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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

Kohl, A.L.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

2

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

3

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... waste solids), wood waste liquids (red liquor, sludge wood, spent sulfite liquor, and other wood-based liquids), and black liquor. ...

4

Pressure Effects on Black Liquor Gasification .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gasification of black liquor is an alternative to the combustion of black liquor, which is currently the dominant form of chemical recovery in the paper… (more)

Young, Christopher Michael

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Kraft black liquor delivery systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

EIA - 2008 New Electric Power EIA-923 Form Anticipated Questions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Wood Waste liquids, excluding Black Liquor, including red liquor, sludge wood, ... Report consumption in combustion turbines or IC engines on SCHEDULE 3.

7

Kenaf Black Liquor Gasification Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vision Paper (Albuquerque, New Mexico) is considering building a pulping mill in Tennessee. This study is a first step in determining if the gasification of black liquor derived from kenaf8212an annual fiber and a substitute for softwood in the pulping process8212would allow Vision Paper to meet strict environmental regulations while generating process steam for its pulp mill. In collaboration with USDA, Vision Paper previously developed a soda-AQ (anthraquninone) process for producing high-quality pulp ...

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

8

Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

10

Assessment of black liquor recovery boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the paper making industry, pulpwood chips are digested and cooked to provide the pulp going to the refining and paper mills. Black liquor residue, containing the dissolved lignin binder from the chips, with a concentration of 12 to 16% solids, is further concentrated to 62 to 65% solids and mixed with salt cake, Sodium Sulfate (Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The resulting concentrate of black liquor serves both as a fuel for generating steam in the boiler and also as the mother liquid from which other process liquors are recovered and recycled. Because the black liquor fuel contains high alkali concentrations, 18.3% sodium, 3.6% sulfur, an amount typical of midwestern bituminous coal, and measurable amounts of silica, iron oxides and other species, the black liquor boiler experience was reviewed for application to MHD boiler technology.

Not Available

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development were divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO{sub 2} and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

Scott Alan Sinquefield

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Report on the WORKSHOP ON COMMERCIALIZATION OF BLACK LIQUOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.3. Gasifier Supplier Perspectives 11 Black Liquor Gasifier Suppliers 12 Biomass Gasifier Suppliers 13 5 exists for Key ideas from the workshop... commercializing black liquor gasifier/ combined Techno~og~ supp!iers have not seen convIncIng evidence of cycle (BLGCC) and biomass-gasifier/combined market opportunity

18

Sludge digester  

SciTech Connect

A ballasted, gas-holding, liquid sludge digester is described comprising: a main liquid sludge tank having a bottom wall and upwardly projecting sidewall; a cover having a top and depending side skirt structure which telescopes with respect to the upwardly projecting sidewall of the main tank; ballast supported near the lower edge of said side skirt; a ballast-engaging, liquid-containing well joined to said sidewall of said main tank such that said cover provides a gas-tight seal when said ballast interacts with liquid in said well so as to be partially emerged or fully submerged in the liquid; liquid fill means interacting with said well to maintain a predetermined liquid level in the well when said ballast is at least partially emerged from the liquid in said well; and overflow means interacting with said well to maintain a predetermined liquid level in the well when said ballast is submerged in the liquid in the well.

Wight, J.L.; Cook, L.W.

1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

19

Pretreatment of microbial sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Louisville, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Pretreatment of microbial sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Sludge Mass Reduction Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preparations Preparations within the Tank Farm D. Bumgardner Liquid Waste Engineering Washington Savannah River Company 12 May 2009 2 Agenda Liquid Waste System Overview Sludge Characteristics Sludge Batch Planning Sludge Batch Preparation Sequence - Aluminum Dissolution - Sludge Washing - Sludge Batch Qualification/Acceptance Questions 3 Liquid Waste Processing at SRS ARP - Actinide Removal Process AFP - Actinide Finishing Process ASP - Actinide Strike Process CSS - Clarified Salt Solution CSSX - Caustic-side Solvent Extraction DDA - Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment DSS - Decontaminated Salt Solution DWPF - Defense Waste Processing Facility ETP - Effluent Treatment Project GWSB - Glass Waste Storage Building HLW - High-Level Waste LLW - Low-Level Waste MCU - Modular CSSX Unit

22

Mechanism of silica precipitation by lowering pH in chemi-thermomechanical pulping black liquors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Black liquor is a complex colloidal system obtained by chemical pulping process. It comprises of lignin, nearly 50% of the total organic and Silica approx. 2-3% (OD basis) of the total inorganic components. Black liquor is fed to chemical recovery plant ... Keywords: black liquors, desilication and concentrators, lignin, silica

Muhammad Ikram Aujla; Ishtiaq-Ur-Rehman Ishtiaq-Ur-Rehman; Asad Javaid

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the design, specification and procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Continuous Sludge Leaching  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Continuous Sludge Leaching Reid Peterson and Renee Russell - Battelle Pacific Northwest Division Terry Sams and Bill Brasel - Parsons 2 What is CSL? * Process diagram * Full scale...

27

Disposal of Lead Sludge - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2000 ... Problems with this sludge were investigated and methods were tested with the aim of stabilizing the sludge so that is passes the EPD TCLP test ...

28

Red Mud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2011... Cement(OPC) from NALCO Red Mud has been successfully developed from a raw mix containing limestone, red mud,shale and fine coal.

29

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent ExtractionAbstract The dissolution of biomass into ionic liquids (ILs)be a promising alternative biomass pretreatment technology,

Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Sludge Mass Reduction Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the tank Designed to handle obstructions in the tank - Steel Tapes - Thermowells - Sludge mounds 11 Mechanical Cleaning of SRS Tanks 18 and 19 Hose-in-hose System Overview...

31

Composting Manure and Sludge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Composted manure and sludge can be a valuable fertilizer, but special equipment is required. Composting can be done with windrow operations, aerated windrow operations or aerated bins. Factors that affect composting rates are included.

Sweeten, John M.

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

32

Molybdenum uptake by forage crops grown on sewage sludge -- Amended soils in the field and greenhouse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Molybdenum (Mo) is a plant-available element in soils that can adversely affect the health of farm animals. There is a need for more information on its uptake into forage crops from waste materials, such as sewage sludge, applied to agricultural land. Field and greenhouse experiments with several crops grown on long-term sewage sludge-amended soils as well as soils recently amended with dewatered (DW) and alkaline-stabilized (ALK) sludges indicated that Mo supplied from sludge is readily taken up by legumes in particular. Excessive uptake into red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was seen in a soil that had been heavily amended with sewage sludge 20 yr earlier, where the soil contained about 3 mg Mo/kg soil, three times the background soil concentration. The greenhouse and field studies indicated that Mo can have a long residual availability in sludge-amended soils. The effect of sludge application was to decrease Cu to Mo ratios in legume forages, canola (Brassica napus var. napus) and soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] below the recommended limit of 2:1 for ruminant diets, a consequence of high bioavailability of Mo and low uptake of Cu added in sludge. Molybdenum uptake coefficients (UCs) for ALK sludge were higher than for DW sludge, presumably due to the greater solubility of Mo measured in the more alkaline sludges and soils. Based on these UCs, it is tentatively recommended that cumulative Mo loadings on forages grown on nonacid soils should not exceed 1.0 kg/ha from ALK sludge or 4.0 kg/ha from DW sludge.

McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

DEMONSTRATION OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFICATION AT BIG ISLAND  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Progress Report provides an account of the status of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific Corporation's Big Island, VA facility. The report also includes budget information and a milestone schedule. The project to be conducted by G-P is a comprehensive, complete commercial-scale demonstration that is divided into two phases. Phase I is the validation of the project scope and cost estimate. Phase II is project execution, data acquisition and reporting, and consists of procurement of major equipment, construction and start-up of the new system. Phase II also includes operation of the system for a period of time to demonstrate the safe operation and full integration of the energy and chemical recovery systems in a commercial environment. The objective of Phase I is to validate the process design and to engineer viable solutions to any technology gaps. This phase includes engineering and planning for the integration of the full-scale MTCI/StoneChem PulseEnhanced{trademark} black liquor steam-reformer chemical recovery system into G-P's operating pulp and paper mill at Big Island, Virginia. During this phase, the scope and cost estimate will be finalized to confirm the cost of the project and its integration into the existing system at the mill. The objective of Phase II of the project is the successful and safe completion of the engineering, construction and functional operation of the fully integrated full-scale steam reformer process system. This phase includes installation of all associated support systems and equipment required for the enhanced recovery of both energy and chemicals from all of the black liquor generated from the pulping process at the Big Island Mill. The objective also includes operation of the steam reformer system to demonstrate the ability of the system to operate reliably and achieve designed levels of energy and chemical recovery while maintaining environmental emissions at or below the limits set by the environmental permits.

Robert DeCarrera

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

34

Alternative method for producing organic fertiliser from anaerobic digestion liquor and limestone powder: High shear Wet Granulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã?Ã? Ã? Ã?Ã? Alternative method for producing organic fertiliser from anaerobic digestion liquor.M. Walker, Alternative method for producing organic fertiliser from anaerobic digestion liquor and limestone method for producing organic fertiliser from Anaerobic Digestion liquor and limestone powder: High Shear

Paxton, Anthony T.

35

MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University of Tennessee Georgia Tech SURF 2010 Fellow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University Goodman Introduction In the papermaking industry, black liquor recovery boilers burn black liquor into the superheater region of the boiler, where the salt-deposit, or smelt, forms a scale on the superheater tubes.1

Li, Mo

36

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors. Interim report No.3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The black liquor properties program has conducted a systematic collection data of properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics. Complete data, except for some density data, has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at a total of 25 different pulping conditions that cover the entire range used for commercial pulping. In addition, complete data has been collected for some mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors made at 16 different pulping conditions and some mill liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. While it has not proven to be possible to include research for comprehensive correlations for properties for liquors from other species, we have shown that the behavior of liquors made from other species is similar to that which has been explored extensively for Slash Pine liquors. This report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Black Liquor Gasification Process Review and Status Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After more than two decades of research and development, black liquor gasification is poised to become a commercial reality in the 90's. Several promising developments are underway in North America and Europe. In fact, all major recovery boiler manufacturers are now actively involved in black liquor gasifier developments. Leading the way is Gotaverken's Chemree process. Their 3 tph solids demonstration unit has been in commercial operations since late 1991. Following a close second in the MTCI process, whose 2 tph solids demonstration is scheduled to startup this summer. BB-Combustion Engineering have reported promising test results on a 0.2 tph CFB facility and have announced plans for a pilot demonstration. Tampella and Ahlstrom each have small pilot facilities (0.2 tph) focused on developing pressurized gasifiers. Their work is complemented by research at VIT (The Technical Research Centre of Finland) who have a 0.2 tph pressurized fluid bed test facility. The purpose of this paper is to describe these processes and provide and update on their status of development.

Brown, C.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Viscous sludge sample collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical core sample collection system for viscous sludge. A sample tube's upper end has a flange and is attached to a piston. The tube and piston are located in the upper end of a bore in a housing. The bore's lower end leads outside the housing and has an inwardly extending rim. Compressed gas, from a storage cylinder, is quickly introduced into the bore's upper end to rapidly accelerate the piston and tube down the bore. The lower end of the tube has a high sludge entering velocity to obtain a full-length sludge sample without disturbing strata detail. The tube's downward motion is stopped when its upper end flange impacts against the bore's lower end inwardly extending rim.

Beitel, George A. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

KE Basin Sludge Flocculant Testing  

SciTech Connect

In the revised path forward and schedule for the K Basins Sludge Retrieval and Disposal Project, the sludge in K East (KE) Basin will be moved from the floor and pits and transferred to large, free-standing containers located in the pits (so as to isolate the sludge from the basin). When the sludge is pumped into the containers, it must settle fast enough and clarify sufficiently that the overflow water returned to the basin pool will not cloud the water or significantly increase the radiological dose rate to the operations staff as a result of increased suspended radioactive material. The approach being evaluated to enhance sludge settling and speed the rate of clarification is to add a flocculant to the sludge while it is being transferred to the containers. In February 2004, seven commercial flocculants were tested with a specific K Basin sludge simulant to identify those agents that demonstrated good performance over a broad range of slurry solids concentrations. From this testing, a cationic polymer flocculant, Nalco Optimer 7194 Plus (7194+), was shown to exhibit superior performance. Related prior testing with K Basin sludge and simulant in 1994/1996 had also identified this agent as promising. In March 2004, four series of jar tests were conducted with 7194+ and actual KE Basin sludge (prepared by combining selected archived KE sludge samples). The results from these jar tests show that 7194+ greatly improves settling of the sludge slurries and clarification of the supernatant.

Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Sue

2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

40

INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

Kevin Whitty

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

Kevin Whitty

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

42

Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which bums the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

45

Kinetics of the Direct Causticizing Reaction between Black Liquor and Titanates During Low Temperature Gasification.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gasification of kraft black liquor increases the amount of Na2CO3, which needs to be converted into NaOH in the lune cycle because one mole of… (more)

Chen, Xiaowen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Hydroxide Formation and Carbon Species Distributions During High-Temperature Kraft Black Liquor Gasification .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work focuses on high-temperature kraft black liquor gasification in the presence of H2O and CO2 in a laboratory-scale Laminar Entrained-Flow Reactor (LEFR). The effects… (more)

Dance, Michael Raymond, Jr.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Sludge Mass Reduction Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Farm Mixing and Sampling to Support DWPF Operations Farm Mixing and Sampling to Support DWPF Operations David Larsen, PMP, PSP Hasmukh Shah Liquid Waste Engineering Washington Savannah River Company May 21, 2009 2 LWO-LWP-2009-00021 Overview Background Mixing - Historical - Criteria - Current Strategy Sampling Techniques and Procedure Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Requirements - Waste Acceptance Criteria - Tank Farm Compliance 3 LWO-LWP-2009-00021 Sludge Batch Preparation and Feed Tank 51 (Batch Tank) Sludge from one or more waste storage tanks *Mixing by Pumps *Wash *Settle *Decant *Sample Qualified Batch Transferred Forward *Mixing by Pumps *Sample Bulk Waste Removal Tank(s) Tank 40 (Blend Tank) *10,000 gal vessel *Mixing by Agitator *Sample *10,000 gal vessel *Mixing by Agitator *Sample *Wetting *Mixing by Pumps

48

Red Tide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

tide harm humans if it is not stopped? Replies: Red tides are caused by a microscopic algae called a dinoflagellate. This plant is toxic to humans in large quantities, but may...

49

Enhanced Ethanol Production from De-Ashed Paper Sludge by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A previous study demonstrated that paper sludges with high ash contents can be converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) or simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). High ash content in the sludge, however, limited solid loading in the bioreactor, causing low product concentration. To overcome this problem, sludges were de-ashed before SSF and SSCF. Low ash content in sludges also increased the ethanol yield to the extent that the enzyme dosage required to achieve 70% yield in the fermentation process was reduced by 30%. High solid loading in SSF and SSCF decreased the ethanol yield. High agitation and de-ashing of the sludges were able to restore the part of the yield loss caused by high solid loading. Substitution of the laboratory fermentation medium (peptone and yeast extract) with corn steep liquor did not bring about any adverse effects in the fermentation. Fed-batch operation of the SSCF and SSF using low-ash content sludges was effective in raising the ethanol concentration, achieving 47.8 g/L and 60.0 g/L, respectively.

Kang, L.; Wang, W.; Pallapolu, V. R.; Lee, Y. Y.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Effect of pulsation on black liquor gasification. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is an endothermic process. The heat of reaction is provided either by partial combustion of the waste or by heat transfer from an external combustion process. In one proposed system black liquor is pyrolized in a fluidized bed to which heat is added through a series of pulse combustor tail pipes submerged in the bed material. This system appears promising because of the relatively high heat transfer in pulse combustors and in fluidized beds. Other advantages of pulse combustors are discussed elsewhere. The process is, however, only economically viable if a part of the pyrolysis products can be used to fire the pulse combustors. The overall goals of this study were to determine: (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tail pipe to the bed and through the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the heat transfer benefits of the pulse combustor can be utilized while maintaining the temperature in the bed within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.; Jeong, H.; Kushari, A.; Rosen, L.J.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Adriaan van Heiningen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

52

Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The laboratory immersion test system built and operated at ORNL was found to successfully screen samples from numerous refractory suppliers, including both commercially available and experimental materials. This system was found to provide an accurate prediction of how these materials would perform in the actual gasifier environment. Test materials included mullites, alumino-silicate bricks, fusion-cast aluminas, alumina-based and chrome-containing mortars, phosphate-bonded mortars, coated samples provided under an MPLUS-funded project, bonded spinels, different fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinels with magnesia content ranging from 2.5% to about 60%, high-MgO castable and brick materials, spinel castables, and alkali-aluminate materials. This testing identified several candidate material systems that perform well in the New Bern gasifier. Fusion-cast aluminas were found to survive for nearly one year, and magnesia-alumina spinels have operated successfully for 18 months and are expected to survive for two years. Alkali-aluminates and high-MgO-content materials have also been identified for backup lining applications. No other material with a similar structure and chemical composition to that of the fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel brick currently being used for the hot-face lining is commercially available. Other materials used for this application have been found to have inferior service lives, as previously discussed. Further, over 100 laboratory immersion tests have been performed on other materials (both commercial and experimental), but none to date has performed as well as the material currently being used for the hot-face lining. Operating experience accumulated with the high-temperature gasifier at New Bern, North Carolina, has confirmed that the molten alkali salts degrade many types of refractories. Fusion-cast alumina materials were shown to provide a great improvement in lifetime over materials used previously. Further improvement was realized with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the refractory material systems identified for lining material applications may be applicable for use in this

Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

53

Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

Kevin Whitty

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

54

NETL: News Release - DOE Opens Competition for Black Liquor/Biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

January 7, 2000 January 7, 2000 DOE Opens Competition for Black Liquor/Biomass Gasification Program Intended to Boost Efficiency, Reduce Greenhouse Gases from Pulp and Paper Mills A new competition begun this week by the Department of Energy could make the pulp and paper mills of the 21st century cleaner and more energy efficient by demonstrating improved technologies to convert their spent cooking liquor streams into new sources of energy. The advanced processes would also simultaneously recover and recycle pulping chemicals. MORE INFO Download the solicitation The department's National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued a call for projects to demonstrate advanced ways to gasify the black liquor or biomass of pulp and paper mills. The gases can be more easily cleaned of

55

SOLVENT EXTRACTION RECOVERY OF VANADIUM (AND URANIUM) FROM ACID LIQUORS WITH DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHOSPHORIC ACID  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies were made on use of di(2ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in an organic diluent (Dapex process) for solvent extraction recovery of vanadium from acid leach liquors. Vanadium may be stripped from the solvent by either acidic or alkaline reagents, the former having been studied in considerably greater detail. A process for single-cycle recovery and separation of uranium and vanadium from sulfate leach liquors was shown to be attractive both from the standpoint of operation and chemical costs. Process schemes for recovery of vanadium from uranium-barren liquors are also described. On the basis of the encouraging laboratory results, pilot scale tests for specific applications are recommended. (auth)

Crouse, D.J.; Brown, K.B.

1959-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

56

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP the next 5 to 20 years. As a replacement for Tomlinson-based cogeneration, black liquor- gasifier/gas turbine cogeneration promises higher elecuical efficiency, with prospective environmental, safety

57

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Broomfield, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

59

Biological Sludge Reduction and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes research sponsored by EPRI and Advanced Biological Services (ABS). A series of experiments focused on the reduction and analysis of biological sludge in pulp mill wastewater. The first experiment involved optimization of the milling process through the alteration of the grinding gap and the number of times sludge was passed through the colloid mill in order to affect fractionation, dispersion, and lysis. For the second experiment, tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of ble...

2001-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

60

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers. Quarterly report, Phase 1a: Black liquor gasifier evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project phase addresses the following workscope: Conduct bench-scale tests of a low temperature, partial combustion gasifier; Prepare a gasifier pilot-plant preliminary design and cost estimate and prepare a budgetary cost estimate of the balance of the program; Outline a test program to evaluate gasification; Prepare an economic/market analysis of gasification and solicit pulp and paper industry support for subsequent phases; and Prepare a final report and conduct a project review prior to commencement of work leading to construction of any pilot scale components or facilities. The primary accomplishments included completion of installation of the bench-scale black liquor gasifier and supporting systems, preparing test plans and related safety procedures and detailed operating procedures, defining the functional design requirements and outlining the test plans for the pilot-scale gasifier, and preparing a preliminary economic assessment of the black liquor gasifier. This work accomplished under Phase 1a during this period is further described by task.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The Effects of Lithium Nitrate on Highly Active Liquor in the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) with Hanford Low Activity Wastes ... Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility through Sludge Batch 7b.

62

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1 *, Yew , Krishnan Subramaniam5 , Soon-Sen Leow1 , Kenneth C. Hayes6 and Mohd Basri Wahid1 1 Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang Selangor, Malaysia 2 Malaysian Palm Oil

Sinskey, Anthony J.

63

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOMASS AND BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COGENERATION AT PULP AND PAPER MILLS ERIC D. LARSON Milano Milan, Italy ABSTRACT Cogeneration of heat and power at kraft pulp/paper mills from on-site bioma modeling of gasifier/gas turbine pulp-mill cogeneration systemsusing gasifier designs under commercial

64

Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

1996-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

65

Wastewater sludge management options for Honduras  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sludge management is a fundamental area of concern across wastewater treatment systems in Honduras. The lack of timely sludge removal has led to declining plant performance in many facilities throughout the country. In ...

Bhattacharya, Mahua, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Laser removal of sludge from steam generators  

SciTech Connect

A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Solidification Tests for LLW Sludges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National laboratory has about 350,000 gallons of remote-handled (RH) sludge in ten liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that must be solidified and stabilized for disposal at the Nevada Test Site. Samples of the waste sludge were collected from four tanks, and a total of 36 small-scale grouting tests were performed. The presence of free water during curing was evaluated, and the cured grouts were analyzed using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) to determine if any of the hazardous metals in the sludge (Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, etc.) would leach above the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limits/ The grouting formulation used for these tests, with ratios of grout-forming additives weight to waste slurry weight ranging from 0.75:1 to 1.2:1, produced wet grout mixtures that were easy to stir and were self leveling. The grout mixtures cured with no free water visible at any time. The cured grout matrix was very effective at retaining the hazardous metals in the sludge, with TCLP leachate concentrations well below the RCRA limits. The addition of ferrous sulfide (FeS) to some of the sludge samples resulted in, at most, a minimal reduction in the amount of mercury that leached from the grout samples, and had no detectable impact on the other heavy metals present in the sludge (Cd, Cr, and Pb). The TCLP extraction was performed on three samples after 1 day and 7 days of curing, compared to the >28 days for the remaining samples. The metal concentrations for the short cure time samples were similar to the remaining samples, and were all well below the RCRA limits.

Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge.

Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Evaluation Of FWENC Process For Treatment Of MVST Sludges, Supernates, And Surrogates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1998, the Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) was awarded an 11-year contract to treat transuranic waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, including Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste. Their baseline tank waste process consists of: (1) Separating the supernate from the sludge, (2) Washing the sludge with water and adding this wash water to the supernate, (3) Stabilizing the supernate/wash water or the washed sludge with additives if either are projected to fail Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) Toxic Characteristics Leaching Protocol (TCLP) criteria, and (4) Stabilizing both the washed sludge and supernate/wash water by vacuum evaporation. An ''Optimum'' treatment procedure consisted of adding a specified quantity of two stabilizers--ThioRed{reg_sign} and ET Soil Polymer{reg_sign}--and an ''Alternate'' treatment simply increased the amount of ThioRed{reg_sign} added. This report presents the results of a study funded by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to provide Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) with independent laboratory data on the performance of the baseline process for treating the sludges, including washing the sludge and treating the wash water (although supernates were not included in the wash water tests). Two surrogate and seven actual tank wastes were used in this evaluation. Surrogate work, as well as the initial work with actual tank sludge, was based on an existing sludge sample from Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tank (BVEST) W23. One surrogate was required to be based on a surrogate previously developed to mimic the weighted average chemical composition of the MVST-BVEST using a simple mix of reagent grade chemicals and water, called the ''Quick and Dirty'' surrogate (QnD). The composition of this surrogate was adjusted toward the measured composition of W23 samples. The other surrogate was prepared to be more representative of the W23 sludge sample by precipitation of a nitrate solution at high pH, separating the solution from the solids, measuring the composition of the wet solids, and adding reagent grade chemicals to closely mimic the measured composition of the W23 sample.

Barton, JW

2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

71

Sewage Sludge (Maryland) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sewage Sludge (Maryland) Sewage Sludge (Maryland) Sewage Sludge (Maryland) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maryland Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Maryland Department of the Environment Sewage sludge utilization permits are required prior to the use, processing, and disposal of sewage sludge in Maryland. Sewage sludge (also known as biosolids) is not sewage, but rather is one of the final products of treated sewage at a sewage (wastewater) treatment plant. Sewage sludge is the fine particulate matter remaining after treatment which breaks down organic matter and destroys disease organisms in sewage. A SSU Permit is required for any person who collects,

72

Red River Compact (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Red River Compact Commission administers the Red River Compact to ensure that Texas receives its equitable share of quality water from the Red River and its tributaries as apportioned by the...

73

Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites  

SciTech Connect

A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form of gibbsite, and its impact on filtration. The initial sample was diluted with a liquid simulant to simulate the receiving concentration of retrieved tank waste into the UFP2 vessel (< 10 wt% undissolved solids). Filtration testing was performed on the dilute waste sample and dewatered to a higher solids concentration. Filtration testing was then performed on the concentrated slurry. Afterwards, the slurry was caustic leached to remove aluminum present in the undissolved solid present in the waste. The leach was planned to simulate leaching conditions in the UFP2 vessel. During the leach, slurry supernate samples were collected to measure the dissolution rate of aluminum in the waste. After the slurry cooled down from the elevated leach temperature, the leach liquor was dewatered from the solids. The remaining slurry was rinsed and dewatered with caustic solutions to remove a majority of the dissolved aluminum from the leached slurry. The concentration of sodium hydroxide in the rinse solutions was high enough to maintain the solubility of the aluminum in the dewatered rinse solutions after dilution of the slurry supernate. Filtration tests were performed on the final slurry to compare to filtration performance before and after caustic leaching.

Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

74

Proceedings: Steam Generator Sludge Management Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of 151 individuals attended the Steam Generator Sludge Management Workshop. They represented domestic and foreign utilities, vendors, individuals from government laboratories, university members, EPRI employees. Presentations from utilities and vendors focused on overall control and management of generator sludge which covered several topics. A poster session included presentations on minimizing and characterizing sludge as well as a demonstration of a thermal hydraulic and fouling analysis works...

1995-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

75

Separating lignite hydrogenation sludge by vacuum distillation  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum distillation was studied as a means to separate coal hydrogenation sludge. Additives containing mainly aromatic hydrocarbons intensified the process. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Gorlov, E.G.; Grobanova, L.T.; Belyavtseva, N.V. [Rossiskaya Akademiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, August 2011  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 08222011 - 08252011 Report Preparer: Jake...

77

Effect of pulsations on black liquor gasification. Progress report, July--September 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to investigate the use of pulse combustion to provide the energy required for the endothermic gasification of black liquor in a fluidized bed. In this process it is critical that the temperature remain in the small window above the gasification temperature but below the smelting temperature of the inorganic salts in the black liquor. Pulse combustors have been shown to have high heat transfer rates between the hot combustion products and the combustor tailpipe. Similarly, fluidized beds have high heat transfer rates within the bed itself, promoting temperature uniformity throughout. Typical analysis of the gasified black liquor shows there is a large percentage of combustible gases in the products of the gasification process (approximately 70%). The potential exists, therefore, for using this fuel mixture to fire the pulse combustor. This makes the entire process more efficient and may be necessary to make it economically feasible. The overall goals of this study are to determine (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring the heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tailpipe to the bed and then throughout the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the temperature distribution in the bed can be maintained within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed even if the heat transfer from the pulse combustor is significantly increased; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

Kushari, A.; Jeong, H.; Jagoda, J.I.; Zinn, B.T.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

Keiser, J.R.

