A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    s cu l t iva ted white r i c e , Oryza sativa L. Red r i c e crosses read i ly .- with white r i c e and i s very s i m i l a r t o it i n appearance. The main morpho- logical d i f ferences t h a t d i s t ingu i sh it from white r i c... l e s i n white r i c e . Since these characters can be t r ans fe r red by crossing, new red r i c e types can and do appear. Red r i c e i s undesirable because: 1. Red r i c e p l a n t s compete with cu l t iva ted r i c e...

  11. Safety Aspects of Dry Spent Fuel Storage and Spent Fuel Management - 13559

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P. [TUV NORD Nuclear c/o TUV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co.KG, Dept. Radiation Protection and Waste Disposal, Am TueV 1, 30519 Hannover (Germany)] [TUV NORD Nuclear c/o TUV NORD EnSys Hannover GmbH and Co.KG, Dept. Radiation Protection and Waste Disposal, Am TueV 1, 30519 Hannover (Germany); Voelzke, H.; Wolff, D.; Kasparek, E. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing Division 3.4 Safety of Storage Containers Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)] [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing Division 3.4 Safety of Storage Containers Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry storage systems are characterized by passive and inherent safety systems ensuring safety even in case of severe incidents or accidents. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of such passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more and more obvious. As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Following safety aspects must be achieved throughout the storage period: - safe enclosure of radioactive materials, - safe removal of decay heat, - securing nuclear criticality safety, - avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. Furthermore, transport capability must be guaranteed during and after storage as well as limitation and control of radiation exposure. The safe enclosure of radioactive materials in dry storage casks can be achieved by a double-lid sealing system with surveillance of the sealing system. The safe removal of decay heat must be ensured by the design of the storage containers and the storage facility. The safe confinement of radioactive inventory has to be ensured by mechanical integrity of fuel assembly structures. This is guaranteed, e.g. by maintaining the mechanical integrity of the fuel rods or by additional safety measures for defective fuel rods. In order to ensure nuclear critically safety, possible effects of accidents have also to be taken into consideration. In case of dry storage it might be necessary to exclude the re-positioning of fissile material inside the container and/or neutron moderator exclusion might be taken into account. Unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by the cask or canister vault system itself. In Germany dry storage of SF in casks fulfills both transport and storage requirements. Mostly, storage facilities are designed as concrete buildings above the ground, but due to regional constraints, one storage facility has also been built as a rock tunnel. The decay heat is always removed by natural air flow; further technical equipment is not needed. The removal of decay heat and shielding had been modeled and calculated by state-of-the-art computer codes before such a facility has been built. TueV and BAM present their long experience in the licensing process for sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Different storage systems and facilities in Germany, Europe and world-wide are compared with respect to the safety aspects mentioned above. Initial points are the safety issues of wet storage of SF, and it is shown how dry storage systems can ensure the compliance with the mentioned safety criteria over a long storage period. The German storage concept for dry storage of SF and HLW is presented and discussed. Exemplarily, the process of licensing, erection and operation of selected German dry storage facilities is presented. (authors)

  12. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Nuclear Fuel Data Survey, Form RW-859. This form is used to collect data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States, and the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors. These data are important to the design and operation of the equipment and facilities that DOE will use for the future acceptance, transportation, and disposal of spent fuels. The data collected and presented identifies trends in burnup, enrichment, and spent nuclear fuel discharged form commercial light-water reactor as of December 31, 1993. The document covers not only spent nuclear fuel discharges; but also site capacities and inventories; canisters and nonfuel components; and assembly type characteristics.

  13. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  14. Mission Need Statement: Idaho Spent Fuel Facility Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbara Beller

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approval is requested based on the information in this Mission Need Statement for The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to develop a project in support of the mission established by the Office of Environmental Management to "complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research". DOE-ID requests approval to develop the Idaho Spent Fuel Facility Project that is required to implement the Department of Energy's decision for final disposition of spent nuclear fuel in the Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain. The capability that is required to prepare Spent Nuclear Fuel for transportation and disposal outside the State of Idaho includes characterization, conditioning, packaging, onsite interim storage, and shipping cask loading to complete shipments by January 1,2035. These capabilities do not currently exist in Idaho.

  15. Spent fuel storage system for LMFBR fuel experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seay, J.M.; Gruber, W.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel that had been irradiated in the Argonne National Laboratory Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) at Idaho Falls, Idaho, and examined at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory at Richland, Washington, was placed in long term retrievable storage utilizing a system designed at Hanford. The Spent Fuel Storage Cask system was designed for transport and storage of a large quantity of spent fuel at the Hanford 200 Area transuranic (TRU) asphalt storage pad. The entire system is designed for long term retrievable storage to allow future reprocessing of the fuel. The system was designed to meet the criticality, shielding, and thermal requirements for a maximum fuel load of four kilograms fissile. The Spent Fuel Storage Cask was built to transport and store the fuel from EBR-II on the TRU asphalt storage pad.

  16. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996.

  17. SCOTTISH RED SQUIRREL ACTION PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCOTTISH RED SQUIRREL ACTION PLAN 2006­2011 #12;#12;S C O T T I S H R E D S Q U I R R E L A C T I O.1 Background 1 1.2 Action Plan Working Group 1 1.3 Issues affecting the conservation of the red squirrel 1 1.2 Timescale and partnership working 3 2.3 Rationale 3 2.4 Key actions 4 2.4.1 Establish and monitor the red

  18. NUHOMS modular spent-fuel storage system: Performance testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strope, L.A.; McKinnon, M.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Dyksterhouse, D.J.; McLean, J.C. (Carolina Power and Light Co., Raleigh, NC (USA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of a heat transfer and shielding performance evaluation of the NUTECH HOrizontal MOdular Storage (NUHOMS{reg sign}) System utilized by the Carolina Power and Light Co. (CP L) in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The ISFSI is located at CP L's H. B. Robinson Nuclear Plant (HBR) near Hartsville, South Carolina. The demonstration included testing of three modules, first with electric heaters and then with spent fuel. The results indicated that the system was conservatively designed, with all heat transfer and shielding design criteria easily met. 5 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, B.D.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies associated with spent fuel oxidation (Section 5).

  20. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Rosenhoover, William A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  1. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  2. Application of Neutron-Absorbing Structural-Amorphous metal (SAM) Coatings for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Container to Enhance Criticality Safety Controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    241 Pu, etc. ). To prevent nuclear criticality in spent fuelto enhance criticality safety for spent nuclear fuel inSpent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Container to Enhance Criticality

  3. Jamaican red clay tobacco pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidtke, Kenan Paul

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    JAMAICAN RED CLAY TOBACCO PIPES A Thesis by KENAN PAUL HEIDTKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1992 Major Subject...: Anthropology JAMAICAN RED CLAY TOBACCO PIPES A Thesis by KENAN PAUL HEIDTKE Approved as to style and content by: Dorm L. Hamilton (Chair of Committee) Frederick H. van Doorninck, J (Member) enry C. Schmidt (Member) Vaughn M. Bryant (Head...

  4. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

    2002-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill.

  5. Recycling practices of spent MgO-C refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recycling options of spent MgO-C refractories from an electrical arc furnace (EAF) have been evaluated. The economic, quality of spent refractories and products made from it, the ease of implementation of a recycling practice and the interest of steel melt shops were considered. It was decided that the best option of most EAF shops would be to recycle spent MgO-C refractory as a foaming slag conditioner because of their MgO content. Crushed MgO-C spent refractories can be reused directly back into an EAF without complex and costly beneficiation. Even though this practice is simple, it is critical to know the optimum amount of MgO in the slag to achieve the best foaming quality. A computer model was designed to find the optimum MgO amount. This modeling also helps the melt shop extend refractory service life, increase the energy efficiency, increase productivity, and decrease the amount of slag. Issues related to the refractory recycling will be discussed.

  6. Methodology for determining criteria for storing spent fuel in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, C.R.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry storage in an air atmosphere is a method being considered for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel as an alternative to storage in an inert gas environment. However, methods to predict fuel integrity based on oxidation behavior of the fuel first must be evaluated. The linear cumulative damage method has been proposed as a technique for defining storage criteria. Analysis of limited nonconstant temperature data on nonirradiated fuel samples indicates that this approach yields conservative results for a strictly decreasing-temperature history. On the other hand, the description of damage accumulation in terms of remaining life concepts provides a more general framework for making predictions of failure. Accordingly, a methodology for adapting remaining life concepts to UO/sub 2/ oxidation has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Both the linear cumulative damage and the remaining life methods were used to predict oxidation results for spent fuel in which the temperature was decreased with time to simulate the temperature history in a dry storage cask. The numerical input to the methods was based on oxidation data generated with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets. The calculated maximum allowable storage temperatures are strongly dependent on the temperature-time profile and emphasize the conservatism inherent in the linear cumulative damage model. Additional nonconstant temperature data for spent fuel are needed to both validate the proposed methods and to predict temperatures applicable to actual spent fuel storage.

  7. RADIATION ANALYSIS OF A SPENT-FUEL STORAGE CASK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shultis, J. Kenneth

    RADIATION ANALYSIS OF A SPENT-FUEL STORAGE CASK by J.K. Shultis Department of Mechanical;Radiation Analysis of a Spect-Fuel Storage Cask by J.K.Shultis Dept. Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering compositions for the air, soil, berm and concrete were taken from the references indicated in Table 1. 1.3 Cask

  8. Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schettini, Raimondo

    Chapter 1 Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography FRANCESCA GASPARINI DISCo, Dipartimento The red eye effect is a well known problem in photography. It is often seen in amateur shots taken with a built-in flash, but the problem is also well known to professional photographers. Red eye is the red

  9. A Monte Carlo based spent fuel analysis safeguards strategy assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safeguarding nuclear material involves the detection of diversions of significant quantities of nuclear materials, and the deterrence of such diversions by the risk of early detection. There are a variety of motivations for quantifying plutonium in spent fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthening the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies ability to safeguards nuclear facilities, shipper/receiver difference, input accountability at reprocessing facilities and burnup credit at repositories. Many NDA techniques exist for measuring signatures from spent fuel; however, no single NDA technique can, in isolation, quantify elemental plutonium and other actinides of interest in spent fuel. A study has been undertaken to determine the best integrated combination of cost effective techniques for quantifying plutonium mass in spent fuel for nuclear safeguards. A standardized assessment process was developed to compare the effective merits and faults of 12 different detection techniques in order to integrate a few techniques and to down-select among the techniques in preparation for experiments. The process involves generating a basis burnup/enrichment/cooling time dependent spent fuel assembly library, creating diversion scenarios, developing detector models and quantifying the capability of each NDA technique. Because hundreds of input and output files must be managed in the couplings of data transitions for the different facets of the assessment process, a graphical user interface (GUI) was development that automates the process. This GUI allows users to visually create diversion scenarios with varied replacement materials, and generate a MCNPX fixed source detector assessment input file. The end result of the assembly library assessment is to select a set of common source terms and diversion scenarios for quantifying the capability of each of the 12 NDA techniques. We present here the generalized assessment process, the techniques employed to automate the coupled facets of the assessment process, and the standard burnup/enrichment/cooling time dependent spent fuel assembly library. We also clearly define the diversion scenarios that will be analyzed during the standardized assessments. Though this study is currently limited to generic PWR assemblies, it is expected that the results of the assessment will yield an adequate spent fuel analysis strategy knowledge that will help the down-select process for other reactor types.

  10. EA-0912: Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to accept 409 spent fuel elements from eight foreign research reactors in seven European countries. The spent fuel would be shipped across...

  11. What to Expect When Readying to Move Spent Nuclear Fuel from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    What to Expect When Readying to Move Spent Nuclear Fuel from Commercial Nuclear Power Plants What to Expect When Readying to Move Spent Nuclear Fuel from Commercial Nuclear Power...

  12. An experiment to simulate the heat transfer properties of a dry, horizontal spent nuclear fuel assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovett, Phyllis Maria

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear power reactors generate highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies. Initially, the spent fuel assemblies are stored for a period of several years in an on-site storage facility to allow the radioactivity levels of ...

  13. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Romania successfully completed the worlds first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  14. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  15. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  16. Red Mesa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant of Access Permit5-ID-aRECRaton,RFPs Home NameRecurrentRedRed

  17. Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alechina, Natasha

    Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z #12;Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison with its associated (2,4) tree

  18. Preliminary study on direct recycling of spent PWR fuel in PWR system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waris, Abdul; Nuha; Novitriana; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary study on direct recycling of PWR spent fuel to support SUPEL (Straight Utilization of sPEnt LWR fuel in LWR system) scenario has been conducted. Several spent PWR fuel compositions in loaded PWR fuel has been evaluated to obtain the criticality of reactor. The reactor can achieve it criticality for U-235 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel is at least 4.0 a% with the minimum fraction of the spent fuel in the core is 15.0 %. The neutron spectra become harder with the escalating of U-235 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel as well as the amount of the spent fuel in the core.

  19. COGEMA operating experience in the transportation of spent fuel, nuclear materials and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, H. [COGEMA, Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Were a spent fuel transportation accident to occur, no matter how insignificant, the public outcry could jeopardize both reprocessing operations and power plant operations for utilities that have elected to reprocess their spent fuel. Aware of this possibility, COGEMA has become deeply involved in spent fuel transportation to ensure that it is performed according to the highest standards of transportation safety. Spent fuel transportation is a vital link between the reactor site and the reprocessing plant. This paper gives an overview of COGEMA`s experience in the transportation of spent fuel.

  20. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heckman, Richard A. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support the liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  1. Test plan for thermogravimetric analyses of BWR spent fuel oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, R.E.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary studies indicated the need for additional low-temperature spent fuel oxidation data to determine the behavior of spent fuel as a waste form for a tuffy repository. Short-term thermogravimetric analysis tests were recommended in a comprehensive technical approach as the method for providing scoping data that could be used to (1) evaluate the effects of variables such as moisture and burnup on the oxidation rate, (2) determine operative mechanisms, and (3) guide long-term, low-temperature oxidation testing. The initial test series studied the temperature and moisture effects on pressurized water reactor fuel as a function of particle and grain size. This document presents the test matrix for studying the oxidation behavior of boiling water reactor fuel in the temperature range of 140 to 225{degree}C. 17 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Spent fuel utilization in a compact traveling wave reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartanto, Donny; Kim, Yonghee [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, several innovative designs of nuclear reactors are proposed. One of them is Traveling Wave Reactor (TWR). The unique characteristic of a TWR is the capability of breeding its own fuel in the reactor. The reactor is fueled by mostly depleted, natural uranium or spent nuclear fuel and a small amount of enriched uranium to initiate the fission process. Later on in the core, the reactor gradually converts the non-fissile material into the fissile in a process like a traveling wave. In this work, a TWR with spent nuclear fuel blanket was studied. Several parameters such as reactivity coefficients, delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron generation lifetime, and fission power, were analyzed. The discharge burnup composition was also analyzed. The calculation is performed by a continuous energy Monte Carlo code McCARD.

  3. Removal of arsenic compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  4. Gamma Ray Mirrors for Direct Measurement of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovaroff, Dr. Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ziock, Klaus-Peter [ORNL] [ORNL; Harrison, Mark J [ORNL] [ORNL; Soufli, Regina [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct measurement of the amount of Pu and U in spent nuclear fuel represents a challenge for the safeguards community. Ideally, the characteristic gamma-ray emission lines from different isotopes provide an observable suitable for this task. However, these lines are generally lost in the fierce flux of radiation emitted by the fuel. The rates are so high that detector dead times limit measurements to only very small solid angles of the fuel. Only through the use of carefully designed view ports and long dwell times are such measurements possible. Recent advances in multilayer grazing-incidence gamma-ray optics provide one possible means of overcoming this difficulty. With a proper optical and coating design, such optics can serve as a notch filter, passing only narrow regions of the overall spectrum to a fully shielded detector that does not view the spent fuel directly. We report on the design of a mirror system and a number of experimental measurements.

  5. Nuclear Waste Imaging and Spent Fuel Verification by Muon Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonkmans, G; Jewett, C; Thompson, M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the use of cosmic ray muons to image the contents of shielded containers and detect high-Z special nuclear materials inside them. Cosmic ray muons are a naturally occurring form of radiation, are highly penetrating and exhibit large scattering angles on high Z materials. Specifically, we investigated how radiographic and tomographic techniques can be effective for non-invasive nuclear waste characterization and for nuclear material accountancy of spent fuel inside dry storage containers. We show that the tracking of individual muons, as they enter and exit a structure, can potentially improve the accuracy and availability of data on nuclear waste and the contents of Dry Storage Containers (DSC) used for spent fuel storage at CANDU plants. This could be achieved in near real time, with the potential for unattended and remotely monitored operations. We show that the expected sensitivity, in the case of the DSC, exceeds the IAEA detection target for nuclear material accountancy.

  6. Prototype spent-fuel canister design, analysis, and test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leisher, W.B.; Eakes, R.G.; Duffey, T.A.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories was asked by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (now US Department of Energy) to design the spent fuel shipping cask system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). As a part of this task, a canister which holds liquid sodium and the spent fuel assembly was designed, analyzed, and tested. The canister body survived the regulatory Type-B 9.1-m (30-ft) drop test with no apparent leakage. However, the commercially available metal seal used in this design leaked after the tests. This report describes the design approach, analysis, and prototype canister testing. Recommended work for completing the design, when funding is available, is included.

  7. Technical strategy for the management of INEEL spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents evaluations, findings, and recommendations of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team. The technical strategy developed by the Task Team includes stabilization, near term storage, packaging, transport, and ultimate disposal. Key issues identified and discussed include waste characterization, criticality, packaging, waste form performance, and special fuels. Current plans focus on onsite needs, and include three central elements: (1) resolution of near-term vulnerabilities, (2) consolidation of storage locations, and (3) achieving dry storage in transportable packages. In addition to the Task Team report, appendices contain information on the INEEL spent fuel inventory; regulatory decisions and agreements; and analyses of criticality, packaging, storage, transportation, and system performance of a geological repository. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Thermomechanical modeling of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butkovich, T.R.; Patrick, W.C.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of retrievable deep geologic storage of commercially generated spent nuclear-reactor fuel assemblies. One of the primary aspects of the test was to measure the thermomechanical response of the rock mass to the extensive heating of a large volume of rock. Instrumentation was emplaced to measure stress changes, relative motion of the rock mass, and tunnel closures during three years of heating from thermally decaying heat sources, followed by a six-month cooldown period. The calculations reported here were performed using the best available input parameters, thermal and mechanical properties, and power levels which were directly measured or inferred from measurements made during the test. This report documents the results of these calculations and compares the results with selected measurements made during heating and cooling of the SFT-C.

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998, a major change in the technical strategy for managing Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO) while stored within the Canister Storage Building (CSB) occurred. The technical strategy is documented in Baseline Change Request (BCR) No. SNF-98-006, Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing) (FDH 1998). This BCR deleted the hot conditioning process initially adopted for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) as documented in WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (WHC 199.5). In summary, MCOs containing Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from K Basins would be placed in interim storage following processing through the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility. With this change, the needs for the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) and inerting/pressure retaining capabilities of the CSB storage tubes and the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) were eliminated. Mechanical seals will be used on the MCOs prior to transport to the CSB. Covers will be welded on the MCOs for the final seal at the CSB. Approval of BCR No. SNF-98-006, imposed the need to review and update the CSB functions and requirements baseline documented herein including changing the document title to ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements.'' This revision aligns the functions and requirements baseline with the CSB Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing). This document represents the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Subproject technical baseline. It establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the CSB Subproject. The document is organized in eight sections. Sections 1.0 Introduction and 2.0 Overview provide brief introductions to the document and the CSB Subproject. Sections 3.0 Functions, 4.0 Requirements, 5.0 Architecture, and 6.0 Interfaces provide the data described by their titles. Section 7.0 Glossary lists the acronyms and defines the terms used in this document. Section 8.0 References lists the references used for this document.

  10. NAC-1 cask dose rate calculations for LWR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A Nuclear Assurance Corporation nuclear fuel transport cask, NAC-1, is being considered as a transport and storage option for spent nuclear fuel located in the B-Cell of the 324 Building. The loaded casks will be shipped to the 200 East Area Interim Storage Area for dry interim storage. Several calculations were performed to assess the photon and neutron dose rates. This report describes the analytical methods, models, and results of this investigation.

  11. Study on concrete cask storage of spent fuel in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itoh, C. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dept.; Onodera, A.; Yamada, N. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Div.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present report describes the status of the first year`s work of a five-year-long study on concrete cask storage of spent fuel in Japan. Firstly, the proposed study program is elaborated to clarify the position of the present work. Then, the results of the study which have been obtained so far are described and the technical issues are addressed to make the concrete cask storage viable in Japan.

