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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Iron oxide red wastewater treatment and recycling of iron-containing sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper presents a wastewater treatment process and recycling of iron sludge from wastewater treatment for iron oxide red production. Results show that: (1) Sludge from wastewater treatment process under the operating parameters: 1.84 g/L of NaOH dosage, 10 mins of aeration with flow rate of 1 L/min and 150 mins of sediment time is potential for seed crystal preparation and excellent iron oxide red product can be obtained in the secondary oxidation under condition of 85 °C, 68 h of reaction time and 150 mL/min of airflow rate, (2) In practical engineering, the average removal rate of Fe2+ and SS and chroma of effluent is 99.75%, 86.7% and less than 40 times, respectively, and all items of product satisfy demands of industrial standards, (3) Compared with the original wastewater treatment, the new process can save the cost of wastewater treatment and earn extra 20.0 dollars for a ton of iron oxide red product and then both economic benefit and environmental protection can be realized by this process. It is proved that the novel method is reliable, economical and promising in iron oxide red industry and cleaner production of iron oxide red is feasible.

Zhenguo Chen; Xiaojun Wang; Qilong Ge; Guanchao Guo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Kraft Liquor Corrosion Margaret Gorog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Kraft Liquor Corrosion Margaret Gorog Federal Way, WA Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute November 2014 · Brown Stock Corrosion · Alkaline Liquor Corrosion · Black Liquor Corrosion ­ Evaporators ­ Research · High Solids Black Liquor Corrosion of Stainless Steel

Das, Suman

3

Interrelated Effects of Aeration and Mixed Liquor Fractions on Membrane Fouling for Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Processes in Wastewater Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interrelated Effects of Aeration and Mixed Liquor Fractions on Membrane Fouling for Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Processes in Wastewater Treatment ... using hollow fibers was applied to wastewater treated by the activated-sludge process. ...

Fengshen Fan; Hongde Zhou

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

4

Gasification of black liquor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA)

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

CORN STEEP LIQUOR IN MICROBIOLOGY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...is a by-product of the corn wet-milling industry it would be insufficient...invention of much of the modern wet milling process, suggested corn steep liquor as a nutrient...general flowsheet of the corn wet-milling process; and to Dr. L...

R. Winston Liggett; H. Koffler

1948-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 2: Comparisons between different liquors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This continuation of earlier work reports fuel nitrogen release for black liquors at two temperatures during pyrolysis of single droplets in an oxygen-free environment. Approximately half of the 20--60% fuel nitrogen released was ammonia and half was molecular nitrogen. The total amount of fixed nitrogen released during pyrolysis was almost linearly proportional to the liquor nitrogen content. The yield of fixed nitrogen for birch liquors was significantly higher than for pine liquors, and the yield for bagasse liquor was extremely high.

Aho, K.; Nikkanen, S. (A. Ahlstrom Corp., Varkaus (Finland)); Hupa, M. (Abo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping This factsheet describes a...

8

Chapter 2 - Black Liquor Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Black liquor gasification (BLG) is being considered primarily as an option for production of biofuels in recent years due to the focus on the transport sector’s high oil dependence and climate impact. BLG may be performed either at low temperatures or at high temperatures, based on whether the process is conducted above or below the melting temperature range of the spent pulping chemicals. The development of various BLG technologies—SCA-Billerud process, the Copeland recovery process, Weyerhaeuser’s process, the St. Regis hydropyrolysis process, the Texaco process, VTT’s circulating fluidized bed BLG process, Babcock and Wilcox’s bubbling fluidized bed gasification process, NSP process (Ny Sodahus Process), DARS (Direct Alkali Recovery System) process, BLG with direct causticization, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International fluidized bed gasification, Chemrec gasification, catalytic hydrothermal gasification of black liquor—is discussed in this chapter. The two main technologies under development are pressurized gasification and atmospheric gasification, being commercialized by Chemrec AB and ThermoChem Recovery International, respectively.

Pratima Bajpai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and were functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical and physical properties and chemical stability; and are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development was divided into 2 tasks: Task 1 was development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesium aluminate and barium aluminate for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO2 and SiC. Task 2 was finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided into 2 tasks: Task 1, Development and property determinations of improved and existing refractory systems for black liquor containment. Refractory systems of interest include magnesia aluminate and baria aluminate spinels for binder materials, both dry and hydratable, and materials with high alumina contents, 85-95 wt%, aluminum oxide, 5.0-15.0 wt%, and BaO, SrO, CaO, ZrO and SiC. Task 2, Finite element analysis of heat flow and thermal stress/strain in the refractory lining and steel shell of existing and proposed vessel designs. Stress and strain due to thermal and chemical expansion has been observed to be detrimental to the lifespan of existing black liquor gasifiers. The thermal and chemical strain as well as corrosion rates must be accounted for in order to predict the lifetime of the gasifier containment materials.

Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

14

Recovering Soaps and Greases from Wool-Scouring liquors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recovering Soaps and Greases from Wool-Scouring liquors ... A NEW process, illustrated in the accompanying flowsheet, has been devised for recovering soaps and greases from waste wool-scouring liquors. ...

C.H.S. TUPHOLME

1939-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

15

Sludge sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a sludge sampler comprising an elongated generally cylindrical housing containing a baffle containing an aperture. Connected to the aperture is a flexible tubing having a valve for maintaining and releasing pressure in the lower end of the housing and exiting the upper end of the housing. The lower end of the housing contains a ball check valve maintained in closed position by pressure. When the lower end of the device contacts the sludge bed, the pressure valve is opened, enabling sludge to enter the lower end of the housing. After the sample is collected the valve is closed. An upsetting pin opens the valve to empty a sludge sample after the sample is removed from the fluid.

Ward, Ralph C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Sludge sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a sludge sampler comprising an elongated generally cylindrical housing containing a baffle containing an aperture. Connected to the aperture is a flexible tubing having a valve for maintaining and releasing pressure in the lower end of the housing and exiting the upper end of the housing. The lower end of the housing contains a ball check valve maintained in closed position by pressure. When the lower end of the device contacts the sludge bed, the pressure valve is opened, enabling sludge to enter the lower end of the housing. After the sample is collected the valve is closed. An upsetting pin opens the valve to empty a sludge sample after the sample is removed from the fluid.

Ward, R.C.