2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

79

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.

1985-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

80

Disposable sludge dewatering container and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a device and method for preparing sludge for disposal comprising a box with a thin layer of gravel on the bottom and a thin layer of sand on the gravel layer, an array of perforated piping deployed throughout the gravel layer, and a sump in the gravel layer below the perforated piping array. Standpipes connect the array and sump to an external ion exchanger/fine particulate filter and a pump. Sludge is deposited on the sand layer and dewatered using a pump connected to the piping array, topping up with more sludge as the aqueous component of the sludge is extracted. When the box is full and the free standing water content of the sludge is acceptable, the standpipes are cut and sealed and the lid secured to the box.

Cole, C.M.

1990-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

SEEs, and Red Locks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and Red Locks Gared Chastain Jayme Jordan March 2013 ... Contact Information gared.chastain@raytheon.com Gared Chastain Program Manager ...

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

82

Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sludge Treatment Sludge Treatment Project - September 2013 Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - September 2013 November 2013 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System Operational Awareness Review and Sludge Treatment Project Independent Project Review [HIAR-RL-2013-09-18] This Independent Oversight Activity Report documents an oversight activity conducted by the Office of Health, Safety and Security's (HSS) Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations on September 17-18, 2013, at the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project. The activity consisted of HSS staff performing an operational awareness review of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System. An HSS

83

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Recovery of Cr(III) from tannery spent chrome liquor for reuse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper embodies details on the extraction behavior of Cr(III) along with Al(III), Fe(III), Mg(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) from hydrochloric acid media employing the Cyanex 301-toluene system. All of these metals, except Cr(III), Mg(II), and Mn(II), are extracted into the organic phase. This property of the extractant has been used to separate Cr(III) from the binary mixtures. The partition data have been extended onto spent chrome liquor, and this waste has been treated in such a manner so that it becomes suitable for use in trivalent plating baths. The hydrolytic stability and recycling capacity has been reported. Because the concentration of Cr(III) in the waste is much lower than that required for chromium depositions in Cr(III) plating baths, a concentration step using MgO as a precipitating agent has been appended. To summarize, this paper envisages a new approach to tannery waste management that focuses on treating spent chrome liquors using a solvent extraction technique in such a manner that the waste becomes suitable for use in trivalent plating baths. This would not only help abate pollution but also recover the metal in a pure form.

Khwaja, A.R.; Singh, R.; Tandon, S.N.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used In Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect

Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials, and particularly the refractory lining of the reactor vessel, have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for this application.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Gorog, John Peter [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

NELSEN LA

2009-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

87

Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

Pradeep Agrawal

2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

88

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is dependent on the confidence that DOE has in the long term mission for T Plant, is proposed: (1) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is high, then the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) would continue to implement the path forward previously described in the Alternatives Report (HNF-39744). Risks to the sludge project can be minimized through the establishment of an Interface Control Document (ICD) defining agreed upon responsibilities for both the STP and T Plant Operations regarding the transfer and storage of sludge and ensuring that the T Plant upgrade and operational schedule is well integrated with the sludge storage activities. (2) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is uncertain, then the ASF conceptual design should be pursued on a parallel path with preparation of T Plant for sludge storage until those uncertainties are resolved. (3) Finally, if the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is low, then the ASF design should be selected to provide independence from the T Plant mission risk.

RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

89

K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 Technology Readiness Assessment Report Herb G. Sutter Michael Poirier Art W. Etchells Gary Smith Kris Thomas Jim J. Davis Paul Macbeth November 16, 2009 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 Technology Readiness Assessment Report November 16, 2009 ii Herbert G. Sutter, Team Lead Date Michael Poirier, Team Member Date Arthur W. Etchells, Team Member Date Gary Smith, Team Member Date Kris Thomas, Team Member Date Jim J. Davis, Team Member Date Paul Macbeth, Team Member Date Signatures 11/09/2009 11/09/2009 11/09/2009 K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 Technology Readiness Assessment Report November 16, 2009

90

Updated Volumetric Expansion Factors for K Basin Sludge During Storage  

SciTech Connect

Sludge has accumulated in the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins at the Hanford Site. This sludge contains metallic uranium and uranium oxides that will corrode, hydrate, and generate and consume gases during containerized storage. From these corrosion reactions, two sludge expansion mechanisms can be expected: 1) expansion of the volume of the sludge solids from the generation of corrosion oxidation products that occupy more space than the starting-state sludge; and 2) expansion of the bulk sludge volume from the retention of hydrogen gas bubbles. This report provides a review and updated projections of the volumetric expansion occurring due to corrosion and gas retention during the containerized storage of K Basin sludge. New design and safety basis volume expansion values are provided for the following sludge streams: KW Floor, KW North Loadout Pit, KW canister, and fuel piece sludge.

Schmidt, Andrew J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Delegard, Calvin H. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

91

Thermal Conductivity and Shear Strength of K Basin Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hanford K Basin sludge contains metallic uranium and uranium oxides that will corrode, hydrate, and, consequently, generate heat and hydrogen gas during storage. Heat is generated within the K Basin sludge by radiolytic decay and the reaction of uranium metal with water. To maintain thermal stability, the sludge must be retrieved, staged, transported, and stored in systems designed to provide a rate of heat removal that prevents the temperature in the sludge from increasing beyond acceptable limits. To support the dispositioning of the sludge to T Plant, modeling and testing and analyses are being performed to predict the behavior of sludge when placed into the storage containers. Two physical properties of the sludge that are critical to the modeling and analyses efforts are thermal conductivity and the sludge shear strength (yield stress). This report provides the results of thermal conductivity and shear strength measurements performed on representative sludge samples from the K East Basin.

Poloski, Adam P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Bredt, Paul R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schmidt, Andrew J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Swoboda, Robert G. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Chenault, Jeffrey W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Gano, Sue (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

92

HANFORD K BASINS SLUDGE RETREIVAL & TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the US and the UK to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, thus removing the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout encapsulation processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. The grout process to produce the final waste form is backed by BNG America's 20 years experience of grouting radioactive waste at Sellafield and elsewhere. The use of transportable and re-usable equipment is emphasized and its role noted in avoiding new plant build that itself will require cleanup. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup worldwide.

VASQUEZ, D.A.

2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

93

Clean and Efficient Utilization of Sewage Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the Final Report for the DOE SBIR Phase II project (Grant No. DE-FG03-98ER82573). This report summarizes accomplishments and results for the entire program. In this program an innovative technology has been devised for transforming sewage sludge into a high quality fuel and recovering its energy content. The technology being developed is generally applicable to nearly all municipal sewage sludge management facilities and coal-fired boilers. It will provide economic and environmental benefits.

Zamansky, Vladimir; Rizeq, George

2002-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

94

Evaluation of nitrogen availability in irradiated sewage sludge, sludge compost and manure compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field experiment was conducted during 2 yr to determine plant availability of organic N from organic wastes, and effects of gamma irradiation on organic N availability in sewage sludge. The wastes investigated were: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS), irradiated sewage sludge (DISS), irradiated, composted sewage sludge (DICSS), and composted livestock manure (CLM). The annual application rates were: 10, 20, 30, and 40 Mg solids ha{sup {minus}1}. Fertilizer N was added to the control, to which no waste was applied, as well as to the waste applications to ensure approximately equal amounts of available N (110 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}) for all treatments. Lettuce, petunias, and beans were grown in 1990 and two cuts of lettuce were harvested in 1991. Crop yields and plant N concentrations were measured. Assuming that crop N harvested/available N applied would be approximately equal for the control and the waste treatments, the N from organic fraction of the wastes, which is as available as that in fertilizer, was estimated. With petunia in 1990 and the combination of first and second cut of lettuce in 1991, the percentage ranged from 11.2 to 29.7 in nonirradiated sludge, 10.1 to 14.0 in irradiated sludge, 10.5 to 32.1 in sludge compost and 10.0 to 19.7 in manure compost. Most often, the highest values were obtained with the lowest application rates. Yields of petunia and N concentrations in second cut lettuce in 1991 were lower with irradiated sludge than with nonirradiated sludge suggest that the availability of organic N in digested sludge may have been reduced after irradiation. Irradiation of sludge appears to have released NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The availability of organic N, however, appears to have been reduced by irradiation by greater amount than the increase in NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. 41 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Wen, Guang; Bates, T.E.; Voroney, R.P. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Land application systems for municipal sludge  

SciTech Connect

The production of treated municipal sludge requiring disposal or recycling has increased substantially in the last 10 years as a result of more stringent waste-water treatment requirements. In 1974, for example, there were 3.2 million dry tons of sludge requiring disposal. By 1982 that number had more than doubled to 6.5 million dry tons/year. Land application of municipal sludge is widely practiced in the United States as a method of handling these increasing tonnages. For wastewater treatment plants with less than 10 mgd capacity, 39 percent of the sludge produced is managed by land application. Currently, for all size treatment plants, about 25 percent of the nation's sludge is land applied. The experience with land application has shown it to be a safe and effective sludge management practice. In particular, research and studies of the practice over the past 10 years have produced new knowledge which allows the benefits of land application to be realized with minimal adverse impact. 11 references.

Crites, R.W.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use  

SciTech Connect

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

INHIBITION OF WASHED SLUDGE WITH SODIUM NITRITE  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J.; Lozier, J.

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

99

Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - February  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sludge Treatment Project - Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 February 2012 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Operational Awareness Review [HIAR-RL-2012-02-27] The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 More Documents & Publications Independent Activity Report, Richland Operations Office - June 2011 Independent Activity Report, Richland Operations Office - April 2011 Independent Activity Report, Richland Operations Office - August 2011

100

Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, "Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge"). The purpose of this technical report is to (1) present and discuss current understandings of gas retention and release mechanisms for deep sludge in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste storage tanks; and (2) to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to deep sludge gas release events (DSGRE) in the near term to support the Hanford C-Farm retrieval mission. A secondary purpose is to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to DSGREs in the longer term to support the mission to retrieve waste from the Hanford Tank Farms and deliver it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The potential DSGRE issue resulted in the declaration of a positive Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). C-Farm retrievals are currently proceeding under a Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) that only allows tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106 sludge levels of 192 inches and 195 inches, respectively. C-Farm retrievals need deeper sludge levels (approximately 310 inches in 241-AN-101 and approximately 250 inches in 241-AN-106). This effort is to provide analytical data and justification to continue retrievals in a safe and efficient manner.

Sams, Terry L.

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility.

WESTRA, A.G.

1999-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

102

Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2001-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

103

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW Final Safety Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Revision 14C) for the Sludge Treatment Project at the Hanford Site. 2.0 BACKGROUND The Sludge Treatment Project manages the removal of...

104

Microsoft Word - 2010 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Visit...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the engineered containers presently containing the sludge in the K-West Basin, the underwater pump that will be used to move the sludge from the pool to the transport vessels,...

105

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW Final Safety Analysis...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Revision 14C) for the Sludge Treatment Project at the Hanford Site. 2.0 BACKGROUND The Sludge Treatment Project manages the removal of radioactive...

106

Maintenance and Operations study for K basins sludge treatment  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates maintenance and operating concepts for the chemical treatment of sludge from the 100 K Basins at Hanford. The sludge treatment equipment that will require remote operation or maintenance was identified. Then various maintenance and operating concepts used in the nuclear industry were evaluated for applicability to sludge treatment. A hot cell or cells is recommended as the best maintenance and operating concept for a sludge treatment facility.

WESTRA, A.G.

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

107

Liquidization of dewatered organic sludge and anaerobic treatment  

SciTech Connect

Dewatered sewage sludge was thermochemically liquidized at 175 {degrees}C and the liquidized sludge was separated by centrifugation to 58% (w/w) supernatant and 42% precipitate. The amount of proteins in the liquidized sludge slightly decreased through the liquidization process, however, that of lipids increased. The supernatant separated from the sludge liquidized with dewatered sewage sludge was successfully anaerobically digested. Biogas yield from the supernatant from dewatered sewage sludge at organic loading concentrations of 1.9-2.2 g VS/l during 9 days incubation was 440 ml/g-added VS and digestion ratio was 66% (w/w). Biogas yield in the case of dewatered sewage sludge was 257 ml/g-added VS and digestion ratio was 45%. Similar results were obtained in the case of the anaerobically digested with sewage sludge and dewatered sludge. Anaerobic digestion of the supernatants from the liquidized sludges resulted in high biogas productivity and high digestion ratio compared with these of the original sludges. Moreover, the precipitates contained lower moisture, therefore, they can be incinerated easier than the respective original sludges.

Sawayama, Shigeki; Inoue, Seiichi; Ogi, Tomoko [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

108

Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below about 5 bar. It is desirable however to operate BLG at 20-30 bar for efficiency reasons related to either firing the syngas in a turbine, or catalytically forming liquid fuels. This work focused on achieving high direct causticizing yields at 20 bars pressure. The titanate direct causticizing reactions are inhibited by CO2. Previous work has shown that the partial pressure of CO2 should be kept below about 0.5 bar in order for the process to work. This translates to a total reactor pressure limit of about 5 bar for airblown BLG, and only 2 bar for O2-blown BLG. In this work a process was developed in which the CO2 partial pressure could be manipulated to a level under 0.5 bar with the total system pressure at 10 bar during O2-blown BLG. This fell short of our 20 bar goal but still represents a substantial increase in the pressure limit. A material and energy balance was performed, as well as first-pass economics based on capital and utilities costs. Compared to a reference case of using BLG with a conventional lime cycle [Larson, 2003], the IRR and NVP were estimated for further replacing the lime kiln with direct causticizing. The economics are strongly dependent on the price of lime kiln fuel. At $6/mmBTU the lime cycle is the clear choice. At $8/mmBTU the NPV is $10M with IRR of 17%. At $12/mmBTU the NPV is $45M with IRR of 36%. To further increase the total allowable pressure, the CO2 could be further decreased by further decreasing the temperature. Testing should be done at 750C. Also a small pilot should be built.

Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

109

Selenium Speciation in Biofilms from Granular Sludge Bed Reactors Used for Wastewater Treatment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Se K-edge XAFS spectra were collected for various model compounds of Se as well as for 3 biofilm samples from bioreactors used for Se-contaminated wastewater treatment. In the biofilm samples, Se is dominantly as Se(0) despite Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy cannot easily distinguish between elemental Se and Se(-I)-bearing selenides. EXAFS spectra indicate that Se is located within aperiodic domains, markedly different to these known in monoclinic red selenium. However, Se can well occur within nanodivided domains related to monoclinic red Se, as this form was optically observed at the rim of some sludges. Aqueous selenate is then efficiently bioreduced, under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

van Hullenbusch, Eric; /Marne la Vallee U.; Farges, Francois; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur., Paris; Lenz, Markus; Lens, Piet; /Wageningen U.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL

2006-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

110

The Little Red Schoolhouse  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Little Red Schoolhouse Little Red Schoolhouse Nature Bulletin No. 424 September 10, 1971 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Daniel Ryan, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor David H. Thompson, Senior Naturalist THE LITTLE RED SCHOOLHOUSE We have opened the doors of The Little Red Schoolhouse, our new nature center in the Palos forest preserves. You are invited to visit it and urged to use it. Many youth organizations, summer day camps, and teachers with their classes have already done so. It is now open every day, including Saturdays and Sundays, from 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. From late October until April it probably will be closed. The entrance is on 104th Ave. (Willow Springs Road), one mile west of U.S. 45 and a half-mile south of 95th St. There is ample parking space for buses.

111

The Red Fox  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

50 feet of our back door. Few people ever see one. The red fox is a small member of the dog family, standing from 14 to 16 inches high at the shoulder and weighing from 7 to 12...

112

Red Mud Bauxite Residue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2012... the use of FLOMIN OL 99 polymer in lab tests as well as in the plant. ... recycle of waste water in red mud yard, and flood control & drainage ...

113

Effects of red tide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of red tide Effects of red tide Name: Mrs. Corwin's 5th grade class Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: My 5th grade class would like to know why is it that red tide only affects humans and not lobsters, fish, etc. Why is the micro-organism so toxic to humans? Waiting to learn.... Replies: Without going into too much detail, the microorganisms responsible for causing red tide can live within the shellfish without killing them because the chemicals they produce which imbue everything with the characteristic red color aren't toxic to the shellfish. It's just our bad luck that those very same chemicals happen to interact with our body chemistries in the ways that can't occur in shellfish. --Wordsworth As it turns out, red tides do affect other vertebrates (animals with backbones), in fact, they are responsible for huge, stinky die-offs of fish that wash up on shore during a "red tide". The microorganism responsible for the occurrence of a red tide is the "dinoflagellate", there are different types of dinoflagellates, and as I understand it, they produce different types of toxins, but usually the toxin responsible for the die-offs is what is called a "neurotoxin", which affects the heart , slowing it down. This reduces blood circulation, and the reduced blood circulation to the gills results in oxygen starvation, and the fish dies. As far as I know, however, this toxin only affects vertebrates, and not invertebrates (animals without backbones) like the clam and lobster.

114

Sludge recycle and reuse in acid mine drainage treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neutralization of acid mine drainage produces vast quantities of iron-rich sludge, and large quantities of unused lime remain in the sludge after treatment. In a study in which sludge was recycled to increase lime utilization, sludge was mixed with raw acid mine drainage and settled out in an intermediate clarifier. The clarifier supernatant was then treated by lime addition, aeration and sedimentation. The low-pH sludge was withdrawn from the intermediate clarifier. The iron was recovered by acidification and used as wastewater coagulant. The recycle scheme resulted in a 30% decrease in lime requirements, and the resultant coagulant performed well when compared with stock iron coagulant solutions.

Keefer, G.B.; Sack, W.A.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maine Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection The Maine Department of Environmental Protection's Residuals, Sludge, and Composting program regulates the land application and post-processing of organic wastes, including sewage sludge, septage, food waste, and wood

116

Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier  

SciTech Connect

Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 5 (Appendix V)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 5 contains model validation simulations and comparison with data.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

EM Employs Innovative Technology to Remove Radioactive Sludge | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Employs Innovative Technology to Remove Radioactive Sludge Employs Innovative Technology to Remove Radioactive Sludge EM Employs Innovative Technology to Remove Radioactive Sludge September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Testing and equipment simulations ensure first-of-a-kind technological processes for sludge removal can be conducted safely and efficiently. Testing and equipment simulations ensure first-of-a-kind technological processes for sludge removal can be conducted safely and efficiently. RICHLAND, Wash. - The Richland Operations Office and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company successfully removed a portion of a highly radioactive sludge from underwater storage in a large basin adjacent to the K West reactor at the Hanford site this month. In that milestone, workers removed sludge originating from knock-out pots,

119

Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

120

Nitric acid requirement for treating sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) precipitate hydrolysis process produces sufficient oxidant (nitrate) such that the resulting blend of formic acid treated sludge and the aqueous product from hydrolysis (PHA) produces a melter feed of acceptable redox (i.e. Fe+2/Total Fe <0.33). With implementation of Late Washing (to reduce the nitrite content of the tetraphenyborate slurry produced during In-Tank Precipitation to 0.01M or less), HAN is no longer required during hydrolysis. As a result, the nitrate content of the melter feed will be reduced greater than an order-of-magnitude and the resulting melter feed produced will be too reducing. If formic acid treatment of the sludge is retained, it will be necessary to trim the melter feed with an oxidant to attain a proper redox. Rather than trimming the melter feed with an oxidant subsequent to the SRAT cycle in which formic acid is used to acidify the sludge, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has recommended this be accomplished by conversion to nitric acid addition to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) in place of formic acid (1). This memorandum specifies the stoichiometric bases for determining the nitric acid requirement for the SRAT.

Hsu, C.W.

1992-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Integrating BES in the wastewater and sludge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, denitrification, and anaerobic digester treatment systems, while chemical methods include phosphate removal, dye of WAS, including treatment of influent or the accumulated sludge with anaerobic digesters (Rulkens 2008 bacterial metabolism even at conditions outside the optimum range for anaerobic digestion (Angenent et al

Angenent, Lars T.

122

Asbestos in sludge- a significant risk  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to consider the issue of asbestos in sludge applied to land, and to provide some perspective on the health risk conclusions drawn from research on which these stories were based. While this review cannot conclude there is no health risk due to the presence of asbestos in sludge, it does suggest that such risk is not appreciably greater than from the presence of asbestos in other environmental samples. As analytical techniques continue to improve, increasing numbers of potentially toxic chemicals will be found in all types of environmental samples, including sludge. However, it is essential that the mere presence of a chemical in such samples not be equated with toxicity, or a hazard to the general public. Although some of the contaminants that will be detected in sludges or other environmental samples will be new and exotic, many have been present in the environment for years, and, in the case of the asbestos, for millenia. Scientists and engineers must work vigorously to minimize such health risks due to environmental contamination. However, scientists have the responsibility to discuss risks within a framework that is understandable by the general public. To do otherwise so as to incite fear and apprehension borders on scientific irresponsibility, and neither solves the problem, nor does justice to the scientific method.

Naylor, L.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Hydrogen Evolution and Sludge Suspension During the Preparation of the First Batch of Sludge at the Savannah River Site  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first batch of High Level Radioactive Sludge for the Defense Waste Processing Facility is being prepared in two 4.9 million liter waste tanks. The preparation involves removing water soluble salts by washing (water addition, sludge suspension, settling and decantation). Sludge suspension is accomplished using long shafted slurry pumps that are mounted on rotating turntables. During the sludge suspension runs in 1993 and 1994, the slurry pumps` cleaning radius was determined to be less than that expected from previous determinations using synthetic sludge in a full size waste tank mockup. Hydrogen concentrations in the tanks` vapor space were monitored during the sludge suspension activities. As expected, the initial agitation of the sludge increased the hydrogen concentration, however, with the controls in place the hydrogen concentration was maintained below seven percent of the lower flammability limit

Hay, M.S.; Lee, E.D.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fiscal year 1994 1/25-scale sludge mobilization testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are 28 one-million-gallon double-shell radioactive waste tanks on the Hanford Reservation in southeastern Washington State. The waste in these tanks was generated during processing of nuclear materials. Solids-laden slurries were placed into many of the tanks. Over time, the waste solids have settled to form a layer of sludge in the bottom of these tanks. The sludge layer thickness varies from tank to tank with some having only a few centimeters or no sludge up to some tanks which have about 4.5 m (15 ft) of sludge. It is planned that the waste will be removed from these tanks as part of the overall Hanford site cleanup efforts. Jet mixer pumps are to be placed into the tanks to stir up (mobilize) the sludge and form a uniform slurry suitable for pumping to downstream processing facilities. These mixer pumps use powerful jets of tank fluid directed horizontally out of two, diametrically opposed nozzles near the tank bottom. These fluid jets impinge upon the sludge and stir it up. The amount of sludge mobilized by the mixer pump jets depends not only on the jet properties, but also on the ability of the sludge to resist the jets. It is the goal of the work described in this document to develop the ability to predict how much sludge will be mobilized by the mixer pumps based on the size and velocity of the mixer pump jets and the physical and chemical properties of the tank sludge.

Powell, M.R.; Gates, C.M.; Hymas, C.R.; Sprecher, M.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Morter, N.J. [Associated Western Universities, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Northwest Div.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Compilation and Integration of K Basin Sludge Particle Size Analysis Data  

SciTech Connect

This report consolidates and integrates all of the particle size analysis data generated during the Hanford K Basin sludge characterization campaigns. The provides the most representative particle size distribution curves for the various K Basin sludge types. Understanding the particle size distribution of the sludge is necessary to design sludge retrieval and processing systems and to address sludge transportation and storage safety issues due to the potential reactivity of sludge.

Bredt, Paul R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Tingey, Joel M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schmidt, Andrew J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

127

Test Plan for K Basin floor sludge consolidated sampling equipment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the test procedure for the function and acceptance testing of the K Basin Floor Sludge Consolidated Sampling Equipment. This equipment will be used to transfer K Basin floor sludge to a sludge sampling container for subsequent shipment to an analysis or testing facility. This equipment will provide sampling consistent with data quality objectives and sampling plans currently being developed.

OLIVER, J.W.

1998-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

128

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Review, June 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1-06-17 1-06-17 Site: DOE-Richland Operations Office Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 06/13/2011 - 06/17/2011 Report Preparer: Jake Wechselberger Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Result: During the period June 13-17, 2011, an HSS representative participated in tours of the STP test facility. The HSS representative was also briefed by the CHPRC STP Test Director and the DOE-Richland Operations Office principal support

129

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, August 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8-25 8-25 Site: DOE-Richland Operations Office Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 08/22/2011 - 08/25/2011 Report Preparer: Jake Wechselberger Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Result: During the period August 22-25, 2011, an HSS representative attended the STP ECRTS Design Review, Value Engineering. The design review was attended by virtually all STP designated personnel, including managers and experts, representing

130

Geothermal brines and sludges: a new resource  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of cost efficient biochemical processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges is the main thrust of a major R&D effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This effort has led to the design of an environmentally acceptable, technically and economically feasible new technology which converts geothermal wastes into products with significant commercial potential. These include valuable metals recovery with a metal extraction and recovery efficiency of better then 80% over short periods of time (5-25 hours). The new technology also yields valuable salts, such as potassium chloride and generates high quality pigment free silica. The basic technology is versatile and can, with slight modifications, be used in the treatment of hypersaline as well as low salinity brines and sludges. Concurrently traces of toxic metals, including radium are removed to levels which are within regulatory limits. The current status of the new biochemical technology will be discussed in this paper.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.; Miltenberger, R.P.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Ethanol production from paper sludge by simultaneous saccharification...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ethanol Production From Paper Sludge by Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation Using Recombinant Xylose-Fermenting Microorganisms Jiayi Zhang, 1 Lee R. Lynd 1,2 1...

132

Preparing T Plant to Store K-Basin Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This paper will explain the history and status of the modification of the Hanford T Plant facility for storage of K Basin sludge.

MCKENNEY, D.E.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Operational Awareness Review of the Hanford Sludge Treatment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 11172010 - 04072011 Report Preparer: Jake...

134

Review of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, February 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 02272012 - 03012012 Report Preparer: Jake...

135

ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION STUDY FOR TANK 241-AY-102 SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the analyses performed on core samples from the sludge region of the waste in Tank 241-AY-102 to determine the electrochemical corrosion potential.

DUNCAN JB

2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

136

An Innovative Approach to Sludge Retrieval from Containers ...  

Objective of this work is to provide and demonstrate an alternate method of emptying the K- Basin Sludge from the ... Future work – Program plan

137

Dissolution of Uranium Metal from Hanford K Basin Sludge Simulant ...  

Dissolution of Uranium Metal from Hanford K Basin Sludge Simulant, Without Producing Hydrogen Stephanie Bruffey and Paul Taylor Background About 2100 metric tons of ...

138

An evaluation of predictive environmental test procedures for sewage sludge.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research project aimed at evaluating four internationally accepted leachate extraction tests to determine their applicability on sewage sludge samples. Furthermore, the present analytical method… (more)

Kasselman, Graeme

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest projected noble metals content for SB7b. Characterization was performed on the Tank 51 SB7b samples and SRNL performed DWPF simulations using the Tank 40 SB7b material. This report documents: (1) The preparation and characterization of the Tank 51 SB7b and Tank 40 SB7b samples. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the SB7b Tank 40 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a nonradioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the SRAT receipt, SRAT product, and SME product. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7b related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7b processing.

Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

140

Summary - K Basins Sludge Treatment Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

K Basin K Basin DOE is Proces the va at Han subsys oxidati objecti of-fact maturi Eleme Techn The as which seven * M * M * Pr * Pr * As The Ele Site: H roject: K P Report Date: A ited States Why DOE ns Sludge Treatme s constructing ss (STP) for re rious sludge st nford. The STP stems: sludge ion, assay, pac ive of the asse t" appraisal of t ty by first ident ents (CTEs) of t ology Readine What th ssessment team was further div CTEs and the Material Mobiliza Material Transfe rocess Chemis rocess Instrum ssay (TRL=2) To view the full T http://www.em.doe. objective of a Tech ements (CTEs), usin Hanford/ORP K Basins Slud Process/STP August 2007 Departmen K Bas E-EM Did This ent Process Flow D a K Basins Slu trieving, treatin treams stored i P is comprised containerizatio ckaging, and dr ssment was to the project's ov

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Red Paper Wasps  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Red Paper Wasps Red Paper Wasps Name: Sheldon Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: There are a lot of red paper wasps in and around our house. Why are there so many, and why do they hand around our front door? Replies: I'm not sure what species of wasp you have so I can't give you a very detailed answer. Paper wasps overwinter as fertile queens, all the rest die in the winter. In the spring a queen starts a paper nest and lays a few eggs, which hatch into workers. Over the summer the nest expands, and there are more and more workers until they all die again when it freezes in winter. how many workers there will be depends on the species of wasp and food supply, etc. So you have many wasps at this time of year because there is a nest somewhere nearby and they are at the maximum number of individuals before frost. Why they are by your door is probably just a coincidence, an accident, but I can't be sure

143

Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advanced Algorithm Design Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia #12;Red-Black Tree A red-black tree is a binary search tree, and each node contains one extra field: its color, it can be either black or red of the binary search tree. If a binary search tree satisfies all the following red-black properties, it is a red-black

Chen, Yangjun

144

Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank S-110 Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Hanford Tank S-110 sludge caustic leaching test conducted in FY 2001 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The data presented here can be used to develop the baseline and alternative flowsheets for pretreating Hanford tank sludge. The U.S. Department of Energy funded the work through the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP; EM?50).

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carson, Katharine J.; Darnell, Lori P.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoopes, Francis V.; Sell, Richard L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, John J.

2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

145

Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focuses on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report presents results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. This report was originally published in March 2001. In January 2004, a transcription error was discovered in the value reported for the uranium metal content of KE North Loadout Pit sample FE-3. This revision of the report corrects the U metal content of FE-3 from 0.0013 wt% to 0.013 wt%.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

146

Hanford K-Basin Sludge Characterization Overview February 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hanford K-Basin Sludge Characterization Overview February 2005 1 Hanford K-Basin Sludge Characterization Overview February 2005 1. Summary The Hanford K-East and K-West Basins were used to store of the irradiated fuel reprocessing facility at Hanford (the PUREX facility) the N-Reactor irradiated fuel remained

147

Test procedure forms for sludge retrieval and packaging  

SciTech Connect

This document provides test procedure forms for sludge retrieval and packaging tests in the 305 Cold Test Facility. The completed and approved forms provide all descriptions, criteria and analysis to safely perform sludge equipment tests in the 305 Cold Test Facility.

Feigenbutz, L.V.

1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

148

CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of River Protection K Basin Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Emergency Management program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System

149

Microsoft Word - Sludge Test Area CX Determination Form12172012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sludge Test Facility at the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Center (TWPC) [CX-TWPC-13-0001] Sludge Test Facility at the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Center (TWPC) [CX-TWPC-13-0001] Program or Field Office: Environmental Management - Oak Ridge Location(s) (City/County/State): Oak Ridge, Tennessee Proposed Action Description: The proposed action is to construct and operate a sludge test facility at the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Center (TWPC) to conduct testing activities for sludge mobilization, mixing, and removal from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The testing is needed to develop appropriate, compliant treatment to a final waste form that will meet the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). This testing is needed for the mobilization, removal, and treatment of the sludge regardless of

150

First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from River |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from River First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from River July 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Geoff Tyree, DOE Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov 509-376-4171 Dee Millikin, CH2M HILL Dee_Millikin@rl.doe.gov 509-376-1297 RICHLAND, Wash. - Workers have started moving highly radioactive material, called sludge, away from the Columbia River, marking a significant milestone in the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s cleanup of the Hanford Site in Washington State. Today, DOE contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) safely transferred the first large container of highly radioactive sludge from a basin next to a former plutonium production reactor to dry storage in the center of the site. Today's transfer is the first of six shipments

151

High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

KETUSKY, EDWARD

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

152

Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge: Status Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the status of process development for pretreating Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge, of which [approximately] 3.3 [times] 10[sup 6] L is stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW at the Hanford Site. The initial baseline process chosen for pretreating NCRW sludge is to dissolve the sludge in nitric acid and extract the -transuranic (MU) elements from the dissolved sludge solution with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CNWO). This process converts the NCRW sludge into a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW) to be disposed of as grout, leaving only a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) requiring vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP).

Lumetta, G J; Swanson, J L

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Stabilization of Mercury in High pH Tank Sludges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DOE complex contains many tank sludges contaminated with mercury. The high pH of these tank sludges typically fails to stabilize the mercury, resulting in these radioactive wastes also being characteristically hazardous or mixed waste. The traditional treatment for soluble inorganic mercury species is precipitation as insoluble mercuric sulfide. Sulfide treatment and a commercial mercury-stabilizing product were tested on surrogate sludges at various alkaline pH values. Neither the sulfide nor the commercial product stabilized the mercury sufficiently at the high pH of the tank sludges to pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) treatment standards of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The commercial product also failed to stabilize the mercury in samples of the actual tank sludges.

Spence, R.; Barton, J.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

154

SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, but were acceptable compared to the EA glass when tested. These glasses fell outside of the lower 95% confidence band, which demonstrates conservatism in the model. A few of the glasses fell outside of the upper 95% confidence band; however, these particular glasses have normalized release values that were much lower than the values of EA and should be of no practical concern. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable to the SB7b sludge system with a range of Na{sub 2}O concentrations blended with Frits 418 or 702. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable by the current DWPF PCCS models and/or acceptable with respect to the EA benchmark glass regardless of thermal history or compositional view.

Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

155

Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern.

Altman, D.J.

2000-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

156

Confirmation Run of the DWPF SRAT Cycle Using the Sludge-Only Flowsheet with Tank 40 Radioactive Sludge and Frit 200 in the Shielded Cells Facility  

SciTech Connect

Several basic data reports have been issued concerning the recent demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Cycle and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Cycle, conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). The SRTC demonstration was completed using the DWPF ''Sludge-Only'' flowsheet with washed Tank 40 sludge slurry (Sludge Batch 2 or Macrobatch 3) in the Shielded Cells facility. The DWPF ''Sludge-Only'' flowsheet calls for processing radioactive sludge slurry using nitric acid, concentrated formic acid, and frit 200.

Fellinger, T.L.

2002-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

157

Tank 42 sludge-only process development for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)  

SciTech Connect

Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the development of a sludge-only process for Tank 42 sludge since at the current processing rate, the Tank 51 sludge has been projected to be depleted as early as August 1998. Testing was completed using a non-radioactive Tank 42 sludge simulant. The testing was completed under a range of operating conditions, including worst case conditions, to develop the processing conditions for radioactive Tank 42 sludge. The existing Tank 51 sludge-only process is adequate with the exception that 10 percent additional acid is recommended during sludge receipt and adjustment tank (SRAT) processing to ensure adequate destruction of nitrite during the SRAT cycle.

Lambert, D.P.

2000-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

158

SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF.

Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

159

FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated a large number of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projections to support frit optimization for SB6 vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The evaluations discussed in this report occurred over a period of about 4 months, and included about 40 composition projections, developed by both Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and SRNL. Paper study assessments were used to evaluate the sludge composition projections with arrays of potential frit compositions using the predictive models in the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Both nominal sludge compositions and sludge compositions with anticipated compositional variation were considered. The model predictions were used to identify candidate frit compositions for each SB6 projection and to provide some guidance to SRR on washing and blending strategies for SB6 preparation. This report presents a chronological review of this process and summarizes the findings at each stage. Following initial feedback from this work, the number of washes in Tank 51 was reduced to increase the projected sodium concentration in SB6. Analyses of predicted frit performance before and after a potential decant of Tank 40 showed that the post-decant SB6 composition would be difficult to process with any frit composition and that this scenario should be avoided. Based on the most recent SB6 projections (February 2010 SB6 composition projections developed at SRNL using the measured SB6 qualification sample composition and the revised Tank Farm washing plan), Frit 418 appears to be viable for SB6 processing at a target waste loading of 36%. A Nominal Stage PCCS Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessment gave projected operating windows of 25-41% waste loading, limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. The projected operating window is reduced to 25-38% waste loading when anticipated compositional variation is considered, again limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. Blend points between 62 and 40 inches of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) heel in Tank 40 had no practical impact on the projected performance of Frit 418. This assessment is made from a paper study approach only and assumes that no decant of Tank 40 will occur during SB6 processing. A decant of Tank 40 would reduce the Na2O concentration in Tank 40 to a point where it would be very difficult to target a waste loading of 36% for SB6 with Frit 418. The performance of Frit 418 with SB6 is limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization, which is a durability limiting constraint. Alternatives to Frit 418 are available that can provide equivalent projected operating windows and are limited by process related constraints (i.e., liquidus temperature predictions) rather than durability limiting constraints. A separate memorandum has recently been issued that discusses the use of Frit 418 for SB6 vitrification.1 potential differences in melt rate among these alternative frits will be discussed in a forthcoming technical report.

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Zamecnik, J.

2010-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

160

Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive sludges from four tanks were tested in a lab-scale apparatus. Maximum hydrogen generation rates varied from 5 {times}10{sup {minus}7} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the least reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 51) to 2 {times}10{sup {minus}4} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the most reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 11). The time required for the hydrogen generation to reach a maximum varied from 4.1 to 25 hours. In addition to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were produced and the pH of the reaction slurry increased. In all cases, the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were generated before the hydrogen. The results are in agreement with large-scale studies using simulated sludges.

Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive sludges from four tanks were tested in a lab-scale apparatus. Maximum hydrogen generation rates varied from 5 {times}10{sup {minus}7} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the least reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 51) to 2 {times}10{sup {minus}4} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the most reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 11). The time required for the hydrogen generation to reach a maximum varied from 4.1 to 25 hours. In addition to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were produced and the pH of the reaction slurry increased. In all cases, the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were generated before the hydrogen. The results are in agreement with large-scale studies using simulated sludges.

Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS  

SciTech Connect

In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

ERPENBECK EG; LESHIKAR GA

2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

163

Sewage Sludge Management Rule (West Virginia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sewage Sludge Management Rule (West Virginia) Sewage Sludge Management Rule (West Virginia) Sewage Sludge Management Rule (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Siting and Permitting This rule establishes requirements for the permitting siting, bonding, installation, establishment, construction, modification, and operation of any facility that generates, processes, recycles and/or disposes of sewage

164

Shear Strength Measurement Benchmarking Tests for K Basin Sludge Simulants  

SciTech Connect

Equipment development and demonstration testing for sludge retrieval is being conducted by the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) at the MASF (Maintenance and Storage Facility) using sludge simulants. In testing performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (under contract with the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company), the performance of the Geovane instrument was successfully benchmarked against the M5 Haake rheometer using a series of simulants with shear strengths (?) ranging from about 700 to 22,000 Pa (shaft corrected). Operating steps for obtaining consistent shear strength measurements with the Geovane instrument during the benchmark testing were refined and documented.

Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2009-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

165

Sludge Heel Removal Analysis for Slurry Pumps of Tank 11  

SciTech Connect

Computational fluid dynamics methods were used to develop and recommend a slurry pump operational strategy for sludge heel removal in Tank 11. Flow patterns calculated by the model were used to evaluate the performance of various combinations of operating pumps and their orientation. The models focused on removal of the sludge heel located at the edge of Tank 11 using the four existing slurry pumps. The models and calculations were based on prototypic tank geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Tank Closure Project (TCP) Engineering. Computational fluid dynamics models of Tank 11 with different operating conditions were developed using the FLUENT(tm) code. The modeling results were used to assess the efficiency of sludge suspension and removal operations in the 75-ft tank. The models employed a three-dimensional approach, a two-equation turbulence model, and an approximate representation of flow obstructions. The calculated local velocity was used as a measure of sludge removal and mixing capability. For the simulations, a series of the modeling calculations was performed with indexed pump orientations until an efficient flow pattern near the potential location of the sludge mound was established for sludge removal. The calculated results demonstrated that the existing slurry pumps running at 1600 rpm could remove the sludge mound from the tank with a 103 in. liquid level, based on a minimum sludge suspension velocity of 2.27 ft/sec. In this case, the only exception is the region within about 2 ft. from the tank wall. Further results showed that the capabilities of sludge removal were affected by the indexed pump orientation, the number of operating pumps, and the pump speed. A recommended operational strategy for an efficient flow pattern was developed to remove the sludge mound assuming that local fluid velocity can be used as a measure of sludge suspension and removal. Sensitivity results showed that for a given pump speed, a higher tank level and a lower pump nozzle elevation would result in better performance in suspending and removing the sludge. The results also showed that the presence of flow obstructions such as valve housing structure were advantageous for certain pump orientations.

Lee, S.Y.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

166

Spatial autocorrelation and red herrings in geographical ecology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2000) Red-shifts and red herrings in geographical ecology.autocorrelation and red herrings in geographical ecologygenerates ‘red herrings’, such that virtually all past

Diniz, JAF; Bini, L M; Hawkins, Bradford A.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of thermal history. All of the normalized boron releases were less than 1 g/L. While all of the targeted glass compositions were predictable with respect to the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, a small number of the measured glass compositions were located outside of the lower prediction limit indicating poorer durability than what was actually measured. These unpredictable glasses were in the same lithium metaborate (LM) preparation block during the chemical analyses, which resulted in measured compositions that were not representative of the target compositions. A review of the data did not indicate a clear cause for the problem. Re-digestion and re-measurement of three glasses from this preparation block yielded glass compositions closer to the target values and predicted PCT responses within the PCCS model uncertainty. Therefore, it is believed that the glasses were correctly fabricated and the targeted compositions are closer representations of the true compositions. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable for the SB6/Frit 418 glass system. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable and/or acceptable with respect to the DWPF PCCS models. In addition, the inclusion of ThO{sub 2} was shown to have minimal impact on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses.

Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

168

Marketing coal ash, slag, and sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increase in coal-fired power plants and tighter environmental problems have put utilities in the position of marketing coal ash, slag, and sludge by turning waste products into a resource. Many utilities are looking beyond road and structural fill uses in their marketing efforts. Slag can be made into sandblasting grit, aggregate, and roofing granules, or used for soil stabilization or the chemical fixation of municipal wastes. Composition and collection variations discourage many utilities from marketing their by-products, while availability can be a problem for customers if the power plant should shut down. Other problems include storage and transportation, competition, and institutional barriers. Documentation of the fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and scrubber waste markets by the Electric Power Research Institute considers these factors and develops a marketing method to help utilities evaluate and promote their product. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Golden, D.; Komai, R.; Maulbetsch, J.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River September 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Cameron Salony, DOE Cameron.Salony@rl.doe.gov 509-376-0402 Dee Millikin, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company Dee_Millikin@rl.gov 509-376-1297 RICHLAND, WASH. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) announced today the removal of the first phase of highly radioactive sludge from under water storage in the K West Basin about 400 yards away from the Columbia River. "This is a major step forward in protecting the river and a historic

170

Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River September 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Cameron Salony, DOE Cameron.Salony@rl.doe.gov 509-376-0402 Dee Millikin, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company Dee_Millikin@rl.gov 509-376-1297 RICHLAND, WASH. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) announced today the removal of the first phase of highly radioactive sludge from under water storage in the K West Basin about 400 yards away from the Columbia River. "This is a major step forward in protecting the river and a historic

171

Rules and Regulations for Sewage Sludge Management (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of these rules and regulations is to ensure that sewage sludge that is treated, land applied, disposed, distributed, stockpiled or transported in the State of Rhode Island is done so in...

172

Package Safety Analysis Assessment for Sludge Transportation System  

SciTech Connect

This package safety analysis assessment demonstrates that the Sludge Transportation System meets the acceptance criteria for an equivalent package as specified in DOE/RL-2001-36, Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document for onsite shipment.

ROMANO, T.

2003-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

173

Novel Nanoscale Materials Reduce Electricity Needed for Sludge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sludge Digestion Dewatering (Centrifuge/ Belt Filter Press) Solids for Drying/Disposal Return Centrate. Finally, there will be a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions during shipment for disposal. Project

174

Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study  

SciTech Connect

This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

Duncan, J.B.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

175

Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Characterization of Settler Tank and KW Container Sludge Simulants  

SciTech Connect

The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has specified base formulations for non-radioactive sludge simulants for use in the development and testing of equipment for sludge sampling, retrieval, transport, and processing. In general, the simulant formulations are based on the average or design-basis physical and chemical properties obtained by characterizing sludge samples. The simulants include surrogates for uranium metal, uranium oxides (agglomerates and fine particulate), and the predominant chemical phases (iron and aluminum hydroxides, sand). Specific surrogate components were selected to match the nominal particle-size distribution and particle-density data obtained from sludge sample analysis. Under contract to CHPRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed physical and rheological characterization of simulants, and the results are reported here. Two base simulant types (dry) were prepared by STP staff at the Maintenance and Storage Facility and received by PNNL on February 12, 2009: Settler Tank Simulant and KW Container Sludge Simulant. The objectives of this simulant characterization effort were to provide baseline characterization data on simulants being used by STP for process development and equipment testing and provide a high-level comparison of the simulant characteristics to the targets used to formulate the simulants.

Burns, Carolyn A.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

177

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS SUMMARY REPORT [VOLUME 1  

SciTech Connect

Highly radioactive sludge (containing up to 300,000 curies of actinides and fission products) resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in temporary containers located in the 105-K West storage basin near the Columbia River. The background, history, and known characteristics of this sludge are discussed in Section 2 of this report. There are many compelling reasons to remove this sludge from the K-Basin. These reasons are discussed in detail in Section1, and they include the following: (1) Reduce the risk to the public (from a potential release of highly radioactive material as fine respirable particles by airborne or waterborn pathways); (2) Reduce the risk overall to the Hanford worker; and (3) Reduce the risk to the environment (the K-Basin is situated above a hazardous chemical contaminant plume and hinders remediation of the plume until the sludge is removed). The DOE-RL has stated that a key DOE objective is to remove the sludge from the K-West Basin and River Corridor as soon as possible, which will reduce risks to the environment, allow for remediation of contaminated areas underlying the basins, and support closure of the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The environmental and nuclear safety risks associated with this sludge have resulted in multiple legal and regulatory remedial action decisions, plans,and commitments that are summarized in Table ES-1 and discussed in more detail in Volume 2, Section 9.

FREDERICKSON JR; ROURK RJ; HONEYMAN JO; JOHNSON ME; RAYMOND RE

2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

178

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Development of an alternative kraft black liquor recovery process based on low-temperature processing in fluidized beds. Final technical report on Annex 9, Task 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this research program was to provide the fundamental knowledge and experimental data from pilot scale operation for an alternative black liquor recovery technology which would have a higher overall energy efficiency, would not suffer from the smelt-water explosion hazard and would be lower in capital cost. In addition, the alternative process would be more flexible and well suited for incremental recovery capacity or for new pulping processes, such as the new sulfide-sulfide-AQ process. The research program consists of number of specific research objectives with the aim to achieve the ultimate objective of developing an alternative recovery process which is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives are linked to individual unit operations and they represent the following research topics: (1) superheated steam drying of kraft black liquors; (2) fast pyrolysis of black liquor; (3) hydrogen sulfide absorption from flue gas; (4) reduction of sodium sulfate in solid phase with gaseous hydrogen; and (5) verification of the fundamental results in fluidized bed pilot plant. The accomplishments in each of these objectives are described.

Kubes, G.J.

1994-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

180

SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry (Sludge Batch 7a*) be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) is composed of portions of Tanks 4, 7, and 12; the Sludge Batch 6 heel in Tank 51; and a plutonium stream from H Canyon. SRNL received the Tank 51 qualification sample (sample ID HTF-51-10-125) following sludge additions to Tank 51. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernate) and concentration (decanting of supernate) of the SB7a - Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a non-radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R&D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7a related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7a processing.

Pareizs, J.; Billings, A.; Click, D.

2011-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Sludge application and monitoring program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1986--1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Municipal sewage sludge has been applied to forests and pastures on the Oak Ridge Reservation since 1983 as a method of both disposal and beneficial reuse. Application was carried out under Tennessee permits issued to the city of Oak Ridge for land disposal of sewage sludge. In conjunction with these applications, information has been collected concerning sludge quantity and characteristics, soil parameters, soil water constituents, groundwater quality, surface runoff water quality, and various chemical constituents in vegetation on application sites. This information provides (1) a record of sludge application on the DOE reservations and (2) documentation of changes in soil parameters following sludge application. The information also provides a basis for evaluating the implications of the land application of municipal sewage sludge for soil and water quality and for evaluating the fate of sludge constituents when sludge is either sprayed or injected on pasture sites or surface applied in forested sites. This report covers in detail sludge applications conducted from 1986 through 1993, with some data from the period between 1983 and 1986. Anaerobically digested liquid sludge (2% to 4% solids) from the city of Oak Ridge had a relatively high nitrogen content (8% dry weight) and average to low concentrations of potentially problematic metals, compared with typical municipal sludges. Few potentially hazardous organic chemicals were detected in the sludge, and when found, these were at very low concentrations. Oak Ridge sludge is somewhat unique in that it contains radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 131}I, uranium isotopes, {sup 90}Sr, and occasionally {sup 99}Tc) at concentrations much higher than typical municipal sludges. Land application of sewage sludge can dilute or destroy problematic sludge constituents while improving soil fertility. Correct management has made these sludge applications a model of environmentally responsible waste management.

Gunderson, C.A.; Larsen, I.L.; Boston, H.L.; Bradburn, D.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Van Miegroet, H. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Morris, J.L. [Jaycor, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Walzer, A.E. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Central Environmental Compliance; Adler, T.C. [Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huq, M. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Gas Generation Testing of Uranium Metal in Simulated K Basins Sludge and Grouted Sludge Waste Forms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The evolving plan for most of the KE and KW Basin sludges is disposition to WIPP as remote handled (RH) TRU. Because the hydrogen gas concentration in the sealed transportation cask destined for WIPP is limited by flammability safety, the number of containers and shipments to WIPP likely will be driven by the rate of hydrogen generated by the contained uranium metals reaction with water. Therefore, gas generation testing with uranium metal particles of known surface area and immobilized in candidate (grout) solidification matrices was used to identify the effectiveness of various candidate solidification matrices to inhibit the rate of the uranium metal-water reaction.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Bryan, Samuel A.

2004-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

183

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 3 (Appendices II, sections 2--3 and III)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 3 contains the following appendix sections: Formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides in recovery boilers; Sintering and densification of recovery boiler deposits laboratory data and a rate model; and Experimental data on rates of particulate formation during char bed burning.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

K Basin sludge polychlorinated biphenyl removal technology assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two Hanford K Basins are water-filled concrete pools that contain over 2,100 metric tons of N Reactor fuel elements stored in aluminum or stainless steel canisters. During the time the fuel has been stored, approximately 50 m3 of heterogeneous solid material have accumulated in the basins. This material, referred to as sludge, is a mixture of fuel corrosion products, metallic bits of spent fuel and zirconium clad iron and metal corrosion products and silica from migrating sands. Some of the sludges also contain PCBs. The congener group of PCBs was identified as Aroclor 1254. The maximum concentration of sludge PCBS was found to be 140 ppm (as settled wet basis). However, the distribution of the PCBs is non-uniform throughout the sludge (i.e., there are regions of high and low concentrations and places where no PCBs are present). Higher concentrations could be present at various locations. Aroclors 1016/1242, 1221, 1248, 1254, and 1260 were identified and quantified in K West (KW) Canister sludge. In some of these samples, the concentration of 1260 was higher than 1254. The sludge requires pre-treatment to meet tank farm waste acceptance criteria, Among the numerous requirements, the sludge should be retreated so that it does not contain regulated levels of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) compounds. Because of their stable chemistry and relative insolubility in water, PCBs are difficult to treat. They also resist degradation from heat and electrical charges. This stability has resulted in environmental persistence which has prompted the development of a variety of new cleanup processes including supercritical processes, advanced oxidation, dehalogenation and others. Hopefully, most of the new processes are discussed herein. Information on new processes are being received and will be evaluated in a future revision.

Ashworth, S.C.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

185

Research of sludge compost maturity degree modeling method based on wavelet neural network for sewage treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the complicated interaction of the sludge compost components, it makes the compost maturity degree judging system appear the nonlinearity and uncertainty. According to the physical circumstances of sludge compost, a compost maturity degree ...

Meijuan Gao; Jingwen Tian; Wei Jiang; Kai Li

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Properties and potential uses of water treatment sludge from the Neches River of southeast Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Land application of water treatment plant (WTP) sludge has been an unsolved problem. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate characteristics of organic polymer sludge, and (2) to determine the effects of the sludge on soil properties that influence utilization of the sludge as a soil amendment. Water treatment sludges were obtained from water utilities along the Neches Rivet-near Beaumont, Texas. They were mostly coagulated with organic polymers. Mineralogical composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), aggregate stability, Atterberg limits, hydraulic conductivity, dispersion, crust strength, adsorption characteristics, nitrogen content and mineralization potential of the sludge or sludge-amended soil were determined in this study. Mineralogical composition of organic polymer sludge was similar to local Beaumont clay soil. The major fraction of the sludge, the coarse clay, was estimated to be 40% kaolinite, 32% smectite, 20% quartz and 8% mica. However, XRD patterns of the sludge indicated that expansion of the smectite was inhibited by organic polymer coagulant added during water clarification, which also was confirmed by aggregate stability of the sludge. Cation exchange capacity of the bulk sludge samples ranged from 8 to 28 cmol kg-1. Quantitative mineralogical analyses showed that CEC of the sludge was reduced by blockage of cation exchange sites with organic polymers. SEM and TEM results indicated that the sludge was mostly fine aggregates of clay particles. Dried sludge aggregates were not prone to swell, due to their resistance to rewetting. The aggregate stability of dried sludge was above 90% after a 24 hours soaking period in water, compared to 7% aggregate stability of local Beaumont clay soil. Addition of 0 to 10% sludge to Boonville sandy loam soil increased the aggregate stability of the soil from 4 to 13%. Atterberg limit showed that wet sludge had wide ranges of moisture contents in semi-solid and plastic states, and shrunk greatly during drying. Shrinkage limit of the sludges ranged from 16 to 66%; plastic limit from 111 to 138%; and liquid limit from 208 to 320%, which suggested that the sludge was highly plastic and compressible. Addition of 0 to 10% sludge into Boonville sandy loam soil increased the infiltration rate of the soil two orders of magnitudes from 1.4 x 10-4 to 1. I X 10-2 CM / S, and reduced the dispersion of the soil significantly. Moreover, addition of from 0 to 10% sludge into Boonville sandy loam soil greatly reduced the crusting produced by rainfall, and the penetration resistance of the crust decreased from 53.1 to 14.4 kg / cm. Metal adsorbing ability of the Boonville sandy loam soil was reduced by addition of the sludge. Adsorption of Zn+2 decreased from 19.7 to 17.7 ug / g when the sludge was amended from 0 to 10%. Total nitrogen and exchangeable ammonium nitrogen (NH4+) contents of the sludge were four times and twenty times as high, respectively, as those of local Beaumont clay and Lake Charles clay soils. Organic polymer coagulants added during water treatment apparently increased nitrogen content of the sludge. Although the sludge contained considerable total nitrogen, incubation experiment of sludge-amended Beaumont clay or Lake Charles clay soil showed that nitrogen mineralization rate was not affected by the sludge addition. This study indicated that the sludge can improve soil physical properties significantly, e.g. soil aggregation, infiltration, dispersion and crusting. The low nitrogen mineralization rate of the sludge showed that the sludge had little fertility and would not produce a groundwater contamination problem.

Kan, Weiqun

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Marketing coal ash, slag, and sludge  

SciTech Connect

Investigates the selling of by-products of coal-fired power generation--fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and scrubber sludge--by utilities for use in highways, parking lots, cement, roofing, bricks, and blocks. Points out that the EPA has drafted tough new regulations for solid-waste storage, transportation, and disposal that may soon cost power plants $25-$40 a ton to dispose of wastes. Reports that the EPRI is studying high-volume by-product applications that have low technology requirements (e.g. fly ash for use in highways, parking lots, and utility construction) and medium-volume, medium-technology applications (e.g. by-products used for cement manufacture, asphalt, blocks, bricks, roofing granules, and wallboards). Reveals that EPRI plans to eventually identify a representative set of perhaps half a dozen basic fly ashes, characterize them, do proportion studies of existing concrete mixes (including those with fly ash in them), and then develop guidelines for fly ash proportions in concrete.