  12. Method For Processing Spent (Trn,Zr)N Fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Richmann, Michael K. (Woodridge, IL)

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A new process for recycling spent nuclear fuels, in particular, mixed nitrides of transuranic elements and zirconium. The process consists of two electrorefiner cells in series configuration. A transuranic element such as plutonium is reduced at the cathode in the first cell, zirconium at the cathode in the second cell, and nitrogen-15 is released and captured for reuse to make transuranic and zirconium nitrides.

  13. Adsorption of phenol from aqueous systems onto spent oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darwish, N.A.; Halhouli, K.A.; Al-Dhoon, N.M. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate its ability to remove phenol from aqueous solution, Jordanian {open_quotes}spent{close_quotes} oil shale, an abundant natural resource, has been used in an experimental adsorption study. Equilibrium of the system has been determined at three temperatures: 30, 40, and 55{degrees}C. The resulting experimental equilibrium isotherms are well represented by Frendlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The relevant parameters for these isotherms, as regressed from the experimental equilibrium data, are presented. Effects of solution pH (in the range of 3-11), in addition to effects of three inorganic salts (Kl, KCl, and NaCl), on the equilibrium isotherms were also investigated. The effects of pH in the presence of KI and NaCl were also investigated for a possible interaction between salts and solution pH. The initial concentration of phenol in the aqueous system studied ranges from 10 to 200 ppm. Experimental results show that while an acidic solution has no effect on the adsorption capacity of spent oil shale to phenol, a highly basic solution reduces its adsorbability. No sound effect was observed for the inorganic salts studied on the adsorption of phenol on spent oil shale. The experimental results show that there is no interaction between the pH of solution and the presence of salts. In spite of its ability to remove phenol, spent oil shale showed a very low equilibrium capacity (of an order of magnitude of 1 mg/g). Should the adsorption capacity of the shale be improved (by different treatment processes, such as grafting, surface conditioning), results of this study will find a direct practical implication in serving as {open_quotes}raw{close_quotes} reference data for comparison purposes.

  14. RED with ACK Spoofing Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molle, Mart

    RED with ACK Spoofing Zhong Xu Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of California, Riverside Early Detection (RED). Using simulation, we compare RED/Spoofing with Tail Drop, RED, and RED/ECN. Our results show that RED/Spoofing performs as well as RED/ECN, even though it avoids ECN's deployment problem

  15. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material: ATM-103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characterization data obtained to date are described for Approved Testing Material (ATM)-103, which is spent fuel from Assembly D101 of pressurized-water reactor Calvert Cliffs, No. 1. This report is one in a series being written by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US nuclear waste repository program. ATM-103 consists of 176 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2600 GJ/kgM (30 MWd/kgM) and less than 1% fission gas release. Characterization data include 1) as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; 2) isotopic gamma scans; 3) fission gas analyses; 4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; 5) special fuels studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); 6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and 7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report. 10 refs., 103 figs., 63 tabs.

  16. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material: ATM-106

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characterization data obtained to date are described for Approved Testing Material (ATM)-106 spent fuel from Assembly BT03 of pressurized-water reactor Calvert Cliffs No. 1. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well- characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCWRM) program. ATM-106 consists of 20 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 3700 GJ/kgM (43 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of /approximately/10%. Characterization data include (1) as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (6) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel rod are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report. 12 refs., 110 figs., 81 tabs.

  17. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material---ATM-105

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characterization data obtained to data are described for Approved Testing Material 105 (ATM-105), which is spent fuel from Bundles CZ346 and CZ348 of the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant, a boiling-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-105 consists of 88 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2400 GJ/kgM (28 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of about 1%. Characterization data include (1) descriptions of as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report.

  18. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material--ATM-104

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characterization data obtained to date are described for Approved Testing Material 104 (ATM-104), which is spent fuel from Assembly DO47 of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (Unit 1), a pressurized-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-104 consists of 128 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 42 MWd/kgM and expected fission gas release of about 1%. A variety of analyses were performed to investigate cladding characteristics, radionuclide inventory, and redistribution of fission products. Characterization data include (1) fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling history; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding.

  19. Standard guide for drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This guide is organized to discuss the three major components of significance in the drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel: evaluating the need for drying, drying spent nuclear fuel, and confirmation of adequate dryness. 1.1.1 The guide addresses drying methods and their limitations in drying spent nuclear fuels that have been in storage at water pools. The guide discusses sources and forms of water that remain in SNF, its container, or both, after the drying process and discusses the importance and potential effects they may have on fuel integrity, and container materials. The effects of residual water are discussed mechanistically as a function of the container thermal and radiological environment to provide guidance on situations that may require extraordinary drying methods, specialized handling, or other treatments. 1.1.2 The basic issue in drying is to determine how dry the SNF must be in order to prevent issues with fuel retrievability, container pressurization, or container corrosion. Adequate d...

  20. Thermoelectric powered wireless sensors for spent fuel monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carstens, T.; Corradini, M.; Blanchard, J. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ma, Z. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes using thermoelectric generators to power wireless sensors to monitor spent nuclear fuel during dry-cask storage. OrigenArp was used to determine the decay heat of the spent fuel at different times during the service life of the dry-cask. The Engineering Equation Solver computer program modeled the temperatures inside the spent fuel storage facility during its service life. The temperature distribution in a thermoelectric generator and heat sink was calculated using the computer program Finite Element Heat Transfer. From these temperature distributions the power produced by the thermoelectric generator was determined as a function of the service life of the dry-cask. In addition, an estimation of the path loss experienced by the wireless signal can be made based on materials and thickness of the structure. Once the path loss is known, the transmission power and thermoelectric generator power requirements can be determined. This analysis estimates that a thermoelectric generator can produce enough power for a sensor to function and transmit data from inside the dry-cask throughout its service life. (authors)

  1. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki [Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 Nuclear Physics and Bio (Indonesia); Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nuclear Physics and Bio Physics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  2. An approach to determine a defensible spent fuel ratio.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. In all the previous studies, the postulated attack of greatest interest was by a conical shape charge (CSC) that focuses the explosive energy much more efficiently than bulk explosives. However, the validity of these large-scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical DUO2 surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Different researchers have suggested using SFR values of 3 to 5.6. Sound technical arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Currently, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is in possession of several samples of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that were used in the original SFR studies in the 1980's and were intended for use in a modern effort at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 2000's. A portion of these samples are being used for a variety of research efforts. However, the entirety of SNF samples at ORNL is scheduled for disposition at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by approximately the end of 2015. If a defensible SFR is to be determined for use in storage and transportation security analyses, the need to begin this effort is urgent in order to secure the only known available SNF samples with a clearly defined path to disposal.

  3. EA-1692: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon Manufacturing Facility, Red River Parish, LA EA-1692: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon Manufacturing...

  4. Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE Purpose 1. The Programme Board has been formed to have an overview of the administration and science of Red Band Needle Blight (RBNB), to underpin decisions made

  5. EIS-0203: Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs

  6. 3, 383408, 2006 The northern Red

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 3, 383­408, 2006 The northern Red Sea ­ A system in balance? C. H¨ase et al. Title Page in balance? ­ Implications of deep vertical mixing for the nitrogen budget in the northern Red Sea, including The northern Red Sea ­ A system in balance? C. H¨ase et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  7. Tuning RED for Web Traffic* Mikkel Christiansen,**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffay, Kevin

    139 Tuning RED for Web Traffic* Mikkel Christiansen,** Kevin Jeffay, David Ott, F. Donelson Smith http://www.cs.unc.edu/Research/dirt Abstract We study the effects of RED on the performance of Web -- response time for HTTP request-response pairs. We empirically evaluate RED across a range of parameter

  8. Conservation Plan for Red Squirrels in Wales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Conservation Plan for Red Squirrels in Wales Meeting the challenge to keep reds in Wales to enable effective red squir- rel conservation and grey squirrel management in Wales. The Wales Squirrel squirrel conservation and grey squirrel management in Wales. The Forum and Partnership are currently

  9. Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds red potatoes 1 green pepper 1 red onion 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper Directions 1. Wash potatoes, and cut into quarters. Place potatoes in sauce pan with cool water, cover and bring to a boil, turn to low and cook until

  10. Far-Red Fluorescent Protein Excitable with Red Lasers for Flow Cytometry and Superresolution STED Nanoscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    Far-Red Fluorescent Protein Excitable with Red Lasers for Flow Cytometry and Superresolution STED Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut ABSTRACT Far-red fluorescent proteins are required for deep-tissue and whole-animal imaging and multicolor labeling in the red wavelength range

  11. Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floyd, Sally

    Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management Sally, under submission Abstract The RED active queue management algorithm allows net- work operators is quite sensitive to the level of congestion and to the RED parameter settings, and is therefore not pre

  12. Red Band Needle Blight Programme Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group Minutes Support Welcome and introduction 1. Jim thanked everyone for attending the first meeting of the Red Band and that the private 1 | Paper 1 - Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 23/01/2009 #12;Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group

  13. Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floyd, Sally

    Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management Sally, under submission Abstract The RED active queue management algorithm allows net­ work operators is quite sensitive to the level of congestion and to the RED parameter settings, and is therefore not pre

  14. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  15. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  16. Corn steep liquor and fermented ammoniated condensed whey as protein sources for lactating cows and yearling heifers grazing winter native range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, J.J.; Lusby, K.S.; Horn, G.W.; Dvorak, M.J.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermented ammoniated condensed whey (FACW) were compared to cottonseed meal (CSM) as protein sources for wintering 61 lactating first-calf Hereford heifers and 32 yearling Hereford heifers on native range. Cattle were allotted by weight and individually fed 6 days per week for 12 weeks one of four protein treatments: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), CSL and FACW to provide .7, 1.5, .15 and 1.5 lb crude protein (CP) per day, respectively, to the lacating heifers and .2, .4, .4 and .4lb cP per day, respectively, to the yearling heifers. CMS was supplied in the CSL and FACW treatments at the same level as in the negative control. Lactating heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight and body condition (120 lb and 1.6 units) than those fed the PC (45.8 lb and .9 units). Weight and condition losses were similar (P more than .05) for lactating heifers fed PC, CSL and FACW. Yearling heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (49.4 vs 10.6 lb). Yearling heifers fed CSL and FACW gained more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (17.6 and 9.3 vs - 10.6 lb). Feeding CSL resulted in signficantly lower rumen pH, lower ruminal acetate and higher ruminal butyrate, isovalerate and caproate levels than did feeding either control. Supplementing with FACW produced significantly lower rumen pH, higher rumen ammonia and soluble carbohydrate levels, lower ruminal acetate, and higher ruminal propionate and butyrate concentrations than did either control supplement. Corn steep liquor and FDCW appear to be effective protein sources for cows and heifers grazing winter native range.

  17. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 2: Appendix I, Section 5, and Appendix II, Section 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Grace, W.J. Frederick, M. Salcudean, R.A. Wessel

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  18. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 1: Main Text and Appendix I, Sections 1-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Grace, W.J. Frederick, M. Salcudean, R.A. Wessel

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  19. Red-black Trees To know what a red-black tree is (10.1).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Y. Daniel

    809 CHAPTER 10 Red-black Trees Objectives · To know what a red-black tree is (§10.1). · To convert a red-black tree to a 2-4 tree and vice versa (§10.2). · To design the RBTree class that extends the BinaryTree class (§10.3). · To insert an element in a red-black tree and resolve the double red problem

  20. A novel process for the treatment of spent potlining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besida, J.; Pong, T.K.; Adrien, R.J. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A description of a new process for the treatment of spent potlining (SPL) is presented in this paper together with a comparison between laboratory results and those obtained from a 100kg demonstration plant. The process uses a series of aqueous leaching steps, conducted at low temperature, to extract cyanide from SPL and recover the fluoride values as smelter grade AlF{sup 3} or acid grade CaF{sup 2}. The final carbonaceous residue contains the refractory compounds corundum and sodium beta-aluminate and TCLP tests demonstrate that it meets environmental requirements for land filling. 2 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. A process for treatment and recovery of spent potliner (SPL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adrien, R.J.; Besida, J.; Pong, T.K.; O`Donnell, T.A.; Wood, D.G.; Covey, G.H. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Giansiracusa, J.J.; Price, D.E. [DEPCO-TRH Pty. Ltd., Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent potliner (SPL) is classified as a hazardous waste as it contains cyanides and high levels of fluorides. This paper describes a novel process for the conversion of SPL at near ambient temperatures for the recovery of useful products and a benign residue. The initial treatment of crushed SPL removes over 90% of the cyanide and a large percentage of the fluoride. By appropriate selection of the chemical species and wash conditions aluminum fluoride and other fluorides are effectively recovered in subsequent stages. After this treatment by a series of chemical washes the residue produced is a carbonaceous material containing only carbon and brick fragments, i.e. refractory aluminum compounds.

  2. APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF SPENT FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drayer, R.

    2013-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each specific need. There are products on the market for smart meters, industrial lighting control and home automation that can be applied to the Back End Fuel Cycle. With a little integration and innovation a cost effective solution is achievable.

  3. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney C. Ewing

    2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent nuclear fuel, essentially U{sub 2}, accounts for over 95% of the total radioactivity of all of the radioactive wastes in the United States that require disposal, disposition or remediation. The UO{sub 2} in SNF is not stable under oxiding conditions and may also be altered under reducing conditions. The alteration of SNF results in the formation of new uranium phases that can cause the release or retardation of actinide and fission product radionuclides. Over the long term, and depending on the extent to which the secondary uranium phases incorporate fission products and actinides, these alteration phases become the near-field source term.

  4. Spent nuclear fuel storage -- Performance tests and demonstrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinnon, M.A.; DeLoach, V.A.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of heat transfer and shielding performance tests and demonstrations conducted from 1983 through 1992 by or in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The performance tests consisted of 6 to 14 runs involving one or two loadings, usually three backfill environments (helium, nitrogen, and vacuum backfills), and one or two storage system orientations. A description of the test plan, spent fuel load patterns, results from temperature and dose rate measurements, and fuel integrity evaluations are contained within the report.

  5. Extending dry storage of spent LWR fuel for 100 years.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, R. E.

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of delays in closing the back end of the fuel cycle in the U.S., there is a need to extend dry inert storage of spent fuel beyond its originally anticipated 20-year duration. Many of the methodologies developed to support initial licensing for 20-year storage should be able to support the longer storage periods envisioned. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing information and methodologies to support dry storage up to 100 years. The thrust of the analysis is the potential behavior of the spent fuel. In the USA, the criteria for dry storage of LWR spent fuel are delineated in 10 CFR 72 [1]. The criteria fall into four general categories: maintain subcriticality, prevent the release of radioactive material above acceptable limits, ensure that radiation rates and doses do not exceed acceptable levels, and maintain retrievability of the stored radioactive material. These criteria need to be considered for normal, off-normal, and postulated accident conditions. The initial safety analysis report submitted for licensing evaluated the fuel's ability to meet the requirements for 20 years. It is not the intent to repeat these calculations, but to look at expected behavior over the additional 80 years, during which the temperatures and radiation fields are lower. During the first 20 years, the properties of the components may change because of elevated temperatures, presence of moisture, effects of radiation, etc. During normal storage in an inert atmosphere, there is potential for the cladding mechanical properties to change due to annealing or interaction with cask materials. The emissivity of the cladding could also change due to storage conditions. If there is air leakage into the cask, additional degradation could occur through oxidation in breached rods, which could lead to additional fission gas release and enlargement of cladding breaches. Air in-leakage could also affect cover gas conductivity, cladding oxidation, emissivity changes, and excessive creep and mechanical property changes. Postulated accident scenarios would be the same for 20-year or 100-year storage, because they are mostly governed by operational or outside events, and not by the cask or fuel. Analyses of accident scenarios during extended dry storage could be impacted by fuel and cask changes that would result from the extended period of storage. Overall, the results of this work indicate that, based on fuel behavior, spent fuel at burnups below {approximately}45 GWd/MTU can be dry stored for 100 years. Long-term storage of higher burnup fuel or fuels with newer cladding will require the determination of temperature limits based on evaluation of stress-driven degradation mechanisms of the cladding.

  6. Smelting Associated with the Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, J-M.; Jeong, M-S.; Lee, W-K.; Cho, S-H.; Seo, C-S.; Park, S-W.

    2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The smelting process associated with the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was studied by using surrogate materials. Considering the vaporization behaviors of input materials, the operation procedure of smelting was set up as (1) removal of residual salts, (2) melting of metal powder, and (3) removal of dross from a metal ingot. The behaviors of porous MgO crucible during smelting were tested and the chemical stability of MgO in the salt-being atmosphere was confirmed.

  7. Closure mechanism and method for spent nuclear fuel canisters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doman, Marvin J. (Monroeville, PA)

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A canister is provided for storing, transporting, and/or disposing of spent nuclear fuel. The canister includes a canister shell, a top shield plug disposed within the canister, and a leak-tight closure arrangement. The closure arrangement includes a shear ring which forms a containment boundary of the canister, and which is welded to the canister shell and top shield plug. An outer seal plate, forming an outer seal, is disposed above the shear ring and is welded to the shield plug and the canister.

  8. Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNGInternational Energy AgencyImpactSouthDepartment of09-01Special Topics inSpent

  9. Spent Fuel Analyses for Nuclear Safeguards | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus Tom Fletcher,Future |CarlosSpeakersSpectroscopySpencer R.Spent

  10. Instrumented, Shielded Test Canister System for Evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    1999-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the development of an instrumented, shielded test canister system to store and monitor aluminum-based spent nuclear duel under dry storage conditions.

  11. POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermore Laboratoryb) using columns of spent shale. REFERENCES Burnham, Alankinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1. co Effect

  12. Brittle Failure Design Criteria for Ductile Cast Iron Spent-Fuel

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Ductile and Brittle Failure Design Criteria for Ductile Cast Iron Spent-Fuel Shipping Containers This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced spent fuel Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    facilities should have more advanced technical monitoring... of the cycle to extract fis- sile material from the spent fuel removed from reactors. Although a complete... of...

  14. Dose Rates for Various Loading Patterns of Spent Fuel Assemblies in a Dry Cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenquin, Urban P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shielding calculations were performed to assess the impact of loading various combinations of spent fuel on dose rates and fuel temperature in a dry storage cask.

  15. Effects of Acid Additives on Spent Acid Flowback through Carbonate Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasir, Ehsaan Ahmad

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Limestone and the non-emulsifying agent M-NEA the worst for Texas Cream Chalk for spent acid recovery after gas flowback....

  16. Report to Congress on Plan for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Report to Congress on Plan for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Decommissioned Reactors More Documents & Publications Information Request, "THE REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT...

  17. Fracture behavior of high-burnup spent-fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Yaggee, F.L.; Kassner, T.F.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PCI-like, brittle-type failures, characterized by pseudocleavage-plus-fluting features in the fracture surface, branching cracks, and small diametral strain, were observed to occur at 292 to 325/sup 0/C in some batches of spent power-reactor fuel-cladding tubes under internal gas-pressurization and expanding-mandrel loading conditions in which the tests were not influenced by fission product simulants. Fractographic characteristics per se do not provide evidence for a PCI failure mechanism but should be deemed only as cooroborative in nature. Evaluation of TEM thin-foil specimens, obtained from regions adjacent to the brittle-type fracture sites, characteristically revealed extensive amounts of Zr/sub 3/O precipitates and a lack of slip dislocations. The precipitation of the Zr/sub 3/O phase appears to be enhanced by a high density of irradiation-induced defects. The brittle-type failure produced in the spent-fuel cladding tubes appears to be associated with segregation of oxygen to dislocation substructures and irradiation-induced defects, which leads to the formation of an ordered zirconium-oxygen phase of Zr/sub 3/O, an immobilization of dislocations, and minimal plastic deformation in the cladding material.

  18. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Luke W.; Hunt, Alan W.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy, beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy is investigated as a non-destructive assay technique for the determination of plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel. This approach exploits the unique isotope-specific signatures contained in the delayed gamma-ray emission spectra detected following active interrogation with an external neutron source. A high fidelity modeling approach is described that couples radiation transport, analytical decay/depletion, and a newly developed gamma-ray emission source reconstruction code. Initially simulated and analyzed was a one-pass delayed gamma-ray assay that focused on the long-lived signatures. Also presented are the results of an independent study that investigated pulsed mode measurements, to capture the more isotope-specific, short-lived signatures. Initial modeling results outlined in this paper suggest that delayed gamma-ray assay of spent nuclear fuel assemblies can be accomplished with a neutron generator of sufficient strength and currently available gamma-ray detectors.