1981-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

17

Sewage Sludge, Pros & Cons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sewage Sludge, Pros & Cons ... Efficient Hydrogen Sulfide Adsorbents Obtained by Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge Derived Fertilizer Modified with Spent Mineral Oil ... Efficient Hydrogen Sulfide Adsorbents Obtained by Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge Derived Fertilizer Modified with Spent Mineral Oil ...

Rebecca Renner

2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

18

Municipal Sludge disposal economics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Municipal Sludge disposal economics ... Atmospheric emissions of elements on particles from the Parkway sewage-sludge incinerator ... Atmospheric emissions of elements on particles from the Parkway sewage-sludge incinerator ...

Jerry Jones; David Bomberger, Jr.; F Lewis; Joel Jacknow

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Big Island  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Final Technical Report provides an account of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific LLC's Big Island, VA facility. This report covers the period from May 5, 2000 through November 30, 2006.

Robert DeCarrera

2007-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

20

Innovative sludge stabilization method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sludge is generated in many water and wastewater treatment processes, both biological and physical/chemical. Examples include biological sludges from sanitary and industrial wastewater treatment operations and chemical sludges such as those produced when metals are removed from metal plating wastewater. Even some potable water plants produce sludge, such as when alum is used as a flocculating agent to clarify turbid water. Because sludge is produced from such a variety of operations, different techniques have been developed to remove water from sludges and reduce the sludge volume and mass, thus making the sludge more suitable for recovery or disposal. These techniques include mechanical (e.g., filter presses), solar (sludge drying beds), and thermal. The least expensive of these methods, neglecting land costs, involves sludge drying beds and lagoons. The solar method was widely used in sewage treatment plants for many years, but has fallen in disfavor in the US; mechanical and thermal methods have been preferred. Since environmental remediation often requires managing sludges, this article presents a discussion of a variation of sludge lagoons known as evaporative sludge stabilization. Application of this process to the closure of two 2.5 acre (10117 m{sup 2}) hazardous waste surface impoundments will be discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs.

Riggenbach, J.D.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

Not Available

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Pretreatment of microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

23

Pretreatment of microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Louisville, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Sludge Mass Reduction Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Preparations Preparations within the Tank Farm D. Bumgardner Liquid Waste Engineering Washington Savannah River Company 12 May 2009 2 Agenda Liquid Waste System Overview Sludge Characteristics Sludge Batch Planning Sludge Batch Preparation Sequence - Aluminum Dissolution - Sludge Washing - Sludge Batch Qualification/Acceptance Questions 3 Liquid Waste Processing at SRS ARP - Actinide Removal Process AFP - Actinide Finishing Process ASP - Actinide Strike Process CSS - Clarified Salt Solution CSSX - Caustic-side Solvent Extraction DDA - Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment DSS - Decontaminated Salt Solution DWPF - Defense Waste Processing Facility ETP - Effluent Treatment Project GWSB - Glass Waste Storage Building HLW - High-Level Waste LLW - Low-Level Waste MCU - Modular CSSX Unit

25

Sludge organics bioavailability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concern over the bioavailability of toxic organics that can occur in municipal sludges threatens routine land application of sludge. Available data, however, show that concentrations of priority organics in normal sludges are low. Sludges applied at agronomic rates yield chemical concentrations in soil-sludge mixtures 50 to 100 fold lower. Plant uptake at these pollutant concentrations (and at much higher concentrations) is minimal. Chemicals are either (1) accumulated at extremely low levels (PCBs), (2) possibly accumulated, but then rapidly metabolized within plants to extremely low levels (DEHP), or (3) likely degraded so rapidly in soil that only minor contamination occurs (PCP and 2,4-DNP).

Eiceman, G.E.; Bellin, C.A.; Ryan, J.A.; O'Connor, G.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Pilot scale gasification of spent cooking liquor from sodium sulfite based delignification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a pilot scale high pressure entrained flow gasification experiment with spent cooking liquor from a sodium sulfite based delignification process in the DP-1 black liquor gasifier in Piteĺ, Sweden. Approximately 92 tons of sulfite ...

Erik Furusjö; Ragnar Stare; Ingvar Landälv; Patrik Löwnertz

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

27

Flash pyrolysis of sewage sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flash pyrolysis of sewage sludge ... Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties ... Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties ...

Jan Piskorz; Donald S. Scott; Ian B. Westerberg

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

CHAMPAIGN-URBANA FOOD AND LIQUOR GUIDE 1. Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(217) 352-7467. Excellent Mexican and Latin American- influenced food. Service can be a bit slowCHAMPAIGN-URBANA FOOD AND LIQUOR GUIDE 1. Introduction This is a short, incomplete, and personally. It is standard to tip 15-20% for reasonable service. A indicates a place that we like, and indicates a place we

Athreya, Jayadev

29

Report on the WORKSHOP ON COMMERCIALIZATION OF BLACK LIQUOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

!iers have not seen convIncIng evidence of cycle (BLGCC) and biomass-gasifier/combined market opportunity -Denny Hunter gasification/combined cycle technology, sufficient Weyerhaeuser Company research exists for Key ideas from the workshop... commercializing black liquor gasifier/ combined Techno~og~ supp

30

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 February 2012 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Operational...

32

Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sludge Treatment Project - September 2013 Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - September 2013 November 2013 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project...

33

Metagenomic analysis of phosphorus removing sludge communities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kinase from activated sludge performing enhanced biologicalbetween flocculation of activated sludge and composition oforganisms from activated sludge systems. Wat Res 31,

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

Kelleher, E. G.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Sludge composting, sludge pretreatment and radiation technology: a review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper reviews the state-of-the-art technologies on sludge conditioning and stabilisation. Radiation technology, best contextualised within the concept of Green Chemistry, is yet another developing area of sludge pretreatment. Besides revisiting some important aspects of sludge treatment by composting, this review paper also appraises the application of gamma ray and ultrasound irradiations particularly in sludge pretreatment and sludge composting for monitoring, and to some extent improving, the degradation and subsequent stabilisation of sludge constituents. The scientific principle of each type of radiation and selected research work are discussed, and future needs for applied research are eventually outlined.