Lihach, N.; Golden, D.; Komai, R.; Maulbetsch, J.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective.

Vail, T.S.

1997-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

189

Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development: Results of FY 1993 studies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes experimental results from work conducted in FY 1993 under the Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development Task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Experiments were conducted in the following six general areas: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge leaching, (3) sludge dissolution, (4) actinide separation by solvent extraction and extraction chromatography, (5) Sr separation by solvent extraction, and (6) extraction of Cs from acidic solution.

Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Barrington, R.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Carlson, C.D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

INTEC SBW Solid Sludge Surrogate Recipe and Validation  

SciTech Connect

A nonhazardous INTEC tank farm sludge surrogate that incorporated metathesis reactions to generate solids from solutions of known elements present in the radioactive INTEC tank farm sodium-bearing waste sludges was formulated. Elemental analyses, physical property analyses, and filtration testing were performed on waste surrogate and tank farm waste samples, and the results were compared. For testing physical systems associated with moving the tank farm solids, the surrogate described in this report is the best currently available choice. No other available surrogate exhibits the noted similarities in behavior to the sludges. The chemical morphology, particle size distribution, and settling and flow characteristics of the surrogate were similar to those exhibited by the waste sludges. Nonetheless, there is a difference in chemical makeup of the surrogate and the tank farm waste. If a chemical treatment process were to be evaluated for final treatment and disposition of the waste sludges, the surrogate synthesis process would likely require modification to yield a surrogate with a closer matching chemical composition.

Maio, Vince; Janikowski, Stuart; Johnson, Jim; Maio, Vince; Pao, Jenn-Hai

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

SLUDGE BATCH 4 SIMULANT FLOWSHEET STUDIES: PHASE II RESULTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) processing to Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) processing in early fiscal year 2007. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB4 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) process. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. Initial SB4 flowsheet studies were conducted to guide decisions during the sludge batch preparation process. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB4 composition at the time of the study. The composition has changed slightly since these studies were completed due to changes in the sludges blended to prepare SB4 and the estimated SB3 heel mass. The following TTR requirements were addressed in this testing: (1) Hydrogen and nitrous oxide generation rates as a function of acid stoichiometry; (2) Acid quantities and processing times required for mercury removal; (3) Acid quantities and processing times required for nitrite destruction; and (4) Impact of SB4 composition (in particular, oxalate, manganese, nickel, mercury, and aluminum) on DWPF processing (i.e. acid addition strategy, foaming, hydrogen generation, REDOX control, rheology, etc.).

Stone, M; David Best, D

2006-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

192

Computational fluid dynamics modelling of sewage sludge mixing in an anaerobic digester  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the development of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the mechanical mixing of sewage sludge at laboratory scale is reported. The paper recommends a strategy for modelling mechanically mixed sewage sludge at laboratory ... Keywords: Biogas, CFD, Digestion, Energy, Non-Newtonian fluid, Sewage sludge, Turbulence

J. Bridgeman

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Analysis of sludge from K East basin floor and weasel pit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sludge samples from the floor of the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and possibly assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements.

Makenas, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

194

Laboratory development of sludge washing and alkaline leaching processes: Test plan for FY 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy plans to vitrify (as borosilicate glass) the large volumes of high-level radioactive wastes at the Hanford site. To reduce costs, pretreatment processes will be used to reduce the volume of borosilicate glass required for disposal. Several options are being considered for the pretreatment processes: (1) sludge washing with water or dilute hydroxide: designed to remove most of the Na from the sludge, thus significantly reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified; (2) sludge washing plus caustic leaching and/or metathesis (alkaline sludge leaching): designed to dissolve large quantities of certain nonradioactive elements, such as Al, Cr and P, thus reducing the volume of waste even more; (3) sludge washing, sludge dissolution, and separation of radionuclides from the dissolved sludge solutions (advanced processing): designed to remove all radionuclides for concentration into a minimum waste volume. This report describes a test plan for work that will be performed in FY 1994 under the Sludge Washing and Caustic Leaching Studies Task (WBS 0402) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Project. The objectives of the work described here are to determine the effects of sludge washing and alkaline leaching on sludge composition and the physical properties of the washed sludge and to evaluate alkaline leaching methods for their impact on the volume of borosilicate glass required to dispose of certain Hanford tank sludges.

Rapko, B.M.; Lumetta, G.J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

The Reactive Light Yellow Dye Wastewater Treatment by Sewage Sludge-Based Activated Carbon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper is aim to discuss the dye wastewater treatment by sewage sludge-based adsorbent. The adsorbent derived from sewage sludge, which produced through phosphoric acid-microwave method, and commercia activated carbon (ACC) were tested in the process ... Keywords: Sewage Sludge-based Activated Carbon (ACSS), the Reactive Light Yellow, Dye Wastewater, Adsorption

Yang Lijun; Dai Qunwei

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Early experience with red storm.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Red Storm is a massively parallel processor. The Red Storm design goals are: (1) Balanced system performance - CPU, memory, interconnect, and I/O; (2) Usability - functionality of hardware and software meets needs of users for Massively Parallel Computing; (3)S calability - system hardware and software scale, single cabinet system to {approx} 30,000 processor system; (4) reliability - machines tays up long enough between interrupts to make real progress on completing application run (at least 50 hours MTBI), requires full system RAS capability; (5) Upgradability - system can be upgraded with a processor swap and additional cabinets to 100T or greater; (6) red/black switching - capability to switch major portions of the machine between classified and unclassified computing environments; (7) space, power, cooling - high density, low power system; and (8) price/performance - excellent performance per dollar, use high volume commodity parts where feasible.

Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Ballance, Robert A.

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Sludge Washing And Demonstration Of The DWPF Flowsheet In The SRNL Shielded Cells For Sludge Batch 8 Qualification  

SciTech Connect

The current Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks to Tank 51. Tank 51 sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes using a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). WSE requested the SRNL to perform characterization on a Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) sample and demonstrate the DWPF flowsheet in the SRNL shielded cells for SB8 as the final qualification process required prior to SB8 transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40. A 3-L sample from Tank 51 (the SB8 qualification sample; Tank Farm sample HTF-51-12-80) was received by SRNL on September 20, 2012. The as-received sample was characterized prior to being washed. The washed material was further characterized and used as the material for the DWPF process simulation including a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, and glass fabrication and chemical durability measurements.

Pareizs, J. M.; Crawford, C. L.

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

198

Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

199

Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

200

Hanford Sludge Simulant Selection for Soil Mechanics Property Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current System Plan for the Hanford Tank Farms uses relaxed buoyant displacement gas release event (BDGRE) controls for deep sludge (i.e., high level waste [HLW]) tanks, which allows the tank farms to use more storage space, i.e., increase the sediment depth, in some of the double-shell tanks (DSTs). The relaxed BDGRE controls are based on preliminary analysis of a gas release model from van Kessel and van Kesteren. Application of the van Kessel and van Kesteren model requires parametric information for the sediment, including the lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus. No lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus in situ measurements for Hanford sludge are currently available. The two chemical sludge simulants will be used in follow-on work to experimentally measure the van Kessel and van Kesteren model parameters, lateral earth pressure at rest, and shear modulus.

Wells, Beric E.; Russell, Renee L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Brown, Garrett N.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Crum, Jarrod V.

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z #12;Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison with its associated (2,4) tree

Alechina, Natasha

202

Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks.

Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

K East basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides estimates of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel elements and in the fuel storage canisters in K East Basin. The original estimates were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. Revision 1 revised the volume estimates of sludge from processing of the fuel elements based on additional data from evaluations of material from the KE Basin fuel subsurface examinations. A nominal Working Estimate and an upper level Working Bound is developed for the canister sludge and the fuel wash sludge components in the KE Basin.

Pearce, K.L.

1998-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

204

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

205

GLYCOLIC-FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET SLUDGE MATRIX STUDY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Testing was completed to demonstrate the viability of the newly developed glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet on processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) initiated a sludge matrix study to evaluate the impact of changing insoluble solid composition on the processing characteristics of slurries in DWPF. Four sludge simulants were prepared to cover two compositional ranges in the waste. The first was high iron/low aluminum versus low iron/high aluminum (referred to as HiFe or LoFe in this report). The second was high calcium-manganese/low nickel, chromium, and magnesium versus low calcium-manganese/high nickel, chromium, and magnesium (referred to as HiMn or LoMn in this report). These two options can be combined to form four distinct sludge compositions. The sludge matrix study called for testing each of these four simulants near the minimum acid required for nitrite destruction (100% acid stoichiometry) and at a second acid level that produced significant hydrogen by noble metal catalyzed decomposition of formic acid (150% acid stoichiometry). Four simulants were prepared based on the four possible combinations of the Al/Fe and Mn-Ca/Mg-Ni-Cr options. Preliminary simulant preparation work has already been documented. The four simulants were used for high and low acid testing. Eight planned experiments (GF26 to GF33) were completed to demonstrate the viability of the glycolic-formic flowsheet. Composition and physical property measurements were made on the SRAT product. Composition measurements were made on the condensate from the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT), Formic Acid Vent Condenser (FAVC), ammonia scrubber and on SRAT samples pulled throughout the SRAT cycle. Updated values for formate loss and nitrite-tonitrate conversion were found that can be used in the acid calculations for future sludge matrix process simulations with the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet. Preliminary results of the initial testing indicate: (1) Hydrogen generation rate was very low throughout all SRAT cycles. (2) The mercury concentration of the SRAT product was below the 0.8 wt% limit in all runs. (3) Nitrite in the SRAT product was <100 mg/kg for all runs. (4) Foaminess was not an issue using the nominal antifoam addition strategy in these tests. (5) The high aluminum sludges (LoFe, HM type sludges) were much more viscous than the Hi Fe sludges. At 100% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very viscous but at 150% acid stoichiometry, the SRAT products from the high aluminum sludges were very thin. This makes the glycolic acid/formic acid flowsheet an improvement for processing more viscous sludges. (6) The pH of the SRAT products was from 2.7-3.1 for the 150% acid stoichiometry runs and 5.1-6.1 for the 100% acid stoichiometry runs, significantly lower than is typical of the baseline nitric acid/formic acid flowsheet.

Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

206

Role of vanadium(V) in the aging of the organic phase in the extraction of uranium(VI) by Alamine 336 from acidic sulfate leach liquors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work is focussed on the chemical degradation of Alamine 336-tridecanol-n-dodecane solvent which used in the recovery of uranium by solvent extraction. Degradation occurs due to the presence of vanadium(V), an oxidant, in the feed solution. After a brief overview of the chemistry of vanadium, the kinetics of degradation of the solvent when contacted with acidic sulfate leach liquor was investigated and interpreted by the Michelis-Menten mechanism. GCMS analyses evidenced the presence of tridecanoic acid and dioctylamine as degradation products. A mechanism of degradation is discussed. (authors)

Chagnes, A.; Cote, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris - ENSCP Universite Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - Laboratoire d'Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique - UMR 7575 CNRS-ENSCP-Paris 6 ENSCP, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Courtaud, B.; Thiry, J. [AREVA-NC, Service d'Etudes de Procedes et d'Analyses (SEPA), B.P. No 71, 87250 Bessines sur Gartempe (France)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

CRAD, Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Management at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge

208

Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge: Results of the second design basis experiment  

SciTech Connect

For several years, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been investigating methods to pretreat Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge. In the past, Zircaloy-clad metallic U fuel was chemically decladded using the Zirflex process; NCRW sludge was formed when the decladding solution was neutralized for storage in carbon-steel tanks. This sludge, which is currently stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW on the Hanford Site, primarily consists of insoluble Zr hydroxides and/or oxides and NaF. Significant quantities of Al, La, U, as well as other insoluble minor constituents are present in the sludge, along with sodium and potassium nitrates, nitrites, and hydroxides in the interstitial liquid. The sludge contains about 2,000 nCi of transuranic (TRU) material per gram of dry sludge, and mixed fission products. Therefore, the sludge must be handled as high-level waste (HLW). The NCRW sludge must be pretreated before treatment (e.g., vitrification) and disposal, so that the overall cost of disposal can be minimized. The NCRW pretreatment flowsheet was designed to achieve the following objectives: (a) to separate Am and Pu from the major sludge constituents (Na, Zr). (b) to separate Am and Pu from U. (c) to concentrate Am and Pu in a small volume for immobilization in borosilicate glass, based on Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The flowsheet involves: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge dissolution, (3) extraction of U with tributyl phosphate (TBP), and (4) extraction of TRUs with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutlycarbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO). As presented in the flowsheet, the NCRW sludge is first washed with 0.I M NaOH to remove interstitial liquid and soluble salts from the sludge including sodium and potassium fluorides, carbonates, hydroxides, nitrates, and nitrites. The washed sludge is then subjected to two dissolution steps to achieve near complete dissolution of Zr.

Lumetta, G.J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Biogas Generation from a 2-Phase Sludge Treatment System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The degradation of sewage sludge in single stage and 2 phase anaerobic systems was investigated in bench-scale batch reactors. Average COD reduction efficiency in 2 phase system in this initial phase of the study was 4.5% (30 days HRT) and 3.3% (20 days ... Keywords: dge digestion, 2-phase, single stage, qPCR, microbial communities

Taranveer Singh Mann, Terence Goh, William Phay

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

ORIGINAL PAPER Bioremediation of oily sludge-contaminated soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

materials in crude-oil storage tanks also causes problems to the environment (Mrayyan and Battikhi 2005 of oily sludge generated in water­oil separation systems at oilfields and accumulation of waste oily as priority environmental pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA 1986) and are also

Ma, Lena

211

Monitoring the Fixed FGD Sludge Landfill--Conesville, Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three years of extensive monitoring of the first full-scale application of the fixed flue gas desulfurization sludge process proved it technically sound. This new disposal method offers utilities leachate control in a landfill that allows diverse use of disposal sites in the future.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

213

Conservation Plan for Red Squirrels in Wales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Conservation Plan for Red Squirrels in Wales Meeting the challenge to keep reds in Wales to enable effective red squir- rel conservation and grey squirrel management in Wales. The Wales Squirrel squirrel conservation and grey squirrel management in Wales. The Forum and Partnership are currently

214

HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

215

Final Report - Gas Generation Testing of Uranium Metal in Simulated K Basin Sludge and in Grouted Sludge Waste Forms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being considered for the disposal of K Basin sludge as RH-TRU. Because the hydrogen gas concentration in the 55-gallon RH-TRU sealed drums to be transported to WIPP is limited by flammability safety, the number of containers and shipments likely will be driven by the rate of hydrogen generated by the uranium metal-water reaction (U + 2 H{sub 2}O {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}) in combination with the hydrogen generated from water and organic radiolysis. Gas generation testing was conducted with uranium metal particles of known surface area, in simulated K West (KW) Basin canister sludge and immobilized in candidate grout solidification matrices. This study evaluated potential for Portland cement and magnesium phosphate grouts to inhibit the reaction of water with uranium metal in the sludge and thereby permit higher sludge loading to the disposed waste form. The best of the grouted waste forms decreased the uranium metal-water reaction by a factor of four.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Gano, Sue; Thornton, Brenda M.

2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

216

Characterization of Compaction and Dryout Properties of KE Basin Sludge During Long-Term Storage  

SciTech Connect

The long-term behavior of Hanford Site K Basin sludge with respect to loss of supernatant water and solids compaction is important in designing sludge storage and handling systems. This report describes the results of laboratory tests performed to understand and predict K Basin sludge drying and compaction rates under extended (28-month) {approx}34 C hot cell storage. Tests were conducted with six K Basin sludge materials, a control sample of simulated K Basin sludge, and a control sample containing only K Basin supernatant liquid. All samples were held in graduated cylinders fitted with threaded plastic caps. Quantitative data were gathered on how the mass and volume of K Basin sludge, and its associated supernatant liquid, changed with respect to storage time. The tests showed that the K Basin sludge samples lost water unpredictably, depending on cap seal tightness, with projected dryout times for a 1-cm cover water depth ranging from 5 to 216 months. Though the ambient radiation field ({approx}5 Rad/hour) likely contributed to cap seal degradation, water evaporation rates were found to be independent of the contained material (water vs. sludge; radioactive vs. non-radioactive sludge). Although water was lost at variable rates from sludge samples during storage in the hot cell (and, presumably, in long-term containerized storage), the sludge itself had no intrinsic propensity to enhance or diminish the rate of water evaporation compared with that exhibited by water stored in the same environment. Most of the compaction of the six KE Basin sludges and the simulated sludge occurred in the first week. Subsequent compaction to 28-months time provided little additional increase in settled sludge density. Agitating the settled sludge likewise had little to no effect on the density. However, one tested sludge contained unreacted uranium metal that began to generate corrosion product hydrogen gas after 78 days of settling and strongly altered the apparent sludge density. T he lengthy induction time shows again that uranium metal-bearing sludge may lie quiescent for long periods, even at comparatively warm temperatures, before initiating gas generation. When the testing was completed, the sludge samples were removed from the graduated cylinders. Most sludge re-suspended readily but a canister sludge sample that had previously been allowed to dry out during storage self-cemented into a hard-cake monolith and could not be re-suspended. Settled sludge density and the concentrations of 154Eu, 241Am, and the plutonium isotopes were found to follow the dry basis uranium concentration in the sludge solids. These findings amplify observations made in prior characterization studies that showed that sludge density and radiolytic, fissile material, and TRU (primarily 241Am and 238,239,240Pu) concentrations are proportional to uranium concentration. The sludge pH, found to decrease from {approx}8 to {approx}5 with a dry basis uranium concentration increase from {approx}2.5 to 82 wt% , provides data useful in designing sludge storage and process equipment.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Poloski, Adam P.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

Strength Measurements of Archive K Basin Sludge Using a Soil Penetrometer  

SciTech Connect

Spent fuel radioactive sludge present in the K East and K West spent nuclear fuel storage basins now resides in the KW Basin in six large underwater engineered containers. The sludge will be dispositioned in two phases under the Sludge Treatment Project: (1) hydraulic retrieval into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport to interim storage in Central Plateau and (2) retrieval from the STSCs, treatment, and packaging for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In the years the STSCs are stored, sludge strength is expected to increase through chemical reaction, intergrowth of sludge crystals, and compaction and dewatering by settling. Increased sludge strength can impact the type and operation of the retrieval equipment needed prior to final sludge treatment and packaging. It is important to determine whether water jetting, planned for sludge retrieval from STSCs, will be effective. Shear strength is a property known to correlate with the effectiveness of water jetting. Accordingly, the unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) of archive K Basin sludge samples and sludge blends were measured using a pocket penetrometer modified for hot cell use. Based on known correlations, UCS values can be converted to shear strengths. Twenty-six sludge samples, stored in hot cells for a number of years since last being disturbed, were identified as potential candidates for UCS measurement and valid UCS measurements were made for twelve, each of which was found as moist or water-immersed solids at least 1/2-inch deep. Ten of the twelve samples were relatively weak, having consistencies described as 'very soft' to 'soft'. Two of the twelve samples, KE Pit and KC-4 P250, were strong with 'very stiff' and 'stiff' consistencies described, respectively, as 'can be indented by a thumb nail' or 'can be indented by thumb'. Both of these sludge samples are composites collected from KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit locations. Despite both strong sludges having relatively high iron concentrations, attribution of their high strengths to this factor could not be made with confidence as other measured sludge samples, also from the KE Basin floor and of high iron concentration, were relatively weak. The observed UCS and shear strengths for the two strong sludges were greater than observed in any prior testing of K Basin sludge except for sludge processed at 185 C under hydrothermal conditions.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

218

High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Characteristics of KE Basin Sludge Samples Archived in the RPL - 2007  

SciTech Connect

Samples of sludge were collected from the K East fuel storage basin (KE Basin) floor, contiguous pits (Weasel Pit, North Load Out Pit, Dummy Elevator Pit, and Tech View Pit), and fuel storage canisters between 1995 and 2003 for chemical and radionuclide concentration analysis, physical property determination, and chemical process testing work. Because of the value of the sludge in this testing and because of the cost of obtaining additional fresh samples, an ongoing program of sludge preservation has taken place with the goals to track the sludge identities and preserve, as well as possible, the sludge composition by keeping the sludge in sealed jars and maintaining water coverage on the sludge consistent with the controlling Fluor Hanford (FH) Sampling and Analysis plans and FH contracts with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This work was originally initiated to provide material for planned hydrothermal treatment testing in accordance with the test plan for the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) corrosion process chemistry follow on testing (Delegard et al. 2007). Although most of the planned hydrothermal testing was canceled in July 2007 (as described in the forward of Delegard et al. 2007), sample consolidation and characterization was continued to identify a set of well-characterized sludge samples that are suited to support evolving STP initiatives. The work described in the letter was performed by the PNNL under the direction of the Sludge Treatment Project, managed by Fluor Hanford.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

220

Red-black Trees To know what a red-black tree is (10.1).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

809 CHAPTER 10 Red-black Trees Objectives · To know what a red-black tree is (§10.1). · To convert a red-black tree to a 2-4 tree and vice versa (§10.2). · To design the RBTree class that extends the BinaryTree class (§10.3). · To insert an element in a red-black tree and resolve the double red problem

Liang, Y. Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Red-Black Trees Red-black trees are binary search trees that sat-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Red-Black Trees Red-black trees are binary search trees that sat- isfy: 1. Every node is either red or black. 2. If a node is red, then its parent is black. 3. For a given node, every path to a nil has the same number of black nodes, called black- height. A red-black tree with n nodes has h 2 lg

Bylander, Tom

222

SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND SRAT SIMULATIONS USING A NITRITE-FREE SLUDGE SIMULANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding catalytic hydrogen generation is fundamental to the safe operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Two Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) simulations were completed at the Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a nitrite-free starting simulant. One simulation was trimmed with Rh and Hg and the other with Ru and Hg. The two noble metals were trimmed at the upper end of the recent Rh-Ru-Hg study. Mercury was trimmed at 1.5 wt% in the total solids. Excess acid comparable in quantity to that in the recent Rh-Ru-Hg matrix study was used. In spite of the favorable conditions for hydrogen generation, virtually no hydrogen production was observed during either SRAT simulation. The Rh test result confirmed the postulated significance of nitrite ion to the catalytic reactions producing hydrogen in CPC testing with normal DWPF sludge simulants. As for Ru, however, previous testing has shown that Ru activated for hydrogen generation only after nitrite destruction. Therefore, Ru could have potentially been catalytically active from the start of the nitrite-free SRAT test, but no such activity was seen. The nitrite-free Ru test result suggests that the intermediate form detected in the bead-frit melter feed preparation Ru solubility profiles was some form of nitro-Ru complex. The nitro-Ru complex is apparently not catalytically active for hydrogen generation but is a precursor to the catalytically active form (presumably a different complex not involving nitrite ligands). Removing nitrite ion from the system prevented the Ru catalyst precursor from forming and consequently blocked formation of the catalytically active form. These results, along with the results of a simulation in which sodium nitrite was metered into the SRAT to prevent ligand substitution reactions that occur during nitrite destruction from occurring in order to reduce hydrogen generation, have greatly clarified the role of the nitrite ion in SRAT hydrogen generation. The new findings add to the overall fundamental understanding of catalytic hydrogen generation during waste processing in the DWPF. These findings also address one of the issues raised in the Future Work section of the recent summary document concerning catalytic hydrogen generation in the CPC. The knowledge gained should facilitate planning future experiments.

Koopman, D.

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

223

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is collected. The sand filter is then backwashed into the STSC. The STSC and STS cask are then inerted and transported to T Plant.

CARRO CA

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume  

SciTech Connect

Sludge disposition will be managed in two phases under the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. The first phase is to retrieve the sludge that currently resides in engineered containers in the K West (KW) Basin pool at ~10 to 18°C. The second phase is to retrieve the sludge from interim storage in the sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and treat and package it in preparation for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The work described in this report was conducted to gain insight into how sludge may change during long-term containerized storage in the STSCs. To accelerate potential physical and chemical changes, the tests were performed at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures significantly greater than those expected in the T Plant canyon cells where the STSCs will be stored. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of 50°C oxygenated water exposure on settled quiescent uraninite (UO2) slurry and a full simulant of KW containerized sludge to determine the effects of oxygen and heat on the composition and mechanical properties of sludge. Shear-strength measurements by vane rheometry also were conducted for UO2 slurry, mixtures of UO2 and metaschoepite (UO3•2H2O), and for simulated KW containerized sludge. The results from these tests and related previous tests are compared to determine whether the settled solids in the K Basin sludge materials change in volume because of oxidation of UO2 by dissolved atmospheric oxygen to form metaschoepite. The test results also are compared to determine if heating or other factors alter sludge volumes and to determine the effects of sludge composition and settling times on sludge shear strength. It has been estimated that the sludge volume will increase with time because of a uranium metal ? uraninite ? metaschoepite oxidation sequence. This increase could increase the number of containers required for storage and increase overall costs of sludge management activities. However, the volume might decrease because of decreases in the water-volume fraction caused by sludge solid reactions, compaction, or intergrowth and recrystallization of metaschoepite. In that case, fewer STSCs may be needed, but the shear strength would increase, and this could challenge recovery by water jet erosion and require more aggressive retrieval methods. Overall, the tests described herein indicate that the settled solids volume remains the same or decreases with time. The only case for which the sludge solids volumes increase with time is for the expansion factor attendant upon the anoxic corrosion of uranium metal to produce UO2 and subsequent reaction with oxygen to form equimolar UO2.25 and UO3•2H2O.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

225

CRAD, Training - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Training - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Environment, Safety and Health program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Training - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge

226

CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Engineering program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge

227

EA-1042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application 042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application Program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennesee EA-1042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application Program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennesee SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to raise the sludge land application loading limits from the current, self-imposed conservative 48 metric tons/ha lifetime loading to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation-permitted level of 110 metric tons/ha. The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory also proposes to add its K-25 Site pretreated sewage sludge to the existing sewage sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

228

Vessel-Spanning Bubble Formation in K-Basin Sludge Stored in Large-Diameter Containers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The K Basin sludge to be retrieved and stored in the large diameter containers (LDCs) contains some fraction of uranium metal that generates hydrogen gas, which introduces potential upset conditions. One postulated upset condition is a rising plug of sludge supported by a hydrogen bubble that is driven into the vent filters at the top of the container. In laboratory testing with actual K Basin sludge, vessel-spanning bubbles that lifted plugs of sludge were observed in 3-inch-diameter graduated cylinders. This report presents a series of analytical assessments performed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to address the potential for the generation of a vessel spanning bubble in the LDCs. The assessments included the development and evaluation of static and dynamic bubble formation models over the projected range of K Basin sludge physical properties. Additionally, the theory of circular plates was extrapolated to examine conditions under which a plug of sludge would collapse and release a spanning bubble.

Terrones, Guillermo; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Application of microwave energy for in-drum solidification of simulated precipitation sludge  

SciTech Connect

The application of microwave energy for in-container solidification of simulated transuranic contaminated precipitation sludges has been tested. Results indicate volume reductions to 83% are achievable by the continuous feeding of pre-dried sludge into a waste container while applying microwave energy. An economic evaluation was completed showing achievable volume and weight reductions to 87% compared with a current immobilization process for wet sludge. 7 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs.

Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.; Swanson, S.D.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

1987-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

230

Conditions of utilization of coal mining and processing sludges as slurry fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of this study have shown that coal sludge can be used as slurry fuel (like coal-water fuel (CWF)) providing that its ash content does not exceed 30% and the amount in the fuel is at least 55%. The conventional CWF preparation technologies are inapplicable to the fabrication of water-sludge fuel; therefore, special technologies with allowance for the ash content, the particle size, and the water content of coal sludge are demanded.