  19. Dry oxidation and fracture of LWR spent fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, T.M.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the characteristics of oxidation and fracture of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in dry air. It also discusses their effects on radionuclide releases in the anticipated high-level waste repository environment. A sphere model may describe diffusion-limited formation of lower oxides, such as U{sub 4}O{sub 9}, in the oxidation of the spent fuel (SF) matrix. Detrimental higher oxides, such as U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, may not form at temperatures below a threshold temperature. The nucleation process suggests that a threshold temperature exists. The calculated results regarding fracture properties of the SF matrix agree with experimental observations. Oxidation and fracture of Zircaloy may not be significant under anticipated conditions. Under saturated or unsaturated aqueous conditions, oxidation of the SF matrix is believed to increase the releases of Pu-(239+240), Am-(241+243), C-14, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135. Under dry conditions, I-129 releases are likely to be small, unlike C-14, in lower oxides; Cl-36, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135 may be released fast in higher oxides. 79 refs.

  20. Spent nuclear fuel recycling with plasma reduction and etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yong Ho

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting uranium from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) particles is disclosed. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (containing oxides of uranium, oxides of fission products (FP) and oxides of transuranic (TRU) elements (including plutonium)) are subjected to a hydrogen plasma and a fluorine plasma. The hydrogen plasma reduces the uranium and plutonium oxides from their oxide state. The fluorine plasma etches the SNF metals to form UF6 and PuF4. During subjection of the SNF particles to the fluorine plasma, the temperature is maintained in the range of 1200-2000 deg K to: a) allow any PuF6 (gas) that is formed to decompose back to PuF4 (solid), and b) to maintain stability of the UF6. Uranium (in the form of gaseous UF6) is easily extracted and separated from the plutonium (in the form of solid PuF4). The use of plasmas instead of high temperature reactors or flames mitigates the high temperature corrosive atmosphere and the production of PuF6 (as a final product). Use of plasmas provide faster reaction rates, greater control over the individual electron and ion temperatures, and allow the use of CF4 or NF3 as the fluorine sources instead of F2 or HF.

  1. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

  2. Spent Fuel Storage Operational Experience With Increased Crud Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnabas, I. [Public Agency for Radioactive Waste, Management (PURAM) (Hungary); Eigner, T. [Paks NPP (Hungary); Gresits, I. [Technical University of Budapest (Hungary); Ordagh, M. [SOM System Llc, (Hungary)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant part of the electricity production in Hungary is provided by 4 units of VVER 440 nuclear reactors at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. Interim dry storage of the spent fuel assemblies that are generated during the operation of the reactors is provided in a Modular Vault Dry Storage (MVDS) facility that is located in the immediate vicinity of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. The storage capacity of the MVDS is being continuously extended in accordance with spent the fuel production rate from the four reactors. An accident occurred at unit 2 of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant in 2003, when thirty irradiated fuel assemblies were damaged during a cleaning process. The fuel assemblies were not inside the reactor at the time of the accident, but in a separate tank within the adjacent fuel decay pool. As a result of this accident, contamination from the badly damaged fuel assemblies spread to the decay pool water and also became deposited onto the surface of (hermetic) spent fuel assemblies within the decay pool. Therefore, it was necessary to review the design basis of the MVDS and assess the effects of taking the surface contaminated spent fuel assemblies into dry storage. The contaminated hermetic assemblies were transferred from the unit 2 pool to the interim storage facility in the period between 2005 and 2007. Continuous inspection and measurement was carried out during the transfer of these fuel assemblies. On the basis of the design assessments and measurement of the results during the fuel transfer, it was shown that radiological activity values increased due to the consequences of the accident but that these levels did not compromise the release and radiation dose limits for the storage facility. The aim of this paper is to show the effect on the operation of the MVDS interim storage facility as a result of the increased activity values due to the accident that occurred in 2003, as well as to describe the measurements that were taken, and their results and experience gained. In summary: On the basis of the design assessments and measurement of the results during the fuel transfer operations, it was shown that radiological activity values increased due to the consequences of the 2003 accident but that these levels did not compromise the release and dose limits for the fuel storage facility. In the environment there was no measurable radioactivity as a result of the operation of the Paks ISFSI. The exposure of the surrounding population was calculated on measured releases and meteorological data. The calculations show negligible doses until 2004. Due to the increased surface contamination on the spent fuel assemblies the dose rate increased almost 5 times compared to the least annual value, but still less then 0.01 percent of the allowed dose restriction. (authors)

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Red LED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik SpoerkeSolar Regional TestClimateResearchRecovery Act (ARRA) ProjectsRed

  4. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industrys energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

  5. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) activities on spent fuel management options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovasic, Z.; Danker, W. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many countries have in the past several decades opted for storage of spent fuel for undefined periods of time. They have adopted the 'wait and see' strategy for spent fuel management. A relatively small number of countries have adopted reprocessing and use of MOX fuel as part of their strategy in spent fuel management. From the 10, 000 tonnes of heavy metal that is removed annually from nuclear reactors throughout the world, only approximately 30 % is currently being reprocessed. Continuous re-evaluation of world energy resources, announcement of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and the Russian initiative to form international nuclear centers, including reprocessing, are changing the stage for future development of nuclear energy. World energy demand is expected to more than double by 2050, and expansion of nuclear energy is a key to meeting this demand while reducing pollution and greenhouse gases. Since its foundation, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has served as an interface between countries in exchanging information on the peaceful development of nuclear energy and at the same time guarding against proliferation of materials that could be used for nuclear weapons. The IAEA's Department of Nuclear Energy has been generating technical documents, holding meetings and conferences, and supporting technical cooperation projects to facilitate this exchange of information. This paper focuses on the current status of IAEA activities in the field of spent fuel management being carried out by the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology. Information on those activities could be found on the web site link www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NEFW/nfcms. To date, the IAEA has given priority in its spent fuel management activities to supporting Member States in their efforts to deal with growing accumulations of spent power reactor fuel. There is technical consensus that the present technologies for spent fuel storage, wet and dry, provide adequate protection to people and environment. As storage durations grow, the IAEA has expanded its work related to the implications of extended storage periods. Operation and maintenance of containers for storage and transport have also been investigated related to long term storage periods. In addition, as international interest in reprocessing of spent fuel increases, the IAEA continues to serve as a crossroads for sharing the latest developments in spent fuel treatment options. A Coordinated Research Project is currently addressing spent fuel performance assessment and research to evaluate long term effects of storage on spent fuel. The effect of increased burnup and mixed oxide fuels on spent fuel management is also the focus of interest as it follows the trend in optimizing the use of nuclear fuel. Implications of damaged fuel on storage and transport as well as burnup credit in spent fuel applications are areas that the IAEA is also investigating. Since spent fuel management considerations require social stability and institutional control, those aspects are taken into account in most IAEA activities. Data requirements and records management as storage durations extend were also investigated as well as the potential for regional spent fuel storage facilities. Spent fuel management activities continue to be coordinated with others in the IAEA to ensure compliance and consistency with efforts in the Department of Safety and Security and the Department of Safeguards, as well as with activities related to geologic disposal. Either disposal of radioactive waste or spent fuel will be an ultimate consideration in all spent fuel management options. Updated information on spent fuel treatment options that include fuel reprocessing as well as transmutation of minor actinides are investigated to optimize the use of nuclear fuel and minimize impact on environment. Tools for spent fuel management economics are also investigated to facilitate assessment of industrial applicability for these options. Most IAEA spent fuel management activities will ultimately be reported in o

  6. Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Alsaed

    2005-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M&O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information and inputs to the Preclosure Safety Analysis Department. Before using the results of this calculation, the reader is cautioned to verify that the assumptions made in this calculation regarding the waste stream, the loading process, and the staging of the spent nuclear fuel assemblies are applicable.

  7. Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.K. Knudson

    2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M&O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information and inputs to the Preclosure Safety Analysis Department. Before using the results of this calculation, the reader is cautioned to verify that the assumptions made in this calculation regarding the waste stream, the loading process, and the staging of the spent nuclear fuel assemblies are applicable.

  8. Test plan for reactions between spent fuel and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, P.A.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W.; Hafenrichter, L.D.; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is evaluating the long-term performance of a high-level nuclear waste form, spent fuel from commercial reactors. Permanent disposal of the spent fuel is possible in a potential repository to be located in the volcanic tuff beds near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. During the post-containment period the spent fuel could be exposed to water condensation since of the cladding is assumed to fail during this time. Spent fuel leach (SFL) tests are designed to simulate and monitor the release of radionuclides from the spent fuel under this condition. This Test Plan addresses the anticipated conditions whereby spent fuel is contacted by small amounts of water that trickle through the spent fuel container. Two complentary test plans are presented, one to examine the reaction of spent fuel and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions and the second to examine the reaction of unirradiated UO{sub 2} pellets and J-13 well water under unsaturated conditions. The former test plan examines the importance of the water content, the oxygen content as affected by radiolysis, the fuel burnup, fuel surface area, and temperature. The latter test plant examines the effect of the non-presence of Teflon in the test vessel.

  9. Spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity. Annual report, FY 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bailey, W.J.; Bradley, E.R.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Langstaff, D.C.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During program FY 1980 staff members of the Spent Fuel and Fuel Pool Component Integrity Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) completed the following major tasks: represented DOE on the international Behavior of Fuel Assemblies in Storage (BEFAST) Committee; the program manager, A.B. Johnson, Jr., participated in an International Survey of Water Reactor Spent Fuel Storage Experience, which was conducted jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (Paris); provided written testimony and cross statement for the Proposed Rulemaking on Storage and Disposal of Nuclear Waste; acquired and began examination of the world's oldest pool-stored Zircaloy-clad fuel from the Shippingport reactor, stored approx. 21 years in deionized water; acquired and began examination of stainless-clad spent fuel from the Connecticut Yankee Reactor (PWR); negotiated for specimens from components stored in spent fuel pools at fuel storage facilities from the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina, Zion (PWR) spent fuel pool, Zion, Illinois, and La Crosse (BWR) spent fuel pool, La Crosse, Wisconsin; planned for examinations in FY 81 of specimens from the three spent fuel pools; investigated a low-temperature stress corrosion cracking mechanism that developed in piping at a few PWR spent fuel pools. This report summarizes the results of these activities and investigations. Details are provided in the presentationsand publications generated under this program and summarized in Appendix A.

  10. Fracture behavior of zircaloy spent-fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Yaggee, F.L.; Kassner, T.F.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Zircaloy cladding of water reactor fuel rods is susceptible to local breach-type failure, commonly known as pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) failure, during operational and off-normal power transients after the fuel has achieved a sufficiently high burnup. An optimization of power ramp procedures or fuel rod fabrication to minimize the cladding failure would result in a significant decrease in radiation exposure of plant personnel due to background and airborne radioactivity as well as an extension of core life in terms of allowable off-gas radioactivity. As part of a program to provide a better understanding of the fuel rod faiure phenomenon and to facilitate the formulation of a better failure criterion, a mechanistic study of the deformation and fracture behavior of high-burnup spent-fuel cladding is in progress under simulated PCI conditions.

  11. SPENT FUEL MANAGEMENT AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vormelker, P; Robert Sindelar, R; Richard Deible, R

    2007-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent nuclear fuels are received from reactor sites around the world and are being stored in the L-Basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The predominant fuel types are research reactor fuel with aluminum-alloy cladding and aluminum-based fuel. Other fuel materials include stainless steel and Zircaloy cladding with uranium oxide fuel. Chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs have been established and upgraded since the early 1990's to minimize corrosion degradation of the aluminum cladding materials, so as to maintain fuel integrity and minimize personnel exposure from radioactivity in the basin water. Recent activities have been initiated to support additional decades of wet storage which include fuel inspection and corrosion testing to evaluate the effects of specific water impurity species on corrosion attack.

  12. Structural analysis of extracts from spent hydroprocessing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.H.K.; Gray, M.R.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent extracts from spent commercial naphtha and gas oil hydrotreating catalysts were examined in order to elucidate the structure of adsorbed poisons. Amides were identified in the extracts and made up 20-30% of the basic compounds. The oxygen content of the extracts was as high as 28% by weight. Some of this oxygen may be associated with metal complexes or present as inorganic material. Infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed very strong absorptions due to carbonyls, suggesting that compounds such as ketones and carboxylic acids were present. The extracted compounds consisted of saturated (paraffinic and naphthenic) structures and aromatic groups, with >50% boiling at +343/sup 0/c. These results suggest polymerization of species on the surface of the catalyst, rather than condensation of aromatic structures to form coke.

  13. Radiochemical analyses of several spent fuel Approved Testing Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Wildung, N.J.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiochemical characterization data are described for UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} plus 3 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} commercial spent nuclear fuel taken from a series of Approved Testing Materials (ATMs). These full-length nuclear fuel rods include MLA091 of ATM-103, MKP070 of ATM-104, NBD095 and NBD131 of ATM-106, and ADN0206 of ATM-108. ATMs 103, 104, and 106 were all irradiated in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (Reactor No.1), a pressurized-water reactor that used fuel fabricated by Combustion Engineering. ATM-108 was part of the same fuel bundle designed as ATM-105 and came from boiling-water reactor fuel fabricated by General Electric and irradiated in the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant. Rod average burnups and expected fission gas releases ranged from 2,400 to 3,700 GJ/kgM. (25 to 40 Mwd/kgM) and from less than 1% to greater than 10%, respectively, depending on the specific ATM. The radiochemical analyses included uranium and plutonium isotopes in the fuel, selected fission products in the fuel, fuel burnup, cesium and iodine on the inner surfaces of the cladding, {sup 14}C in the fuel and cladding, and analyses of the gases released to the rod plenum. Supporting examinations such as fuel rod design and material descriptions, power histories, and gamma scans used for sectioning diagrams are also included. These ATMs were examined as part of the Materials Characterization Center Program conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  14. Deformation and fracture characteristics of spent Zircaloy fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Yaggee, F.L.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For a better understanding of Zircaloy fuel-rod failure by the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) phenomenon, a mechanistic study of deformation and fracture behavior of spent power reactor fuel cladding under simulated PCI conditions was conducted. Zircaloy-2 cladding specimens, obtained from fuel assemblies of operating power reactors, were deformed to fracture at 325/sup 0/C by internal gas pressurization in the absence of fission product simulants. Fracture characteristics and microstructures were examined via SEM, TEM, and HVEM. Numerous dislocation tangles and cell structures, observed in TEM specimens of cladding tubes that failed in a ductile manner, were consistent with SEM observations of a limited number of dimples characteristic of microvoid coalescence. A number of brittle-type failures were produced without the influence of fission product simulants. The brittle cracks occurred near the areas compressed by the Swagelok fittings of the internally pressurized tube and propagated from the outer to the inner surface. Since the outer surface was isolated and maintained under a flowing stream of pure helium, it is unlikely that the brittle-type failure was influenced by any fission product traces. SEM fractography of the brittle-type failure revealed a large area of transgranular pseudocleavage with limited areas of ductile fluting, which were similar in appearance to the surfaces produced by in-reactor PCI-type failures. A TEM evaluation of the cladding in the vicinity of the through-wall crack revealed numerous locations that contained an extensive amount of second-phase precipitate (Zr/sub 3/O). We believe that the brittle-type failures of the irradiated spent fuel cladding in the stress rupture experiments are associated with segregation of oxygen, which leads to the formation of the order structure, an immobilization of dislocations, and minimal plastic deformation in the material.

  15. Utilizing Divers in Support of Spent Fuel Basin Closure Subproject

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen Nellesen

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of nuclear facilities in the world are aging and with this comes the fact that we have to either keep repairing them or decommission them. At the Department of Energy Idaho Site (DOEID) there are a number of facilities that are being decommissioned, but the facilities that pose the highest risk to the large aquifer that flows under the site are given highest priorities. Aging spent nuclear fuel pools at DOE-ID are among the facilities that pose the highest risk, therefore four pools were targeted for decommissioning in Fiscal Year 2004. To accomplish this task the Idaho Completion Project (ICP) of Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC, put together an integrated Basin Closure Subproject team. The team was assigned a goal to look beyond traditional practices at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to find ways to get the basin closure work done safer and more efficiently. The Idaho Completion Project (ICP) was faced with a major challenge cleaning and preparing aging spent nuclear fuel basins for closure by removing sludge and debris, as necessary, and removing water to eliminate a potential risk to the Snake River Plain Aquifer. The project included cleaning and removing water from four basins. Two of the main challenges to a project like this is the risk of contamination from the basin walls and floors becoming airborne as the water is removed and keeping personnel exposures ALARA. ICPs baseline plan had workers standing at the edges of the basins and on rafts or bridge cranes and then using long-handled tools to manually scrub the walls of basin surfaces. This plan had significant risk of skin contamination events, workers falling into the water, or workers sustaining injuries from the awkward working position. Analysis of the safety and radiation dose risks presented by this approach drove the team to look for smarter ways to get the work done.

  16. Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Hill; Denzel L. Fillmore

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a large inventory of diverse types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This legacy derives from the history of the INL as the National Reactor Testing Station, and from its mission to recover HEU from SNF and to test and examine SNF after irradiation. The INL also has a large diversity of SNF storage facilities, some 50 years old. SNF at INL has many formsfrom intact assemblies down to metallurgical mounts, and some fuel has been wet stored for over 40 years. SNF is stored bare or in metal cans under water, or dry in vaults, caissons or casks. Inspection shows varying corrosion and degradation of the SNF and its storage cans. SNF has been stored in 10 different facilities: 5 pools, one cask storage pad, one vault, two generations of caisson facilities, and one modular Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The pools range in age from 40 years old to the most modern in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The near-term objective is to move SNF from older pools to interim dry storage, allowing shutdown and decommissioning of the older facilities. This move involves drying methods that are dependent on fuel type. The long-term objective is to have INL SNF in safe dry storage and ready to be shipped to the National Repository. The unique features of the INL SNF requires special treatments and packaging to meet the proposed repository acceptance criteria and SNF will be repackaged in standardized canisters for shipment and disposal in the National Repository. Disposal will use the standardized canisters that can be co-disposed with High Level Waste glass logs to limit the total fissile material in a repository waste package. The DOE standardized canister also simplifies the repository handling of the multitude of DOE SNF sizes and shapes.

  17. Fort Calhoun Station disposal of spent fuel pool racks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamieson, T.W. [Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, NE (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The original plan was to have the racks pulled out of the pool, washed down and wrapped and placed in Sea/Lands to be sent to a vendor for free release and disposal. In the winter of 93 the proposed quotations on the Spent Fuel Rerack Processing were all rejected. With the rerack job starting in March of 94 and the closing of Barnwell in July we were faced with what to do with the racks. Processing of the existing racks were required since if the racks were sent to Barnwell for burial intact the cost would be prohibitive, that is, if Barnwell would have stayed open. If the racks were sent to a smelter, such as Scientific Ecology Group (SEG), there are restrictions on the length of the components that can go through the smelter. If SEG were to do the rack processing (sectioning) at their facility, the cost would also be prohibitive and they would not be in a position to receive the racks until June, 1995. Therefore, bid specifications were requested for on-site volume reduction processing of the existing spent fuel storage racks, with further ultimate disposal to be performed by SEG. The processing of the racks included piping and supports. Volume reduction (VR) was an issue in the evaluation since after this process the racks were to be shipped to SEG. If a low VR ratio option was chosen, OPPD would need a significant number of shipping containers and required more radwaste shipments versus if a high VR ratio option were chosen.

  18. Savannah River Site, Spent Nuclear Fuel Management, Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1998-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed DOE action described in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to implement appropriate processes for the safe and efficient management of spent nuclear fuel and targets assigned to the Savannah River Site (SRS), including placing these materials in forms suitable for ultimate disposition. Options to treat, package, and store this material are discussed. The material included in this EIS consists of approximately 68 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of spent nuclear fuel (20 MTHM of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at SRS, as much as 28 MTHM of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel from foreign and domestic research reactors to be shipped to SRS through 2035, and 20 MTHM of stainless-steel or zirconium-clad spent nuclear fuel and some programmatic material stored at SRS for repackaging and dry storage pending shipment offsite).