Ackmez Mudhoo; Romeela Mohee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Treatment of nitrous off-gas from dissolution of sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several configurations have been reviewed for the NO{sub x} removal of dissolver off-gas. A predesign has been performed and operating conditions have been optimized. Simple absorption columns seems to be sufficient. NHC is in charge of the treatment of sludges containing mainly uranium dioxide and metallic uranium. The process is based on the following processing steps a dissolution step to oxidize the pyrophoric materials and to dissolve radionuclides (uranium, plutonium, americium and fission products), a solid/liquid separation to get rid of the insoluble solids (to be disposed at ERDF), an adjustment of the acid liquor with neutronic poisons, and neutralization of the acid liquor with caustic soda. The dissolution step generates a flow of nitrous fumes which was evaluated in a previous study. This NO{sub x} flow has to be treated. The purpose of this report is to study the treatment process of the nitrous vapors and to 0482 perform a preliminary design. Several treatment configurations are studied and the most effective process option with respect to the authorized level of discharge into atmosphere is discussed. As a conclusion, recommendations concerning the unit preliminary design are given.

Flament, T.A.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

38

Molybdenum uptake by forage crops grown on sewage sludge -- Amended soils in the field and greenhouse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molybdenum (Mo) is a plant-available element in soils that can adversely affect the health of farm animals. There is a need for more information on its uptake into forage crops from waste materials, such as sewage sludge, applied to agricultural land. Field and greenhouse experiments with several crops grown on long-term sewage sludge-amended soils as well as soils recently amended with dewatered (DW) and alkaline-stabilized (ALK) sludges indicated that Mo supplied from sludge is readily taken up by legumes in particular. Excessive uptake into red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was seen in a soil that had been heavily amended with sewage sludge 20 yr earlier, where the soil contained about 3 mg Mo/kg soil, three times the background soil concentration. The greenhouse and field studies indicated that Mo can have a long residual availability in sludge-amended soils. The effect of sludge application was to decrease Cu to Mo ratios in legume forages, canola (Brassica napus var. napus) and soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] below the recommended limit of 2:1 for ruminant diets, a consequence of high bioavailability of Mo and low uptake of Cu added in sludge. Molybdenum uptake coefficients (UCs) for ALK sludge were higher than for DW sludge, presumably due to the greater solubility of Mo measured in the more alkaline sludges and soils. Based on these UCs, it is tentatively recommended that cumulative Mo loadings on forages grown on nonacid soils should not exceed 1.0 kg/ha from ALK sludge or 4.0 kg/ha from DW sludge.

McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Final sludge rules consolidate options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final federal regulations for use and disposal of waste water sludge were signed in 1992. Now states must adopt standards that are at least as stringent to maintain sludge disposal permitting authority. The regulations define specific limits for 12 sludge contaminants while the organic contaminants listed have been eliminated. The regulations recognize three basic methods of sludge use and disposal: land application, surface disposal, and incineration.

Walsh, T.K. [Metcalf & Eddy Inc., Wakefield, MA (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Land application of sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book is the proceedings of a workshop held in Las Vegas, NV in 1985 entitled Effects of Sewage Sludge Quality and Soil Properties on Plant Uptake of Sludge-Applied Trace Constituents. The workshop was in response to the need to utilize the most current available information in the development of regulations and criteria to safely apply and manage the land application of municipal sewage sludge. The participants were undoubtedly the most knowledgeable of this subject matter, and were divided into five separate but related task groups. The groups addressed the following sludge-related topics: (1) role of soil properties on accumulation of trace element by crops; (2) role of sludge properties on accumulation of trace elements by crops; (3) influence of long-term application on accumulation of trace elements by crops; (4) transfer of trace elements to the food chain, and (5) effects of trace organics in agroecosystems and their risk assessment to humans. The text, therefore, parallels those of the results of the task groups. The five main chapters followed a similar format, i.e., having an introduction section, a comprehensive literature review, discussion of recent and current data, and synthesis of the most relevant information.

Page, A.L.; Logan, T.J.; Ryan, J.A. (eds.)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Chapter 4 - Obstacles to Implementation of Black Liquor Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Obstacles hindering the commercialization of black liquor gasification are discussed. The most important of them include financial risks, protection of the gasifier, increase in the causticizing demand, tar condensation, hot gas cleanup, and steam deficit. Gasification system demands significant capital investment. The high temperature and pressure and the alkaline conditions create aggressive environment. Protection from an aggressive environment is very important in the operation of a gasifier because it determines the lifetime and hence the feasibility of gasification as a technology as a whole.

Pratima Bajpai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Viscous sludge sample collector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vertical core sample collection system for viscous sludge. A sample tube's upper end has a flange and is attached to a piston. The tube and piston are located in the upper end of a bore in a housing. The bore's lower end leads outside the housing and has an inwardly extending rim. Compressed gas, from a storage cylinder, is quickly introduced into the bore's upper end to rapidly accelerate the piston and tube down the bore. The lower end of the tube has a high sludge entering velocity to obtain a full-length sludge sample without disturbing strata detail. The tube's downward motion is stopped when its upper end flange impacts against the bore's lower end inwardly extending rim.

Beitel, George A [Richland, WA

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Associations between Beer, Wine, and Liquor Consumption and Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...literature on beer, wine, and liquor intake and...alcoholic beverage (beer, wine, or liquor) and lung...per bottle, 150 mL of wine per glass, and 40 mL...beverage could potentially increase the risk of lung cancer...alcoholic beverages, and quality of smoking adjustment...

Chun Chao

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Chapter 5 - Environmental Impact of Black Liquor Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmental impact of black liquor gasification (BLG) is discussed. Biofuels from a BLG process excel in terms of well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emission reduction and energy efficiency. Forest biorefinery utilizing gasification (in a black liquor gasification combined cycle (BLGCC) configuration) rather than a Tomlinson boiler is predicted to produce significantly fewer pollutant emissions due to the intrinsic characteristics of the BLGCC technology. Syngas cleanup conditioning removes a considerable amount of contaminants and gas turbine combustion is more efficient and complete than boiler combustion. Also, there could be reductions in pollutant emissions and hazardous wastes resulting from cleaner production of chemicals and fuels that are now manufactured using fossil energy resources. Production of power, fuels, chemicals, and other products from biomass resources creates a net zero generation of carbon dioxide as plants are renewable carbon sinks. BLG whether conducted at high or low temperatures is still superior to the current recovery boiler combustion technology. Implementation of IGCC power plants will cause net savings in cooling water requirements and net reductions in wastewater discharges. The most significant environmental impact caused by BLG will occur in air emissions. The overall reduction of Total reduced sulphur (TRS) gases using gasification technology will also reduce odor, which will improve public acceptance of pulp and paper mills, particularly in populated areas.