E.G. Gorlov; A.I. Seregin; G.S. Khodakov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Microwave Thermal Hydrolysis Of Sewage Sludge As A Pretreatment Stage For Anaerobic Digestion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article focuses on the effects of microwave thermal hydrolysis on sewage sludge anaerobic digestion. Volatile suspended solid (VSS) and COD solubilization of treated sludge were investigated. It was found that the microwave hydrolysis provided a rapid and efficient process to release organics from sludge. The increase of organic dissolution ratio was not obvious when holding time was over 5 min. The effect of the VSS solubilization was mainly dependent on temperature. The highest value of VSS dissolving ratio

W. Qiao; W. Wang; R. Xun

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

Raymond, Rick E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Frederickson, James R. [AREVA, Avignon (France); Criddle, James [AREVA, Avignon (France); Hamilton, Dennis [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Mike W. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

233

Disposition Options for Hanford Site K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Sludge  

SciTech Connect

This report provides summary-level information about a group of options that have been identified for the disposition of spent-nuclear-fuel sludge in the K-Basins at the Hanford Site. These options are representative of the range of likely candidates that may be considered for disposition of the sludge. The product of each treatment option would be treated sludge that would meet waste acceptance requirements for disposal as transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

Mellinger, George B.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Gerber, Mark A.; Naft, Barry N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Walton, Terry L.

2004-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

234

Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

236

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

237

Review of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, February 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HSS Independent Activity Report - Rev. 0 Report Number: HIAR-RL-2012-02-27 Site: DOE-Richland Operations Office Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 02/27/2012 - 03/01/2012 Report Preparer: Jake Wechselberger Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Result: During the period February 27 - March 1, 2012, an HSS representative attended the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board

238

Review of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, February 2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HSS Independent Activity Report - Rev. 0 Report Number: HIAR-RL-2012-02-27 Site: DOE-Richland Operations Office Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 02/27/2012 - 03/01/2012 Report Preparer: Jake Wechselberger Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Result: During the period February 27 - March 1, 2012, an HSS representative attended the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board

239

Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford Tank C-106 sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a laboratory-scale washing and caustic leaching test performed on sludge from Hanford Tank C-106. The purpose of this test was to determine the behavior of important sludge components when subjected to washing with dilute or concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions. The results of this laboratory-scale test were used to support the design of a bench-scale washing and leaching process used to prepare several hundred grams of high-level waste solids for vitrification tests to be done by private contractors. The laboratory-scale test was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in FY 1996 as part of the Hanford privatization effort. The work was funded by the US Department of Energy through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS; EM-30).

Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Hoopes, F.V.; Steele, R.T.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

In-Situ Characterization of Underwater Radioactive Sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fundamental requirement underpinning safe clean-up technologies for legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF) ponds, pools and wet silos is the ability to characterize the radioactive waste form prior to retrieval. The corrosion products resulting from the long term underwater storage of spent nuclear fuel, reactor components and reprocessing debris present a major hazard to facility decontamination and decommissioning in terms of their radioactive content and physical / chemical reactivity. The ability to perform in-situ underwater non-destructive characterization of sludge and debris in a safe and cost-effective manner offers significant benefits over traditional destructive sampling methods. Several techniques are available for underwater measurements including (i) Gross gamma counting, (ii) Low-, Medium- and High- Resolution Gamma Spectroscopy, (iii) Passive neutron counting and (iv) Active Neutron Interrogation. The optimum technique depends on (i) the radioactive inventory (ii) mechanical access restrictions for deployment of the detection equipment, interrogation sources etc. (iii) the integrity of plant records and (iv) the extent to which Acceptable Knowledge which may be used for 'fingerprinting' the radioactive contents to a marker nuclide. Prior deployments of underwater SNF characterization equipment around the world have been reviewed with respect to recent developments in gamma and neutron detection technologies, digital electronics advancements, data transfer techniques, remote operation capabilities and improved field ruggedization. Modeling and experimental work has been performed to determine the capabilities, performance envelope and operational limitations of the future generation of non-destructive underwater sludge characterization techniques. Recommendations are given on the optimal design of systems and procedures to provide an acceptable level of confidence in the characterization of residual sludge content of legacy wet storage facilities such that retrieval and repackaging of SNF sludges may proceed safely and efficiently with support of the regulators and the public. (author)

Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.; Swinson, B. [Pajarito Scientific Corp., Santa Fe, NM (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

PROGRESS WITH K BASINS SLUDGE RETRIEVAL STABILIZATION & PACKAGING AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the U.S. and the U.K. to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford Site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, so as to remove the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building, is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout packaging processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. Optimization and simplification of the original sludge corrosion process design is described and the use of transportable and reusable equipment is indicated. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup.

KNOLLMEYER, P.M.; PHILLIPS, C; TOWNSON, P.S.

2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sludge treatment to increase biogas production. Available atal. , no date) Use of biogas from anaerobic sludge digestionsludge are mass reduction, biogas production, and improved

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts  

SciTech Connect

Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

Brar, Satinder K., E-mail: satinder.brar@ete.inrs.c [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Verma, Mausam [Department of Biological Engineering, Sexton Campus, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 2X4 (Canada); Tyagi, R.D. [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Surampalli, R.Y. [US Environmental Protection Agency, P.O. Box 17-2141, Kansas City, KS 66117 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Renovation of a pear orchard site with sludge compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lime-stabilized sewage sludge compost was used as a surface amendment to improve the soil and nutritional status of a number of established pear cultivars grown on an acidic, low fertility soil site. Leaf Ca status was significantly increased while trace metals were not elevated and in most cases decreased by sludge compost over the course of the study. Soil chemical properties were modified in a manner similar to liming. Addition of sludge composts, particularly low metal containing materials, appears to represent an acceptable aid in renovating established pear orchards located on poor soil sites. Leaf, fruit flesh or peel Cd were not significantly effected by the compost addition. The compost added twice the recommended level of available N the first year and sub-optimum N the following two years. Leaf N, although significantly increased in the composted versus non-composted controls, was below sufficiency levels by the third year after addition. This indicates that compost cannot fully supply required N from a one time application even over the short term.

Korcak, R.F.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k{sub 20} (the first-order rate constant at 20 {sup o}C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k{sub 20}, k{sub 20s} (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 {sup o}C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d{sup -1}, respectively.

Zhang Jun [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao Ding, E-mail: gaod@igsnrr.ac.c [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Du Wei [Beijing GreenTech Environmental Engineering Company, Beijing 100080 (China)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Sludge mobilization with submerged nozzles in horizontal cylindrical tanks  

SciTech Connect

The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and the evaporator service tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are used for the collection and storage of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). Wastes collected in these tanks are typically acidic when generated and are neutralized with sodium hydroxide to protect the tanks from corrosion; however, the high pH of the solution causes the formation of insoluble compounds that precipitate. These precipitates formed a sludge layer approximately 0.6 to 1.2 m (2 to 4 ft) deep in the bottom of the tanks. The sludge in the MVSTs and the evaporator service tanks will eventually need to be removed from the tanks and treated for final disposal or transferred to another storage facility. The primary options for removing the sludge include single-point sluicing, use of a floating pump, robotic sluicing, and submerged-nozzle sluicing. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of submerged-nozzle sluicing in horizontal cylindrical tanks and (2) obtain experimental data to validate the TEMPEST (time-dependent, energy, momentun, pressure, equation solution in three dimensions) computer code.

Hylton, T.D.; Cummins, R.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Perona, J.J.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Right Turn on Red! | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Right Turn on Red! Right Turn on Red! Right Turn on Red! August 25, 2011 - 12:05pm Addthis Right Turn on Red is a policy that was enacted in the 1970s to help save drivers fuel and money at the pump. | Energy Department Image | Photo by Hantz Leger Right Turn on Red is a policy that was enacted in the 1970s to help save drivers fuel and money at the pump. | Energy Department Image | Photo by Hantz Leger Dan Leistikow Dan Leistikow Former Director, Office of Public Affairs Last week, as part of our inaugural edition of Plugged In! -- an email newsletter for staff and contractors here at the Energy Department -- I asked readers for more information about the Right Turn on Red policy that was enacted in the 1970s to help save fuel. I'm happy to report that we received several responses from individuals across the Department with more

248

Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill.

Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

2002-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

249

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

ENERGY STAR Success Story - Cincinnati Reds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

winding banks of the Ohio River in downtown Cincinnati, the Great American Ball Park is home to the Cincinnati Reds, baseball's first professional franchise. The ballpark, built...

251

Tank 12 Sludge Characterization and Aluminum Dissolution Demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the post-dissolution sludge settled over a three week period. The corresponding volume of supernatant that was decanted from the waste was approximately 35% of the total waste volume. The decanted supernatant contained approximately one-third of the dissolved aluminum and exhibited a mild greenish-grey hue.

Reboul, S.; Hay, M.; Zeigler, K; Stone, M.

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

252

TANK 12 SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the post-dissolution sludge settled over a three week period. The corresponding volume of supernatant that was decanted from the waste was approximately 35% of the total waste volume. The decanted supernatant contained approximately one-third of the dissolved aluminum and exhibited a mild greenish-grey hue.

Reboul, S; Michael Hay, M; Kristine Zeigler, K; Michael Stone, M

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

253

Ferrocyanide safety program: An assessment of the possibility of ferrocyanide sludge dryout  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Much attention has been focused on the Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tanks as a results of problems that have been envisioned for them. One problem is the potential chemical reaction between ferrocyanide precipitate particles and nitrates in the absence of water. This report addresses the question of whether dryout of a portion of ferrocyanide sludge would render it potentially reactive. Various sludge dryout mechanisms were examined to determine if any of them could occur. The mechanisms are: (1) bulk heating of the entire sludge inventory to its boiling point; (2) loss of liquid to the atmosphere via sludge surface evaporation; (3) local drying by boiling in a hot spot region; (4) sludge drainage through a leak in the tank wall; and (5) local drying by evaporation from a warm segment of surface sludge. From the simple analyses presented in this report and more detailed published analyses, it is evident that global loss of water from bulk heating of the sludge to its boiling point or from surface evaporation and vapor transport to the outside air is not credible. Also, from the analyses presented in this report and experimental and analytical work presented elsewhere, it is evident that formation of a dry local or global region of sludge as a result of tank leakage (draining of interstitial liquid) is not possible. Finally, and most importantly, it is concluded that formation of dry local regions in the ferrocyanide sludge by local hot spots or warm surface regions is not possible. The conclusion that local or global dryout is incredible is consistent with four decades of waste storage history, during which sludge temperature have gradually decreased or remained constant and the sludge moisture content has been retained. 54 refs.

Epstein, M.; Fauske, H.K. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Dickinson, D.R.; Crippen, M.D.; McCormack, J.D.; Cash, R.J.; Meacham, J.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, C.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

STP-ECRTS - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSES FOR SLUDGE TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CONTAINER (STSC) STORAGE AT T PLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of sludge contained in the six engineered containers and Settler tank within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. The STP is retrieving and transferring sludge from the Settler tank into engineered container SCS-CON-230. Then, the STP will retrieve and transfer sludge from the six engineered containers in the KW Basin directly into a Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) contained in a Sludge Transport System (STS) cask. The STSC/STS cask will be transported to T Plant for interim storage of the STSC. The STS cask will be loaded with an empty STSC and returned to the KW Basin for loading of additional sludge for transportation and interim storage at T Plant. CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) to perform thermal and gas generation analyses for interim storage of STP sludge in the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSCs) at T Plant. The sludge types considered are settler sludge and sludge originating from the floor of the KW Basin and stored in containers 210 and 220, which are bounding compositions. The conditions specified by CHPRC for analysis are provided in Section 5. The FAI report (FAI/10-83, Thermal and Gas Analyses for a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) at T Plant) (refer to Attachment 1) documents the analyses. The process considered was passive, interim storage of sludge in various cells at T Plant. The FATE{trademark} code is used for the calculation. The results are shown in terms of the peak sludge temperature and hydrogen concentrations in the STSC and the T Plant cell. In particular, the concerns addressed were the thermal stability of the sludge and the potential for flammable gas mixtures. This work was performed with preliminary design information and a preliminary software configuration.

CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; LEE SJ; PLYS MG

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

255

Red Mesa | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mesa Mesa Facility Red Mesa Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer Wanzek Construction Location Cibola County near Seboyeta NM Coordinates 35.197003°, -107.372611° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.197003,"lon":-107.372611,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

256

Chemical and physical property of rice straw waste and hospital sewage sludge in turned windrow aeration system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most sewage sludge from hospital wastewater treatment plants in Northern Thailand are also being to incinerator and agricultural fields. Land application of hospital sewage sludge has serious effects on environmental. The main goal of this investigation ... Keywords: co-composting, hospital sewage sludge, rice straw waste, turned windrow aeration

Khajornsak Sopajaree; Apisit Sancom

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates.

Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Impact of EPS on Digestion of Waste Activate Sludge Thomas Gostanian  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is by either aerobic or anaerobic self-digestion, in which the bacteria consume their own mass. Currently are particular in their assistance of either aerobic or anaerobic digestion. Direct samples of activated sludgeImpact of EPS on Digestion of Waste Activate Sludge Thomas Gostanian Faculty Mentor: Professor Chul

Mountziaris, T. J.

259

Anaerobic treatment of sludge from a nitrification-denitrification landfill leachate plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The viability of anaerobic digestion of sludge from a MSW landfill leachate treatment plant, with COD values ranging between 15,000 and 19,400 mg O{sub 2} dm{sup -3}, in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was studied. The reactor employed had a useful capacity of 9 l, operating at mesophilic temperature. Start-up of the reactor was carried out in different steps, beginning with diluted sludge and progressively increasing the amount of sludge fed into the reactor. The study was carried out over a period of 7 months. Different amounts of methanol were added to the feed, ranging between 6.75 and 1 cm{sup 3} dm{sup -3} of feed in order to favour the growth of methanogenic flora. The achieved biodegradation of the sludge using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket Reactor was very high for an HRT of 9 days, obtaining decreases in COD of 84-87% by the end of the process. Purging of the digested sludge represented {approx}16% of the volume of the treated sludge.

Maranon, E. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Higher Polytechnic School of Engineering, University of Oviedo, Campus of Viesques, 33204 Gijon (Spain)]. E-mail: emara@uniovi.es; Castrillon, L. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Higher Polytechnic School of Engineering, University of Oviedo, Campus of Viesques, 33204 Gijon (Spain); Fernandez, Y. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Higher Polytechnic School of Engineering, University of Oviedo, Campus of Viesques, 33204 Gijon (Spain); Fernandez, E. [COGERSA, 33697 Serin, Gijon (Spain)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Investigation of EPS Characteristics and their Effects on Waste Activated Sludge Digestion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be accomplished through use of aerobic or anaerobic self digestion, but choice of digestion type in practice to predict aerobic and anaerobic digestion potential. Future Work: · The anaerobic reactors are still running sludge. It performs only slightly better than the unsonicated sludge in anaerobic digestion

Mountziaris, T. J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Segregation of Uranium Metal from K Basin Sludge: Results from Vendor Testing  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to Fluor Hanford, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory directed laboratory, bench-scale, and pilot-scale vendor testing to evaluate the use of commercial gravity mineral concentration technology to remove and concentrate uranium metal from Hanford K Basin sludge. Uranium metal in the sludge corrodes by reacting with water to generate heat and hydrogen gas, and may constrain shipment and disposal of the sludge to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as remote-handled transuranic waste. Separating uranium metal from the K Basin sludge is expected to be similar to some gold recovery operations. Consequently, the capabilities of commercial gravity mineral concentration technologies were assessed for their applicability to K Basin sludge streams. Overall, the vendor testing demonstrated the technical feasibility of using gravity concentration equipment to separate the K Basin sludge into a high-volume uranium metal-depleted stream and a low-volume uranium metal-rich stream. I n test systems, more than 96% of the uranium metal surrogate was concentrated into 10 to 30% of the sludge mass (7 to 24% of the sludge volume). With more prototypical equipment and stream recycle, higher recoveries may be achieved.

Schmidt, Andrew J.; Elmore, Monte R.; Delegard, Calvin H.

2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

262

SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.

DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

263

Modeling of Sludge Compost Maturity Degree Based on Radial Basic Function Network for Sewage Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the complicated interaction of the sludge compost components, it makes the compost maturity degree judging system appear the non-linearity and uncertainty. According to the physical circumstances of sludge compost, a compost maturity degree ... Keywords: Compost, Maturity degree, Radial basic function network, Modeling

Jingwen Tian; Meijuan Gao; Yanxia Liu; Shiru Zhou; Fan Zhang

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Characteristics of Dewatered Sewage Sludge and Green Waste Co-composting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to study the characteristics of the co-composting of sewage sludge and green waste (weight ratio 8:1). The indexes such as temperature, total nitrogen and total organic carbon contents, germination index, were analyzed to ... Keywords: sewage sludge, Composting, Maturity index

Hua Zhang; Delong Lv; Leilei Wei

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

A Collaborative Effort to Address the Distribution of Plutonium-Contaminated Sludge in Livermore, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For over a half-century, the U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons laboratory in Livermore, California has worked with plutonium in the course of its mission to research and develop nuclear weapons. Plutonium releases via the Laboratory’s sewer system resulted in the contamination of sewage sludge that was distributed and used widely as soil conditioner in parks, landscaping around public buildings, and in home lawns and gardens. The amount of sludge distributed and the concentration of the radioactivity in the sludge are uncertain. In 1999, research was undertaken to investigate the historic distribution of sewage sludge (1958-1976) in Livermore. Navigating the uncertainties surrounding the sludge distribution more than forty years after it began presented an enormous ethical challenge. Community members who received the sludge at no cost were not told that the sludge they received may have been contaminated with plutonium, and the log-book that had recorded the names and addresses of sludge recipients had disappeared. The half-life of weapons-grade plutonium is about 24,000 years. Therefore, former, current, and future Livermore residents are at potential increased risk of cancer and other health impacts from their largely unrecognized and therefore unavoidable

Patrice Sutton; A Jacqueline Cabasso; A Tracy Barreau; B Marylia Kelley C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

TEMPEST code modifications and testing for erosion-resisting sludge simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The TEMPEST computer code has been used to address many waste retrieval operational and safety questions regarding waste mobilization, mixing, and gas retention. Because the amount of sludge retrieved from the tank is directly related to the sludge yield strength and the shear stress acting upon it, it is important to incorporate the sludge yield strength into simulations of erosion-resisting tank waste retrieval operations. This report describes current efforts to modify the TEMPEST code to simulate pump jet mixing of erosion-resisting tank wastes and the models used to test for erosion of waste sludge with yield strength. Test results for solid deposition and diluent/slurry jet injection into sludge layers in simplified tank conditions show that the modified TEMPEST code has a basic ability to simulate both the mobility and immobility of the sludges with yield strength. Further testing, modification, calibration, and verification of the sludge mobilization/immobilization model are planned using erosion data as they apply to waste tank sludges.

Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Walmart Red Bluff | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Walmart Red Bluff Walmart Red Bluff Jump to: navigation, search Name Walmart Red Bluff Facility Walmart Red Bluff Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Foundation Windpower Developer Foundation Windpower Energy Purchaser Walmart Location Red Bluff CA Coordinates 40.11121276°, -122.1940291° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.11121276,"lon":-122.1940291,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

268

DETERMINATION OF THE FRACTION OF GIBBSITE AND BOEHMITE FORMS OF ALUMINUM IN TANK 51H SLUDGE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with developing a test to determine the fraction of the gibbsite and boehmite forms of aluminum in the sludge solids. Knowledge of the fractions of gibbsite and boehmite in the sludge contained in various waste tanks would facilitate better sludge mass reduction estimates and allow better planning/scheduling for sludge batch preparation. The composite sludge sample prepared for use in the test from several small samples remaining from the original 3-L sample appears to be representative of the original sample based on the characterization data. A Gibbsite/Boehmite Test was developed that uses 8 M NaOH and a temperature of 65 C to dissolve aluminum. The soluble aluminum concentration data collected during the test indicates that, for the three standards containing gibbsite, all of the gibbsite dissolved in approximately 2 hours. Under the test conditions boehmite dissolved at more than an order of magnitude more slowly than gibbsite. An estimate based on the soluble aluminum concentration from the sludge sample at two hours into the test indicates the sludge solids contain a form of aluminum that dissolves at a rate similar to the 100% Boehmite standard. Combined with the XRD data from the original 3-L sample, these results provide substantial evidence that the boehmite form of aluminum predominates in the sludge. A calculation from the results of the Gibbsite/Boehmite test indicates the sludge contains {approx}3% gibbsite and {approx}97% boehmite. The sludge waste in Tank 51H was recently treated under Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD) conditions and a substantial fraction of aluminum (i.e., sludge mass) was removed, avoiding production of over 100 glass canisters in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Results of the Gibbsite/Boehmite test indicate that the aluminum in this sludge was in the form of the more difficult to dissolve boehmite form of aluminum. Since boehmite may be the dominant form of aluminum in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tank sludge, this result suggests that the conditions of the LTAD process can be used to dissolve both the gibbsite and boehmite forms of aluminum in tank sludge and costly tank infrastructure upgrades required for the higher temperature baseline process can be avoided. However, this conclusion should be confirmed by testing additional waste tank samples.

Hay, M; Kofi Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Microsoft Word - 2010 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Visit _May 17-19 2010_ _final_  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tour of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - May 17-19, 2010 Tour of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - May 17-19, 2010 The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Independent Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), conducted an orientation visit to the Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington during the period May 17-19, with DOE-RL managers/staff and contractor managers and supporting staff responsible for the ongoing K-Basins Sludge Treatment Project. The purpose of the visit was to ascertain ways in which HSS would be able to carry out its independent oversight responsibilities with respect to this project in a method that encourages collaboration with DOE-RL. The K-Basin Sludge Treatment Project involves transferring sludge that has been recovered from

270

Site Visit Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW - August 2011 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW - August Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW - August 2011 Site Visit Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW - August 2011 August 2011 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW Final Safety Analysis Report Review This report documents the results of a review conducted by the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) of selected aspects of the 105-KW Basin Final Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Revision 14C) for the Sludge Treatment Project at the Hanford Site. HSS's review of the K-West Basin FSAR found it to be generally adequate with respect to the scope of this review. However, some aspects of the FSAR accident analyses of two events may warrant further review: MCO transport cask drop into the K-Basin, and the fire accident event involving the cask

271

Federal involvement in: municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge energy recovery and conservation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results are presented of a study concerning federal involvement in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) sludge energy recovery and conservation. The objectives of the study were to: determine and report the major agency programs and related MWWTP sludge energy recovery and conservation projects; determine and summarize the coordination efforts between federal agencies involved in MWWTP sludge; and recommend future U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) involvement in MWWTP sludge energy recovery and conservation projects. Specific federal agencies designated for surveying include ERDA, EPA, USDA, Bureau of Mines, National Science Foundation, and National Commission on Water Quality. Past (post-1966), present, and planned federal involvement in MWWTP sludge energy recovery and conservation, research and development, demonstration, and study projects were considered.

None

1977-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Composition and Technical Basis for K Basin Settler Sludge Simulant for Inspection, Retrieval, and Pump Testing  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the formulation and technical basis for a K Basin Settler Tank Sludge simulant that will be used by the K Basin Closure Project (KBC) to test and develop equipment/approaches for Settler Tank sludge level measurement and retrieval in a mock-up test system of the actual Settler Tanks. The sludge simulant may also be used to demonstrate that the TOYO high pressure positive displacement pump design (reversing valves and hollow balls) is suitable for transfer of Settler Tank sludge from the K West (KW) Basin to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) (~500 ft). As requested the by the K Basins Sludge Treatment Project (STP) the simulant is comprised of non-radioactive (and non-uranium) constituents.

Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

273

Grout and Glass Performance in Support of Stabilization/Solidification of the MVST Tank Sludges  

SciTech Connect

Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supematant. Some of the supematant from these tanks has been decanted, solidified into a grout, and stored for disposal as a solid low-level waste. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating ,for several years. Some of the sludges contain a high amount of gamma activity (e.g., `37CS concentration range of 0.01 3-11 MBq/g) and contain enough transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes to be classified as TRU wastes. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough in the available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge to be classified as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste.

Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Applicability of the sludge processing technical standard to type IV waste tanks with high fluoride concentration  

SciTech Connect

Type IV waste tanks at the Savannah River Plant which contain ballast water (tanks 17, 18, 19, 20, and 24) have solution compositions that are generally within the database developed for corrosion protection of the sludge processing tanks. Therefore the technical standard covering tank chemistry limits during sludge processing is applicable to the Type TV tanks. However, Tank 20 contains levels of fluoride higher than those treated in the sludge processing database. To confirm the applicability of the sludge processing technical standard, cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans for pitting susceptibility were run in a simulant of the Tank 20 contents. The nitrite inhibitor level specified by the standards did inhibit pitting corrosion in the simulant. Pitting was inhibited also at the same nitrite level but with 30 percent higher concentrations of chloride, fluoride, and sulfate. Thus the sludge processing technical standard has been shown to provide corrosion protection to type IV tanks containing ballast water.

Zapp, P.E.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently, radiological decay and in-growth were calculated over the time period from 2015 to 3115. This provided a basis for characterizing the radionuclide content of SB7a over time and for identifying the 'reportable radionuclides.' Details of the characterization methodology and the analytical results are the focus of this report. This work was performed at the request of the Waste Solidification Engineering Department of Savannah River Remediation, initiated via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0031. A minor revision in the reporting requirements was requested via a subsequent email communication. The work was conducted in accordance with the protocols identified in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan SRNL-RP-2010-01218 and Analytical Study Plan SRNL-RP-2010-01219. All of the raw data related to this scope have been recorded in laboratory notebook SRNL-NB-2011-00061. The overall goal of this task was to characterize the radionuclide content of the SB7a waste sufficiently to meet the WAPS and DWPF reporting requirements. The specific objectives were: (1) Quantify the current concentrations of all radionuclides impacting (or potentially-impacting) the total curie content between calendar years 2011 and 3115. Also quantify the current concentrations of other radionuclides specifically requested in the TTR or required by the WAPS. (2) Calculate future concentrations of decayed and in-grown radionuclides impacting the total curie content between calendar years 2015 and 3115; (3) Identify as 'reportable' all radionuclides contributing {ge} 0.01% of the total curie content from 2015 to 3115 and having half-lives {ge} 10 years.

Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

276

Red herrings revisited: spatial autocorrelation and parameter estimation in geographical ecology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

autocorrelation and red herrings in geographical ecology. —2000. Red-shifts and red herrings in geographical ecology. —email:bhawkins@uci.edu Red herrings revisited: spatial

Hawkins, Bradford A.; Diniz-Filho, Jose Alexandre F.; Bini, Luis Mauricio; De Marco, Paulo; Blackburn, Tim M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge: Results of FY 1991 studies  

SciTech Connect

Neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge is a unique waste material that is stored in two underground double-shell tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The NCRW sludge was formed by neutralization of the solution resulting from the chemical decladding of Zircaloy-clad metallic uranium fuel by the Zirflex process. The sludge consists of zirconium and sodium hydroxides and fluorides, with small amounts of potassium, nitrite, and other nonradioactive materials. The sludge also contains uranium, transuranic (TRU) elements, and mixed fission products typical of the nonvolatiles present in irradiated fuel. The NCRW sludge is considered a TRU waste, which must be vitrified for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. The TRU portion of the waste may be separated from the larger amount of bulk waste material so only the TRU portion would require vitrification and geologic disposal. Separation would significantly reduce waste disposal costs. Work is underway to develop the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process. This solvent extraction process has been demonstrated to separate a large percentage of the TRU elements from the bulk components of NCRW sludge. Earlier studies identified potential problems in the TRUEX processing of NCRW sludge: potential corrosion of imbedded piping in the facility initially planned for the process, instability of dissolved NCRW solutions towards precipitation, formation of interfacial crud during the TRUEX solvent extraction step, and the amount of phosphorus in the TRU product stream. These four problems were studied in FY 1991 and the results indicate that: a solution of 2 M HNO{sub 3} at a F/(Zr + Al) ratio of about 2 adequately dissolves washed NCRW sludge; such solutions should not be corrosive towards stainless steel materials; dissolved NCRW sludge solutions obtained by dissolution of washed sludge at low F/(Zr + Al) ratios (about 2) are much more stable with respect to precipitation.