  19. Direct Investigations of the Immobilization of Radionuclides in the Alteration Products of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Burns; Robert J. Finch; David J. Wronkiewicz

    2004-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Safe disposal of the nation's nuclear waste in a geological repository involves unique scientific and engineering challenges owing to the very long-lived radioactivity of the waste. The repository must retain a variety of radionuclides that have vastly different chemical characters for several thousand years. Most of the radioactivity that will be housed in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will be associated with spent nuclear fuel, much of which is derived from commercial reactors. DOE is custodian of approximately 8000 tons of spent nuclear fuel that is also intended for eventual disposal in a geological repository. Unlike the spent fuel from commercial reactors, the DOE fuel is diverse in composition with more than 250 varieties. Safe disposal of spent fuel requires a detailed knowledge of its long-term behavior under repository conditions, as well as the fate of radionuclides released from the spent fuel as waste containers are breached.

  20. Red-Black Trees 11/26/2007 11:09 AM Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alechina, Natasha

    Red-Black Trees 11/26/2007 11:09 AM 1 Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison

  1. Red-Black Trees 11/11/2004 10:02 AM Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alechina, Natasha

    Red-Black Trees 11/11/2004 10:02 AM 1 Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison

  2. Red blood cell malformations Cell shapes Modeling and simulation of red blood cell light scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    that have a "sickle" appearance (see figure to left). This malformed geometry prevents cells from traveling Red blood cell malformations Cell shapes Modeling and simulation of red blood cell light to various diseases and acute conditions, the shape and composition of erythrocytes (red blood cells

  3. Do red giants have short mode lifetimes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Stello; H. Kjeldsen; T. R. Bedding; D. Buzasi

    2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We show evidence that the red giant star ksi Hya has an oscillation mode lifetime, tau, of about 2 days significantly shorter than predicted by theory (tau = 17 days, Houdek & Gough 2002). If this is a general trend of red giants it would limit the prospects of asteroseismology on these stars because of poor coherence of the oscillations.

  4. *Please do NOT put out food if both red and grey squirrels are present* Feeding red squirrels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    *Please do NOT put out food if both red and grey squirrels are present* Feeding red squirrels The UK Red Squirrel Group does not generally recommend that people put out food for red squirrels, there are risks to red squirrels by enticing them into your garden, or other premises. These include disease

  5. Studies on reaction runaways for Urex/Purex solvent-nitric acid and red-oil synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Shekhar; Kumar, Rajnish; Koganti, S.B. [Reprocessing R and D Division, Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In PUREX/UREX processes for recycling of spent nuclear fuels, 30% TBP solvent is used, This solvent has a small solubility in the aqueous phase. During concentration of the process solutions by an evaporation route, a runaway reaction between TBP and nitric acid is initiated at above 130 deg. C, leading to rapid pressurization and finally containment failure if proper venting is not provided. Red oil was synthesized for the first time in India, and its physical properties as well as thermodynamic parameters for the reaction were determined. It was experimentally established that the presence of metallic nitrates was not essential for red-oil formation as thought earlier. Various experiments have been completed for single-phase as well as two-phase runs. The most important finding of this work was lowering of the limiting acid concentration from the conventional values. In fact, in these experiments, red oil could be formed even at 2 N aqueous acidity. Thus, safety guidelines based on the classical literature are obsolete. New guidelines for the red-oil-safety are required. (authors)

  6. Dry Storage of Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel - 13321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.M.; Dunsmuir, M.D.; Leduc, D.R.; Severynse, T.F.; Sindelar, R.L. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Moore, E.N. [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)] [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent fuel from domestic and foreign research reactors is received and stored at the Savannah River Site's L Area Material Storage (L Basin) Facility. This DOE-owned fuel consists primarily of highly enriched uranium in metal, oxide or silicide form with aluminum cladding. Upon receipt, the fuel is unloaded and transferred to basin storage awaiting final disposition. Disposition alternatives include processing via the site's H Canyon facility for uranium recovery, or packaging and shipment of the spent fuel to a waste repository. A program has been developed to provide a phased approach for dry storage of the L Basin fuel. The initial phase of the dry storage program will demonstrate loading, drying, and storage of fuel in twelve instrumented canisters to assess fuel performance. After closure, the loaded canisters are transferred to pad-mounted concrete overpacks, similar to those used for dry storage of commercial fuel. Unlike commercial spent fuel, however, the DOE fuel has high enrichment, very low to high burnup, and low decay heat. The aluminum cladding presents unique challenges due to the presence of an oxide layer that forms on the cladding surface, and corrosion degradation resulting from prolonged wet storage. The removal of free and bound water is essential to the prevention of fuel corrosion and radiolytic generation of hydrogen. The demonstration will validate models predicting pressure, temperature, gas generation, and corrosion performance, provide an engineering scale demonstration of fuel handling, drying, leak testing, and canister backfill operations, and establish 'road-ready' storage of fuel that is suitable for offsite repository shipment or retrievable for onsite processing. Implementation of the Phase I demonstration can be completed within three years. Phases II and III, leading to the de-inventory of L Basin, would require an additional 750 canisters and 6-12 years to complete. Transfer of the fuel from basin storage to dry storage requires integration with current facility operations, and selection of equipment that will allow safe operation within the constraints of existing facility conditions. Examples of such constraints that are evaluated and addressed by the dry storage program include limited basin depth, varying fuel lengths up to 4 m, (13 ft), fissile loading limits, canister closure design, post-load drying and closure of the canisters, instrument selection and installation, and movement of the canisters to storage casks. The initial pilot phase restricts the fuels to shorter length fuels that can be loaded to the canister directly underwater; subsequent phases will require use of a shielded transfer system. Removal of the canister from the basin, followed by drying, inerting, closure of the canister, and transfer of the canister to the storage cask are completed with remotely operated equipment and appropriate shielding to reduce personnel radiation exposure. (authors)

  7. Fast Reactor Spent Fuel Processing: Experience and Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Pope

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses operational and criticality safety experience associated with the Idaho National Laboratory Fuel Conditioning Facility which uses a pyrometallurgical process to treat spent fast reactor metallic fuel. The process is conducted in an inert atmosphere hot cell. The process starts with chopping metallic fuel elements into a basket. The basket is lowered into molten salt (LiCl-KCl) along with a steel mandrel. Active metal fission products, transuranic metals and sodium metal in the spent fuel undergo chemical oxidation and form chlorides. Voltage is applied between the basket, which serves as an anode, and the mandrel, which serves as a cathode, causing metallic uranium in the spent fuel to undergo electro-chemical oxidation thereby forming uranium chloride. Simultaneously at the cathode, uranium chloride undergoes electro-chemical reduction and deposits uranium metal onto the mandrel. The uranium metal and accompanying entrained salt are placed in a distillation furnace where the uranium melts forming an ingot and the entrained salt boils and subsequently condenses in a separate crucible. The uranium ingots are placed in long term storage. During the ten year operating history, over one hundred criticality safety evaluations were prepared. All criticality safety related limits and controls for the entire process are contained in a single document which required over thirty revisions to accommodate the process changes. Operational implementation of the limits and controls includes use of a near real-time computerized tracking system. The tracking system uses an Oracle database coupled with numerous software applications. The computerized tracking system includes direct fuel handler interaction with every movement of material. Improvements to this system during the ten year history include introduction of web based operator interaction, tracking of moderator materials and the development of a plethora database queries to assist in day to day operations as well as obtaining historical information. Over 12,000 driver fuel elements have been processed resulting in the production of 2500 kg of 20% enriched uranium. Also, over one thousand blanket fuel elements have been processed resulting in the production of 2400 kg of depleted uranium. These operations required over 35,000 fissile material transfers between zones and over 6000 transfers between containers. Throughout all of these movements, no mass limit violations occurred. Numerous lessons were learned over the ten year operating history. From a criticality safety perspective, the most important lesson learned was the involvement of a criticality safety practitioner in daily operations. A criticality safety engineer was assigned directly to facility operations, and was responsible for implementation of limits and controls including upkeep of the associated computerized tracking files. The criticality safety engineer was also responsible for conducting fuel handler training activities including serving on fuel handler qualification oral boards, and continually assessing operations from a criticality control perspective. The criticality safety engineer also attended bimonthly project planning meetings to identify upcoming process changes that would require criticality safety evaluation. Finally, the excellent criticality safety record was due in no small part to the continual support, involvement, trust, and confidence of project and operations mana

  8. Qualitative human reliability analysis for spent fuel handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, J. D. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0748 (United States); Amico, P. [Science Applications International Corporation (United States); Cooper, S. E. [United Stated Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been developed primarily to provide information for use in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) that analyze nuclear power plant (NPP) operations. Given the original emphasis of these methods, it is understandable that many HRAs have not ventured far from NPP control room applications. Despite this historical focus on the control room, there has been growing interest and discussion regarding the application of HRA methods to other NPP activities such as spent fuel handling (SFH) or operations in different types of facilities. One recently developed HRA method, 'A Technique for Human Event Analysis' (ATHEANA) has been proposed as a promising candidate for diverse applications due to its particular approach for systematically uncovering the dynamic, contextual conditions influencing human performance. This paper describes one successful test of this proposition by presenting portions of a recently completed project in which a scoping study was performed to accomplish the following goals: (1) investigate what should be included in a qualitative HRA for spent fuel and cask handling operations; and (2) demonstrate that the ATHEANA HRA technique can be usefully applied to these operations. The preliminary, scoping qualitative HRA examined, in a generic manner, how human performance of SFH and dry cask storage operations (DCSOs) can plausibly lead to radiological consequences that impact the public and the environment. The study involved the performance of typical, qualitative HRA tasks such as collecting relevant information and the preliminary identification of human failure events or unsafe actions, relevant influences (e.g., performance shaping factors, other contextual factors), event scenario development and categorization of human failure event (HFE) scenario groupings. Information from relevant literature sources was augmented with subject matter expert interviews and analysis of an edited video of selected operations. Elements of NUREG-1792, Good Practices for Implementing Human Reliability Analyses (HRA) and NUREG-1624, Rev. 1, Technical Basis and Implementation Guidelines for A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA) formed critical parts of the technical basis for the preliminary analysis. Mis-loading of spent fuel into a cask and dropping of a loaded cask were the two human failure event groupings of primary interest, although all human performance aspects of DCSOs were considered to some extent. Of important note is that HRA is typically performed in the context of a plant-specific PRA study. This analysis was performed without the benefit of the context provided by a larger PRA study, nor was it plant specific, and so it investigated only generic HRA issues relevant to SFH. However, the improved understanding of human performance issues provided by the study will likely enhance the ability to carry out a detailed qualitative HRA for a specific NPP at some point in the future. Furthermore, support was obtained regarding the potential for applying ATHEANA beyond NPP settings. This paper provides a description of the process followed during the analysis, a description of the HFE scenario groupings, discussion regarding general human performance vulnerabilities, and a detailed examination of one HFE scenario developed in the study. (authors)

  9. In-Situ Safeguards Verification of Low Burn-up Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, Y S; Sitaraman, S; Park, I; Kim, J; Ahn, G

    2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel in-situ gross defect verification method for light water reactor spent fuel assemblies was developed and investigated by a Monte Carlo study. This particular method is particularly effective for old pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies that have natural uranium in their upper fuel zones. Currently there is no method or instrument that does verification of this type of spent fuel assemblies without moving the spent fuel assemblies from their storage positions. The proposed method uses a tiny neutron detector and a detector guiding system to collect neutron signals inside PWR spent fuel assemblies through guide tubes present in PWR assemblies. The data obtained in such a manner are used for gross defect verification of spent fuel assemblies. The method uses 'calibration curves' which show the expected neutron counts inside one of the guide tubes of spent fuel assemblies as a function of fuel burn-up. By examining the measured data in the 'calibration curves', the consistency of the operator's declaration is verified.

  10. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix D, Part B: Naval spent nuclear fuel management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the following attachments: transportation of Naval spent nuclear fuel; description of Naval spent nuclear receipt and handling at the Expended Core Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; comparison of storage in new water pools versus dry container storage; description of storage of Naval spent nuclear fuel at servicing locations; description of receipt, handling, and examination of Naval spent nuclear fuel at alternate DOE facilities; analysis of normal operations and accident conditions; and comparison of the Naval spent nuclear fuel storage environmental assessment and this environmental impact statement.

  11. Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A.; Kubancsek, G.M.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).

  12. On bitcoin and red balloons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moshe Babaioff; Silicon Valley; Shahar Dobzinski; Sigal Oren

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many large decentralized systems rely on information propagation to ensure their proper function. We examine a common scenario in which only participants that are aware of the information can compete for some reward, and thus informed participants have an incentive not to propagate information to others. One recent example in which such tension arises is the 2009 DARPA Network Challenge (finding red balloons). We focus on another prominent example: Bitcoin, a decentralized electronic currency system. Bitcoin represents a radical new approach to monetary systems. It has been getting a large amount of public attention over the last year, both in policy discussions and in the popular press [Davis 2011; Surowiecki 2011]. Its cryptographic fundamentals have largely held up even as its usage has become increasingly widespread. We find, however, that it exhibits a fundamental problem of a different nature, based on how its incentives are structured. We propose a modification to the protocol that can eliminate this problem. Bitcoin relies on a peer-to-peer network to track transactions that are performed with the currency. For this purpose, every transaction a node learns about should be transmitted to its neighbors in the network. As the protocol is currently defined and implemented, it does not provide an incentive for nodes to broadcast transactions they are aware of. In fact, it provides an incentive not to do so. Our solution is to augment the

  13. On Bitcoin and Red Balloons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babaioff, Moshe; Oren, Sigal; Zohar, Aviv

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study scenarios in which the goal is to ensure that some information will propagate through a large network of nodes. In these scenarios all nodes that are aware of the information compete for the same prize, and thus have an incentive not to propagate information. One example for such a scenario is the 2009 DARPA Network Challenge (finding red balloons). We give special attention to a second domain, Bitcoin, a decentralized electronic currency system. Bitcoin, which has been getting a large amount of public attention over the last year, represents a radical new approach to monetary systems which has appeared in policy discussions and in the popular press. Its cryptographic fundamentals have largely held up even as its usage has become increasingly widespread. We find, however, that it exhibits a fundamental problem of a different nature, based on how its incentives are structured. We propose a modification to the protocol that can fix this problem. Bitcoin relies on a peer-to-peer network to track transac...

  14. A NOVEL APPROACH TO SPENT FUEL POOL DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Demmer

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been at the forefront of developing methods to reduce the cost and schedule of deactivating spent fuel pools (SFP). Several pools have been deactivated at the INL using an underwater approach with divers. These projects provided a basis for the INL cooperation with the Dresden Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 SFP (Exelon Generation Company) deactivation. It represents the first time that a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) SFP was decommissioned using this underwater coating process. This approach has advantages in many aspects, particularly in reducing airborne contamination and allowing safer, more cost effective deactivation. The INL pioneered underwater coating process was used to decommission three SFPs with a total combined pool volume of over 900,000 gallons. INL provided engineering support and shared project plans to successfully initiate the Dresden project. This report outlines the steps taken by INL and Exelon to decommission SFPs using the underwater coating process. The rationale used to select the underwater coating process and the advantages and disadvantages are described. Special circumstances are also discussed, such as the use of a remotely-operated underwater vehicle to visually and radiologically map the pool areas that were not readily accessible. A larger project, the INTEC-603 SFP in-situ (grouting) deactivation, is reviewed. Several specific areas where special equipment was employed are discussed and a Lessons Learned evaluation is included.

  15. Radionuclide release rates from spent fuel for performance assessment modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, D.B.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a scenario of aqueous transport from a high-level radioactive waste repository, the concentration of radionuclides in water in contact with the waste constitutes the source term for transport models, and as such represents a fundamental component of all performance assessment models. Many laboratory experiments have been done to characterize release rates and understand processes influencing radionuclide release rates from irradiated nuclear fuel. Natural analogues of these waste forms have been studied to obtain information regarding the long-term stability of potential waste forms in complex natural systems. This information from diverse sources must be brought together to develop and defend methods used to define source terms for performance assessment models. In this manuscript examples of measures of radionuclide release rates from spent nuclear fuel or analogues of nuclear fuel are presented. Each example represents a very different approach to obtaining a numerical measure and each has its limitations. There is no way to obtain an unambiguous measure of this or any parameter used in performance assessment codes for evaluating the effects of processes operative over many millennia. The examples are intended to suggest by example that in the absence of the ability to evaluate accuracy and precision, consistency of a broadly based set of data can be used as circumstantial evidence to defend the choice of parameters used in performance assessments.

  16. Packaging and transportation system for K-Basin spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kee, A.T.

    1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the cask/transportation system that was designed, procured and delivered to the Hanford K-Basin site at Richland, Washington. The performance requirements and design of the various components -- cask, trailer with cask tie-down system, and the cask operation equipment for the load-out pit -- will be discussed. The presentation will include the details of the factory acceptance testing and its results. The performance requirements for the cask/transportation system was dictated by the constraints imposed by the large number of high priority shipments and the spent fuel pool environment, and the complex interface requirements with other equipment and facility designs. The results of the testing form the basis for the conclusion that the system satisfies the site performance requirements. The cask/transportation system design was driven by the existing facility constraints and the limitations imposed by the large number of shipments over a short two-year period. This system may be useful information for other DOE facilities that may be or will be in a similar situation.

  17. Interim Storage of Hanford Spent Fuel & Associated Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford site is currently dealing with a number of types of Spent Nuclear Fuel. The route to interim dry storage for the various fuel types branches along two different paths. Fuel types such as metallic N reactor fuel and Shippingport Core 2 Blanket assemblies are being placed in approximately 4 m long canisters which are then stored in tubes below grade in a new canister storage building. Other fuels such as TRIGA{trademark} and Light Water Reactor fuel will be relocated and stored in stand-alone casks on a concrete pad. Varying degrees of sophistication are being applied with respect to the drying and/or evacuation of the fuel interim storage canisters depending on the reactivity of the fuel, the degree of damaged fuel and the previous storage environment. The characterization of sludge from the Hanford K Basins is nearly complete and canisters are being designed to store the sludge (including uranium particles from fuel element cleaning) on an interim basis.

  18. Safe Advantage on Dry Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em S.Paulo, Brazilian Navy Technological Center, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper aims to present the advantages of dry cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (cooling water pools) for SNF. When the nuclear fuel is removed from the core reactor, it is moved to a storage unit and it wait for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside water pools within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. After some period of time in pools, SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing facilities, or still, wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet facilities, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. Interim storage, up to 20 years ago, was exclusively wet and if the nuclear facility had to be decommissioned another storage solution had to be found. At the present time, after a preliminary cooling of the SNF elements inside the water pool, the elements can be stored in dry facilities. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer then wet one. Casks, either concrete or metallic, are safer, especially on occurrence of earthquakes, like that occurred at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, in Japan on July 16, 2007. (authors)

  19. Seismic Behavior of Spent Fuel Dry Cask Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaukat, Syed K. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States); Luk, Vincent K. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800. Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0744 (United States)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting a research program to investigate technical issues concerning the dry cask storage systems of spent nuclear fuel by conducting confirmatory research for establishing criteria and review guidelines for the seismic behavior of these systems. The program focuses on developing 3-D finite element analysis models that address the dynamic coupling of a module/cask, a flexible concrete pad, and an underlying soil/rock foundation, in particular, the soil-structure-interaction. Parametric analyses of the coupled models are performed to include variations in module/cask geometry, site seismicity, underlying soil properties, and cask/pad interface friction. The analyses performed include: 1) a rectangular dry cask module typical of Transnuclear West design at a site in Western USA where high seismicity is expected; 2) a cylindrical dry cask typical of Holtec design at a site in Eastern USA where low seismicity is expected; and 3) a cylindrical dry cask typical of Holtec design at a site in Western USA with medium high seismicity. The paper includes assumptions made in seismic analyses performed, results, and conclusions. (authors)

  20. Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venneri, Francesco (Los Alamos, NM); Williamson, Mark A. (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Ning (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

  1. T-678: Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor VLAN Packet...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    8: Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor VLAN Packet Processing Flaw Lets Remote Users Deny Service T-678: Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor VLAN Packet...

  2. T-649: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Request Validation Flaw...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    49: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Request Validation Flaw Permits Cross-Site Request Forgery Attacks T-649: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Request Validation Flaw Permits...

  3. U-200: Red Hat Directory Server Information Disclosure Security...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0: Red Hat Directory Server Information Disclosure Security Issue and Vulnerability U-200: Red Hat Directory Server Information Disclosure Security Issue and Vulnerability June 27,...

  4. Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the grout. SPENT SHALE Oil shale, which is a low-gradeMineral Reactions in Colorado Oil Shale," Lawrence Livermore1978. of Decomposition of Colorado Oil Shale: II. Livermore

  5. EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates thepotential environmental impacts of the proposed electrometallurgical treatment of DOE-owned sodium bonded spent nuclear fuel in the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne...