Pratima Bajpai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

KE Basin Sludge Flocculant Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the revised path forward and schedule for the K Basins Sludge Retrieval and Disposal Project, the sludge in K East (KE) Basin will be moved from the floor and pits and transferred to large, free-standing containers located in the pits (so as to isolate the sludge from the basin). When the sludge is pumped into the containers, it must settle fast enough and clarify sufficiently that the overflow water returned to the basin pool will not cloud the water or significantly increase the radiological dose rate to the operations staff as a result of increased suspended radioactive material. The approach being evaluated to enhance sludge settling and speed the rate of clarification is to add a flocculant to the sludge while it is being transferred to the containers. In February 2004, seven commercial flocculants were tested with a specific K Basin sludge simulant to identify those agents that demonstrated good performance over a broad range of slurry solids concentrations. From this testing, a cationic polymer flocculant, Nalco Optimer 7194 Plus (7194+), was shown to exhibit superior performance. Related prior testing with K Basin sludge and simulant in 1994/1996 had also identified this agent as promising. In March 2004, four series of jar tests were conducted with 7194+ and actual KE Basin sludge (prepared by combining selected archived KE sludge samples). The results from these jar tests show that 7194+ greatly improves settling of the sludge slurries and clarification of the supernatant.

Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Sue

2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

46

MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University of Tennessee Georgia Tech SURF 2010 Fellow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University Goodman Introduction In the papermaking industry, black liquor recovery boilers burn black liquor into the superheater region of the boiler, where the salt-deposit, or smelt, forms a scale on the superheater tubes.1

Li, Mo

47

Vacuuming radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vacuuming an estimated 55 cubic yards of radioactive sludge from the floor of Hanford's K East Basin was a complicated process. Workers stood on grates suspended above the 20-foot deep basin and manipulated vacuuming equipment at the end of long poles--using underwater cameras to guide their work.

2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

48

Influence of sludge disintegration by high pressure homogenizer on microbial growth in sewage sludge: an approach for excess sludge reduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Excess sludge treatment and disposal is currently a challenge ... explore and develop technology for reduction of excess sludge in wastewater treatment plants rather than treating the generated sludge. This paper...

Chockalingam Lajapathi Rai…

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Inactivation of poliovirus in digested sludge.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Inactivation of poliovirus in digested sludge. R L Ward C S Ashley The effect of anaerobically digested sludge on poliovirus during incubation at temperatures...Although virus was fully recoverable from sludge, its infectivity decreased in proportion...

R L Ward; C S Ashley

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Enteric bacteria in aerobically digested sludge.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Article Enteric bacteria in aerobically digested sludge. S R Farrah G Bitton Indicator bacteria, Salmonella...aerobic bacteria were determined in samples of undigested sludge and sludge that had been treated by one or two stages of aerobic...

S R Farrah; G Bitton

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Modelling and Control of Activated Sludge Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modelling and Control of Activated Sludge Processes Michela Mulas Dottorato di Ricerca of Activated Sludge Processes Michela Mulas Supervisors: Prof. Roberto Baratti Ing. Stefania Tronci Dottorato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 ASP Models and Simulations 7 2.1 The Activated Sludge Process

Skogestad, Sigurd

52

Biomass gasification project gets funding to solve black liquor safety and landfill problems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on biomass gasifications. The main by-product in pulp making is black liquor from virgin fiber; the main by-product in paper recycling is fiber residue. Although the black liquor is recycled for chemical and energy recovery, safety problems plague the boilers currently used to do this. The fiber residue is usually transported to a landfill. The system being developed by MTCI will convert black liquor and fiber residue into a combustible gas, which can then be used for a wide variety of thermal or power generation applications.

Black, N.P.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Sludge Mass Reduction Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Farm Mixing and Sampling to Support DWPF Operations Farm Mixing and Sampling to Support DWPF Operations David Larsen, PMP, PSP Hasmukh Shah Liquid Waste Engineering Washington Savannah River Company May 21, 2009 2 LWO-LWP-2009-00021 Overview Background Mixing - Historical - Criteria - Current Strategy Sampling Techniques and Procedure Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Requirements - Waste Acceptance Criteria - Tank Farm Compliance 3 LWO-LWP-2009-00021 Sludge Batch Preparation and Feed Tank 51 (Batch Tank) Sludge from one or more waste storage tanks *Mixing by Pumps *Wash *Settle *Decant *Sample Qualified Batch Transferred Forward *Mixing by Pumps *Sample Bulk Waste Removal Tank(s) Tank 40 (Blend Tank) *10,000 gal vessel *Mixing by Agitator *Sample *10,000 gal vessel *Mixing by Agitator *Sample *Wetting *Mixing by Pumps

54

Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

55

Steam generator sludge pile model boiler testing: sludge characterization. [PWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of a program to understand the thermal and hydraulic transport process that can lead to chemical concentration in sludge piles on the tubesheet in a steam generator, the chemical composition and physical properties of eight sludges and several simulants were determined. Analyses performed by emission and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that most of the sludges were mainly composed of iron oxides, copper, and other elements at trace levels. X-ray diffraction measurements identified iron to exist in the form of magnetite and copper to exist in the form of a metal. The densities, porosity, particle size, surface area, pore size distribution, and hydrodynamic permeabilities were determined on all plant sludges and selected simulants. Wide variations were observed in the physical measurements of the different plant sludges.

Becker, L.F. Jr.; Esposito, J.N.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 1: Laboratory measurements at different conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis is high. There is only minor release during the drying stage. Ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen species formed. The rate of fixed nitrogen release increases with increasing temperature. The level of fixed nitrogen released by birch liquor is almost twice the level for pine liquor. Assuming complete conversion to NO, fixed nitrogen yields gave NO concentrations near typically measured values for flue gases in full scale recovery boilers. The purpose of this work was to gain more detailed information about the behavior of the fuel nitrogen in black liquor combustion. The work focused on the pyrolysis or devolatilization of the combustion process. Devolatilization is the stage at which the majority (typically 50--80%) of the liquor organics release from a fuel particle or droplet as gaseous species due to the rapid destruction of the organic macromolecules in the liquor. In this paper, the authors use the terms devolatilization and pyrolysis interchangeably with no difference in their meaning.