Lumetta, G.J.; Swanson, J.L.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge - results of FY 1991 studies  

SciTech Connect

Neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge is a unique waste material that is stored in two underground double-shell tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The NCRW sludge was formed by neutralization of the solution resulting from the chemical decladding of Zircaloy-clad metallic uranium fuel by the Zirflex process. The sludge consists of zirconium and sodium hydroxides and fluorides, with small amounts of potassium, nitrite, and other nonradioactive materials. The sludge also contains uranium, transuranic (TRU) elements, and mixed fission products typical of the nonvolatiles present in irradiated fuel. The NCRW sludge is considered a TRU waste, which must be vitrified for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. The TRU portion of the waste may be separated from the larger amount of bulk waste material so only the TRU portion would require vitrification and geologic disposal. Separation would significantly reduce waste disposal costs. Work is underway to develop the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process. This solvent extraction process has been demonstrated to separate a large percentage of the TRU elements from the bulk components of NCRW sludge. Earlier studies identified potential problems in the TRUEX processing of NCRW sludge: potential corrosion of imbedded piping in the facility initially planned for the process, instability of dissolved NCRW solutions towards precipitation, formation of interfacial crud during the TRUEX solvent extraction step, and the amount of phosphorus in the TRU product stream. These four problems were studied in FY 1991 and the results indicate that: a solution of 2 M HNO[sub 3] at a F/(Zr + Al) ratio of about 2 adequately dissolves washed NCRW sludge; such solutions should not be corrosive towards stainless steel materials; dissolved NCRW sludge solutions obtained by dissolution of washed sludge at low F/(Zr + Al) ratios (about 2) are much more stable with respect to precipitation.

Lumetta, G.J.; Swanson, J.L.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Correlation models for waste tank sludges and slurries  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of work conducted to support the TEMPEST computer modeling under the Flammable Gas Program (FGP) and to further the comprehension of the physical processes occurring in the Hanford waste tanks. The end products of this task are correlation models (sets of algorithms) that can be added to the TEMPEST computer code to improve the reliability of its simulation of the physical processes that occur in Hanford tanks. The correlation models can be used to augment, not only the TEMPEST code, but other computer codes that can simulate sludge motion and flammable gas retention. This report presents the correlation models, also termed submodels, that have been developed to date. The submodel-development process is an ongoing effort designed to increase our understanding of sludge behavior and improve our ability to realistically simulate the sludge fluid characteristics that have an impact on safety analysis. The effort has employed both literature searches and data correlation to provide an encyclopedia of tank waste properties in forms that are relatively easy to use in modeling waste behavior. These properties submodels will be used in other tasks to simulate waste behavior in the tanks. Density, viscosity, yield strength, surface tension, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, salt solubility, and ammonia and water vapor pressures were compiled for solutions and suspensions of sodium nitrate and other salts (where data were available), and the data were correlated by linear regression. In addition, data for simulated Hanford waste tank supernatant were correlated to provide density, solubility, surface tension, and vapor pressure submodels for multi-component solutions containing sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate.

Mahoney, L.A.; Trent, D.S.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Integrated Culture of Seaweeds and Red Abalone in Monterey Harbor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Project Hypotheses (1) Red algae and kelp can be effectivelyminimum quantity of red algae necessary to enhance abalonead libitum kelp plus 2.5% red algae per week; (3) ad libitum

Graham, Michael H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

282

Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill  

SciTech Connect

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

283

Tank waste consolidation analysis for transfer of ORNL RH-TRU tank sludges to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to evaluate the schedule and technical issues associated with consolidation of Remote Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs). This work supports the DOE Transuranic Waste (TRU) Program plans for private sector treatment of all ORNL TRU sludges for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Transfer of these sludges must be completed in FY 2000 to meet the required schedule for beginning shipment of treated sludges to the WIPP by 2002. This study was performed to (1) evaluate the sludge transfer schedule, (2) evaluate the ability of existing tank systems to contain and manage the sludges and liquids generated during the transfers, and (3) evaluate the costs and schedules of different solid/liquid separation and solids-monitoring methods used during sludge transfer for management of sluice waters.

Kent, T.E.; DePaoli, S.M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Status and progress in sludge washing: A pivotal pretreatment method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Separation of the bulk soluble chemical salts from the insoluble metal hydroxides and radionuclides is central to the strategy of disposing Hanford tank waste. Sludge washing and caustic leaching have been selected as the primary methods for processing the 230 million L (61,000,000 gal) of Hanford tank waste. These processes are very similar to those selected for processing waste at the West Valley Site in New York and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The purpose of sludge washing is to dissolve and remove the soluble salts in the waste. Leaching of the insoluble solids with caustic will be used to dissolve aluminum hydroxide and chromium hydroxide, and convert insoluble bismuth phosphate to soluble phosphate. The waste will be separated into a high-level solids fraction and a liquid fraction that can be disposed of as low-level waste after cesium removal. The washing and leaching operations involve batchwise mixing, settling, and decanting within the existing underground storage tanks.

Barton, W.B.; MacLean, G.T.; Meng, C.D.; Winkler, C.M.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Interim Storage of Hanford Spent Fuel & Associated Sludge  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford site is currently dealing with a number of types of Spent Nuclear Fuel. The route to interim dry storage for the various fuel types branches along two different paths. Fuel types such as metallic N reactor fuel and Shippingport Core 2 Blanket assemblies are being placed in approximately 4 m long canisters which are then stored in tubes below grade in a new canister storage building. Other fuels such as TRIGA{trademark} and Light Water Reactor fuel will be relocated and stored in stand-alone casks on a concrete pad. Varying degrees of sophistication are being applied with respect to the drying and/or evacuation of the fuel interim storage canisters depending on the reactivity of the fuel, the degree of damaged fuel and the previous storage environment. The characterization of sludge from the Hanford K Basins is nearly complete and canisters are being designed to store the sludge (including uranium particles from fuel element cleaning) on an interim basis.

MAKENAS, B.J.

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

Domene, Xavier, E-mail: x.domene@creaf.uab.es [Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF), Facultat de Ciencies i Biociencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Valles, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar [Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF), Facultat de Ciencies i Biociencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Valles, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Solidifications/stabilization treatability study of a mixed waste sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region IV regarding mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) subject to the land disposal restriction provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This agreement required treatability studies of solidification/stabilization (S/S) on mixed wastes from the ORR. This paper reports the results of the cementitious S/S studies conducted on a waste water treatment sludge generated from biodenitrification and heavy metals precipitation. For the cementitious waste forms, the additives tested were Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, Class F fly ash, and perlite. The properties measured on the treated waste were density, free-standing liquid, unconfined compressive strength, and TCLP performance. Spiking up to 10,000, 10,000, and 4,400 mg/kg of nickel, lead, and cadmium, respectively, was conducted to test waste composition variability and the stabilization limitations of the binding agents. The results indicated that nickel, lead and cadmium were stabilized fairly well in the high pH hydroxide-carbonate- ``bug bones`` sludge, but also clearly confirmed the established stabilization potential of cementitious S/S for these RCRA metals.

Spence, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stine, E.F. [International Technologies Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States). Technology Development Lab.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500 deg. C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

Park, Sang-Woo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Cheol-Hyeon, E-mail: jangch@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Design of a System to Retrieve Sludge from the K East Spent Fuel Basin at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Sludge Retrieval System (SRS), which was designed to safely remove radioactive sludge from the K East spent fuel basin at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. Basin water and sludge have the potential to leak to the environment due to the age and condition of the basins. Since the 100 K Area spent fuel basins are located next to the Columbia River, the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project mission includes the safe removal, containment, and transportation of sludge from the basins to a secure storage location. The scope of the SRS includes: (1) a system capable of retrieving sludge from the K East basin floor, pits, and fuel canisters; (2) separation of debris from sludge, where debris is defined as any material greater than 0.64 cm (0.25 in.) in diameter; (3) collection of sludge particles in a container that can be transported away from the basin; and (4) modifications to the K East basin to allow installation of the SRS. The SRS was designed by Fluor Federal Services. Changes to the designed system were made by Fluor Hanford as a result of full-scale testing performed after design. This paper discusses this testing, as well as operation and control of the system. Construction and startup testing was initially scheduled to be complete by the end of December 2002. Startup of the system is now expected in April 2003.

TWITCHELL, A.L.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Characterization of Settler Tank, KW Container and KE Container Sludge Simulants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has specified base formulations for non-radioactive sludge simulants for use in the development and testing of equipment for sludge sampling, retrieval, transport, and processing. In general, the simulant formulations are based on the average or design-basis physical and chemical properties obtained by characterizing sludge samples. The simulants include surrogates for uranium metal, uranium oxides (agglomerates and fine particulate), and the predominant chemical phases (iron and aluminum hydroxides, sand). Specific surrogate components were selected to match the nominal particle-size distribution and particle-density data obtained from sludge sample analysis. Under contract to CHPRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed physical and rheological characterization of simulants, and the results are reported here. Two base simulant types (dry) were prepared by STP staff at the Maintenance and Storage Facility and received by PNNL in February 2009: Settler Tank Simulant and KW Container Sludge Simulant. A third simulant, KE Container Sludge Simulant was received by PNNL in December 2010. The objectives of this simulant characterization effort were to provide baseline characterization data on simulants being used by STP for process development and equipment testing and provide a high-level comparison of the simulant characteristics to the targets used to formulate the simulants.

Burns, Carolyn A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Multi-step process for concentrating magnetic particles in waste sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention involves a multi-step, multi-force process for dewatering sludges which have high concentrations of magnetic particles, such as waste sludges generated during steelmaking. This series of processing steps involves (1) mixing a chemical flocculating agent with the sludge; (2) allowing the particles to aggregate under non-turbulent conditions; (3) subjecting the mixture to a magnetic field which will pull the magnetic aggregates in a selected direction, causing them to form a compacted sludge; (4) preferably, decanting the clarified liquid from the compacted sludge; and (5) using filtration to convert the compacted sludge into a cake having a very high solids content. Steps 2 and 3 should be performed simultaneously. This reduces the treatment time and increases the extent of flocculation and the effectiveness of the process. As partially formed aggregates with active flocculating groups are pulled through the mixture by the magnetic field, they will contact other particles and form larger aggregates. This process can increase the solids concentration of steelmaking sludges in an efficient and economic manner, thereby accomplishing either of two goals: (a) it can convert hazardous wastes into economic resources for recycling as furnace feed material, or (b) it can dramatically reduce the volume of waste material which must be disposed. 7 figs.

Watson, J.L.

1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

293

TCLP Preparation and Analysis of K East Basin Composite Sludge Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sludge samples from the Hanford K East Basin were analyzed by the Toxicity Characterization Leaching Procedure (TCLP) to assist in the appropriate Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCIL4) designation of this material. Sludge samples were collected by Fluor Hanford, Inc. using the consolidated sludge sampling system (system that allows collection of a single sample from multiple sample locations). These samples were shipped to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building) and then transferred to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL, 325 Building) for recovery and testing. Two sludge composites were prepared, using the consolidated sludge samples, to represent K East canister sludge (sample KC Can Comp) and K East floor sludge (sample KC Floor Comp). Each composite was extracted in duplicate and analyzed in duplicate following pre-approved(a) TCLP extraction and analyses procedures. In addition, these samples and duplicates were analyzed for total RCRA metals (via acid digestion preparation). The work was conducted in accordance with the requirements of the Hanford Analytical Quality Assurance Requirements Document (HASQARD). A PNNL Quality Assurance Program compliant with J HASQARD was implemented for this effort. The results from the TCLP analyses showed that all RCRA metal concentrations were less than the TCLP limits for both the canister and floor composite samples and their respective duplicates.

KL Silvers; JJ Wagner; RT Steele

2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

The Flicker and the Red Headed Woodpecker  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Smaller than the flicker, it is the only woodpecker with the entire head and neck red -- a bright scarlet. The breast is white; the back bluish- black with a big square...

295

ORISE Faculty Research Experiences: Dr. Eddie Red  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nanotube characteristics-technology that could impact future solar cells, as well as battery and fuel cells. Eddie C. Red, Ph.D., has longed to set up a functional research...

296

Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts  

SciTech Connect

Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper.

DUGGAN,RUTH A.; WOOD,BRADLEY

1999-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

Hanford Tanks 241-AY-102 and 241-BX-101: Sludge Composition and Contaminant Release Data  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of testing sludge samples from Hanford tanks 241-AY-102 (AY-102) and 241-BX-101 (BX-101). These tests were conducted to characterize the sludge and assess the water leachability of contaminants from the solids. This work is being conducted to support the tank closure risk assessments being performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy. This is the first report of testing of BX-101 sludge and the second report of testing of AY-102. Lindberg and Deutsch (2003) described the first phase of testing on AY-102 material.

Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Hess, Nancy J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

DOWNSTREAM IMPACTS OF SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION VIA ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION ON DWPF PROCESSING OF SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE - 9382  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The SRS sludge that was to become a major fraction of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) contained a large fraction of H-Modified PUREX (HM) sludge, containing a large fraction of aluminum compounds that could adversely impact the processing and increase the vitrified waste volume. It is beneficial to reduce the non-radioactive fraction of the sludge to minimize the number of glass waste canisters that must be sent to a Federal Repository. Removal of aluminum compounds, such as boehmite and gibbsite, from sludge can be performed with the addition of NaOH solution and heating the sludge for several days. Preparation of SB5 involved adding sodium hydroxide directly to the waste tank and heating the contents to a moderate temperature through slurry pump operation to remove a fraction of this aluminum. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with demonstrating this process on actual tank waste sludge in our Shielded Cells Facility. This paper evaluates some of the impacts of aluminum dissolution on sludge washing and DWPF processing by comparing sludge processing with and without aluminum dissolution. It was necessary to demonstrate these steps to ensure that the aluminum removal process would not adversely impact the chemical and physical properties of the sludge which could result in slower processing or process upsets in the DWPF.

Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D

2009-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

299

DOE/EA-0978 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT SLUDGE STABILIZATION AT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

78 78 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT SLUDGE STABILIZATION AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT HANFORD SITE, RICHLAND, WASHINGTON U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCTOBER 1994 T h i s page intentionally left blank. DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

300

PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three main conclusions of this report are: (1) The pilot plant successfully demonstrated the continuous, fully-integrated, long-term process operation, including the mixing, pelletizing, and curing steps for aggregate production. The curing vessel, which was designed for the pilot plant test, was operated in a mass flow mode and performed well during pilot plant operation. (2) The pilot plant test demonstrated process flexibility. The same equipment was used to produce lightweight, medium-weight, and road aggregates. The only change was the mix formulation. Aggregates were produced from a variety of mix designs and from FGD sludge with solids concentrations between 45.0% and 56.7% and moisture contents between 55.0% and 43.3%. (3) The pilot plant provided operating data and experience to design and cost a commercial plant, which was not part of the cooperative agreement.

M.M. Wu; D.C. McCoy; R.O. Scandrol; M.L. Fenger; J.A. Withum; R.M. Statnick

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 51 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Qualification simulant testing was completed to determine appropriate processing conditions and assumptions for the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) Shielded Cells demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet using the qualification sample from Tank 51 for SB6 after SRNL washing. It was found that an acid addition window of 105-139% of the DWPF acid equation (100-133% of the Koopman minimum acid equation) gave acceptable Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) results for nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 117%, 133%, and 150% stoichiometry (Koopman) were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 42 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 150% acid run reached 110% of the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lb H{sub 2}/hr, and the 133% acid run reached 75% of the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lb H{sub 2}/hr. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 25 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two other processing issues were noted. First, incomplete mercury suspension impacted mercury stripping from the SRAT slurry. This led to higher SRAT product mercury concentrations than targeted (>0.45 wt% in the total solids). Associated with this issue was a general difficulty in quantifying the mass of mercury in the SRAT vessel as a function of time, especially as acid stoichiometry increased. About ten times more mercury was found after drying the 150% acid SME product to powder than was indicated by the SME product sample results. Significantly more mercury was also found in the 133% acid SME product samples than was found during the SRAT cycle sampling. It appears that mercury is segregating from the bulk slurry in the SRAT vessel, as mercury amalgam deposits for example, and is not being resuspended by the agitators. The second processing issue was significant ammonium ion formation as the acid stoichiometry was increased due to the high noble metal-high mercury feed conditions. Ammonium ion was found partitioned between the SRAT product slurry and the condensate from the lab-scale off-gas chiller downstream of the SRAT condenser. The ammonium ion was produced from nitrate ion by formic acid. Formate losses increased with increasing acid stoichiometry reaching 40% at the highest stoichiometry tested. About a third of the formate loss at higher acid stoichiometries appeared to be due to ammonia formation. The full extent of ammonia formation was not determined in these tests, since uncondensed ammonia vapor was not quantified; but total formation was bounded by the combined loss of nitrite and nitrate. Nitrate losses during ammonia formation led to nitrite-to-nitrate conversion values that were negative in three of the four tests. The negative results were an artifact of the calculation that assumes negligible SRAT nitrate losses. The sample data after acid addition indicated that some of the initial nitrite was converted to nitrate, so the amount of nitrate destroyed included nitrite converted to nitrate plus some of the added nitrate from the sludge and nitric acid. It is recommended that DWPF investigate the impact of SME product ammonium salts on melter performance (hydrogen, redox). It was recommended that the SB6 Shielded Cells qualification run be performed at 115% acid stoichiometry and allow about 35 hours of boiling for mercury stripping at the equivalent of a 5,000 lb/hr boil-up rate.

Koopman, David; Best, David

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

302

CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of River Protection K Basin Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Conduct of Operations program at the Office of River Protection, K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health - Office of River Protection K Basin

303

Toxicity of aqueous fullerene nC60 to activated sludge: nitrification inhibition and microtox test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increasing production and use of fullerene nanomaterials raised their exposure potential to the activated sludge during biological wastewater treatment process. In this study, the toxicity of aqueous nanoscaled C60 (nC60) to ...

Yongkui Yang; Norihide Nakada; Ryoji Nakajima; Chao Wang; Hiroaki Tanaka

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Microsoft PowerPoint - 3-07_Williams_Mobilization of High Yield Sludges.pptm  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage, Mobilization, And Retrieval Of Storage, Mobilization, And Retrieval Of Very High Yield Strength Sludges EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange Atlanta November 16-18 2010 Martin Williams Vice President Advanced Process Systems NuVision Engineering 184B Rolling Hill Rd Mooresville NC 28117 USA Print Close 2 Storage, Mobilization, and Retrieval of Very High Yield Strength Sludges Sellafield Site in the UK Magnox Storage Pond *Constructed in 1940's *Major D&D project Print Close 3 Storage, Mobilization, and Retrieval of Very High Yield Strength Sludges Magnox Sludge *Up to 1200m3 arising from the corrosion of magnesium alloy clad Magnox reactor fuel in storage primarily magnesium and uranium corrosion products *small percentage of un-corroded Magnox metal *fission and activation products and their corrosion products

305

F- and H-area Sewage Sludge Application Sites: Groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993  

SciTech Connect

Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum have been the primary nonpermit constituents exceeding standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. These constituents were not analyzed second quarter 1993. Other constituents also have exceeded standards at this site, but only sporadically, and none of those were analyzed second quarter 1993.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, fourth quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect

Eleven sewage sludge application sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were originally the subject of a research program, begun in 1980, using domestic sewage sludge to reclaim borrow pits and to enhance forest productivity at SRS. Currently, the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites are the only remaining active sludge application sites. During fourth quarter 1991, samples from the four monitoring wells at the F-Area site (FSS series) and three monitoring wells at the H-Area site (HSS series) were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, and certain pesticides, herbicides, toxic metals, water quality indicators, and radionuclides. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) and the SRS flagging criteria.

Thompson, C.Y.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells and occasionally in HSS wells. Tritium and aluminum are the primary nonpermit constituents that exceed standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect

During second quarter 1992, the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) of Savannah River Plant were sampled and analyzed for constituents required quarterly by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076. None of these analytes exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria at either sewage sludge site. The F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Of these constituents, tritium exceeded the PDWS in wells FSS 2D and 3D. Lead exceeded the PDWS in well FSS 3D. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well FSS 4D, and manganese exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criterion in wells FSS 2D and 3D.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

311

Sewage waste enriches city parks: forced aeration allows sludge cake to be used as compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study of managing sewage wastes in the City of Windsor shows that composting of sludges is practical in most urbanized areas in Canada. Composting is a method to treat waste (or recycling of waste) and at this point is not a signficant moneymaker. By composting sewage sludge cake, the odors are alleviated and a stable humus-like organic material is produced. The exothermic proces generates temperatures within the pile that effectively destroy many of the human pathogens. While composting is more labor intensive than some of the other systems of sludge cake disposal, it is not capital intensive. The composting of sewage sludge is a conserver of energy when compared to other methods of disposal. The end product can be utilized as a soil conditioner safety.

Romano, L.S.; Faust, J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

TCLP Preparation and Analysis of K East Basin Composite Sludge Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains results from TCLP preparation and analysis of K East Basin floor and canister composite sludge samples. Analyses were performed in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (PNNL, 325 Building).

Silvers, Kurt L.

2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Table 7. Electric Power Industry Emissions Estimates, 1990 Through...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"2Other Renewables includes biogenic municipal solid waste, wood, black liquor, other wood waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, agriculture byproducts, and other biomass...

314

PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Safety-Basis Thermal Analysis for KE Basin Sludge Transport and Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of safety-basis thermal and gas generation analyses were completed and independently reviewed to assess the thermal performance of a large diameter container (LDC) containing KE Basin sludge. The results demonstrate: (1) the sludge transport system (STS) containing a LDC can safely transport a KE basin sludge payload up to 2.0 m{sup 3} and, (2) large diameter containers with sludge payloads up to 2.0 m{sup 3} can be safely stored in a process cell at T Plant. The transport and storage analyses are based on a conservative set of assumptions, including limiting environmental conditions. Conclusions drawn from the transport and storage results were not impacted by changes in the radial gap between the cask and LDC, purge gas (i.e., either helium or nitrogen), sludge porosity, or thermal conductivity. The design of the transport cask and large diameter container can accommodate reasonable changes in these values. Both transport from KE Basin and long-term storage at T Plant are addressed for sludge payloads up to 2.0 m{sup 3}. Additional analyses determined the expected range of T Plant environmental temperatures, the hydrogen and oxygen generation rate due to the radiolysis of water, and the maximum hydrogen concentration within a process cell due to chemical reactions and the radiolysis of water. All sludge temperature and hydrogen concentration criteria for transport and storage are met. The analyses assumed a safety-basis sludge mixture defined as 60% by volume floor and 40% by volume canister sludge with 35% retained gas, and a conservative segregated (axial) distribution of metallic uranium (resulting from particulate settling) with associated safety-basis properties. The analyses recognized that the retrieval process would produce non-uniform sludge distributions. Four batch process loadings of 0.5m{sup 3} each are assumed. Each process batch loading will settle and segregate (separate) into two layers: an active layer containing all the metallic uranium which is chemically active, and a non-active layer containing uranium oxide, non-uranium material, and no metallic uranium. This is a conservative representation of operational controls designed to limit the metallic uranium concentration. The sludge layers are assumed to remain intact during transport and storage.

HEARD, F.J.; SATHYANARAYANA, J.J.

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

316

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

317

7X performance results - final report : ASCI Red vs Red Storm.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of the 7X performance testing was to assure Sandia National Laboratories, Cray Inc., and the Department of Energy that Red Storm would achieve its performance requirements which were defined as a comparison between ASCI Red and Red Storm. Our approach was to identify one or more problems for each application in the 7X suite, run those problems at multiple processor sizes in the capability computing range, and compare the results between ASCI Red and Red Storm. The first part of this report describes the two computer systems, the applications in the 7X suite, the test problems, and the results of the performance tests on ASCI Red and Red Storm. During the course of the testing on Red Storm, we had the opportunity to run the test problems in both single-core mode and dual-core mode and the second part of this report describes those results. Finally, we reflect on lessons learned in undertaking a major head-to-head benchmark comparison.

Dinge, Dennis C. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Michael E. (Cray Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Haskell, Karen H.; Ballance, Robert A.; Gardiner, Thomas Anthony; Stevenson, Joel O.; Noe, John P.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

CUTTING SOLAR RED TAPECUTTING SOLAR RED TAPE Evergreen State Solar PartnershipEvergreen State Solar Partnership  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CUTTING SOLAR RED TAPECUTTING SOLAR RED TAPE Evergreen State Solar PartnershipEvergreen State Solar Partnership Rooftop Solar Challenge 1 Sunshot #12;WASHINGTON PV CONTEXTWASHINGTON PV CONTEXT 285 cities, 39 Installations happen where process is easier #12;EVERGREEN STATE SOLAR PARTNERSHIP Commerce NWSEEDEdmonds

319

Characterization of Actinides in Simulated Alkaline Tank Waste Sludges and Leachates  

SciTech Connect

Removal of waste-limiting components of sludge (Al, Cr, S, P) in underground tanks at Hanford by treatment with concentrated alkali has proven less efficacious for Al and Cr removal than had been hoped. More aggressive treatments of sludges, for example, contact with oxidants targeting Cr(III), have been tested in a limited number of samples and found to improve leaching efficiency for Cr. Oxidative alkaline leaching can be expected to have at best a secondary influence on the mobilization of Al. Our earlier explorations of Al leaching from sludge simulants indicated acidic and complexometric leaching can improve Al dissolution. Unfortunately, treatments of sludge samples with oxidative alkaline, acidic or complexing leachates produce conditions under which normally insoluble actinide ions (e.g., Am3+, Pu4+, Np4+) can be mobilized to the solution phase. Few experimental or meaningful theoretical studies of actinide chemistry in strongly alkaline, strongly oxidizing solutions have been completed. Unfortunately, extrapolation of the more abundant acid phase thermodynamic data to these radically different conditions provides limited reliable guidance for predicting actinide speciation in highly salted alkaline solutions. In this project, we are investigating the fundamental chemistry of actinides and important sludge components in sludge simulants and supernatants under representative oxidative leaching conditions. We are examining the potential impact of acidic or complexometric leaching with concurrent secondary separations on Al removal from sludges. Finally, a portion of our research is directed at the control of polyvalent anions (SO4=, CrO4=, PO43-) in waste streams destined for vitrification. Our primary objective is to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop. We expect to identify those components of sludges that are likely to be problematic in the application of oxidative, acidic, and complexometric leaching protocols.

Nash, Kenneth L.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS  

SciTech Connect

The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Criticality safety evaluation of disposing of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank AW-105  

SciTech Connect

A criticality safety evaluation is made of the disposal of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank (DST) AW-105 located in the 200 east area of Hanford Site. The technical basis is provided for limits and controls to be used in the development of a criticality prevention specification (CPS). A model of K Basin sludge is developed to account for fuel burnup. The iron/uranium mass ration required to ensure an acceptable magrin of subcriticality is determined.

ROGERS, C.A.

1999-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

322

Dissolution of ORNL HLW sludge and partitioning of the actinides using the TRUEX process  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for partitioning actinides from actual dissolved high-level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge. Samples of sludge from melton Valley Storage Tank W-25 were rinsed with mild caustic (0.2 M NaOH) to reduce the concentrations of nitrates and fission products associated with the interstitial liquid. In one campaign the rinsed sludge was leached in nitric acid, and about 50% of the dry mass of the sludge was dissolved. The resulting solution contained total metal concentrations of {approximately} 1.8 M with a nitric acid concentration of 2.9 M. In the other campaign the sludge was neutralized with nitric acid to destroy the carbonates, then leached with 2.6 M NaOH for {approximately} 6 h before rinsing with the mild caustic. The sludge was then leached in nitric acid, and about 80% of the sludge dissolved. The resulting solution contained total metal concentrations of {approximately} 0.6 M with a nitric acid concentration of 1.7 M. Chemical analyses of both phases were used to evaluate the process. Evaluation was based on two metrics: the fraction of TRU elements removed from the dissolved sludge and comparison of the results with predictions made with the Generic TRUEX Model (GTM). The fractions of Eu, Pu, Cm, Th and U species removed from aqueous solution in only one extraction stage were > 95% and were close to the values predicted by the GTM. Mercury was also found to be strongly extracted, with a one-stage removal of > 92%. In one test, vanadium appeared to be moderately extracted.

Spencer, B.B.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.; Chase, C.W.; Dillow, T.A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111.

Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

DEVELOPMENT OF EQUIPMENT FOR THE RETRIEVAL & STABILIZATION & ENCAPSULATION OF RADIOACTIVE SLUDGE AT THE HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect

This poster presentation describes and illustrates some of the equipment and tools that Fluor Hanford and BNG America have developed and designed to remove, transport, stabilize and encapsulate radioactive sludge from the K Basins at the Hanford nuclear site in Washington State, U.S.A. K Basins were built in the early 1950s to temporarily store irradiated nuclear fuel prior to chemical processing to remove plutonium for nuclear weapons. The sludge is the result of corrosion of these fuel elements and its removal is the final stage before the basin water can be drained and the basins decommissioned. The sludge is hydrogen-generating because of its uranium metal content and account has to be taken also of its heat generating capacity and criticality potential as it is moved from one containment to another. The paper describes all stages of sludge treatment from the use of vacuum wands to suck up the sludge, through consolidating the sludge in temporary underwater containers, transporting it though flexible, temporary pipe systems, acceleration of the corrosion of uranium to reduce hydrogen generation, measuring the fissile content and finally encapsulation in a cement grout. Emphasis is placed on the use of existing, transportable and temporary equipment. This not only saves initial costs but it also reduces the total amount of equipment needed to be disposed of as radioactive waste at the end of the job. The processes, equipment and tools described potentially have a broad applicability to nuclear site decommissioning and cleanup worldwide.

ROOSENDAAL, G.D.

2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

325

Physical Behavior of Uranium Metal Bearing Hanford K East Basin Sludge Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Uranium-metal-bearing sludge from the Hanford's K-East (KE) Basin is to be retrieved, loaded into large-diameter containers, and moved to interim storage in a dry cell at T Plant on the Hanford site. Physical behavior of this sludge during loading and subsequent storage in large-diameter containers is of interest to design and safety because oxidation of its uranium generates power and hydrogen gas, with resulting implications for flammability of the container and cell headspaces, potential retention of gas in the settled sludge and subsequent expansion of the sludge material in the large-diameter container, and the potential for local temperature escalation. Key aspects of experimental work and model development necessary to support a robust technical basis for design and safety analyses are reported here: (1) Experimental data supporting the distribution of uranium metal in the large-diameter container, (2) Experimental data defining sludge thermal conductivity and shear strength (or yield stress), and (3) Experimental data and models demonstrating sludge plug movement, breakup, and limited atomization caused by internal gas generation.

DUNCAN, D.R.

2003-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

326

HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea transfers utilizing STPs from July 2006 to August 2007. This operation and successful removal of sludge material meets requirement of approximately 19,000 to 28,000 liters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. Removal of the last 35% of sludge was exponentially more difficult, as less and less sludge was available to mobilize and the lighter sludge particles were likely removed during the early mixing campaigns. The removal of the 72,000 liters (19,000 gallons) of sludge was challenging due to a number factors. One primary factor was the complex internal cooling coil array within Tank 6 that obstructed mixer discharge jets and impacted the Effective Cleaning Radius (ECR) of the Submersible Mixer Pumps. Minimal access locations into the tank through tank openings (risers) presented a challenge because the available options for equipment locations were very limited. Mechanical Sludge Removal activities using SMPs caused the sludge to migrate to areas of the tank that were outside of the SMP ECR. Various SMP operational strategies were used to address the challenge of moving sludge from remote areas of the tank to the transfer pump. This paper describes in detail the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and mitigative solutions to cooling coil obstructions and other challenges. The performance of the WOW system and SMP operational strategies were evaluated and the resulting lessons learned are described for application to future Mechanical Sludge Removal operations.

Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Red Canyon Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Red Canyon Wind Farm Red Canyon Wind Farm Facility Red Canyon Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer Florida Power & Light Co. Location Borden TX Coordinates 32.95326011°, -101.215539° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.95326011,"lon":-101.215539,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

328

Red Hills Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Red Hills Wind Farm Red Hills Wind Farm Facility Red Hills Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Acciona Developer Acciona Energy Purchaser N/A Location North of Elk City OK Coordinates 35.531944°, -99.403889° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.531944,"lon":-99.403889,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

329

The determination of PCBs in Rocky Flats Type IV waste sludge by gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign} and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a nonradioactive simulated Type 17V RFP sludge was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. In an earlier effort, a simplified method was developed for extraction, cleanup of extract, and determination of PCBs in samples of simulated sludge spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. The simplified method has now been used to determine the presence and quantities of other Aroclors in the simulated sludge, namely, Aroclors 10 1 6, 1221, 1232, 1242, and 1248. The accuracy and precision of the data for these Aroclors were found to be similar to the data for sludges spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. Since actual sludges may vary in composition, the method was also verified by analyzing another source of Type IV simulated sludge, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W).

Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Postlethwait, P.D.; Boparai, A.S.; Reedy, G.T.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Hydrogen Generation Rate During Melter Feed Preparation of Tank 42 Sludge and CST in the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document details the testing performed to determine the maximum hydrogen generation expected with a coupled flowsheet of sludge, CST, and frit.

Lambert, D.P.; Monson, P.R.

2001-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

331

IMPACT OF IRRADIATION AND THERMAL AGING ON DWPF SIMULATED SLUDGE PROPERTIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research and development programs in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other high-level waste vitrification processes require the use of both nonradioactive waste simulants and actual waste samples. While actual waste samples are the ideal materials to study, acquiring large quantities of actual waste is difficult and expensive. Tests utilizing actual high-level waste require the use of expensive shielded cells facilities to provide sufficient shielding for the researchers. Nonradioactive waste simulants have been used for laboratory testing, pilot-scale testing and full-scale integrated facility testing. These waste simulants were designed to reproduce the chemical and, if possible, the physical properties of the actual high-level waste. This technical report documents a study on the impact of irradiating a Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) simulant and of additional tests on aging a SB3 simulant by additional thermal processing. Prior simulant development studies examined methods of producing sludge and supernate simulants and processes that could be used to alter the physical properties of the simulant to more accurately mimic the properties of actual waste. Development of a precipitated sludge simulant for the River Protection Project (RPP) demonstrated that the application of heat for a period of time could significantly alter the rheology of the sludge simulant. The RPP precipitated simulant used distillation to concentrate the sludge solids and produced a reduction in sludge yield stress of up to 80% compared to the initial sludge properties. Observations at that time suggested that a substantial fraction of the iron hydroxide had converted to the oxide during the distillation. DWPF sludge simulant studies showed a much smaller reduction in yield stress ({approx}10%), demonstrated the impact of shear on particle size, and showed that smaller particle sizes yielded higher yield stress products. The current study documented in this report focuses on the SB3 sludge composition and recipe developed during the previous year as part of the simulant development program. The study examines the impact of a rapid dose of radiation on the physical properties of the SB3 simulant, the effect of temperature and time on the application of heat as a simulant aging mechanism, and the application of crossflow filtration to the production of an all-metals-precipitated SB3 sludge simulant.

Eibling, R; Michael Stone, M

2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

332

Measuring and Predicting Fission Product Noble Metals in SRS HLW Sludges  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag were produced in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors as products of the fission of U-235. Consequently they are in the High Level Waste (HLW) sludges that are currently being immobilized into a borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The noble metals are a concern in the DWPF because they catalyze the decomposition of formic acid used in the process to produce the flammable gas hydrogen. As the concentration of these noble metals in the sludge increases, more hydrogen will be produced when this sludge is processed. In the SRS Tank Farm it takes approximately two years to prepare a sludge batch for processing in the DWPF. This length of time is necessary to mix the appropriate sludges, blend them to form a sludge batch and then wash it to enable processing in the DWPF. This means that the exact composition of a sludge batch is not known for {approx}two years. During this time, studies with simulated nonradioactive sludges must be performed to determine the desired DWPF processing parameters for the new sludge batch. Consequently, prediction of the noble metal concentrations is desirable to prepare appropriate simulated sludges for studies of the DWPF process for that sludge batch. These studies give a measure of the amount of hydrogen that will be produced when that sludge batch is processed. This report describes in detail the measurement of these noble metal concentrations in sludges and a way to predict their concentrations from an estimate of the lanthanum concentration in the sludge. Results for two sludges are presented in this report. These are Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) currently being processed by the DWPF and a sample of unwashed sludge from Tank 11 that will be part of Sludge Batch 4. The concentrations of the noble metals in HLW sludges are measured by using mass spectroscopy to determine concentrations of the isotopes that comprise each noble metal. For example, the noble metal Ru is comprised of isotopes with masses 101, 102, and 104. The element Rh has a single isotope with mass 103. The element Pd is comprised of five isotopes. These are at masses 105-108 and mass 110. As does Rh, Ag has only one isotope. This is at mass 109. However, results in this report show that the Ag concentration in the two samples was due to natural Ag being in the samples. Natural Ag has masses at 107 and 109. The Ag-107 interferes with the measurement of Pd-107. This Ag was used in one of the processes at SRS. The results also show that natural Cd is in the two samples. Cadmium has isotopes at masses 106, 108 and 110, thus it interferes with the analysis of the Pd isotopes at these masses. Cadmium was also used in one of the processes at SRS. However, the concentrations of the Pd isotopes at masses 106, 107, 108 and 110 could be calculated using the fission yields for the Pd isotopes, and the measured concentration of Pd at mass 105 where there is no Ag or Cd interference. Based on the measurements of the concentrations of the isotopes of each noble metal, the total concentration of that noble metal can be determined by summing the concentrations of the individual isotopes. The results in this report show that the relative concentrations of the isotopes of Ru and Rh are in proportion to their yields from the fission of U-235 in the reactors. These results were expected since these elements are very insoluble in caustic and thus are primarily in the sludge tanks rather then the salt tanks of the SRS Tank Farm. The relative concentration of Pd is somewhat lower than that based on the relative fission yields of its five isotopes. This indicates that some of the Pd is in the salt tanks rather than the sludge tanks of the Tank Farm. The concentrations of the noble metals were predicted using the High Level Waste Characterization System (WCS) at SRS. This system keeps record of the inventory of the major compounds and select radionuclides that are in each of the SRS HLW tanks. Using this system, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) can predict the major composition of a sludge ba

Bibler, N

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

333

SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), high sulfate concentrations in the feed are a concern to DWPF as it can lead to the formation of a detrimental, sulfate-rich, molten salt phase on the surface of the glass melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit was implemented into the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Related to SB7a frit development efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessed the viability of using the current 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit set for SB6 (in glass) and the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solubility limit in PCCS to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations, targeted waste loadings, and inclusion of secondary streams (e.g., Actinide Removal Process (ARP)) with two recommended frits (Frit 418 and Frit 702) for SB7a processing. For a nominal SB7a blend with a 63 inch SB6 heel remaining in Tank 40 (projection SB7a-63), a 0.60 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass limit was determined for waste loadings of 34 wt% up to 40 wt% with Frit 418 based on crucible melts with batched chemicals. SRNL also examined the inclusion of ARP for the same blending scenario (SB7a-63-ARP) with Frit 418 and at least a 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} level, and waste loadings of 34 wt% to 40 wt% were also acceptable. When a visible yellow and/or white sulfate salt layer was visible on the surface of any cooled glass, it was assumed to have surpassed the solubility limit of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for that particular composition. All of the glasses fabricated at these concentrations did not exhibit a sulfate rich salt layer on the surface of the glass melt and retained the majority of the batched SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. At higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} 'spiked' into the projected sludge compositions over the aforementioned interval of waste loadings, with Frit 418, low viscosity sulfur layers were observed on the surface of glass melts which confirm exceeding the solubility limit. The same sludge scenarios were also tested with Frit 702 and all glasses did not exhibit sulfur layers on the surfaces of the glass melts at spiking levels up to 0.80 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. An ultimate SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit was not defined with Frit 702, but if projected SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations are expected to increase with the onset of SB7a processing, a higher limit is achievable with Frit 702 than is achievable with Frit 418. Given the anticipated concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for SB7a, a SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit of 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} is recommended for processing using Frit 418. Once the confirmed SB7a composition is known and should a higher limit be needed, SRNL can re-evaluate the limit based on the actual composition and provide an updated recommendation. It has been observed that higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass can be retained with compositional changes to the frit, as was demonstrated by the glasses fabricated using Frit 702. SRNL also recommends the continuation of studies to define a more 'global' sulfate concentration limit to account for future sludge batch composition uncertainties.

Billings, A.

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

334

TANK 40 FINAL SLUDGE BATCH 8 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

A sample of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB8 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition, including noble metals, and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB8. At SRNL, the 3-L Tank 40 SB8 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 553 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent slurry sample preparations. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon? vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass ? 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma ? atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma ? mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB8 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH-/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC) analyses. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for IC, TIC/TOC, and total base/free OH-/other base analyses. Activities for U-233, U-235, and Pu-239 were determined from the ICP-MS data for the aqua regia digestions of the Tank 40 WAPS slurry using the specific activity of each isotope. The Pu-241 value was determined from a Pu-238/-241 method developed by SRNL AD and previously described.

Bannochie, C.

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

335

WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING POST ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION TANK 51 SLUDGE SLURRY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The remaining contents of Tank 51 from Sludge Batch 4 will be blended with Purex sludge from Tank 7 to constitute Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) has completed caustic addition to Tank 51 to perform low temperature Al dissolution on the H-Modified (HM) sludge material to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and Al being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) has also completed aluminum dissolution tests using a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry through funding by DOE EM-21. This report documents assessment of downstream impacts of the aluminum dissolved sludge, which were investigated so technical issues could be identified before the start of SB5 processing. This assessment included washing the aluminum dissolved sludge to a Tank Farm projected sodium concentration and weight percent insoluble solids content and DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing using the washed sludge. Based on the limited testing, the impact of aluminum dissolution on sludge settling is not clear. Settling was not predictable for the 3-L sample. Compared to the post aluminum dissolution sample, settling after the first wash was slower, but settling after the second wash was faster. For example, post aluminum dissolution sludge took six days to settle to 60% of the original sludge slurry height, while Wash 1 took nearly eight days, and Wash 2 only took two days. Aluminum dissolution did impact sludge rheology. A comparison between the as-received, post aluminum dissolution and washed samples indicate that the downstream materials were more viscous and the concentration of insoluble solids less than that of the starting material. This increase in viscosity may impact Tank 51 transfers to Tank 40. The impact of aluminum dissolution on DWPF CPC processing cannot be determined because acid addition for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle was under-calculated and thus under-added. Although the sludge was rheologically thick throughout the SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles, this may have been due to the under addition of acid. Aluminum dissolution did, however, impact analyses of the SRAT receipt material. Two methods for determining total base yielded significantly different results. The high hydroxide content and the relatively high soluble aluminum content of the washed post aluminum dissolution sludge likely contributed to this difference and the ultimate under addition of acid. It should be noted that the simulant used to provide input for the SRAT cycle was an inadequate representation of the waste in terms of acid demand, likely due to the differences in the form of aluminum and hydroxide in the simulant and actual waste. Based on the results of this task, it is recommended that: (1) Sludge settling and rheology during washing of the forthcoming Sludge Batch 5 qualification sample be monitored closely and communicated to the Tank Farm. (2) SRNL receive a sample of Tank 51 after all chemical additions have been made and prior to the final Sludge Batch 5 decant for rheological assessment. Rheology versus wt% insoluble solids will be performed to determine the maximum amount of decant prior to the Tank 51 to Tank 40 transfer. (3) As a result of the problem with measuring total base and subsequently under-calculating acid for the DWPF CPC processing of the post aluminum dissolution sludge; (4) Studies to develop understanding of how the sludge titrates (i.e., why different titration methods yield different results) should be performed. (5) Simulants that better match the properties of post aluminum dissolution sludge should be developed. (6) Work on developing an acid calculation less dependant on the total base measurement should be continued.

Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

336

Redding Regional Science Bowl | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Cypress Avenue Redding, CA Regional Event information: Competition Location: Redding Electric Utility Address: Simpson University; 2211 College View Drive; Redding, CA 96003...

337

Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape December 1, 2011 - 4:35pm Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for...

338

T-649: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Request Validation Flaw...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Red Hat Network Satellite 5.4.1 are advised to upgrade to these updated spacewalk-java packages, which resolve this issue. For this update to take effect, Red Hat Network...

339

Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape December 1, 2011 - 4:35pm Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor...

340

SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine a sulfate solubility limit in glass for Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). The SB7b composition projection provided by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) on May 25, 2011 was used as the basis for formulating glass compositions to determine the sulfate limit. Additions of Na{sub 2}O to the projected sludge composition were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) due to uncertainty in the final concentration of Na{sub 2}O for SB7b, which is dependent on washing effectiveness and the potential need to add NaOH to ensure an acceptable projected operating window. Additions of 4, 6, and 8 wt % Na{sub 2}O were made to the nominal May 25, 2011 composition projection. An updated SB7b composition projection was received from SRR on August 4, 2011. Due to compositional similarities, no additional experimental work using the August 4, 2011 compositions was considered to be necessary for this study. Both Frit 418 and Frit 702 were included in this study. The targeted sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) concentrations of the study glasses were selected within the range of 0.6 to 0.9 wt % in glass. A total of 52 glass compositions were selected based on the compositional variables of Na{sub 2}O addition, Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream addition, waste loading, frit composition, and sulfate concentration. The glasses were batched, melted, and characterized following SRNL procedures. Visual observations were recorded for each glass after it cooled and used as in indicator of sulfur retention. Representative samples of each of the glasses fabricated were subjected to chemical analysis to determine whether the targeted compositions were met, as well as to determine the quantity of sulfate that was retained after melting. In general, the measured composition data showed that there were only minor issues in meeting the targeted compositions for the study glasses, and the measured sulfate concentrations for each study glass were within 10% of the targeted values. The results for the SB7b glasses fabricated with Frit 418 showed an apparent trend of increasing sulfate retention with increasing Na{sub 2}O additions to the 5/25/11 sludge projection. This trend appears contradictory to other recent studies of sulfate retention in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) type glasses. Additional apparent contradictions to this trend were found in the data collected in the present study. Overall, the results for the SB7b sulfate study glasses with Frit 418 and the 5/25/11 projection with Na{sub 2}O additions showed that subtle changes in this complex glass composition impacted the degree of sulfate retention. These results do however provide confidence that a 0.6 wt % sulfate limit in glass is warranted for Frit 418 with the SB7b compositions evaluated in this study. The results for the SB7b glasses fabricated with Frit 702 are consistent with those of the previous SB7a study in that Frit 702 allowed for higher sulfate retention as compared to Frit 418 for the same sludge compositions. It is recommended that the DWPF implement a sulfate concentration limit of 0.6 wt % in glass for SB7b processing with Frit 418. If a higher than projected sulfate concentration is measured when SB7b processing begins (i.e., if a sulfate concentration higher than 0.6 wt % becomes necessary to achieve targeted waste loadings), DWPF should consider a transition to Frit 702. The sulfate limit could likely be raised to 0.8 wt % by transitioning to this frit. However, if DWPF considers transitioning from Frit 418 to Frit 702, additional glasses should be fabricated to confirm this higher limit due to the issues with incorrect B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations for some of the glasses made with Frit 702 in this study. There are several factors other than sulfate retention that must also be carefully considered prior to changing frit compositions.

Fox, K.

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Modeling of the reburning process using sewage sludge-derived syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification provides an attractive method for sewage sludges treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification generates a fuel gas (syngas) which can be used as a reburning fuel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reburning potential of sewage sludge gasification gases was defined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of co-combustion of syngases in coal fired boiler has been done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation shows that analysed syngases can provide higher than 80% reduction of NO{sub x}. - Abstract: Gasification of sewage sludge can provide clean and effective reburning fuel for combustion applications. The motivation of this work was to define the reburning potential of the sewage sludge gasification gas (syngas). A numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of syngas in a hard coal-fired boiler was done. All calculations were performed using the Chemkin programme and a plug-flow reactor model was used. The calculations were modelled using the GRI-Mech 2.11 mechanism. The highest conversions for nitric oxide (NO) were obtained at temperatures of approximately 1000-1200 K. The combustion of hard coal with sewage sludge-derived syngas reduces NO emissions. The highest reduction efficiency (>90%) was achieved when the molar flow ratio of the syngas was 15%. Calculations show that the analysed syngas can provide better results than advanced reburning (connected with ammonia injection), which is more complicated process.

Werle, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.werle@polsl.pl [Institute of Thermal Technology, Silesian University of Technology at Gliwice, 44-100 Gliwice, Konarskiego 22 (Poland)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently evaluating alternative treatment standards for radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes, which do not require the removal of mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needed additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 46 wt% (30 wt% dry) sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide the EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

Adams, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S.; Kalb, P. D.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

343

SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE.  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

ADAMA, J.W.; BOWERMAN, B.S.; KALB, P.D.

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)  

SciTech Connect

The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. Twenty-seven radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b. Each of these radionuclides has a half-life greater than ten years and contributes more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis at some point from production through the 1100 year period between 2015 and 3115. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100- year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are the most extensive conducted to date. Some method development/refinement occurred during the conduct of these measurements, leading to lower detection limits and more accurate measurement of some isotopes than was previously possible.

Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

345

Assessment of Jet Erosion for Potential Post-Retrieval K-Basin Settled Sludge  

SciTech Connect

Packaged K-Basin sludge will be transported to the T Plant on the Hanford Site where it will be interim stored. The sludge will be retrieved from the storage containers and processed for disposal. A sample of high uranium content canister sludge, designated 96-13, "self-cemented" during laboratory storage. This sample was uncharacteristically strong compared to expected K-Basin material. The purpose for this work is to evaluate the potential retrieval of such sludge after storage at the T Plant via jet erosion. The specific objectives of this report are to determine the modes of erosion and the methods used to measure/assess the erodibility parameters of sludge and identify those parameters applicable to jet erosion. The erodibility parameters of sample 96-13 are characterized to the extent possible. These objectives have been met based on literature review, past experience at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and observation of sample 96-13 video during hot-cell activities.

Wells, Beric E.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Peterson, Reid A.

2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

346

Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption  

SciTech Connect

In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%.

Yamada, Y. [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-8585 (Japan); Kawase, Y. [Research Center for Biochemical and Environmental Engineering, Department of Applied Chemistry, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-8585 (Japan)]. E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Acid-sludge characterization and remediation improve well productivity and save costs in the Permian Basin  

SciTech Connect

Many oil wells in the Permian Basin have reported sludging problems associated with acid stimulations. The acid sludge is similar among wells and was identified as a viscous emulsion stabilized by asphaltene-rich organic solids. The sludging tendency of the oil increased with the concentrations of asphaltenes and resins, base number of the oil, and ferric ion content in the acid. Only three out of nine commercial acid systems tested were effective in preventing acid-sludge formation; they all use the same novel iron control technology, i.e., catalytic reduction of ferric ions. Several commercial and generic solvent systems were effective in dissolving acid sludge, including mixtures of an aromatic solvent (e.g., xylene) with either isopropyl alcohol (2:1 volume ratio), or ethylene glycol-monobutylether (EGMBE) (2:1 to 3:1 volume ratios). Selection of acid formulations and solvent systems was based on cost effectiveness and operation safety. Field implementation proved successful. If the results of this study had been implemented earlier in the lives of some of the Permian Basin properties, the recovery of 574 BOPD of lost or deferred production from 99 wells could have been realized. This would have resulted in an estimated increased revenue of over US $3 million in 1 year.

Wong, T.C. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States); Hwang, R.J.; Beaty, D.W. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States); Dolan, J.D.; McCarty, R.A.; Franzen, A.L. [Chevron U.S.A. Production Co., Midland, TX (United States)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Is the Missing Ultra-Red Material Colorless Ice?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extremely red colors of some transneptunian objects and Centaurs are not seen among the Jupiter family comets which supposedly derive from them. Could this mismatch result from sublimation loss of colorless ice? Radiative transfer models show that mixtures of volatile ice and nonvolatile organics could be extremely red, but become progressively darker and less red as the ice sublimates away.

Grundy, W M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Is the Missing Ultra-Red Material Colorless Ice?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extremely red colors of some transneptunian objects and Centaurs are not seen among the Jupiter family comets which supposedly derive from them. Could this mismatch result from sublimation loss of colorless ice? Radiative transfer models show that mixtures of volatile ice and nonvolatile organics could be extremely red, but become progressively darker and less red as the ice sublimates away.

W. M. Grundy

2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

350

Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Red Leaf Resources and the Commercialization of Oil Shale #12;About Red Leaf Resources 2006 Company commercial development field activities #12;Highlights Proven, Revolutionary Oil Shale Extraction Process Technology Significant Owned Oil Shale Resource #12;· The executive management team of Red Leaf Resources

Utah, University of

351

Automatic red tide detection from MODIS satellite images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Red tides pose a significant environmental and economic threat in the Gulf of Mexico. Timely detection of red tides is important for understanding this phenomenon. In this paper, learning approaches based on k-nearest neighbors, random forests and support ... Keywords: florida's red tides, k-nearest neighbors, random forests, remote sensing, support vector machines

Weijian Cheng; Lawrence O. Hall; Dmitry B. Goldgof; Inia M. Soto; Chuanmin Hu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located on the floor and in the pits of the 105-K basins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the sampling of the sludge found on the floor and in the remote pits of the 105-K Basins to provide: (1) basic data for the sludges that have not been characterized to-date and (2) representative Sludge material for process tests to be made by the SNF Project/K Basins sludge treatment process subproject. The sampling equipment developed will remove representative samples of the radioactive sludge from underwater at the K Basins, depositing them in shielded containers for transport to the Hanford Site laboratories. Included in the present document is the basic background logic for selection of the samples to meet the requirements established in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO), HNF-2033, for this sampling activity. The present document also includes the laboratory analyses, methods, procedures, and reporting that will be required to meet the DQO.

BAKER, R.B.

1998-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

353

Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Methods For The Sludge Batch 8 Qualification Sample  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution (PF) and Cold Chem (CC) method digestions and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption analysis of Hg digestions from the DWPF Hg digestion method of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples. The SB8 SRAT Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB8 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), to form the SB8 Blend composition.

Click, D. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Brown, L. W.

2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

354

Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective  

SciTech Connect

Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0.

Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Optical Design of a Red Sensitive Spectrograph  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a preliminary design for a red-sensitive spectrograph. The spectrograph is optimized to operate over the 600-1000nm spectral range at a resolution of ~2000 and is designed specifically for the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. The design is compact and cost effective and should have very high throughput. The principles of the design can be extended to other purposes, such as a unit spectrograph for the DESpec project or other projects that require good performance in the red. In this paper, we will discuss the selection of components as well as the choice of optical layouts and the theoretical throughput of the instrument.

Martin, Emily 1988-

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Engineering evaluation of neutralization and precipitation processes applicable to sludge treatment project  

SciTech Connect

Engineering evaluations have been performed to determine likely unit operations and methods required to support the removal, storage, treatment and disposal of solids/sludges present in the K Basins at the Hanford Site. This evaluation was initiated to select a neutralization process for dissolver product solution resulting from nitric acid treatment of about 50 m{sup 3} of Hanford Site K Basins sludge. Neutralization is required to meet Tank Waste Remediation Waste System acceptance criteria for storage of the waste in the double shell tanks after neutralization, the supernate and precipitate will be transferred to the high level waste storage tanks in 200E Area. Non transuranic (TRU) solids residue will be transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This report presents an overview of neutralization and precipitation methods previously used and tested. This report also recommends a neutralization process to be used as part of the K Basins Sludge Treatment Project and identifies additional operations requiring further evaluation.

Klem, M.J.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

357

Environmental residuals and capital costs of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The capital and environmental cost of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure is analyzed. Literature on waste processing and energy conversion and interviews with manufacturers were used for baseline data for construction of theoretical models using three energy conversion processes: anaerobic digestion, incineration, and pyrolysis. Process characteristics, environmental impact data, and capital costs are presented in detail for each conversion system. The energy recovery systems described would probably be sited near large sources of sludge and manure, i.e., metropolitan sewage treatment plants and large feedlots in cattle-raising states. Although the systems would provide benefits in terms of waste disposal as well as energy production, they would also involve additional pollution of air and water. Analysis of potential siting patterns and pollution conflicts is needed before energy recovery systems using municipal sludge can be considered as feasible energy sources.