  6. 324 Building spent fuel segments pieces and fragments removal summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH, C L

    2003-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the 324 Building Deactivation Project, all Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and Special Nuclear Material were removed. The removal entailed packaging the material into a GNS-12 cask and shipping it to the Central Waste Complex (CWC).

  7. Concrete Shield Performance of the VSC-17 Spent Nuclear Fuel Cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koji Shirai

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The VSC-17 Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Cask was surveyed for degradation of the concrete shield by radiation measurement, temperature measurement, and ultrasonic testing. No general loss of shielding function was identified.

  8. EA-1117: Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal for the management of spent nuclear fuel on the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation to implement the preferred alternative...

  9. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Emory D.; Delcul, Guillermo D.; Hunt, Rodney D.; Johnson, Jared A.; Spencer, Barry B.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

  10. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahida, Nurul [School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Irwan, M. N. [School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co and {sup 65}Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs were leached out from the spent resin while {sup 60}Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  11. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Emory D; Delcul, Guillermo D; Hunt, Rodney D; Johnson, Jared A; Spencer, Barry B

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

  12. Development of Gd-Enriched Alloys for Spent Nuclear Fuel Applications--Part 1: Preliminary Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DuPont, John N.

    of Gd-containing alloys for storage, transport, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. However, unlike, the basket materials must be corrosion resistant under the projected stor- age conditions. Recent research

  13. Standard guide for characterization of spent nuclear fuel in support of geologic repository disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This guide provides guidance for the types and extent of testing that would be involved in characterizing the physical and chemical nature of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in support of its interim storage, transport, and disposal in a geologic repository. This guide applies primarily to commercial light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and spent fuel from weapons production, although the individual tests/analyses may be used as applicable to other spent fuels such as those from research and test reactors. The testing is designed to provide information that supports the design, safety analysis, and performance assessment of a geologic repository for the ultimate disposal of the SNF. 1.2 The testing described includes characterization of such physical attributes as physical appearance, weight, density, shape/geometry, degree, and type of SNF cladding damage. The testing described also includes the measurement/examination of such chemical attributes as radionuclide content, microstructure, and corrosion product c...

  14. International management of spent fuel storage : technical alternatives and constraints, topical report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Marvin M.

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of the important technical issues involved in the implementation of a spent fuel storage regime under international auspices are discussed. In particular, we consider: the state of the art as far as the different ...

  15. THE TEMPERATURES OF RED SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, Ben [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)] [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)] [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France)] [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Trager, Scott [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands)] [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Lancon, Ariane [Observatoire Astronomique and CNRS UMR 7550, Universite de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France)] [Observatoire Astronomique and CNRS UMR 7550, Universite de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bergemann, Maria [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Evans, Chris [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)] [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Chiavassa, Andrea [CNRS Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)] [CNRS Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a re-appraisal of the temperatures of red supergiants (RSGs) using their optical and near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We have obtained data of a sample of RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds using VLT+XSHOOTER, and we fit MARCS model atmospheres to different regions of the spectra, deriving effective temperatures for each star from (1) the TiO bands, (2) line-free continuum regions of the SEDs, and (3) the integrated fluxes. We show that the temperatures derived from fits to the TiO bands are systematically lower than the other two methods by several hundred kelvin. The TiO fits also dramatically overpredict the flux in the near-IR, and imply extinctions which are anomalously low compared to neighboring stars. In contrast, the SED temperatures provide good fits to the fluxes at all wavelengths other than the TiO bands, are in agreement with the temperatures from the flux integration method, and imply extinctions consistent with nearby stars. After considering a number of ways to reconcile this discrepancy, we conclude that three-dimensional effects (i.e., granulation) are the most likely cause, as they affect the temperature structure in the upper layers where the TiO lines form. The continuum, however, which forms at much deeper layers, is apparently more robust to such effects. We therefore conclude that RSG temperatures are much warmer than previously thought. We discuss the implications of this result for stellar evolution and supernova progenitors, and provide relations to determine the bolometric luminosities of RSGs from single-band photometry.

  16. Redding Electric- Earth Advantage Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Earth Advantage Rebate Program was designed to offer rebates to residential and business customers of Redding Electric Utility (REU) for solar PV, solar thermal, and geothermal heat pump...

  17. Viscoelastic transient of confined Red Blood Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gal Prado; Alexander Farutin; Chaouqi Misbah; Lionel Bureau

    2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique ability of a red blood cell to flow through extremely small microcapillaries depends on the viscoelastic properties of its membrane. Here, we study in vitro the response time upon flow startup exhibited by red blood cells confined into microchannels. We show that the characteristic transient time depends on the imposed flow strength, and that such a dependence gives access to both the effective viscosity and the elastic modulus controlling the temporal response of red cells. A simple theoretical analysis of our experimental data, validated by numerical simulations, further allows us to compute an estimate for the two-dimensional membrane viscosity of red blood cells, $\\eta_{mem}^{2D}\\sim 10^{-7}$ N$\\cdot$s$\\cdot$m$^{-1}$. By comparing our results with those from previous studies, we discuss and clarify the origin of the discrepancies found in the literature regarding the determination of $\\eta_{mem}^{2D}$, and reconcile seemingly conflicting conclusions from previous works.

  18. Right Turn on Red! | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    benefits for the country, helping us all save money by saving energy. Prior to the 1970's, some states already allowed drivers to turn right on a red light, but many others -...

  19. Conceptual design report for the ICPP spent nuclear fuel dry storage project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conceptual design is presented for a facility to transfer spent nuclear fuel from shipping casks to dry storage containers, and to safely store those containers at ICPP at INEL. The spent fuels to be handled at the new facility are identified and overall design and operating criteria established. Physical configuration of the facility and the systems used to handle the SNF are described. Detailed cost estimate for design and construction of the facility is presented.

  20. The French national program for spent fuel and high-level waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giraud, J.P.; Demontalembert, J.A. [COGEMA, Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    From its very beginning, the French national program for spent fuel and HLW management is aimed at the recycling of energetic materials and the safe disposal of nuclear waste. Spent fuel reprocessing is the cornerstone of this program, since it directly opens the way to energetic material recycling, waste minimization and safe conditioning. It is complemented by the HLW management program which is defined by the HLW disposal regulation and the Waste Act issued in 1991.

  1. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  2. Achieving increased spent fuel storage capacity at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, D.H.; Chang, S.J.; Dabs, R.D.; Freels, J.D.; Morgan, K.A.; Rothrock, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Griess, J.C. [Griess (J.C.), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The HFIR facility was originally designed to store approximately 25 spent cores, sufficient to allow for operational contingencies and for cooling prior to off-site shipment for reprocessing. The original capacity has now been increased to 60 positions, of which 53 are currently filled (September 1994). Additional spent cores are produced at a rate of about 10 or 11 per year. Continued HFIR operation, therefore, depends on a significant near-term expansion of the pool storage capacity, as well as on a future capability of reprocessing or other storage alternatives once the practical capacity of the pool is reached. To store the much larger inventory of spent fuel that may remain on-site under various future scenarios, the pool capacity is being increased in a phased manner through installation of a new multi-tier spent fuel rack design for higher density storage. A total of 143 positions was used for this paper as the maximum practical pool capacity without impacting operations; however, greater ultimate capacities were addressed in the supporting analyses and approval documents. This paper addresses issues related to the pool storage expansion including (1) seismic effects on the three-tier storage arrays, (2) thermal performance of the new arrays, (3) spent fuel cladding corrosion concerns related to the longer period of pool storage, and (4) impacts of increased spent fuel inventory on the pool water quality, water treatment systems, and LLLW volume.

  3. Deployment evaluation methodology for the electrometallurgical treatment of DOE-EM spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahl, C.A.; Adams, J.P.; Ramer, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Part of the Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory may require some type of treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. The current focus for much of this spent nuclear fuel is the electrometallurgical treatment process under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Potential flowsheets for this treatment process are presented. Deployment of the process for the treatment of the spent nuclear fuel requires evaluation to determine the spent nuclear fuel program need for treatment and compatibility of the spent nuclear fuel with the process. The evaluation of need includes considerations of cost, technical feasibility, process material disposition, and schedule to treat a proposed fuel. A siting evaluation methodology has been developed to account for these variables. A work breakdown structure is proposed to gather life-cycle cost information to allow evaluation of alternative siting strategies on a similar basis. The evaluation methodology, while created specifically for the electrometallurgical evaluation, has been written such that it could be applied to any potential treatment process that is a disposition option for spent nuclear fuel. Future work to complete the evaluation of the process for electrometallurgical treatment is discussed.

  4. MANAGING SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL WASTES AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Thomas J

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) has a large inventory of diverse types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This legacy is in part due to the history of the INL as the National Reactor Testing Station, in part to its mission to recover highly enriched uranium from SNF and in part to its mission to test and examine SNF after irradiation. The INL also has a large diversity of SNF storage facility, some dating back 50 years in the site history. The success of the INL SNF program is measured by its ability to: 1) achieve safe existing storage, 2) continue to receive SNF from other locations, both foreign and domestic, 3) repackage SNF from wet storage to interim dry storage, and 4) prepare the SNF for dispositioning in a federal repository. Because of the diversity in the SNF and the facilities at the INL, the INL is addressing almost very condition that may exist in the SNF world. Many of solutions developed by the INL are applicable to other SNF storage sites as they develop their management strategy. The SNF being managed by the INL are in a variety of conditions, from intact assemblies to individual rods or plates to powders, rubble, and metallurgical mounts. Some of the fuel has been in wet storage for over forty years. The fuel is stored bare, or in metal cans and either wet under water or dry in vaults, caissons or casks. Inspections have shown varying degrees of corrosion and degradation of the fuel and the storage cans. Some of the fuel has been recanned under water, and the conditions of the fuel inside the second or third can are unknown. The fuel has been stored in one of 10 different facilities: five wet pools and one casks storage pad, one vault, two generations of caisson facilities, and one modular Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The wet pools range from forty years old to the most modern pool in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The near-term objective is moving the fuel in the older wet storage facilities to interim dry storage facilities, thus permitting the shutdown and decommission of the older facilities. Two wet pool facilities, one at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the other at Test Area North, were targeted for initial SNF movements since these were some of the oldest at the INL. Because of the difference in the SNF materials different types of drying processes had to be developed. Passive drying, as is done with typical commercial SNF was not an option because on the condition of some of the fuel, the materials to be dried, and the low heat generation of some of the SNF. There were also size limitations in the existing facility. Active dry stations were designed to address the specific needs of the SNF and the facilities.

  5. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in the emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) disposal container designs are needed to accommodate the expected range of spent fuel assemblies and provide long-term confinement of the commercial SNF. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinder walls, outer cylinder lids (two on the top, one on the bottom), inner cylinder lids (one on the top, one on the bottom), and an internal metallic basket structure. Exterior labels will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the cladding, Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and natural barrier, will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different properties prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The inner cylinder and inner cylinder lids will be constructed of stainless steel and the outer cylinder and outer cylinder lid will be made of high-nickel alloy. The basket will assist criticality control, provide structural support, and improve heat transfer. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System interfaces with the emplacement drift environment and internal waste by transferring heat from the SNF to the external environment and by protecting the SFN assemblies and their contents from damage/degradation by the external environment. The system also interfaces with the SFN by limiting access of moderator and oxidizing agents of the SFN. The waste package interfaces with the Emplacement Drift System's emplacement drift pallets upon which the wasted packages are placed. The disposal container interfaces with the Assembly Transfer System, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System, Disposal Container Handling System, and Waste Package Remediation System during loading, handling, transfer, emplacement and retrieval of the disposal container/waste package.

  6. POPULATION BIOLOGY OF RED ABAWNES, HALIOTIS RUFESCENS, IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AND MANAGEMENT OF THE RED AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT Population dynamics of red abalones. Hal·wti.s rufeSC611,8 Swainson. were studied at Johnsons Lee

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Basis Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CLEVELAND, K.J.

    2000-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This study of the design basis capacity of process systems was prepared by Fluor Federal Services for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The evaluation uses a summary level model of major process sub-systems to determine the impact of sub-system interactions on the overall time to complete fuel removal operations. The process system model configuration and time cycle estimates developed in the original version of this report have been updated as operating scenario assumptions evolve. The initial document released in Fiscal Year (FY) 1996 varied the number of parallel systems and transport systems over a wide range, estimating a conservative design basis for completing fuel processing in a two year time period. Configurations modeling planned operations were updated in FY 1998 and FY 1999. The FY 1998 Base Case continued to indicate that fuel removal activities at the basins could be completed in slightly over 2 years. Evaluations completed in FY 1999 were based on schedule modifications that delayed the start of KE Basin fuel removal, with respect to the start of KW Basin fuel removal activities, by 12 months. This delay resulted in extending the time to complete all fuel removal activities by 12 months. However, the results indicated that the number of Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) stations could be reduced from four to three without impacting the projected time to complete fuel removal activities. This update of the design basis capacity evaluation, performed for FY 2000, evaluates a fuel removal scenario that delays the start of KE Basin activities such that staffing peaks are minimized. The number of CVD stations included in all cases for the FY 2000 evaluation is reduced from three to two, since the scenario schedule results in minimal time periods of simultaneous fuel removal from both basins. The FY 2000 evaluation also considers removal of Shippingport fuel from T Plant storage and transfer to the Canister Storage Building for storage.

  8. Newtonian gravity, red shift, confinement, asymptotic freedom and quarks oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Quznetsov

    2008-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Quarks oscillations give the Newtonian gravity law, the red shift, the confinement and the asymptotic freedom.

  9. Improved ``Optical Highlighter'' Probes Derived from Discosoma Red Fluorescent Protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, Jonathan

    , Minneapolis, Minnesota ABSTRACT The tetrameric red fluorescent protein, DsRed, undergoes a rapid red to green-emitting species of DsRed and an enhancement of emission from the ``immature'' green species, likely caused by dequenching of fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurring within the protein tetramer. Here, we have

  10. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Symposium on Red Tide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    21 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Symposium on Red Tide By James E. Sykes Marine Biological, Donald L. McKernan, Director Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Symposium on Red Tide By James E. Sykes causing Red-Tide blooms as deduced from field observations 2 Red- Tide research at the Florida State

  11. Red giant variables: OGLE--II and MACHO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. L. Kiss; P. Lah

    2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the recent impact of microlensing projects on our understanding of pulsating red giant stars. Discussed are red giant stars' pulsation properties (period--luminosity relations, period changes, mode switchings), Red Giant Branch pulsations, metallicity effects and the use of red giant variables to explore galactic structure.

  12. A monomeric red fluorescent protein Robert E. Campbell*, Oded Tour*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    A monomeric red fluorescent protein Robert E. Campbell*, Oded Tour* , Amy E. Palmer*, Paul A, and the obligate tetramerization of the red fluorescent protein from Discosoma (DsRed). Although the weak, the obligate tet- ramerization of DsRed has greatly hindered its use as a genetically encoded fusion tag. We

  13. RED Revisited Tuan Anh Trinh and Sandor Molnar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molnár, Sándor

    RED Revisited Tuan Anh Trinh and S´andor Moln´ar High Speed Networks Laboratory Department- ternet is RED. However, research results on RED perfor- mance are highly mixed, especially in the field of tuning its parameters. In this paper, we revisit some features in RED and study them in greater details

  14. UK Red Squirrel Group Terms of Reference Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UK Red Squirrel Group Terms of Reference Introduction The red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris has of the Bern Convention, is Lower Risk ­near threatened on the IUCN Red List and is protected under Schedules 5-ordinate, support and provide advice on the implementation of conservation measures for the red squirrel in the UK

  15. Guide to Red Fluorescent Proteins and Biosensors for Flow Cytometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    CHAPTER 17 Guide to Red Fluorescent Proteins and Biosensors for Flow Cytometry Kiryl D. PiatkevichH Stability of Fluorescence F. Optimization of Nucleotide and Amino Acid Sequences III. Modern Advanced Red-Shifted FPs A. Orange Fluorescent Proteins B. Red Fluorescent Proteins C. Far-Red Fluorescent Proteins IV

  16. Red fluorescent proteins: chromophore formation and cellular applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    Red fluorescent proteins: chromophore formation and cellular applications Atsushi Miyawaki1,2 , Daria M Shcherbakova3,4 and Vladislav V Verkhusha3,4 In the last decade, a number of red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) that emit orange, red, and far-red fluorescence have been isolated from anthozoans (corals

  17. RED Revisited Tuan Anh Trinh and Sandor Molnar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molnár, Sándor

    RED Revisited Tuan Anh Trinh and S??andor Moln??ar High Speed Networks Laboratory Department­ ternet is RED. However, research results on RED perfor­ mance are highly mixed, especially in the field of tuning its parameters. In this paper, we revisit some features in RED and study them in greater details

  18. UK RED SQUIRREL GROUP WEDNESDAY 7 OCTOBER 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 UK RED SQUIRREL GROUP WEDNESDAY 7 OCTOBER 2009 Northumberland Wildlife Trust Newcastle MINUTES in conjunction with grey squirrel culling, the outcome for the red squirrel has substantially improved.with 11 red squirrels and 24 grey squirrels recorded in 2004 changing to 103 red squirrels and 3 grey

  19. MFR PAPER 1229 Red Snappers of the Carolina Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coast to the Campeche Banks. A closely related species, the Caribbean red snapper, Lutjanus pur- pureus

  20. COBRA-SFS (Spent-Fuel Storage) thermal-hydraulic analyses of the CASTOR-1C and REA 2023 BWR storage casks containing consolidated spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rector, D.R.; Cuta, J.M.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consolidation of spent nuclear fuel rods is being considered as one option for more efficient and compact storage of reactor spent fuel assemblies. In this concept, rods from two disassembled spent fuel assemblies will be consolidated in a space originally intended to store a single unconsolidated assembly. The thermal performance of consolidated fuel rods in dry storage, especially in multiassembly storage systems, is one of the major issues that must be addressed prior to implementation. In this study, Pacific Northwest Laboratory researchers performed thermal-hydraulic analyses for both the REA 2023 cask and the CASTOR-1C cask containing either unconsolidated or consolidated BWR spent fuel assemblies. The objective was to determine the effect of consolidating spent fuel assemblies on the temperature distributions within both types of casks. Two major conclusions resulted from this study. First, a lumping technique (combining rods and flow channels), which reduces the number of computational nodes required to model complex multiassembly geometries, could be used for both unconsolidated and consolidated rods with negligible effect on prediction accuracies. Second, with a relatively high thermal conductivity backfill gas (e.g., helium), the predicted peak fuel rod temperature in a canister of consolidated rods generating the same amount of heat as an unconsolidated assembly is essentially the same as the peak temperature in the unconsolidated assembly. In contrast, with a relatively low thermal conductivity backfill gas (e.g., nitrogen), the opposite is true and the predicted peak temperature in a consolidated canister is significantly higher than in an unconsolidated assembly. Therefore, when rods are consolidated, selection of the backfill gas is important in maintaining peak rod temperatures below allowable values for rods with relatively high decay heat generation rates.