Aho, K.; Vakkilainen, E. (A. Ahistrom Corp., Varkaus (Finland)); Hupa, M. (Abo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Enhanced Ethanol Production from De-Ashed Paper Sludge by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A previous study demonstrated that paper sludges with high ash contents can be converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) or simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). High ash content in the sludge, however, limited solid loading in the bioreactor, causing low product concentration. To overcome this problem, sludges were de-ashed before SSF and SSCF. Low ash content in sludges also increased the ethanol yield to the extent that the enzyme dosage required to achieve 70% yield in the fermentation process was reduced by 30%. High solid loading in SSF and SSCF decreased the ethanol yield. High agitation and de-ashing of the sludges were able to restore the part of the yield loss caused by high solid loading. Substitution of the laboratory fermentation medium (peptone and yeast extract) with corn steep liquor did not bring about any adverse effects in the fermentation. Fed-batch operation of the SSCF and SSF using low-ash content sludges was effective in raising the ethanol concentration, achieving 47.8 g/L and 60.0 g/L, respectively.

Kang, L.; Wang, W.; Pallapolu, V. R.; Lee, Y. Y.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Site Visit Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW -...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Site Visit Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW - August 2011 Site Visit Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW - August 2011 August 2011 Hanford Sludge...

59

K Basins Sludge Treatment Process | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

K Basins Sludge Treatment Process K Basins Sludge Treatment Process Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download K Basins Sludge Treatment Process Summary - K...

60

K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download K Basins Sludge Treatment Project...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Considerations for using sludge as a fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry is facing a serious and growing problem with sludge disposal. One option many companies are investigating is the burning of sludge in a boiler. This paper presents combustion technologies that can burn sludge ranging from small slip streams co-fired with bark to 100% dedicated sludge burners. The authors examine sludge characteristics and how they have an impact on combustion. Understanding these characteristics allows plant operators to choose the proper technology for their requirements.

Kraft, D.L.; Orender, H.C. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Adriaan van Heiningen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

Adsorption of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics by Wastewater Sludge Biochar: Role of the Sludge Source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using sludge-derived biochar made of various wastewater sludges was investigated. The sludge-derived biochar had relatively large Brunauer–Emmet–...2?g?1 except the bioch...

Hong Yao; Jian Lu; Jun Wu; Zeyu Lu; P. Chris Wilson…

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The laboratory immersion test system built and operated at ORNL was found to successfully screen samples from numerous refractory suppliers, including both commercially available and experimental materials. This system was found to provide an accurate prediction of how these materials would perform in the actual gasifier environment. Test materials included mullites, alumino-silicate bricks, fusion-cast aluminas, alumina-based and chrome-containing mortars, phosphate-bonded mortars, coated samples provided under an MPLUS-funded project, bonded spinels, different fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinels with magnesia content ranging from 2.5% to about 60%, high-MgO castable and brick materials, spinel castables, and alkali-aluminate materials. This testing identified several candidate material systems that perform well in the New Bern gasifier. Fusion-cast aluminas were found to survive for nearly one year, and magnesia-alumina spinels have operated successfully for 18 months and are expected to survive for two years. Alkali-aluminates and high-MgO-content materials have also been identified for backup lining applications. No other material with a similar structure and chemical composition to that of the fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel brick currently being used for the hot-face lining is commercially available. Other materials used for this application have been found to have inferior service lives, as previously discussed. Further, over 100 laboratory immersion tests have been performed on other materials (both commercial and experimental), but none to date has performed as well as the material currently being used for the hot-face lining. Operating experience accumulated with the high-temperature gasifier at New Bern, North Carolina, has confirmed that the molten alkali salts degrade many types of refractories. Fusion-cast alumina materials were shown to provide a great improvement in lifetime over materials used previously. Further improvement was realized with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the refractory material systems identified for lining material applications may be applicable for use in this

Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

65

Water supply and sludge metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultimate sludge disposal is one of the major tasks facing wastewater treatment facilities today. Where adequate farmland exists in proximity to the treatment facility and where sludge characteristics are suitable, land application is often the most economical method. In some cases, however, metal concentrations in the sludge either limit the site life or the application rate to the point where land application is not economical. When metals are above regulatory limits, land application may become impossible. The origin of the metals has largely been credited to industrial users and stormwater runoff and have, in fact, often represented significant sources of metals. Another potentially significant source of metals that has been frequently overlooked is the water supply system (including the distribution and home piping systems). Data from some treatment facilities suggest that the water supply system is the major source of metals and is the reason that sewage sludge metal levels are above allowable land application limits.

Brown, W.E. (Wright-Pierce Engineers, Topsham, ME (USA))

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

67

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Broomfield, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Red Sky with Red Mesa  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

None

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

69

Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

Kevin Whitty

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

NETL: News Release - DOE Opens Competition for Black Liquor/Biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

January 7, 2000 January 7, 2000 DOE Opens Competition for Black Liquor/Biomass Gasification Program Intended to Boost Efficiency, Reduce Greenhouse Gases from Pulp and Paper Mills A new competition begun this week by the Department of Energy could make the pulp and paper mills of the 21st century cleaner and more energy efficient by demonstrating improved technologies to convert their spent cooking liquor streams into new sources of energy. The advanced processes would also simultaneously recover and recycle pulping chemicals. MORE INFO Download the solicitation The department's National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued a call for projects to demonstrate advanced ways to gasify the black liquor or biomass of pulp and paper mills. The gases can be more easily cleaned of

71

Black liquor gasification combined cycle with Co2 capture – Technical and economic analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The pulp and paper sector is intensive in the use of energy, and presents a high participation in the industrial context, specially based in the black liquor, a renewable source generated in the pulp process. Black liquor gasification is not still completely dominated; however, it has the potential of becoming an important alternative for the pulp and paper sector. In this article, the traditional steam cycle based on chemical recovery and biomass boilers associated to backpressure/extraction turbine is compared to black liquor gasification combined cycle schemes, associated to biomass boiler, considering the technical and economic attractiveness of capturing and sequestering CO2. Results show that despite its interesting exergetic efficiency, the adoption CO2 capture system for BLGCC did not prove to be attractive under the prescribed conditions without major incentive.