Ballou, S W; Dale, L; Johnson, R; Chambers, W; Mittelhauser, H

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report: Third quarter 1993  

SciTech Connect

Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, iron, lead, and manganese are the only permit-required analytes that exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum are the nonpermit constituents exceeding standards. Other constituents have exceeded standards at this site previously, but only sporadically.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Management Of Hanford KW Basin Knockout Pot Sludge As Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) and AREVA Federal Services, LLC (AFS) have been working collaboratively to develop and deploy technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 10S-K West Reactor Fuel Storage Basin on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, WA, USA. Two disposal paths exist for the different types of sludge found in the K West (KW) Basin. One path is to be managed as Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) with eventual disposal at an SNF at a yet to be licensed repository. The second path will be disposed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. This paper describes the systems developed and executed by the Knockout Pot (KOP) Disposition Subproject for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as SNF, (i.e., KOP material).

Raymond, R. E. [CH2M HIll Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Evans, K. M. [AREVA, Avignon (France)

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

360

F/H seepage basin groundwater influent, effluent, precipitated sludge characterization task technical plan  

SciTech Connect

A treatability study to support the development of a remediation system which would reduce the contaminant levels in groundwater removed from the aquifers in the vicinity of the F/H seepage basins and southwest of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River facility was conducted. Proposed changes in the remediation system require an additional study to determine whether precipitated sludge generated from the proposed remediation system will be hazardous as defined by RCRA. Several contaminants, such as lead and mercury, are above the groundwater protection standards. The presence of radionuclides and other contaminants in the sludge does not present a problem provided that the sludge can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. The study has been developed in such a manner as to cover the possible range of treatment options that may be used.

Siler, J.L.

1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Thermal & Chemical Behavior of Uranium Metal Bearing Hanford K East Basin Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Uranium-metal-bearing sludge from the Hanford site K East Basin is to be loaded into containers and moved to interim storage in a dry cell at T Plant on the Hanford site. Thermal and chemical behavior of this sludge in its storage container are of interest to design and safety, because oxidation of its uranium generates power and hydrogen gas, with resulting implications for flammability of the container and cell headspaces, and the potential for local temperature escalation. Key aspects of experimental work and model development necessary to support the technical basis for design and safety analyses are reported here: (1) Experimental data supporting the oxidation rate law, including reactive surface area depletion, (2) Experimental data defining the maximum allowable heat generation rate in wet sludge, the so-called dryout heat flux, and (3) Integral modeling of physical and chemical processes to predict temperature and hydrogen concentration histories during loading, shipping, handling, and storage.

DUNCAN, D.R.

2003-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

362

Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water More Documents & Publications Application of Environmental Isotopes to the Evaluation of the Origin of Contamination in a Desert Arroyo: Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale

363

Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water More Documents & Publications Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale Application of Environmental Isotopes to the Evaluation of the Origin of Contamination in a Desert Arroyo: Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico

364

Environmental and plant effects of sewage sludge application to forests and pastures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Digested sewage sludge was applied to pastures and tree plantations at 19 to 44 Mg/ha (dry weight) as part of a municipal sludge disposal program. The sludge had low concentrations of heavy metals and traces of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co. Monitoring of soils, soil solutions, and runoff indicated that N, P, heavy metals, and radionuclides were largely retained in the upper 15cm of the soil. Soil solutions had elevated NO/sub 3//sup /minus// concentrations often >100 mg/L, but no significant increases in groundwater NO/sub 3//sup /minus// were found during the first year. Runoff from active sites had elevated concentrations of NO/sub 3//sup /minus// (20--30 mg/L), soluble P (1 mg/L), BOD/sub 5/ (5--30 mg/L), and fecal coliform (up to 14,000 colonies per 100 ml), not unlike runoff from pastures with cattle. Enrichment of organic N (2 times), available (inorganic) N (5 to 10 times), and Bray-P in the upper soils persisted for several years following sludge application. Sludge increased vegetation N concentrations from 1.5% to 2.3% and P concentrations from 0.16% to 0.31%. With the exception of Zn, heavy metals did not accumulate substantially in the vegetation. The sludge addition increased the survival and growth of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). For a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation future growth improvements are expected based on elevated foliar N concentrations. 37 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Van Miegroet, H.; Boston, H.L.; Johnson, D.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Solidification/stabilization of simulated uranium and nickel contaminated sludges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research missions in nuclear energy conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy facilities have generated large volumes of mixed wastes with hazardous and radioactive components. Uranium and nickel are the primary contaminants of concern in this research which focused on better understanding the Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) chemistry, complex waste-binder interactions, and the suitability and effectiveness of additives in the Portland cement based treatment systems. The treatability was investigated with a simulated waste representative of the actual Oak Ridge K-25 pond waste. Screening tools such as the short term slurry tests were used to ascertain the behavior of the contaminants in the cement based systems for a range of binder-to-waste ratios, and optimal substitutions of cement with additives. This was used in combination with the Acid Neutralizing Capacity of the S/S system components to design solid waste form mixes to be evaluated over long curing periods. Attempts at estimating the extent of sorption and other immobilization mechanisms were made using dry and hydrated cement matrices. Portland cement based systems with flyash, silica fume and sodium sulfide as additives were studied. Porewater uranium and nickel concentrations, leachability, physical immobilization in terms Of MacMullin number and Unconfined Compressive Strength, regulatory compliance, and risk reduction were evaluated in the solid waste forms ranging over three binder-to-waste ratios. The 900 mg/L uranium and 3,000 mg/L nickel in the untreated sludge were reduced to less than 10 mg/L uranium and 30 mg /L nickel in the TCLP extract of the solidified waste form.

Ramabhadran, Sanjay

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Construction and Changes in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank(Glass Apparatus Development Laboratory)  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), at the Savannah River Site is processing and immobilizing the radioactive high level waste sludge slurry at SRS into a durable borosilicate glass for final geological disposal. Each time a new batch of radioactive sludge is to be processed by the DWPF, the process flow sheet is to be tested and demonstrated to ensure an acceptable melter feed and glass can be made. These demonstrations are completed in the Shielded Cells Facility in the Savannah River National Laboratory at SRS.

DOBOS, JAMES

2004-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

367

Analytical and spectroscopic characterization of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge, manure, and worm compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Humic acids extracted from sewage sludges, manure, and worm compost have been characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Meaningful differences in the composition were revealed by FTIR, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR, and visible spectroscopies. These differences allow a differentiation among the products depending on the source from which they were obtained. Humic acid extracted from sewage sludges contains the highest percentage of aliphatic carbon, associated with polysaccharides and proteinaceous structures, and has characteristics close to those of aquatic humic acids. On the other hand, humic acids from manure and worm compost are similar to the humic acids originating from soil.

Deiana, S.; Gessa, C.; Manunza, B.; Seeber, R. (Universita di Sassari (Italy)); Rausa, R. (Eniricerche S.p.A., Milanese (Italy))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Devolatilization and ash comminution of two different sewage sludges under fluidized bed combustion conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two different wet sewage sludges have been characterized under fluidized bed combustion conditions with reference to their devolatilization behavior and ash comminution with the aid of different and complementary experimental protocols. Analysis of the devolatilization process allowed to determine the size of fuel particle able to achieve effective lateral spreading of the volatile matter across the cross-section of medium-scale combustors. Primary fragmentation and primary ash particle characterization pointed out the formation of a significant amount of relatively large fragments. The mechanical properties of these fragments have been characterized by means of elutriation/abrasion tests using both quartz and sludge ash beds. (author)

Solimene, R.; Urciuolo, M.; Cammarota, A.; Chirone, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione (IRC) - CNR, Napoli (Italy); Salatino, P. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione (IRC) - CNR, Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Damonte, G.; Donati, C.; Puglisi, G. [ECODECO Gruppo A2A, Giussago (PV) (Italy)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90 mg/kg in the SRAT product of the lowest acid run. The 159% acid run reached 60% of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) limit of 0.65 lb H2/hr, and then sporadically exceeded the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) limit of 0.223 lb H2/hr. Hydrogen generation rates peaked at 112% of the SME limit, but higher than targeted wt% total solids levels may have been partially responsible for rates seen. A stoichiometric factor of 120% met both objectives. A processing window for SB6 exists from 102% to something close to 159% based on the simulant results. An initial recommendation for SB6 processing is at 115-120% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. The addition of simulated Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) streams to the SRAT cycle had no apparent impact on the preferred stoichiometric factor. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 120%, 118.4% with ARP/MCU, and 159% stoichiometry were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 36 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 120% acid run reached 23% of the SRAT limit and 37% of the SME limit. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 29 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two processing issues, identified during SB6 Phase II flowsheet testing and qualification simulant testing, were monitored during Phase III. Mercury material balance closure was impacted by acid stoichiometry, and significant mercury was not accounted for in the highest acid run. Coalescence of elemental mercury droplets in the mercury water wash tank (MWWT) appeared to degrade with increasing stoichiometry. Observations were made of mercury scale formation in the SRAT condenser and MWWT. A tacky mercury amalgam with Rh, Pd, and Cu, plus some Ru and Ca formed on the impeller at 159% acid. It contained a significant fraction of the available Pd, Cu, and Rh as well as about 25% of the total mercury charged. Free (elemental) mercury was found in all of the SME products. Ammonia scrubbers were used during the tests to capture off-gas ammonia for material balance purposes. Significant ammonium ion formation was again observed during the SRAT cycle, and ammonia gas entered the off-gas as the pH rose during boiling. Ammonium ion production was lower than in the SB6 Phase II and the qualification simulant testing. Similar ammonium ion formation was seen in the ARP/MCU simulation as in the 120% flowsheet run. A slightly higher pH caused most of the ammonium to vaporize and collect in the ammonia scrubber reflux solution. Two periods of foaminess were noted. Neither required additional antifoam to control the foam growth. A steady foam layer formed during reflux in the 120% acid run. It was about an inch thick, but was 2-3 times more volume of bubbles than is typically seen during reflux. A similar foam layer also was seen during caustic boiling of the simulant during the ARP addition. While frequently seen with the radioactive sludge, foaminess during caustic boiling with simulants has been relatively rare. Two further flowsheet tests were performed and will be documented separately. One test was to evaluate the impact of process conditions that match current DWPF operation (lower rates). The second test was to evaluate the impact of SRAT/SME processing on the rheology of a modified Phase III simulant that had been made five times more viscous using ultrasonication.

Koopman, David

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

370

Renewable Energy Development Group Ltd RED | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RED RED Jump to: navigation, search Name Renewable Energy Development Group Ltd (RED) Place Edinburgh, United Kingdom Zip EH1 2DP Sector Biomass, Hydro, Wind energy Product Developer of wind farms. It is also active in the development of other types of renewably powered electricity generation including hydro-electric and biomass power projects. References Renewable Energy Development Group Ltd (RED)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Renewable Energy Development Group Ltd (RED) is a company located in Edinburgh, United Kingdom . References ↑ "Renewable Energy Development Group Ltd (RED)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Renewable_Energy_Development_Group_Ltd_RED&oldid=350319

371

Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions  

SciTech Connect

This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most of the K Basin sludge characterization data is derived spent nuclear fuel corroded within the K Basins at 10-15?C. The STP process will place water-laden sludges from the K Basin in process vessels at {approx}150-180 C. Therefore, published studies with other irradiated (uranium oxide) fuel were examined. From these studies, the affinity of plutonium and americium for uranium in irradiated UO2 also was demonstrated at hydrothermal conditions (150 C anoxic liquid water) approaching those proposed for the STP process and even for hydrothermal conditions outside of the STP operating envelope (e.g., 150 C oxic and 100 C oxic and anoxic liquid water). In summary, by demonstrating that the chemical and physical behavior of 241Am in the sludge matrix is similar to that of the predominant species (uranium and for the plutonium from which it originates), a technical basis is provided for using the slow uptake transportability factor for 241Am that is currently used for plutonium and uranium oxides. The change from moderate to slow uptake for 241Am could reduce the overall analyzed dose consequences for the STP by more than 30%.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions  

SciTech Connect

This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most of the K Basin sludge characterization data is derived spent nuclear fuel corroded within the K Basins at 10-15?C. The STP process will place water-laden sludges from the K Basin in process vessels at {approx}150-180 C. Therefore, published studies with other irradiated (uranium oxide) fuel were examined. From these studies, the affinity of plutonium and americium for uranium in irradiated UO2 also was demonstrated at hydrothermal conditions (150 C anoxic liquid water) approaching those proposed for the STP process and even for hydrothermal conditions outside of the STP operating envelope (e.g., 150 C oxic and 100 C oxic and anoxic liquid water). In summary, by demonstrating that the chemical and physical behavior of 241Am in the sludge matrix is similar to that of the predominant species (uranium and for the plutonium from which it originates), a technical basis is provided for using the slow uptake transportability factor for 241Am that is currently used for plutonium and uranium oxides. The change from moderate to slow uptake for 241Am could reduce the overall analyzed dose consequences for the STP by more than 30%.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

REMOVING SLUDGE HEELS FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANKS BY OXALIC ACID DISSOLUTION  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) will remove sludge as part of waste tank closure operations. Typically the bulk sludge is removed by mixing it with supernate to produce a slurry, and transporting the slurry to a downstream tank for processing. Experience shows that a residual heel may remain in the tank that cannot be removed by this conventional technique. In the past, SRS used oxalic acid solutions to disperse or dissolve the sludge heel to complete the waste removal. To better understand the actual conditions of oxalic acid cleaning of waste from carbon steel tanks, the authors developed and conducted an experimental program to determine its effectiveness in dissolving sludge, the hydrogen generation rate, the generation rate of other gases, the carbon steel corrosion rate, the impact of mixing on chemical cleaning, the impact of temperature, and the types of precipitates formed during the neutralization process. The test samples included actual SRS sludge and simulated SRS sludge. The authors performed the simulated waste tests at 25, 50, and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge over seven days. They conducted the actual waste tests at 50 and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge as a single batch. Following the testing, SRS conducted chemical cleaning with oxalic acid in two waste tanks. In Tank 5F, the oxalic acid (8 wt %) addition occurred over seven days, followed by inhibited water to ensure the tank contained enough liquid to operate the mixer pumps. The tank temperature during oxalic acid addition and dissolution was approximately 45 C. The authors analyzed samples from the chemical cleaning process and compared it with test data. The conclusions from the work are: (1) Oxalic acid addition proved effective in dissolving sludge heels in the simulant demonstration, the actual waste demonstration, and in SRS Tank 5F. (2) The oxalic acid dissolved {approx} 100% of the uranium, {approx} 100% of the iron, and {approx} 40% of the manganese during a single contact in the simulant demonstration. (The iron dissolution may be high due to corrosion of carbon steel coupons.) (3) The oxalic acid dissolved {approx} 80% of the uranium, {approx} 70% of the iron, {approx} 50% of the manganese, and {approx} 90% of the aluminum in the actual waste demonstration for a single contact. (4) The oxalic acid dissolved {approx} 100% of the uranium, {approx} 15% of the iron, {approx} 40% of the manganese, and {approx} 80% of the aluminum in Tank 5F during the first contact cycle. Except for the iron, these results agree well with the demonstrations. The data suggest that a much larger fraction of the iron in the sludge dissolved, but it re-precipitated with the oxalate added to Tank 5F. (5) The demonstrations produced large volumes (i.e., 2-14 gallons of gas/gallon of oxalic acid) of gas (primarily carbon dioxide) by the reaction of oxalic acid with sludge and carbon steel. (6) The reaction of oxalic acid with carbon steel produced hydrogen in the simulant and actual waste demonstrations. The volume produced varied from 0.00002-0.00100 ft{sup 3} hydrogen/ft{sup 2} carbon steel. The hydrogen production proved higher in unmixed tanks than in mixed tanks.

Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Fernando Fondeur, F; John Pareizs, J; Michael Hay, M; Bruce Wiersma, B; Kim Crapse, K; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S; Donald Thaxton, D

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

CONSOLIDATION OF K BASIN SLUDGE DATA AND EXPERIENCES ON AGGLOMERATE FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

The formation of high sludge strength agglomerates is a key concern to the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) to ensure the sludge can be retrieved after planned storage for up to 10 years in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) at T Plant. This report addresses observations of agglomerate formation, conditions that the data shows lead to agglomeration, the frequency of agglomerate formation and postulated physiochemical mechanisms that may lead to agglomeration. Although the exact underlying chemistry of K Basin sludge agglomerate formation is not known, the factors that lead to agglomeration formation, based on observations, are as follows: (1) High Total Uranium Content (i.e., sample homogeneity and influence from other constituents); (2) Distribution of Uranium Phases (i.e., extent of conversion from uraninite to uranium oxide hydroxide compounds); (3) Sample Dry-out (loss of cover water); (4) Elevated temperature; (5) Solubility ofU(IV) phases vs. U(VI) phases; and (6) Long storage times. Agglomerated sludge has occurred infrequently and has only been observed in four laboratory samples, five samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (performed for 7 to 10 hours at {approx}185 C and 225 psig), and indirectly during six sampling events in the KE Basin. In the four laboratory samples where agglomerates were observed, the agglomerates exhibited high shear strength and the sample container typically had to be broken to remove the solids. The total uranium content (dry basis) for the four samples (KE Pit, KC-2/3 SS, KC-2/3 M250 and 96-13) were {approx}8 wt%, {approx}59.0 wt%, 68.3 wt% and 82 wt%. The agglomerates that were present during the six sampling events were undoubtedly disturbed and easily broken apart during sample collection, thus no agglomerates were observed in subsequent laboratory analyses. The highest shear strengths measured for K Basin sludge samples were obtained after hydrothermal treatment (7 to 10 hr at 185 C) of high-uranium-content KE canister sludge. The unconfined compressive strength of samples from this testing, measured by a pocket penetrometer, infers that their shear strength may be between 120 kPa and 170 kPa (PNNL-16496). These short-duration hydrothermal tests were conducted at temperatures much greater than the temperature of the T Plant canyon cells (-7 C to 33 C); however, the strength results provide an initial bounding target for sludge stored for many years, and an upper range for simulants (042910-53451-TP02 Rev 1). Sampling and characterization activities conducted in 2009 have measured the total uranium content and speciation for sludge stored in Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260 (PNNL-19035). Based on on-going testing that has measured the shear strength of uranium samples containing varying uranium (IV) to uranium (VI) ratios and the characterization of the Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260, it is unlikely that agglomerates will form on a large scale in this sludge. The highest measured total uranium concentration in the Engineered Container SCS-CON-220 sludge is 35.2 wt% and only 4 wt% to 6 wt% (dry) in Engineered Containers SCS-CON -240, -250, and -260. The uranium concentrations in Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260 sludge are below the threshold for agglomerate formation. Settler sludge however is estimated to contain {approx} 80 wt% (dry) total uranium, which could lead to the formation of high strength agglomerates depending on the relative concentrations of U(IV) and U(VI) compounds. One of the chief concerns of the STP is sludge dry-out. Samples archived in PNNL hot cells have been known to dry out and form hard clods of material, which are then difficult to reconstitute (HNF-6705). In 1996, all but one of the samples archived at the 222-S Laboratory dried out. These samples were composed of sludge collected from the KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit. However, in the STP's current design plans for sludge stored in STSCs at T Plant, there are provisions for continual water level observation and periodic

HILL SR

2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

375

CONSOLIDATION OF K BASIN SLUDGE DATA AND EXPERIENCES ON AGGLOMERATE FORMATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of high sludge strength agglomerates is a key concern to the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) to ensure the sludge can be retrieved after planned storage for up to 10 years in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) at T Plant. This report addresses observations of agglomerate formation, conditions that the data shows lead to agglomeration, the frequency of agglomerate formation and postulated physiochemical mechanisms that may lead to agglomeration. Although the exact underlying chemistry of K Basin sludge agglomerate formation is not known, the factors that lead to agglomeration formation, based on observations, are as follows: (1) High Total Uranium Content (i.e., sample homogeneity and influence from other constituents); (2) Distribution of Uranium Phases (i.e., extent of conversion from uraninite to uranium oxide hydroxide compounds); (3) Sample Dry-out (loss of cover water); (4) Elevated temperature; (5) Solubility ofU(IV) phases vs. U(VI) phases; and (6) Long storage times. Agglomerated sludge has occurred infrequently and has only been observed in four laboratory samples, five samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (performed for 7 to 10 hours at {approx}185 C and 225 psig), and indirectly during six sampling events in the KE Basin. In the four laboratory samples where agglomerates were observed, the agglomerates exhibited high shear strength and the sample container typically had to be broken to remove the solids. The total uranium content (dry basis) for the four samples (KE Pit, KC-2/3 SS, KC-2/3 M250 and 96-13) were {approx}8 wt%, {approx}59.0 wt%, 68.3 wt% and 82 wt%. The agglomerates that were present during the six sampling events were undoubtedly disturbed and easily broken apart during sample collection, thus no agglomerates were observed in subsequent laboratory analyses. The highest shear strengths measured for K Basin sludge samples were obtained after hydrothermal treatment (7 to 10 hr at 185 C) of high-uranium-content KE canister sludge. The unconfined compressive strength of samples from this testing, measured by a pocket penetrometer, infers that their shear strength may be between 120 kPa and 170 kPa (PNNL-16496). These short-duration hydrothermal tests were conducted at temperatures much greater than the temperature of the T Plant canyon cells (-7 C to 33 C); however, the strength results provide an initial bounding target for sludge stored for many years, and an upper range for simulants (042910-53451-TP02 Rev 1). Sampling and characterization activities conducted in 2009 have measured the total uranium content and speciation for sludge stored in Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260 (PNNL-19035). Based on on-going testing that has measured the shear strength of uranium samples containing varying uranium (IV) to uranium (VI) ratios and the characterization of the Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260, it is unlikely that agglomerates will form on a large scale in this sludge. The highest measured total uranium concentration in the Engineered Container SCS-CON-220 sludge is 35.2 wt% and only 4 wt% to 6 wt% (dry) in Engineered Containers SCS-CON -240, -250, and -260. The uranium concentrations in Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260 sludge are below the threshold for agglomerate formation. Settler sludge however is estimated to contain {approx} 80 wt% (dry) total uranium, which could lead to the formation of high strength agglomerates depending on the relative concentrations of U(IV) and U(VI) compounds. One of the chief concerns of the STP is sludge dry-out. Samples archived in PNNL hot cells have been known to dry out and form hard clods of material, which are then difficult to reconstitute (HNF-6705). In 1996, all but one of the samples archived at the 222-S Laboratory dried out. These samples were composed of sludge collected from the KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit. However, in the STP's current design plans for sludge stored in STSCs at T Plant, there are provisions for continual water level observation and periodic

HILL SR

2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

376

Estimated Maximum Gas Retention from Uniformly Dispersed Bubbles in K Basin Sludge Stored in Large-Diameter Containers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This letter report addresses the KE Basin sludge that will be retrieved and stored in large-diameter containers (LDCs.) A fraction of the hydrogen gas bubbles generated from the corrosion of uranium metal and oxides may be retained within the sludge matrix. Those entrapped bubbles will expand the sludge bed volume and, therefore, will affect how much sludge can be loaded into a container. The entrapped gas bubbles will also impact the overall thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the sludge bed. The evaluation summarized here was performed to estimate the maximum gas holdup (volume fraction gas) that could occur sludge stored in large-diameter containers, assuming uniform gas generation (i.e., uniform distribution of metallic uranium particles). This report represents an evaluation of the retention of uniformly distributed bubbles and an estimate of the maximum gas fraction that might be retained in K Basin LDCs based on existing literature data on bubble retention and Basin sludge characterization data. Existing data show that the maximum gas fraction varies, depending on physical properties and the configuration of the material or waste.

Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Terrones, Guillermo

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

Xie, Ping (San Jose, CA); Gosnell, Timothy R. (Sante Fe, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

379

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW Final Safety Analysis Report Review, August 2011  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site Visit Report Site Visit Report Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW Final Safety Analysis Report Review May 2011 August 2011 Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1 2.0 Background ............................................................................................................................................ 1 3.0 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1 4.0 Results .................................................................................................................................................... 2

380

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW Final Safety Analysis Report Review, August 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Site Visit Report Site Visit Report Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW Final Safety Analysis Report Review May 2011 August 2011 Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 1 2.0 Background ............................................................................................................................................ 1 3.0 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1 4.0 Results .................................................................................................................................................... 2

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Brief paper: Fuzzy control of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The activated sludge process is a commonly used method for treating sewage and waste waters. It is characterised by a lack of relevant instrumentation, control goals that are not always clearly stated, the use of qualitative information in decision making ... Keywords: Computer control, control system synthesis, controllers, fuzzy control, process control, water pollution, water resources

R. M. Tong; M. B. Beck; A. Latten

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to reduce volume, remove pathogens, and to gain energy. Anaerobic digestion is by far the most commonRemoval of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N treatment in a wastewater treatment plant. They therefore proceed directly to the anaerobic post treatment

383

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect

Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. During fourth quarter 1992, the FSS wells also were analyzed for a number of other constituents not required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells. Lead concentrations exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards during fourth quarter 1992, an event that is concurrent with a change in sampling procedures. Tritium is the primary nonpermit constituent that exceeds standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES  

SciTech Connect

In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

Nash, Kenneth L.

2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

385

Neural Image Analysis of Maturity Stage during Composting of Sewage Sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents the experiments of compost images analysis carried out with two types of digital cameras working in daylight and ultraviolet light. The data collected with two cameras were analysed with the usage of neural network model (using part ... Keywords: neural image analysis, artificial neural networks, sewage sludge, composting

Piotr Boniecki; Jacek Dach; Krzysztof Nowakowski; Artur Jakubek

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Preparation and Characterization of Uranium Oxides in Support of the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uraninite (UO2) and metaschoepite (UO3·2H2O) are the uranium phases most frequently observed in K Basin sludge. Uraninite arises from the oxidation of uranium metal by anoxic water and metaschoepite arises from oxidation of uraninite by atmospheric or radiolytic oxygen. Studies of the oxidation of uraninite by oxygen to form metaschoepite were performed at 21°C and 50°C. A uranium oxide oxidation state characterization method based on spectrophotometry of the solution formed by dissolving aqueous slurries in phosphoric acid was developed to follow the extent of reaction. This method may be applied to determine uranium oxide oxidation state distribution in K Basin sludge. The uraninite produced by anoxic corrosion of uranium metal has exceedingly fine particle size (6 nm diameter), forms agglomerates, and has the formula UO2.004±0.007; i.e., is practically stoichiometric UO2. The metaschoepite particles are flatter and wider when prepared at 21°C than the particles prepared at 50°C. These particles are much smaller than the metaschoepite observed in prolonged exposure of actual K Basin sludge to warm moist oxidizing conditions. The uraninite produced by anoxic uranium metal corrosion and the metaschoepite produced by reaction of uraninite aqueous slurries with oxygen may be used in engineering and process development testing. A rapid alternative method to determine uranium metal concentrations in sludge also was identified.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

387

OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES IN MIXING AND TRANSFER OF HIGH YIELD STRESS SLUDGE WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The ability to mobilize and transport non-Newtonian waste is essential to advance the closure of highly radioactive storage tanks. Recent waste removal operations from Tank 12H at the Savannah River Site (SRS) encountered sludge mixtures with a yield stress too high to pump. The waste removal equipment for Tank 12H was designed to mobilize and transport a diluted slurry mixture through an underground 550m long (1800 ft) 0.075m diameter (3 inch) pipeline. The transfer pump was positioned in a well casing submerged in the sludge slurry. The design allowed for mobilized sludge to enter the pump suction while keeping out larger tank debris. Data from a similar tank with known rheological properties were used to size the equipment. However, after installation and startup, field data from Tank 12H confirmed the yield stress of the slurry to exceed 40 Pa, whereas the system is designed for 10 Pa. A revision to the removal strategy was required, which involved metered dilution, blending, and mixing to ensure effective and safe transfer performance. The strategy resulted in the removal of over 255,000 kgs of insoluble solids with four discrete transfer evolutions for a total transfer volume of 2400 m{sup 3} (634,000 gallons) of sludge slurry.

Caldwell, T.; Bhatt, P.

2009-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

388

Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis [Technological Educational Institute of West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z