  1. Conserving Scotland's Red Squirrels Scotland supports an estimated 75% of the UK red squirrel population. Although one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conserving Scotland's Red Squirrels Scotland supports an estimated 75% of the UK red squirrel population. Although one of the most popular mammal species in the country, red squirrels currently face a number of ecological problems and their range within the UK has been much reduced. It means that the red

  2. CUTTING SOLAR RED TAPECUTTING SOLAR RED TAPE Evergreen State Solar PartnershipEvergreen State Solar Partnership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CUTTING SOLAR RED TAPECUTTING SOLAR RED TAPE Evergreen State Solar PartnershipEvergreen State Solar Partnership Rooftop Solar Challenge 1 Sunshot #12;WASHINGTON PV CONTEXTWASHINGTON PV CONTEXT 285 cities, 39 Installations happen where process is easier #12;EVERGREEN STATE SOLAR PARTNERSHIP Commerce NWSEEDEdmonds

  3. 7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinge, Dennis C. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Michael E. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

  4. Spent nuclear fuel integrity during dry storage - performance tests and demonstrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Doherty, A.L.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of fuel integrity surveillance determined from gas sampling during and after performance tests and demonstrations conducted from 1983 through 1996 by or in cooperation with the US DOE Office of Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The cask performance tests were conducted at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) between 1984 and 1991 and included visual observation and ultrasonic examination of the condition of the cladding, fuel rods, and fuel assembly hardware before dry storage and consolidation of fuel, and a qualitative determination of the effects of dry storage and fuel consolidation on fission gas release from the spent fuel rods. The performance tests consisted of 6 to 14 runs involving one or two loading, usually three backfill environments (helium, nitrogen, and vacuum backfills), and one or two storage system orientations. The nitrogen and helium backfills were sampled and analyzed to detect leaking spent fuel rods. At the end of each performance test, periodic gas sampling was conducted on each cask. A spent fuel behavior project (i.e., enhanced surveillance, monitoring, and gas sampling activities) was initiated by DOE in 1994 for intact fuel in a CASTOR V/21 cask and for consolidated fuel in a VSC-17 cask. The results of the gas sampling activities are included in this report. Information on spent fuel integrity is of interest in evaluating the impact of long-term dry storage on the behavior of spent fuel rods. Spent fuel used during cask performance tests at INEL offers significant opportunities for confirmation of the benign nature of long-term dry storage. Supporting cask demonstration included licensing and operation of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) at the Virginia Power (VP) Surry reactor site. A CASTOR V/21, an MC-10, and a Nuclear Assurance NAC-I28 have been loaded and placed at the VP ISFSI as part of the demonstration program. 13 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program : FY 2004 test and data summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brucher, Wenzel (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Koch, Wolfgang (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Loiseau, Olivier (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Mo, Tin (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Billone, Michael C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Autrusson, Bruno A. (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Young, F. I. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Coats, Richard Lee; Burtseva, Tatiana (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Luna, Robert Earl; Dickey, Roy R.; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Nolte, Oliver (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Thompson, Nancy Slater (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC); Hibbs, Russell S. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC); Gregson, Michael Warren; Lange, Florentin (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Tsai, Han-Chung (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. The program also provides significant technical and political benefits in international cooperation. We are quantifying the Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), the ratio of the aerosol particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber. In addition, we are measuring the amounts, nuclide content, size distribution of the released aerosol materials, and enhanced sorption of volatile fission product nuclides onto specific aerosol particle size fractions. These data are the input for follow-on modeling studies to quantify respirable hazards, associated radiological risk assessments, vulnerability assessments, and potential cask physical protection design modifications. This document includes an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, during FY 2004. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of FY 2004. All available test results, observations, and aerosol analyses plus interpretations--primarily for surrogate material Phase 2 tests, series 2/5A through 2/9B, using cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets are included. Advanced plans and progress are described for upcoming tests with unirradiated, depleted uranium oxide and actual spent fuel test rodlets. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks (WGSTSC) and supported by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  6. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L. [Dept. of Experimental Physics, Inst. Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, V. [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  7. Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2000-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed DOE action considered in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to implement appropriate processes for the safe and efficient management of spent nuclear fuel and targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina, including placing these materials in forms suitable for ultimate disposition. Options to treat, package, and store this material are discussed. The material included in this EIS consists of approximately 68 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of spent nuclear fuel 20 MTHM of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at SRS, as much as 28 MTHM of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel from foreign and domestic research reactors to be shipped to SRS through 2035, and 20 MTHM of stainless-steel or zirconium-clad spent nuclear fuel and some Americium/Curium Targets stored at SRS. Alternatives considered in this EIS encompass a range of new packaging, new processing, and conventional processing technologies, as well as the No Action Alternative. A preferred alternative is identified in which DOE would prepare about 97% by volume (about 60% by mass) of the aluminum-based fuel for disposition using a melt and dilute treatment process. The remaining 3% by volume (about 40% by mass) would be managed using chemical separation. Impacts are assessed primarily in the areas of water resources, air resources, public and worker health, waste management, socioeconomic, and cumulative impacts.

  8. MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH AND TEST REACTOR ALUMINUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL - A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, D.

    2010-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Program is responsible for the receipt and storage of aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel or used fuel until ultimate disposition. Aluminum research reactor used fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the U.S. and stored at DOE-EM storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper assesses the technologies and the options for safe transportation/receipt and interim storage of aluminum research reactor spent fuel and reviews the comprehensive strategy for its management. The U.S. Department of Energy uses the Appendix A, Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Criteria, to identify the physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of spent nuclear fuel to be returned to the United States under the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program. The fuel is further evaluated for acceptance through assessments of the fuel at the foreign sites that include corrosion damage and handleability. Transport involves use of commercial shipping casks with defined leakage rates that can provide containment of the fuel, some of which are breached. Options for safe storage include wet storage and dry storage. Both options must fully address potential degradation of the aluminum during the storage period. This paper focuses on the various options for safe transport and storage with respect to technology maturity and application.

  9. A source-term method for determining spent-fuel transport cask containment requirements: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, T.L.; Seager, K.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Reardon, P.C. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Executive Summary presents the methodology for determining containment requirements for spent-fuel transport casks under normal and hypothetical accident conditions. Three sources of radioactive material are considered: (1) the spent fuel itself, (2) radioactive material, referred to as CRUD, attached to the outside surfaces of fuel rod cladding, and (3) residual contamination adhering to interior surfaces of the cask cavity. The methodologies for determining the concentrations of freely suspended radioactive materials within a spent-fuel transport cask for these sources are discussed in much greater detail in three companion reports: A Method for Determining the Spent-Fuel Contribution to Transport Cask Containment Requirements,'' Estimate of CRUD Contribution to Shipping Cask Containment Requirements,'' and A Methodology for Estimating the Residual Contamination Contribution to the Source Term in a Spent-Fuel Transport Cask.'' Examples of cask containment requirements that combine the individually determined containment requirements for the three sources are provided, and conclusions from the three companion reports to this Executive Summary are presented.

  10. The Evolution of Dry Spent Fuel Storage in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGough, M.S. [Duratek Inc., 695 Bamesley Lane, Alpharetta, GA 30022 (United States); Bland, D.W. [TriVis, Inc., 1001 Yeager Parkway, Pelham, AL 35124 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the evolution of Dry Spent Fuel storage technology and application in the United States. Dating back to the legislation signed by Jimmy Carter on April 7, 1977, to outlaw spent fuel reprocessing, the nations spent fuel pools are gradually becoming filled to capacity. This has necessitated the development of new technologies to store spent fuel in dry casks, predominantly at nuclear power plant sites, awaiting the availability of the federal repository at Yucca Mountain. Site-specific conditions and changes in types of fuel being discharged from reactors have driven a constant evolution of technologies to support this critical need. This paper provides an overview of those changes, which have influenced the evolution of dry storage technology. Focus is provided more towards current technology and cask loading practices, as opposed to those technologies, which are no longer in heavy use. Detailed pictorial material is presented showing the loading sequences of various systems in current use. This paper provides a critical primer on Dry Spent Fuel Storage technology. It provides anyone who is new to dry storage, or who is contemplating initiating dry storage at a nuclear plant site, with useful background and history upon which to build programmatic decisions. (authors)

  11. Environmental Assessment of Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy has completed the Environmental Assessment (EA) of Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel and issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the proposed action. The EA and FONSI are enclosed for your information. The Department has decided to accept a limited number of spent nuclear fuel elements (409 elements) containing uranium that was enriched in the United States from eight research reactors in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. This action is necessary to maintain the viability of a major US nuclear weapons nonproliferation program to limit or eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium in civil programs. The purpose of the EA is to maintain the cooperation of the foreign research reactor operators with the nonproliferation program while a more extensive Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is prepared on a proposed broader policy involving the acceptance of up to 15,000 foreign research reactor spent fuel elements over a 10 to 15 year period. Based on an evaluation of transport by commercial container liner or chartered vessel, five eastern seaboard ports, and truck and train modes of transporting the spent fuel overland to the Savannah River Sits, the Department has concluded that no significant impact would result from any combination of port and made of transport. In addition, no significant impacts were found from interim storage of spent fuel at the Savannah River Site.

  12. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase Ia - Low-temperature gasifier evaluation. Final report, November 1, 1995--October 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southards, W.T.; Blude, J.D.; Dickinson, J.A. [and others

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project, conducted under The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-94GO10002/A002, was part of a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies that improve the energy efficiency and economics of chemical process recovery in the pulp and paper industry. The approach taken was to consider two major alternatives in two phases. Phase I, conducted previously, considered means to improve pulp mill recovery boilers using high-solids advanced combustion of black liquor; while this project, Phase la, considered means to recover kraft pulping mill process chemicals by low-temperature black liquor gasification. The principal steps previously proposed in this program were: (1) Evaluate these two technologies, high-solids advanced combustion and gasification, and then select a path forward using the more promising of these two options for future work. (2) Design and construct a pilot-scale unit based on the selected technology, and using that unit, develop the precompetitive data necessary to make commercialization attractive. (3) Develop and deploy a first-of-a-kind (FOAK) commercial unit in a kraft pulp mill. Phase I, which evaluated the high-solids advanced combustion option, was concluded in 1995. Results of that project phase were reported previously. This report describes the work conducted in Phase Ia. The work is described in Sections 1 through 4 and six appendices provide additional detail.

  13. State of Nevada comments on the OCRWM from-reactor spent fuel shipping cask preliminary design reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halstead, R.J.; Audin, L.; Hoskins, R.E.; Snedeker, D.F.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of spent fuels shipping casks is described. Two casks from two different contractors are presented. The design needs are based on the OCRWM'S program specifications. (CBS)

  14. A Critical Review of Practice of Equating the Reactivity of Spent Fuel to Fresh Fuel in Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses for PWR Spent Fuel Pool Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, J.C.; Parks, C.V.

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research examines the practice of equating the reactivity of spent fuel to that of fresh fuel for the purpose of performing burnup credit criticality safety analyses for PWR spent fuel pool (SFP) storage conditions. The investigation consists of comparing k{sub inf} estimates based on reactivity equivalent fresh fuel enrichment (REFFE) to k{sub inf} estimates using the actual spent fuel isotopics. Analyses of selected storage configurations common in PWR SFPs show that this practice yields nonconservative results (on the order of a few tenths of a percent) in configurations in which the spent fuel is adjacent to higher-reactivity assemblies (e.g., fresh or lower-burned assemblies) and yields conservative results in configurations in which spent fuel is adjacent to lower-reactivity assemblies (e.g., higher-burned fuel or empty cells). When the REFFE is determined based on unborated water moderation, analyses for storage conditions with soluble boron present reveal significant nonconservative results associated with the use of the REFFE. This observation is considered to be important, especially considering the recent allowance of credit for soluble boron up to 5% in reactivity. Finally, it is shown that the practice of equating the reactivity of spent fuel to fresh fuel is acceptable, provided the conditions for which the REFFE was determined remain unchanged. Determination of the REFFE for a reference configuration and subsequent use of the REFFE for different configurations violates the basis used for the determination of the REFFE and, thus, may lead to inaccurate, and possibly, nonconservative estimates of reactivity. A significant concentration ({approximately}2000 ppm) of soluble boron is typically (but not necessarily required to be) present in PWR SFPs, of which only a portion ({le} 500 ppm) may be credited in safety analyses. Thus, a large subcritical margin currently exists that more than accounts for errors or uncertainties associated with the use of the REFFE. Consequently, the findings presented here do not represent a significant safety concern unless/until the subcritical margin associated with the soluble boron (that is not currently explicitly credited) is offset by the uncertainties associated with burnup credit and/or the expanded allowance of credit for the soluble boron.

  15. Red River Biodiesel Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant of Access Permit5-ID-aRECRaton,RFPs Home NameRecurrentRedRedLtd

  16. SOURCE OF BURNUP VALUES FOR COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL ASSEMBLIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BSC

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste packages are loaded with commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that satisfies the minimum burnup requirements of a criticality loading curve. The burnup value assigned by the originating nuclear utility to each SNF assembly (assigned burnup) is used to load waste packages in compliance with a criticality loading curve. The burnup provided by a nuclear utility has uncertainties, so conservative calculation methods are used to characterize those uncertainties for incorporation into the criticality loading curves. Procedural safety controls ensure that the correct assembly is loaded into each waste package to prevent a misload that could create a condition affecting the safety margins. Probabilistic analyses show that procedural safety controls can minimize the chance of a misload but can not completely eliminate the possibility. Physical measurements of burnup with instrumentation in the surface facility are not necessary due to the conservative calculation methods used to produce the criticality loading curves. The reactor records assigned burnup of a commercial SNF assembly contains about two percent uncertainty, which is increased to five-percent to ensure conservatism. This five-percent uncertainty is accommodated by adjusting the criticality loading curve. Also, the record keeping methods of nuclear utilities are not uniform and the level of detail required by the NRC has varied over the last several decades. Thus, some SNF assemblies may have assigned burnups that are averages for a batch of assemblies with similar characteristics. Utilities typically have access to more detailed core-follow records that allow the batch average burnup to be changed to an assembly specific burnup. Alternatively, an additional safety margin is incorporated into the criticality loading curve to accommodate SNF assemblies with batch average burnups or greater uncertainties due to the methodology used by the nuclear utility. The utility records provide the assembly identifier, initial {sup 235}U enrichment, and time of discharge from the reactor as well as the assigned burnup, but the distribution. of burnup axially along the assembly length is not provided. The axial burnup profile is maintained within acceptable bounds by the operating conditions of the nuclear reactor and is calculated during preparations to reload a reactor, but the actual burnup profile is not measured. The axial burnup profile is important to the determination of the reactivity of a waste package, so a conservative evaluation of the calculated axial profiles for a large database of SNF has been performed. The product of the axial profile evaluation is a profile that is conservative. Thus, there is no need for physical measurement of the axial profile. The assembly identifier is legible on each SNF assembly and the utility records provide the associated characteristics of the assembly. The conservative methodologies used to determine the criticality loading curve for a waste package provide sufficient margin so that criticality safety is assured for preclosure operations even in the event of a misload. Consideration of misload effects for postclosure time periods is provided by the criticality Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) analysis. The conservative approaches used to develop and apply the criticality loading curve are thus sufficiently robust that the utility assigned burnup is an adequate source of burnup values, and additional means of verification of assigned burnup through physical measurements are not needed.

  17. Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor Facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Allen; T. G. Apostolov; I. S. Dimitrov

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned.

  18. The Universal Canister Strategy in Spent Fuel Reprocessing: UC-C a Real Industrial Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomasson, J.; Barithel, S.; Cocaud, A.; Derycke, P.; Pierre, P.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In commercial nuclear activities, spent fuel back end management is a key issue for nuclear countries as spent fuel represent most of national civil nuclear waste legacy. Ensuring public safety and protection of the environment, now and in the future has been and still remains a major commitment, it is still the subject of thorough development efforts and active public debates. Considerable benefits can be obtained from the Universal Canister strategy as implemented in France in spent fuel treatment and waste conditioning based on reprocessing. COGEMA developed sophisticated waste conditioning processes to simplify High Level and Long Lived Intermediate Level Waste storage and final disposal. Main benefits are: waste stabilization by immobilization and encapsulation; ultimate waste toxicity reduction; drastic ultimate waste volume reduction; and ultimate waste packages standardization.

  19. Criticality safety considerations in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gore, B.F.; McNair, G.W.; Heaberlin, S.W.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Features of geologic disposal which hamper the demonstration that criticality cannot occur therein include possible changes of shape and form, intrusion of water as a neutron moderator, and selective leaching of spent fuel constituents. If the criticality safety of spent fuel disposal depends on burnup, independent measurements verifying the burnup should be performed prior to disposal. The status of nondestructive analysis method which might provide such verification is discussed. Calculations were performed to assess the potential for increasing the allowed size of a spent fuel disposal canister if potential water intrusion were limited by close-packing the enclosed rods. Several factors were identified which severely limited the potential of this application. The theoretical limit of hexagonal close-packing cannot be achieved due to fuel rod bowing. It is concluded that disposal canisters should be sized on the basis of assumed optimum moderation. Several topics for additional research were identified during this limited study.

  20. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  1. Determining Reactor Flux from Xenon-136 and Cesium-135 in Spent Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Hayes; Gerard Jungman

    2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to infer the reactor flux from spent fuel or seized fissile material would enhance the tools of nuclear forensics and nuclear nonproliferation significantly. We show that reactor flux can be inferred from the ratios of xenon-136 to xenon-134 and cesium-135 to cesium-137. If the average flux of a reactor is known, the flux inferred from measurements of spent fuel could help determine whether that spent fuel was loaded as a blanket or close to the mid-plane of the reactor. The cesium ratio also provides information on reactor shutdowns during the irradiation of fuel, which could prove valuable for identifying the reactor in question through comparisons with satellite reactor heat monitoring data. We derive analytic expressions for these correlations and compare them to experimental data and to detailed reactor burn simulations. The enrichment of the original uranium fuel affects the correlations by up to 3 percent, but only at high flux.

  2. Parametric Analysis of PWR Spent Fuel Depletion Parameters for Long-Term-Disposal Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of burnup credit in criticality safety analysis for long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel allows improved design efficiency and reduced cost due to the large mass of fissile material that will be present in the repository. Burnup-credit calculations are based on depletion calculations that provide a conservative estimate of spent fuel contents (in terms of criticality potential), followed by criticality calculations to assess the value of the effective neutron multiplication factor (k(sub)eff) for the a spent fuel cask or a fuel configuration under a variety of probabilistically derived events. In order to ensure that the depletion calculation is conservative, it is necessary to both qualify and quantify assumptions that can be made in depletion models.

  3. Threat of Hydride Re-orientation to Spent Fuel Integrity During Transportation Accidents: Myth or Reality?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashid, Joe [ANATECH, 5435 Oberlin Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Machiels, Albert [EPRI, 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The source-term study conducted by Sandia National Laboratories nearly two decades ago for the spent fuel inventory known at the time, which was in the low-to-medium burnup range ({approx}35 GWd/MTU), showed that the effects of transportation accidents on spent fuel failures, and consequential radioactivity release to the environment, were relatively benign. However, with today's discharged fuel burnups routinely greater than 45 GWd/MTU, potential hydride reorientation during interim dry storage, and its effects on cladding properties, has become one of the primary concerns for spent fuel transportation. Laboratory tests of un-irradiated cladding specimens subjected to heat treatments promoting hydride dissolution followed by re-precipitation in the radial direction have shown that relatively moderate concentrations ({approx}70 ppm) of radial hydrides can significantly degrade cladding ductility, at least at room temperature. The absence of specific data that are relevant to high-burnup spent fuel under dry storage conditions have led to the conjecture, deduced from those tests, that massive cladding failures, possibly resulting in fuel reconfiguration, can be expected during cask drop events. Such conclusions are not borne out by the findings in this paper. The analysis results indicate that cladding failure is bi-modal: a state of failure initiation at the cladding ID remaining as part-wall damage with less than 2% probability of occurrence, and a through-wall failure at a probability of 1 E-5. These results indicate that spent fuel conditions that could promote the formation of radial hydrides during dry storage are not sufficient to produce radial hydrides concentrations of significant levels to cause major threat to spent fuel integrity. It is important to note in this regard that the through-wall cladding failure probability of 1 E-5 is of the same order of magnitude as calculated in the cited Sandia study for low burnup fuel. (authors)

  4. The FIRST-2MASS Red Quasar Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glikman, E; Helfand, D J; White, R L; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; Lacy, M

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Combining radio observations with optical and infrared color selection--demonstrated in our pilot study to be an efficient selection algorithm for finding red quasars--we have obtained optical and infrared spectroscopy for 120 objects in a complete sample of 156 candidates from a sky area of 2716 square degrees. Consistent with our initial results, we find our selection criteria--J-K > 1.7,R-K > 4.0--yield a {approx} 50% success rate for discovering quasars substantially redder than those found in optical surveys. Comparison with UVX- and optical color-selected samples shows that {approx}> 10% of the quasars are missed in a magnitude-limited survey. Simultaneous two-frequency radio observations for part of the sample indicate that a synchrotron continuum component is ruled out as a significant contributor to reddening the quasars spectra. We go on to estimate extinctions for our objects assuming their red colors are caused by dust. Continuum fits and Balmer decrements suggest E(B-V) values ranging from near zero to 2.5 magnitudes. Correcting the K-band magnitudes for these extinctions, we find that for K {le} 14.0, red quasars make up between 25% and 60% of the underlying quasar population; owing to the incompleteness of the 2MASS survey at fainter K-band magnitudes, we can only set a lower limit to the radio-detected red quasar population of > 20-30%.