Elzimar Tadeu de Freitas Ferreira; José Antonio Perrella Balestieri

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Formation of fuel NO[sub x] during black-liquor combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel NOx and thermal NOx were measured in combustion gases from black liquors in two laboratory furnaces. Combustion at 950 C in air (8% O[sub 2]) produced NOx concentrations of 40-80ppm. Combustion at 950 C in synthetic air containing no nitrogen (21% 0[sub 2] in Ar) produced the same result, demonstrating that all of the NOx produced during combustion at 950 C was fuel NOx. Formation of fuel NOx increased moderately with increasing temperature in the range of 800-1,000 C, but temperature sensitivity of fuel NOx was much less than that of thermal NOx. The results imply that the major source of NOx in recovery furnace emissions is the fuel NOx in recovery furnace formed by conversion of liquor-bound nitrogen during combustion. This is consistent with thermal NOx theory, which postulates that black-liquor combustion temperatures are too low to generate significant amounts of thermal NOx.

Nichols, K.M. (Weyerhaeuser Paper Co., Tacoma, WA (United States)); Lien, S.J. (Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Long-term investigation of microbial fuel cells treating primary sludge or digested sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Biogas production was produced from primary sludge and quantified. Total energy production in MFCs could: Microbial fuel cell Primary sludge Digested sludge Energy Biogas a b s t r a c t The long-term performance. Digested sludge can be further composted for agriculture uses, and biogas can be con- verted

74

Sludge drying reed beds: a full and pilot-scales study for activated sludge treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sludge drying reed beds: a full and pilot-scales study for activated sludge treatment S. Troesch.troesch@cemagref.fr, dirk.esser@sint.fr Abstract Sludge drying reed beds have been used for dewatering and mineralization of sludge since the beginning of the 90's, but their insufficient performances in terms of Dry Matter [DM

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

A STUDY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEWATERING IN EXPERIMENTAL REED-PLANTED OR UNPLANTED SLUDGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

94/0169 A STUDY OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEWATERING IN EXPERIMENTAL REED-PLANTED OR UNPLANTED SLUDGE of the reeds in bed 2 died in spite of the influent sludge dose of 70 g. of SS.m"2.d~l. During the second phase (917 days) the 3 beds were aerated from the bottom and fed with sludge, directly extracted from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

Long-term changes in the extractability and bioavailability of zinc and cadmium after sludge application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changes in the extractability and uptake by crops of sludge metals in a long-term field experiment, started in 1942, were measured to assess whether Zn and Cd are either fixed by the sludge/soil constituents or are released as the sludge organic matter (OM) decomposes. Total and 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations of Zn and Cd in soil and total concentrations in crops were measured on archived crop and soil samples. Extractability of Zn as a proportion of the total ranged from 0.5 to 3% and that of Cd from 4 to 18%, and were higher in sludge-amended than farmyard manure or fertilizer-amended soils. Over a 23-yr period after 1961, when sludge was last applied, the extractability of both metals fluctuated, but neither decreased nor increased consistently. The relationships between total soil and crop metal concentrations were linear, with no evidence of a plateau across the range of soil metal concentrations achieved. The slopes of the soil-plant relationships depended on the type of crop or crop part examined, but were generally in the order red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > carrot (Daucus carota L.) > barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, there also were large seasonal differences in metal concentrations in the crops. It is concluded from the available evidence that up to 23 yr after sludge applications cease, Zn and Cd extractability and bioavailability do not decrease.

McGrath, S.P.; Zhao, F.J.; Dunham, S.J.; Crosland, A.R.; Coleman, K.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Wastewater sludge management options for Honduras  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sludge management is a fundamental area of concern across wastewater treatment systems in Honduras. The lack of timely sludge removal has led to declining plant performance in many facilities throughout the country. In ...

Bhattacharya, Mahua, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

Fricke, A.L.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Laser removal of sludge from steam generators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Heat inactivation of poliovirus in wastewater sludge.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Heat inactivation of poliovirus in wastewater sludge. R L Ward C S Ashley R H Moseley The effect of raw and anaerobically digested sludge on heat inactivation of poliovirus was investigated. Raw sludge was found to be very protective of poliovirus...

R L Ward; C S Ashley; R H Moseley

1976-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fast high-pressure freezing of protein crystals in their mother liquor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Protein crystals were vitrified using high-pressure freezing in their mother liquor at 210 MPa and 77 K without cryoprotectants or oil coating. The method was successfully applied to photosystem II, which is representative of a membrane protein with a large unit cell and weak crystal contacts.

Burkhardt, A.

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

82

Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

1999-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1 *, Yew , Krishnan Subramaniam5 , Soon-Sen Leow1 , Kenneth C. Hayes6 and Mohd Basri Wahid1 1 Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang Selangor, Malaysia 2 Malaysian Palm Oil

Sinskey, Anthony J.

84

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Sewage Sludge (Maryland) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sewage Sludge (Maryland) Sewage Sludge (Maryland) Sewage Sludge (Maryland) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maryland Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Maryland Department of the Environment Sewage sludge utilization permits are required prior to the use, processing, and disposal of sewage sludge in Maryland. Sewage sludge (also known as biosolids) is not sewage, but rather is one of the final products of treated sewage at a sewage (wastewater) treatment plant. Sewage sludge is the fine particulate matter remaining after treatment which breaks down organic matter and destroys disease organisms in sewage. A SSU Permit is required for any person who collects,

86

Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic granular sludge Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sludge Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic granular sludge...

88

Feasibility of using lysozyme to reduce excess sludge in activated sludge process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lysozyme reaction was developed as a novel technique for minimizing the amount of excess sludge in the sequential batch reactor (SBR). In the present work, excess sludge taken from a SBR system was treated ... th...

Yong Song ??; Zhou Shi ??; Shi-yang Chen ???…

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Start-up of a thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor with mesophilic granular sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fast start-up of thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors was achieved at ... 55 and 64° C, using mesophilic granular sludge as inoculum and fatty acid mixtures as ... temperature optima for aceto...