  5. The Red Planet Mars is noticeable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    the melting polar ice, and to distribute the water among the oases #12;Camille Flammarion (1884) #12;Chesley Viewed through a telescope: Mars has white polar caps Mars has dark (greenish) and bright (red;Northern Polar Cap in Spring #12;The Facts of Mars mass = 0.11M radius = 0.53 R density = 3.9 gm/cm3

  6. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2000-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE is responsible for the safe and efficient management of its sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel. This fuel contains metallic sodium, a highly reactive material; metallic uranium, which is also reactive; and in some cases, highly enriched uranium. The presence of reactive materials could complicate the process of qualifying and licensing DOE's sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel inventory for disposal in a geologic repository. Currently, more than 98 percent of this inventory is located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), near Idaho Falls, Idaho. In addition, in a 1995 agreement with the State of Idaho, DOE committed to remove all spent nuclear fuel from Idaho by 2035. This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with the treatment and management of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel in one or more facilities located at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) at INEEL and either the F-Canyon or Building 105-L at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE has identified and assessed six proposed action alternatives in this EIS. These are: (1) electrometallurgical treatment of all fuel at ANL-W, (2) direct disposal of blanket fuel in high-integrity cans with the sodium removed at ANL-W, (3) plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) processing of blanket fuel at SRS, (4) melt and dilute processing of blanket fuel at ANL-W, (5) melt and dilute processing of blanket fuel at SRS, and (6) melt and dilute processing of all fuel at ANL-W. In addition, Alternatives 2 through 5 include the electrometallurgical treatment of driver fuel at ANL-W. Under the No Action Alternative, the EIS evaluates both the continued storage of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel until the development of a new treatment technology or direct disposal without treatment. Under all of the alternatives, the affected environment is primarily within 80 kilometers (50 miles) of spent nuclear fuel treatment facilities. Analyses indicate little difference in the environmental impacts among alternatives. DOE has identified electrometallurgical treatment as its Preferred Alternative for the treatment and management of all sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel, except for the Fermi-1 blanket fuel. The No Action Alternative is preferred for the Fermi-1 blanket spent nuclear fuel.

  7. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel''. In addition to information concerning the background, purpose and need for the proposed action, and the National Environmental Policy Act process, this summary describes the characteristics of sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel, the proposed treatment methods, the proposed facilities, the alternatives considered, and the environmental consequences of these alternatives. A glossary is included at the end to assist the reader with some of the technical terms used in this document.

  8. Assessment of the safety of spent fuel transportation in urban environs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval, R.P.; Weber, J.P.; Levine, H.S.; Romig, A.D.; Johnson, J.D.; Luna, R.E.; Newton, G.J.; Wong, B.A.; Marshall, R.W. Jr.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a program to provide an experimental data base for estimating the radiological consequences from a hypothetical sabotage attack on a light-water-reactor spent fuel shipping cask in a densely populated area are presented. The results of subscale and full-scale experiments in conjunction with an analytical modeling study are described. The experimental data were used as input to a reactor-safety consequence model to predict radiological health consequences resulting from a hypothetical sabotage attack on a spent-fuel shipping cask in the Manhattan borough of New York City. The results of these calculations are presented.

  9. Report on a workshop on transportation-accident scenarios involving spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilmot, E.L.; McClure, J.D.; Luna, R.E.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much confusion and skepticism resulted from the scenarios for transportation accidents involving spent fuel that have been presented in environmental impact statements because the supporting assumptions and conclusions from the scenarios did not always appear to be consistent. As a result, the Transportation Technology Center gathered a group whose participants were experts in disciplines related to the transport of spent fuel to consider the scenarios. The group made a number of recommendations about scenario development and about areas in need of further study. This report documents the discussions held and the recommendations and conclusions of the group.

  10. COBRA-SFS predictions of single assembly spent fuel heat transfer data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L.; Rector, D.R.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study reported here is one of several efforts to evaluate and qualify the COBRA-SFS computer code for use in spent fuel storage system thermal analysis. The ability of COBRA-SFS to predict the thermal response of two single assembly spent fuel heat transfer tests was investigated through comparisons of predictions with experimental test data. From these comparisons, conclusions regarding the computational treatment of the physical phenomena occurring within a storage system can be made. This objective was successfully accomplished as reasonable agreement between predictions and data were obtained for the 21 individual test cases of the two experiments.

  11. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program, performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, had significant inputs from, and is strongly supported and coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and the U.K., as part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC.

  12. Nuclear nonproliferation: Concerns with US delays in accepting foregin research reactors` spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    One key US nonproliferation goal is to discourage use of highly enriched uranium fuel (HEU), which can be used to make nuclear bombs, in civilian nuclear programs worldwide. DOE`s Off-Site Fuels Policy for taking back spent HEU from foreign research reactors was allowed to expire due to environmental reasons. This report provides information on the effects of delays in renewing the Off-Site Fuels Policy on US nonproliferation goals and programs (specifically the reduced enrichment program), DOE`s efforts to renew the fuels policy, and the price to be charged to the operators of foreign reactors for DOE`s activities in taking back spent fuel.

  13. Spent Fuel Test-Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick, W.C. (comp.)

    1986-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site, eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized. When test data indicated that the test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase, the spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized. The project demonstrated the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel assemblies between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. The test led to development of a technical measurements program. To meet these objectives, nearly 1000 instruments and a computer-based data acquisition system were deployed. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data were recorded on a continuing basis for the three-year storage phase and six-month monitored cool-down of the test. This report summarizes the engineering and scientific endeavors which led to successful design and execution of the test. The design, fabrication, and construction of all facilities and handling systems are discussed, in the context of test objectives and a safety assessment. The discussion progresses from site characterization and experiment design through data acquisition and analysis of test data in the context of design calculations. 117 refs., 52 figs., 81 tabs.

  14. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  15. Viscosity of black liquor project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrall, G.A.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The discussion of magnetic resonance in this report is confined to nuclides with a spin quantum number of 1/2. Included is a basic discussion of magnetic resonance; magnetic resonance relaxation and viscosity; and rhometers and viscometers. Many other effects are ignored for the sake of clarity.

  16. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix C, Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Mangement Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in two related decision making processes concerning: (1) the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which will focus on the next 10 years; and (2) programmatic decisions on future spent nuclear fuel management which will emphasize the next 40 years. DOE is analyzing the environmental consequences of these spent nuclear fuel management actions in this two-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Volume 1 supports broad programmatic decisions that will have applicability across the DOE complex and describes in detail the purpose and need for this DOE action. Volume 2 is specific to actions at the INEL. This document, which limits its discussion to the Savannah River Site (SRS) spent nuclear fuel management program, supports Volume 1 of the EIS. Following the introduction, Chapter 2 contains background information related to the SRS and the framework of environmental regulations pertinent to spent nuclear fuel management. Chapter 3 identifies spent nuclear fuel management alternatives that DOE could implement at the SRS, and summarizes their potential environmental consequences. Chapter 4 describes the existing environmental resources of the SRS that spent nuclear fuel activities could affect. Chapter 5 analyzes in detail the environmental consequences of each spent nuclear fuel management alternative and describes cumulative impacts. The chapter also contains information on unavoidable adverse impacts, commitment of resources, short-term use of the environment and mitigation measures.

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - aux red oils Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology 22 Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale Summary: Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale 12;About Red...

  18. Nationwide: Slashing Red Tape To Speed Solar Deployment for Homes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Slashing Red Tape To Speed Solar Deployment for Homes and Businesses Nationwide: Slashing Red Tape To Speed Solar Deployment for Homes and Businesses January 24, 2014 - 12:00am...

  19. Cation Uptake and Allocation by Red Pine Seedlings under Cation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uptake and Allocation by Red Pine Seedlings under Cation-Nutrient Stress in a Column Growth Experiment. Cation Uptake and Allocation by Red Pine Seedlings under Cation-Nutrient...

  20. Sun-Sentinel Red hot email heats up Wasserman Schultz,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Sun-Sentinel Red hot email heats up Wasserman Schultz, West rift South Florida members of Congress take feud public July 20, 2011|By Anthony Man, Sun Sentinel Congressman Allen West's red hot response

  1. WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona U.S. GEOLOGICAL OF RECLAMATION #12;WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona By THEODORE S

  2. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Deiodinase in Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ron, Laura

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    thyroxine (T4) in the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), a commercially important fish species. Immersion experiments were performed, where red drum were kept in 20-gallon glass tanks with either T4-treated or control solution-treated tank water...

  3. Red de compensacin al trabajador Recibo de Informacin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Red de compensación al trabajador Recibo de Información He recibido la Notificación de los requisitos para utilizar la Red que me explica cómo obtener atención médica a través de la Red de información, entiendo que: 1. Debo elegir un médico tratante de la lista de médicos pertenecientes a la red de

  4. UK RED SQUIRREL GROUP WEDNESDAY 22 APRIL 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 UK RED SQUIRREL GROUP WEDNESDAY 22 APRIL 2009 SNH, Silvan House Edinburgh MINUTES Present Tony, have led to divergence in the philosophy and focus on a red squirrel conservation strategy. Evidence. Also, FCE grant-aid supported red squirrel conservation work in reserves #12;2 and surrounding buffer

  5. UK Red Squirrel Group Minutes Tuesday 15th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UK Red Squirrel Group Minutes Tuesday 15th January 2013 1 Welcome and apologies S Bailey Attendee for protocol on red squirrel translocations to SM ­ see renewed AP1 AP2 ALL to visit new RSNE website to BM - complete General consensus that veterinary checks were required for red squirrel translocations

  6. UK Red Squirrel Group Minutes Thursday 24th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UK Red Squirrel Group Minutes Thursday 24th November 2011 1 Welcome and apologies B Mayle BM Country updates Country reps SCOTLAND JB, JR, SE General update: The `Management Guidance for Red Squirrel Strategy for Red Squirrel Conservation ­ reflecting that many of the existing action plans and projects

  7. Release of 'Red Dragon' Ornamental Hazelnut March 15, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Release of 'Red Dragon' Ornamental Hazelnut March 15, 2008 The Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station announces the release of a new hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivar 'Red Dragon' for the ornamental market with red leaves, contorted growth habit, and complete resistance to eastern filbert blight

  8. 716 Langdon St 2nd Floor Red Gym

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    716 Langdon St 2nd Floor Red Gym Madison WI 53706 (608) 262-4503 http://msc.wisc.edu 1 FOLLOW OUR of witnesses may always go before you and walk beside you. We bestow a red and white kente stole upon all of our graduates. Red, for passion and sacrifice. White, for initiation and new beginnings. Each stole

  9. Ridgeview Publishing Company Indeterminism and the Thin Red Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belnap, Nuel

    Ridgeview Publishing Company Indeterminism and the Thin Red Line Author(s): Nuel Belnap INDETERMINISM AND THE THIN RED LINE NuelBelnapandMitchellGreen Universityof Pittsburgh 1. Introduction 2,settledness,andactualityin branchingtime 5. The AssertionProblem 6. TheThinRedLine 7. Time's wingedchariothurriesnear 1. Introduction

  10. American Red Cross VOLUNTEER SERVICE AGREEMENT FOR DISASTER OPERATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    American Red Cross VOLUNTEER SERVICE AGREEMENT FOR DISASTER OPERATIONS I and maintenance costs will be reimbursed by the American Red Cross, pursuant to Staff Reimbursement Procedures the American Red Cross while I am performing disaster relief work. Furthermore, I understand and accept that

  11. Verifying Red-Black Trees Paolo Baldan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldan, Paolo

    Verifying Red-Black Trees Paolo Baldan1 , Andrea Corradini2 , Javier Esparza3 , Tobias Heindel3,heindets,koenigba,koziouvi}@fmi.uni-stuttgart.de Abstract. We show how to verify the correctness of insertion of ele- ments into red-black trees--a form of balanced search trees--using anal- ysis techniques developed for graph rewriting. We first model red

  12. Use of red ochre by early Neandertals Wil Roebroeksa,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Use of red ochre by early Neandertals Wil Roebroeksa,1 , Mark J. Siera,b,c , Trine Kellberg older iron oxide finds that constitute the earliest documented use of red ochre by Neandertals. These finds were small concen- trates of red material retrieved during excavations at Maastricht- Belvédère

  13. Is the Missing Ultra-Red Material Colorless Ice?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. M. Grundy

    2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The extremely red colors of some transneptunian objects and Centaurs are not seen among the Jupiter family comets which supposedly derive from them. Could this mismatch result from sublimation loss of colorless ice? Radiative transfer models show that mixtures of volatile ice and nonvolatile organics could be extremely red, but become progressively darker and less red as the ice sublimates away.

  14. Brief Communication 809 Photoactivation turns green fluorescent protein red

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elowitz, Michael

    Brief Communication 809 Photoactivation turns green fluorescent protein red Michael B. Elowitz gene was first cloned, the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) has become a powerful tool- wavelength (red) fluorescence has remained elusive. Here we describe a red-emitting, green

  15. Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale #12;About Red Leaf Resources 2006 Company commercial development field activities #12;Highlights Proven, Revolutionary Oil Shale Extraction Process Technology Significant Owned Oil Shale Resource #12;· The executive management team of Red Leaf Resources

  16. Operating experience feedback report: Assessment of spent fuel cooling. Volume 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F.; Ornstein, H.L.; Pullani, S.V.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of an independent assessment by a team from the Office of Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data of spent-fuel-pool (SFP) cooling in operating nuclear power plants. The team assessed the likelihood and consequences of an extended loss of SFP cooling and suggested corrective actions, based on their findings.

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel Self-Induced XRF to Predict Pu to U Content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stafford, Alissa Sarah

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ) in July 2008 and January 2009. These measurements successfully showed that it is possible to measure the Pu x-ray peak at 103.7 keV in PWR spent fuel (~1 percent Pu) using a planar HPGe detector. Prior to these measurement campaigns, the Pu peak has only...

  18. Characterization program management plan for Hanford K basin spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    1999-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The program management plan for characterization of the K Basin spent nuclear fuel was revised to incorporate corrective actions in response to SNF Project QA surveillance 1K-FY-99-060. This revision of the SNF Characterization PMP replaces Duke Eng.

  19. Dosimetry Modeling for Predicting Radiolytic Production at the Spent Fuel - Water Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William H.; Kline, Amanda J.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling of the alpha, beta, and gamma dose from spent fuel as a function of particle size and fuel to water ratio was examined. These doses will be combined with modeling of G values and interactions to determine the concentration of various species formed at the fuel water interface and their affect on dissolution rates.

  20. A Tomographic Method for Verification of the Integrity of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    A Tomographic Method for Verification of the Integrity of Spent Nuclear Fuel S. Jacobsson.g. in medicine. This thesis describes a tomographic method developed for measurements on nuclear fuel assemblies of the integrity of the assemblies, i.e. for controlling that all fuel rods are present. The application has been

  1. Impact of PWR spent fuel variations on TRU-fueled VHTRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alajo, Ayodeji Babatunde

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of legacy spent fuel that is given in the Yucca Mountain Safety Assessment Report. Chapter III discusses the details of the study. The concluding study was accomplished through the use of ORNL SCALE5.1 code system. The detailed whole-core 3-D models were...

  2. Recycling spent sandblasting grit and similar wastes as aggregate in asphaltic concrete. Technical data sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, J.C.; Nelson, B.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC), Port Hueneme, California, and Naval Facilities Engineering Command Engineering Field Activity, West, San Bruno, California, took overall leadership in identifying and testing methods to manage waste generated from a machine shop located at Hunters Point Annex, at Naval Station, Treasure Island, California. Ship cleaning and equipment maintenance resulted in the accumulation of 4,665 tons of spent sandblasting grit at the site. The spent grit, consisting of silica sand plus a small amount of slag-derived grit, had the physical characteristics of coarse-grained beach sand and also contained fragments of coatings. The spent grit had the potential for exhibiting hazardous characteristics since the coatings included lead-based primers, copper, and butyltin-containing antifouling topcoats. The most beneficial application of reusing the spent grit was to use it as a replacement for some of the fine aggregate in asphaltic concrete. A test program was established that included characterization, bench-scale testing, long-term pilot scale testing, and a full-scale demonstration. Full-scale asphalt production provided samples which proved both the chemical leaching resistance and physical performance characteristics were acceptable.

  3. FIELD-DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of aqueous spent fuel storage basins and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials were developed to assess the corrosion potential of a basin. this assessment can then be used to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to ascertain if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations and assist in evaluating general storage basin operations. The test kit was developed based on the identification of key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters identified using a review of the scientific and basin operations literature. The parameters were used to design bench scale test cells for additional corrosion analyses, and then tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters. The tools were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The sampling kit consisted of a total organic carbon analyzer, an YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

  4. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.

  5. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.

  6. Evaluation of Radiation Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP - 13495

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Batiy, Valiriy; Sizov, Andriy [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine)] [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine); Schmieman, Eric [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation effects are estimated for the operation of a new dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (SNFS-2) of Chernobyl NPP RBMK reactors. It is shown that radiation exposure during normal operation, design and beyond design basis accidents are minor and meet the criteria for safe use of radiation and nuclear facilities in Ukraine. (authors)

  7. A Non-Proliferating Fuel Cycle: No Enrichment, Reprocessing or Accessible Spent Fuel - 12375

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Frank L. [Vanderbilt University (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current fuel cycles offer a number of opportunities for access to plutonium, opportunities to create highly enriched uranium and access highly radioactive wastes to create nuclear weapons and 'dirty' bombs. The non-proliferating fuel cycle however eliminates or reduces such opportunities and access by eliminating the mining, milling and enrichment of uranium. The non-proliferating fuel cycle also reduces the production of plutonium per unit of energy created, eliminates reprocessing and the separation of plutonium from the spent fuel and the creation of a stream of high-level waste. It further simplifies the search for land based deep geologic repositories and interim storage sites for spent fuel in the USA by disposing of the spent fuel in deep sub-seabed sediments after storing the spent fuel at U.S. Navy Nuclear Shipyards that have the space and all of the necessary equipment and security already in place. The non-proliferating fuel cycle also reduces transportation risks by utilizing barges for the collection of spent fuel and transport to the Navy shipyards and specially designed ships to take the spent fuel to designated disposal sites at sea and to dispose of them there in deep sub-seabed sediments. Disposal in the sub-seabed sediments practically eliminates human intrusion. Potential disposal sites include Great Meteor East and Southern Nares Abyssal Plain. Such sites then could easily become international disposal sites since they occur in the open ocean. It also reduces the level of human exposure in case of failure because of the large physical and chemical dilution and the elimination of a major pathway to man-seawater is not potable. Of course, the recovery of uranium from sea water and the disposal of spent fuel in sub-seabed sediments must be proven on an industrial scale. All other technologies are already operating on an industrial scale. If externalities, such as reduced terrorist threats, environmental damage (including embedded emissions), long term care, reduced access to 'dirty' bomb materials, the social and political costs of siting new facilities and the psychological impact of no solution to the nuclear waste problem, were taken into account, the costs would be far lower than those of the present fuel cycle. (authors)

  8. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A. (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, Wolfgang (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Brucher, Wenzel (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent fuel test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the final Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively supported and coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and others, as part of the International Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks (WGSTSC).

  9. Red Shift from Gravitational Back Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ernst Fischer

    2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Deviations from geodesic motion caused by gravitational radiation have been discussed in the last decades to describe the motion of particles or photons in strong fields around collapsed objects. On cosmological scale this effect, which in the first order is caused by the finite speed of gravitational interaction, is important also in the weak field limit. In this paper the energy loss by transfer to the gravitational potential is determined in a quasi-Newtonian approximation for the examples of a static Einstein universe and for an expanding universe with flat metric. In both cases the resulting red shift is a considerable fraction of the total red shift and requires an adjustment of the age and the matter composition in our models of the universe.

  10. Head-end process for the reprocessing of HTGR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.; Wen, M. [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Bejing 10084 (China)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reprocessing of HTGR spent fuels is in favor of the sustainable development of nuclear energy to realize the maximal use of nuclear resource and the minimum disposal of nuclear waste. The head-end of HTGR spent fuels reprocessing is different from that of the LWR spent fuels reprocessing because of the difference of spent fuel structure. The dismantling of the graphite spent fuel element and the highly effective dissolution of fuel kernel is the most difficult process in the head end of the reprocessing. Recently, some work on the head-end has been done in China. First, the electrochemical method with nitrate salt as electrolyte was studied to disintegrate the graphite matrix from HTGR fuel elements and release the coated fuel particles, to provide an option for the head-end technology of reprocessing. The results show that the graphite matrix can be effectively separated from the coated particle without any damage to the SiC layer. Secondly, the microwave-assisted heating was applied to dissolve the UO{sub 2} kernel from the crashed coated fuel particles. The ceramic UO{sub 2} as the solute has a good ability to absorb the microwave energy. The results of UO{sub 2} kernel dissolution from crushed coated particles by microwave heating show that the total dissolution percentage of UO{sub 2} is more than 99.99% after 3 times cross-flow dissolution with the following parameters: 8 mol/L HNO{sub 3}, temperature 100 Celsius degrees, initial ratio of solid to liquid 1.2 g/ml. (authors)

  11. Further Evaluation of the Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) Technique for Assaying Plutonium in Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an end-of-year report (Fiscal Year (FY) 2011) for the second year of effort on a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The second-year goals for this project included: (1) assessing the neutron source strength needed for the NRTA technique, (2) estimating count times, (3) assessing the effect of temperature on the transmitted signal, (4) estimating plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly, (5) providing a preliminary assessment of the neutron detectors, and (6) documenting this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes work performed over a nine month period from January-September 2011 and is to be considered a follow-on or add-on report to our previous published summary report from December 2010 (INL/EXT-10-20620).