Jules B. van Lier; Katja C. F. Grolle…

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants in Europe, Japan, and the USA. Ash and sludge containing uranium compounds also have been dissolved in reprocessing or plutonium scrap recovery plants, but only a limited amount of information is available on how the ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum compounds and silicates in the sand will behave during nitric acid dissolution. Laboratory work with simulants and hot cell work with actual K Basin sludge is in progress to obtain data in these areas.

Westra, A.G.

1998-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

91

Experimental Study on Sludge Dewatering under Additives Conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The key difficulty of sludge dewatering is the gelatification among water and solid particles, which leads to the difficult removal of floc water. The way of sludge ... it is shown that sludge conditioning by cer...

Guolu Yang; Shentang Dou; Shifu Qin…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Ultrasonic sludge disintegration for enhanced methane production in anaerobic digestion: effects of sludge hydrolysis efficiency and hydraulic retention time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrolysis of waste activated sludge (WAS) has been regarded as the rate limiting step of anaerobic sludge digestion. Therefore, in this study, the ... effect of ultrasound and hydraulic residence time during sludge

Dong-Jin Kim; Jonghak Lee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Effects of sludge pretreatment on sludge reduction in a lab-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic system treating domestic wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Excess sludge disposal is one of the serious challenges in biological wastewater treatment. Reduction of sludge production would be an ideal way to solve sludge-associated problems rather than the post-treatment ...

D. K. Uan; I. T. Yeom; P. Arulazhagan…

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

System CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System...

96

CRAD, Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD,...

97

Formation of aerobic granular sludge biofilms for sustainable wastewater treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENAC/ Formation of aerobic granular sludge biofilms for sustainable wastewater treatment David G Research, Microbiology of Interfaces, Magdeburg (Germany) EDCE 2011 / From activated sludge flocs

98

Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project – September 2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System Operational Awareness Review and Sludge Treatment Project Independent Project Review [HIAR-RL-2013-09-18

99

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

Carlson, L.W.

1985-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

100

Plant uptake of sludge-borne PCBs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plant uptake of sludge-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (similar to Aroclor 1248) was evaluated in a greenhouse study with two food-chain crops and a grass species. Polychlorinated biphenyl loading to two soils was varied in one experiment by adding different rates of a municipal sewage sludge heavily contaminated (52 mg/kg) with PCBs. In a second experiment, Aroclor 1248 was spiked into unamended soils or soils amended with another sludge containing <1mg/kg PCBs. Analysis of PCBs was by GC/MS with a reliable detection limit in plants of 20 microg/kg for individual chlorinated classes (tri, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphenyls) and total PCBs. Only carrots (Daucus carota) were contaminated with PCBs, and contamination was restricted to carrot peels. Current USEPA guidelines for land application of sludges based on sludge PCB content are shown to be extremely conservative.

O'Connor, G.A.; Kiehl, D.; Eiceman, G.A.; Ryan, J.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, July 1993--September 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regeneration of the Fe{sup II}-EDTA scrubbing liquors for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in flue gas involves removing the nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) compounds accumulated in the liquor. In this paper, the authors investigated a simple regeneration process which selectively precipitates the N-S compounds as potassium salts and then hydrolyzes them to yield ammonium/potassium sulfate as a marketable byproduct. They believe this is the first report on precipitation and hydrolysis characteristics of the N-S compounds in actual waste scrubbing liquor. Precipitation of the N-S compounds was achieved by adding K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the scrubbing liquor. Effects of the amount of added K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the amount of removed N-S compounds, precipitated crystals, and the potassium left over in the scrubbing liquor were studied. Hydrolysis of the precipitated N-S compounds to ammonium sulfate was performed in a sulfuric acid environment. Effects of acidity, concentration of N-S compounds, and temperature on the hydrolysis are discussed. Analysis of the observed hydrolysis pattern showed that the reaction proceeded following first order kinetics in terms of N-S compound concentration.

Randolph, A.D.; Kwon, T.M.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Red Cabbage Smoothie Ingredients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Cabbage Smoothie Ingredients · 1 1/2 cups cold water · 1/2 small head red cabbage, quartered: http://www.accordingtoelle.com/2014/05/red-cabbage-smoothie/ Recipe provided by former chef

Myers, Lawrence C.

103

Red River Compact (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Red River Compact Commission administers the Red River Compact to ensure that Texas receives its equitable share of quality water from the Red River and its tributaries as apportioned by the...

104

FIELD PERFORMANCE OF GEOTEXTILE REINFORCED SLUDGE CAPS AHMET H. AYDILEK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

589 FIELD PERFORMANCE OF GEOTEXTILE REINFORCED SLUDGE CAPS AHMET H. AYDILEK UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN the filtration performance of sludge-geotextile systems and investigate their durability, ten sludge lagoon test be effectively used in filtering contaminated wastewater treatment sludges. Considering the constructability

Aydilek, Ahmet

105

IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS Jacek Makinia*, Scott A in a full-scale activated sludge reactor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 was used to describe for dissolved oxygen. KEYWORDS Activated sludge; dispersion; dissolved oxygen dynamics; mass transfer

Wells, Scott A.

106

Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project -  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sludge Treatment Sludge Treatment Project - September 2013 Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - September 2013 November 2013 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System Operational Awareness Review and Sludge Treatment Project Independent Project Review [HIAR-RL-2013-09-18] This Independent Oversight Activity Report documents an oversight activity conducted by the Office of Health, Safety and Security's (HSS) Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations on September 17-18, 2013, at the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project. The activity consisted of HSS staff performing an operational awareness review of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System. An HSS

107

Reducing NO[sub x] emissions from magnesium sulfite liquor boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Current design of liquor-combustion boilers is reviewed, along with options for lowering exhaust-gas emissions, particularly NOx. In many cases, modern boilers are being operated at or near optimal conditions for minimum NOx emissions. Possible upgrades to further reduce NOx emissions include addition of a selective noncatalytic reduction step, design modifications to lower the sectional load, a flue-gas recirculation system, and air staging. Calculated and experimental results show that these applications can lower NOx emissions by 40% or more.