  12. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs, Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix D: Part A, Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 1 to the Department of Energy`s Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement evaluates a range of alternatives for managing naval spent nuclear fuel expected to be removed from US Navy nuclear-powered vessels and prototype reactors through the year 2035. The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) considers a range of alternatives for examining and storing naval spent nuclear fuel, including alternatives that terminate examination and involve storage close to the refueling or defueling site. The EIS covers the potential environmental impacts of each alternative, as well as cost impacts and impacts to the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program mission. This Appendix covers aspects of the alternatives that involve managing naval spent nuclear fuel at four naval shipyards and the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Kesselring Site in West Milton, New York. This Appendix also covers the impacts of alternatives that involve examining naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility in Idaho and the potential impacts of constructing and operating an inspection facility at any of the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities considered in the EIS. This Appendix also considers the impacts of the alternative involving limited spent nuclear fuel examinations at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. This Appendix does not address the impacts associated with storing naval spent nuclear fuel after it has been inspected and transferred to DOE facilities. These impacts are addressed in separate appendices for each DOE site.

  13. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Appendix B: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to assist its management in making two decisions. The first decision, which is programmatic, is to determine the management program for DOE spent nuclear fuel. The second decision is on the future direction of environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of the EIS, which supports the programmatic decision, considers the effects of spent nuclear fuel management on the quality of the human and natural environment for planning years 1995 through 2035. DOE has derived the information and analysis results in Volume 1 from several site-specific appendixes. Volume 2 of the EIS, which supports the INEL-specific decision, describes environmental impacts for various environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management alternatives for planning years 1995 through 2005. This Appendix B to Volume 1 considers the impacts on the INEL environment of the implementation of various DOE-wide spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, which is a joint Navy/DOE program, is responsible for spent naval nuclear fuel examination at the INEL. For this appendix, naval fuel that has been examined at the Naval Reactors Facility and turned over to DOE for storage is termed naval-type fuel. This appendix evaluates the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel including naval-type fuel.

  14. Co-composting of spent pig litter and sludge with forced-aeration S.M. Tiquia a,*, N.F.Y. Tam b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M.

    Co-composting of spent pig litter and sludge with forced-aeration S.M. Tiquia a,*, N.F.Y. Tam b June 1999 Abstract Co-composting spent pig (Sus scrofa L.) litter (a mixture of partially decomposed/v) ratio of spent litter and pig sludge. Composting process parameters monitored over 91 days included some

  15. Full-Scale Cask Testing and Public Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments - 12254

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilger, Fred [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects Carson City, NV 80906 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Full-scale physical testing of spent fuel shipping casks has been proposed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 2006 report on spent nuclear fuel transportation, and by the Presidential Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future 2011 draft report. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2005 proposed full-scale testing of a rail cask, and considered 'regulatory limits' testing of both rail and truck casks (SRM SECY-05-0051). The recent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cancellation of the Yucca Mountain project, NRC evaluation of extended spent fuel storage (possibly beyond 60-120 years) before transportation, nuclear industry adoption of very large dual-purpose canisters for spent fuel storage and transport, and the deliberations of the BRC, will fundamentally change assumptions about the future spent fuel transportation system, and reopen the debate over shipping cask performance in severe accidents and acts of sabotage. This paper examines possible approaches to full-scale testing for enhancing public confidence in risk analyses, perception of risk, and acceptance of spent fuel shipments. The paper reviews the literature on public perception of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste transportation risks. We review and summarize opinion surveys sponsored by the State of Nevada over the past two decades, which show consistent patterns of concern among Nevada residents about health and safety impacts, and socioeconomic impacts such as reduced property values along likely transportation routes. We also review and summarize the large body of public opinion survey research on transportation concerns at regional and national levels. The paper reviews three past cask testing programs, the way in which these cask testing program results were portrayed in films and videos, and examines public and official responses to these three programs: the 1970's impact and fire testing of spent fuel truck casks at Sandia National Laboratories, the 1980's regulatory and demonstration testing of MAGNOX fuel flasks in the United Kingdom (the CEGB 'Operation Smash Hit' tests), and the 1980's regulatory drop and fire tests conducted on the TRUPACT II containers used for transuranic waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The primary focus of the paper is a detailed evaluation of the cask testing programs proposed by the NRC in its decision implementing staff recommendations based on the Package Performance Study, and by the State of Nevada recommendations based on previous work by Audin, Resnikoff, Dilger, Halstead, and Greiner. The NRC approach is based on demonstration impact testing (locomotive strike) of a large rail cask, either the TAD cask proposed by DOE for spent fuel shipments to Yucca Mountain, or a similar currently licensed dual-purpose cask. The NRC program might also be expanded to include fire testing of a legal-weight truck cask. The Nevada approach calls for a minimum of two tests: regulatory testing (impact, fire, puncture, immersion) of a rail cask, and extra-regulatory fire testing of a legal-weight truck cask, based on the cask performance modeling work by Greiner. The paper concludes with a discussion of key procedural elements - test costs and funding sources, development of testing protocols, selection of testing facilities, and test peer review - and various methods of communicating the test results to a broad range of stakeholder audiences. (authors)

  16. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xie, Ping (San Jose, CA); Gosnell, Timothy R. (Sante Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

  17. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  18. Red Canyon Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant of Access Permit5-ID-aRECRaton,RFPs Home NameRecurrentRed Canyon

  19. Red Hills Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant of Access Permit5-ID-aRECRaton,RFPs Home NameRecurrentRed

  20. Non-Destructive Spent Fuel Characterization with Semi-Conducting Gallium Arsinde Neutron Imaging Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas S. McGregor; Holly K. Gersch; Jeffrey D. Sanders; John C. Lee; Mark D. Hammig; Michael R. Hartman; Yong Hong Yang; Raymond T. Klann; Brian Van Der Elzen; John T. Lindsay; Philip A. Simpson

    2002-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    High resistivity bulk grown GaAs has been used to produce thermal neutron imaging devices for use in neutron radiography and characterizing burnup in spent fuel. The basic scheme utilizes a portable Sb/Be source for monoenergetic (24 keV) neutron radiation source coupled to an Fe filter with a radiation hard B-coated pixellated GaAs detector array as the primary neutron detector. The coated neutron detectors have been tested for efficiency and radiation hardness in order to determine their fitness for the harsh environments imposed by spent fuel. Theoretical and experimental results are presented, showing detector radiation hardness, expected detection efficiency and the spatial resolution from such a scheme. A variety of advanced neutron detector designs have been explored, with experimental results achieving 13% thermal neutron detection efficiency while projecting the possibility of over 30% thermal neutron detection efficiency.

  1. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Independence, OR); Addison, Gerald W. (St. Stephen, SC)

    2002-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  2. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements. [Patent application; continuous process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heckman, R.A.

    1980-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support te liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  3. Long-term kinetic effects and colloid formations in dissolution of LWR spent fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, T.M.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates continuous dissolution and colloid formation during spent-fuel performance under repository conditions in high-level waste disposal. Various observations suggest that reprecipitated layers formed on spent-fuel surfaces may not be protective. This situation may lead to continuous dissolution of highly soluble radionuclides such as C-14, Cl-36, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135. However, the diffusion limits of various species involved may retard dissolution significantly. For low-solubility actinides such as Pu-(239+240) or Am-(241+243), various processes regarding colloid formation have been analyzed. The processes analyzed are condensation, dispersion, and sorption. Colloid formation may lead to significant releases of low-solubility actinides. However, because there are only limited data available on matrix dissolution, colloid formation, and solubility limits, many uncertainties still exist. These uncertainties must be addressed before the significance of radionuclide releases can be determined. 118 refs.

  4. A method for determining the spent-fuel contribution to transport cask containment requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, T.L.; Seager, K.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rashid, Y.R.; Barrett, P.R. [ANATECH Research Corp., La Jolla, CA (United States); Malinauskas, A.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Einziger, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Jordan, H. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Duffey, T.A.; Sutherland, S.H. [APTEK, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Reardon, P.C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines containment requirements for spent-fuel transport containers that are transported under normal and hypothetical accident conditions. A methodology is described that estimates the probability of rod failure and the quantity of radioactive material released from breached rods. This methodology characterizes the dynamic environment of the cask and its contents and deterministically models the peak stresses that are induced in spent-fuel cladding by the mechanical and thermal dynamic environments. The peak stresses are evaluated in relation to probabilistic failure criteria for generated or preexisting ductile tearing and material fractures at cracks partially through the wall in fuel rods. Activity concentrations in the cask cavity are predicted from estimates of the fraction of gases, volatiles, and fuel fines that are released when the rod cladding is breached. Containment requirements based on the source term are calculated in terms of maximum permissible volumetric leak rates from the cask. Calculations are included for representative cask designs.

  5. Radiation measurements of uranium ingots from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphal, B. R.; Liaw, J. R.; Krsul, J. R.; Maddison, D. W.; Jensen, B. A.

    2003-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation measurements and gamma spectroscopy analyses were made on numerous uranium ingots produced during the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) spent nuclear fuel. The objective of these measurements was to provide background data for shielding concerns and potential process optimization. The uranium ingots resulted from the processing of both driver and blanket fuel by the electrometallurgical treatment process. The observed variation in the measurements was traced to the levels of certain fission product residues that remained in the uranium ingots produced during spent fuel treatment. A minor process change to hold the material at an elevated temperature for a specified length of time was found to significantly reduce concentrations of high-activity fission products and, thus the radiation field.

  6. Intact and Degraded Component Criticality Calculations of N Reactors Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Angers

    2001-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this calculation is to perform intact and degraded mode criticality evaluations of the Department of Energy's (DOE) N Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel codisposed in a 2-Defense High-Level Waste (2-DHLW)/2-Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Waste Package (WP) and emplaced in a monitored geologic repository (MGR) (see Attachment I). The scope of this calculation is limited to the determination of the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for both intact and degraded mode internal configurations of the codisposal waste package. This calculation will support the analysis that will be performed to demonstrate the technical viability for disposing of U-metal (N Reactor) spent nuclear fuel in the potential MGR.

  7. Plutonium Discharge Rates and Spent Nuclear Fuel Inventory Estimates for Nuclear Reactors Worldwide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian K. Castle; Shauna A. Hoiland; Richard A. Rankin; James W. Sterbentz

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a preliminary survey and analysis of the five primary types of commercial nuclear power reactors currently in use around the world. Plutonium mass discharge rates from the reactors spent fuel at reload are estimated based on a simple methodology that is able to use limited reactor burnup and operational characteristics collected from a variety of public domain sources. Selected commercial reactor operating and nuclear core characteristics are also given for each reactor type. In addition to the worldwide commercial reactors survey, a materials test reactor survey was conducted to identify reactors of this type with a significant core power rating. Over 100 material or research reactors with a core power rating >1 MW fall into this category. Fuel characteristics and spent fuel inventories for these material test reactors are also provided herein.

  8. Recovery and regeneration of spent MHD seed material by the formate process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheth, A.C.; Holt, J.K.; Rasnake, D.G.; Solomon, R.L.; Wilson, G.L.; Herrigel, H.R.

    1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The specification discloses a spent seed recovery and regeneration process for an MHD power plant employing an alkali metal salt seed material such as potassium salt wherein the spent potassium seed in the form of potassium sulfate is collected from the flue gas and reacted with calcium hydroxide and carbon monoxide in an aqueous solution to cause the formation of calcium sulfate and potassium formate. The pH of the solution is adjusted to suppress formation of formic acid and to promote precipitation of any dissolved calcium salts. The solution containing potassium formate is then employed to provide the potassium salt in the form of potassium formate or, optionally, by heating the potassium formate under oxidizing conditions to convert the potassium formate to potassium carbonate. 5 figures.

  9. Proposed subcritical measurements for fresh and spent highly enriched plate type fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zino, J.F.; Williamson, T.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Mihalczo, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A collaborative experimental research program has been established between industry and university partners to evaluate the subcritical behavior of fresh and spent highly enriched fuel assemblies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). This proposed program will involve a series of subcritical measurements using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed {sup 252}Cf source-driven noise technique. Measurements evaluating the subcritical behavior of simple arrays of fresh MURR assemblies will be performed for evaluating the spectral effects of materials typically found in shipping casks such as lead, steel, aluminum, and boron. Also, measurements will be performed on spent assemblies to characterize physics parameters which may be useful in determining the subcritical behavior of fuels for reactivity credit of actinide burnup and fission product poisoning.

  10. Retorting of oil shale followed by solvent extraction of spent shale: Experiment and kinetic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khraisha, Y.H.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of El-Lajjun oil shale were thermally decomposed in a laboratory retort system under a slow heating rate (0.07 K/s) up to a maximum temperature of 698--773 K. After decomposition, 0.02 kg of spent shale was extracted by chloroform in a Soxhlet extraction unit for 2 h to investigate the ultimate amount of shale oil that could be produced. The retorting results indicate an increase in the oil yields from 3.24% to 9.77% of oil shale feed with retorting temperature, while the extraction results show a decrease in oil yields from 8.10% to 3.32% of spent shale. The analysis of the data according to the global first-order model for isothermal and nonisothermal conditions shows kinetic parameters close to those reported in literature.

  11. Effects of air oxidation on the dissolution rate of LWR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, W.J.; Thomas, L.E.; Einziger, R.E.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissolution rates for air-oxidized spent fuel were measured in flowthrough tests. Results from two types of specimens, separated grains and multigrain particles, both in oxidized (U[sub 4]O[sub 9+x]) and unoxidized (UO[sub 2]) conditions indicated only minor effects of oxidation on the surface-area-normalized rates. Similar results were obtained for unirradiated specimens in three different oxidation states (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub 7], and U[sub 3]O[sub 8]). These observations have important practical implications for disposal of spent fuel in a geologic repository as well as implications regarding the oxidative dissolution mechanism of UO[sub 2] fuel.

  12. K Basin spent nuclear fuel hot conditioning system functions {ampersand} requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miska, C.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this F{ampersand}R document is to establish the functional requirements baseline for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Hot Conditioning System (HCS) subproject. This F{ampersand}R documents the: -mission of the HCS, -evolution of the technical baseline leading to the HCS, -functions that must be performed to accomplish the HCS mission, -requirements basis allocated to the HCS mission and functions, -identification and definition of interfaces between the HCS and other SNF subprojects.

  13. Recovery of fissile materials from plutonium residues, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new process is proposed that converts complex feeds containing fissile materials into a chemical form that allows the use of existing technologies (such as PUREX and ion exchange) to recover the fissile materials and convert the resultant wastes to glass. Potential feed materials include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and (3) uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, and organics. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  14. End-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linge, I. I.; Mitenkova, E. F., E-mail: mit@ibrae.ac.ru; Novikov, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Safety Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of end-to-end calculation of the radiation characteristics of VVER-1000 spent nuclear fuel are presented. Details of formation of neutron and gamma-radiation sources are analyzed. Distributed sources of different types of radiation are considered. A comparative analysis of calculated radiation characteristics is performed with the use of nuclear data from different ENDF/B and EAF files and ANSI/ANS and ICRP standards.

  15. A comparison of spent fuel assembly control instruments: The Cadarache PYTHON and the Los Alamos Fork

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bignan, G.; Capsie, J.; Romeyer-Dherbey, J. (CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires); Rinard, P. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Devices to monitor spent fuel assemblies while stored under water with nondestructive assay methods, have been developed in France and in the United States. Both devices are designed to verify operator's declared values of exposures and cooling-time but the applications and thus the designs of the systems differ. A study, whose results are presented in this paper, has been conducted to compare the features and the performances of the two instruments. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Comparison of potential radiological consequences from a spent-fuel repository and natural uranium deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wick, O.J.; Cloninger, M.O.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general criterion has been suggested for deep geological repositories containing spent fuel - the repositories should impose no greater radiological risk than due to naturally occurring uranium deposits. The following analysis investigates the rationale of that suggestion and determines whether current expectations of spent-fuel repository performance are consistent with such a criterion. In this study, reference spent-fuel repositories were compared to natural uranium-ore deposits. Comparisons were based on intrinsic characteristics, such as radionuclide inventory, depth, proximity to aquifers, and regional distribution, and actual and potential radiological consequences that are now occurring from some ore deposits and that may eventually occur from repositories and other ore deposits. The comparison results show that the repositories are quite comparable to the natural ore deposits and, in some cases, present less radiological hazard than their natural counterparts. On the basis of the first comparison, placing spent fuel in a deep geologic repository apparently reduces the hazard from natural radioactive materials occurring in the earth's crust by locating the waste in impermeable strata without access to oxidizing conditions. On the basis of the second comparison, a repository constructed within reasonable constraints presents no greater hazard than a large ore deposit. It is recommended that if the naturally radioactive environment is to be used as a basis for a criterion regarding repositories, then this criterion should be carefully constructed. The criterion should be based on the radiological quality of the waters in the immediate region of a specific repository, and it should be in terms of an acceptable potential increase in the radiological content of those waters due to the existence of the repository.

  17. A GAMMA RAY SCANNING APPROACH TO QUANTIFY SPENT FUEL CASK RADIONUCLIDE CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branney, S.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has outlined a need to develop methods of allowing re-verification of LWR spent fuel stored in dry storage casks without the need of a reference baseline measurement. Some scanning methods have been developed, but improvements can be made to readily provide required data for spent fuel cask verification. The scanning process should be conditioned to both confirm the contents and detect any changes due to container/contents degradation or unauthorized removal or tampering. Savannah River National Laboratory and The University of Tennessee are exploring a new method of engineering a high efficiency, cost effective detection system, capable of meeting the above defined requirements in a variety of environmental situations. An array of NaI(Tl) detectors, arranged to form a 'line scan' along with a matching array of 'honeycomb' collimators provide a precisely defined field of view with minimal degradation of intrinsic detection efficiency and with significant scatter rejection. Scanning methods are adapted to net optimum detection efficiency of the combined system. In this work, and with differing detectors, a series of experimental demonstrations are performed that map system spatial performance and counting capability before actual spent fuel cask scans are performed. The data are evaluated to demonstrate the prompt ability to identify missing fuel rods or other content abnormalities. To also record and assess cask tampering, the cask is externally examined utilizing FTIR hyper spectral and other imaging/sensing approaches. This provides dated records and indications of external abnormalities (surface deposits, smears, contaminants, corrosion) attributable to normal degradation or to tampering. This paper will describe the actual gathering of data in both an experimental climate and from an actual spent fuel dry storage cask, and how an evaluation may be performed by an IAEA facility inspector attempting to draw an independent safeguards conclusion concerning the status of the special nuclear material.

  18. Process and apparatus for recovery of fissionable materials from spent reactor fuel by anodic dissolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Wolson, Raymond D. (Lockport, IL); Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent metal clad fuel pins is disclosed. The process uses secondary reactions between U.sup.+4 cations and elemental uranium at the anode to increase reaction rates and improve anodic efficiency compared to prior art processes. In another embodiment of the process, secondary reactions between Cd.sup.+2 cations and elemental uranium to form uranium cations and elemental cadmium also assists in oxidizing the uranium at the anode.

  19. Separation of uranium from technetium in recovery of spent nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pruett, D.J.; McTaggart, D.R.

    1983-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium and technetium in the product stream of the Purex process for recovery of uranium in spent nuclear fuel are separated by (1) contacting the aqueous Purex product stream with hydrazine to reduce Tc/sup +7/ therein to a reduced species, and (2) contacting said aqueous stream with an organic phase containing tributyl phosphate and an organic diluent to extract uranium from said aqueous stream into said organic phase.

  20. CASTOR cask with high loading capacity for transport and storage of VVER 440 spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diersch, R.; Methling, D.; Milde, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH Essen (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    GNB has developed a CASTOR transport and storage cask with a capacity of 84 spent fuel assemblies from reactors of the type VVER 440. The safety analyses are performed with the help of modern, benchmarked calculation programs. The results show that the cask design is able to fulfill both the Type B test conditions on basis of IAEA Regulations-1985 edition and the requirements for interim storage sites in Germany.