Bobik, M. (Austrian Energy and Environment, Graz (Austria))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Soil and Cassava Plant on Sewage Sludge Dump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JM. (1989). Assessment of sludge regulation assumptions: AMunicipal Wasteland and Sludge on Land. Univ. of California,1998). Effects of sewage sludge pre-treatment on microbial

Igbozuruike, Chris Washington Ifeanyi Mr.; Opara-Nadi, Achilihu Oliver Prof; Okorie, Ikechukwu Kennedy DR

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Effect of Thermal Hydrolysis on Rheological Behavior of Municipal Sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Thermal Hydrolysis on Rheological Behavior of Municipal Sludge ... Fenton oxidation facilitated sludge filterability resulting in capillary suction time values which were approximately 50% of the raw sludges, whereas ultrasonication with high input energy deteriorated the filterability. ... Bingham's parameters seem to be able to detect the evolution in sludges quality and in floc strength even at low total suspended solid as the one's usually found in activated sludge processes (less than 10 g l-1). ...

Guohong Feng; Liyan Liu; Wei Tan

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

110

ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

NELSEN LA

2009-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

111

Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 ?mol g?1 dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production.

Minh Tuan Nguyen; Nazlina Haiza Mohd Yasin; Toshiki Miyazaki; Toshinari Maeda

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Raw Gas Composition from a Black Liquor Gasifier—Comparison with Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Raw Gas Composition from a Black Liquor Gasifier—Comparison with Experiments ... The black liquor spray was represented by 1003 discrete particles having a fitted Rosin Rammler distribution of power 2 and a characteristic size of 200 ?m. ... Additional PFR calculations were performed using different inlet gas compositions with similar results (not presented here), i.e. the Jones and Lindstedt model showed a significantly higher reformation rate of methane than GRI-Mech at gasification conditions in the medium temperature range (1150 < T < 1500 K). ...

Per Carlsson; Kristiina Iisa; Rikard Gebart

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

113

Material Characterization and Analysis for Selection of Refractories Used in Black Liquor Gasification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor gasification provides the pulp and paper industry with a technology which could potentially replace recovery boilers with equipment that could reduce emissions and, if used in a combined cycle system, increase the power production of the mill allowing it to be a net exporter of electrical power. In addition, rather than burning the syngas produced in a gasifier, this syngas could be used to produce higher value chemicals or fuels. However, problems with structural materials such as the refractory lining of the reactor vessel have caused unplanned shutdowns and resulted in component replacement much sooner than originally planned. Through examination of exposed materials, laboratory corrosion tests and cooperative efforts with refractory manufacturers, many refractory materials issues in high-temperature black liquor gasification have been addressed and optimized materials have been selected for this application. In this paper, an updated summary of the characterization and analysis techniques used for refractory screening and selection will be discussed along with characteristic results from these methods which have led to the selection of optimized materials for both the hot-face and back-up linings used in this application.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 Technology Readiness Assessment Report Herb G. Sutter Michael Poirier Art W. Etchells Gary Smith Kris Thomas Jim J. Davis Paul Macbeth November 16, 2009 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 Technology Readiness Assessment Report November 16, 2009 ii Herbert G. Sutter, Team Lead Date Michael Poirier, Team Member Date Arthur W. Etchells, Team Member Date Gary Smith, Team Member Date Kris Thomas, Team Member Date Jim J. Davis, Team Member Date Paul Macbeth, Team Member Date Signatures 11/09/2009 11/09/2009 11/09/2009 K Basins Sludge Treatment Project Phase 1 Technology Readiness Assessment Report November 16, 2009

115

HANFORD K BASINS SLUDGE RETREIVAL & TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the US and the UK to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, thus removing the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout encapsulation processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. The grout process to produce the final waste form is backed by BNG America's 20 years experience of grouting radioactive waste at Sellafield and elsewhere. The use of transportable and re-usable equipment is emphasized and its role noted in avoiding new plant build that itself will require cleanup. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup worldwide.

VASQUEZ, D.A.

2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

116

Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

117

Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, "Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge"). The purpose of this technical report is to (1) present and discuss current understandings of gas retention and release mechanisms for deep sludge in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex waste storage tanks; and (2) to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to deep sludge gas release events (DSGRE) in the near term to support the Hanford C-Farm retrieval mission. A secondary purpose is to identify viable methods/criteria for demonstrating safety relative to DSGREs in the longer term to support the mission to retrieve waste from the Hanford Tank Farms and deliver it to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The potential DSGRE issue resulted in the declaration of a positive Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). C-Farm retrievals are currently proceeding under a Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) that only allows tanks 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106 sludge levels of 192 inches and 195 inches, respectively. C-Farm retrievals need deeper sludge levels (approximately 310 inches in 241-AN-101 and approximately 250 inches in 241-AN-106). This effort is to provide analytical data and justification to continue retrievals in a safe and efficient manner.

Sams, Terry L.

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - February  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sludge Treatment Project - Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 February 2012 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Operational Awareness Review [HIAR-RL-2012-02-27] The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Independent Activity Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - February 2012 More Documents & Publications Independent Activity Report, Richland Operations Office - June 2011 Independent Activity Report, Richland Operations Office - April 2011 Independent Activity Report, Richland Operations Office - August 2011

119

Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD waste liquors. First quarterly technical report, [January--March 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrolysis of Nitrogen-Sulfur Containing Compounds (N-SCC) derived from desulfurization liquors was carried out at high temperature and pressure with varying sulfuric acid concentration in order to determine the influence of temperature and acid concentration on time required for complete hydrolysis. An ammonia specific electrode (gas sensing) was used to monitor the concentration of ammonium ion in the hydrolyzed liquor. The results indicated a large shortening of time for complete hydrolysis of the Ca salt of N-SCC but varying acid concentration did influence the rate of hydrolysis. Since the physical-chemical analysis of the N-SCC obtained by re-liming the waste scrubbing liquor (containing the Fe-EDTA complex) was found to contain a high quantity of sodium, the N-SCC is believed to be a double salt of calcium and sodium. The final product, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, was obtained in experimentation using an evaporative crystallizer. The clean hydrolyzed liquor was neutralized with a strong NH{sub 2} solution before the final crystallization of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}.

Randolph, A.D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Unrau, E.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Enclosure 2 Additional Information on K-Basins Knock-Out Pot Sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enclosure 2 Additional Information on K-Basins Knock-Out Pot Sludge Source of Knock-Out Pot Sludge cleaning machine that removed the sludge from the surface of the fuel elements. Removing the sludge from or debris. Knock-Out pot sludge is different from sludge formed in other parts of the K-Basin. Because

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors by the addition of pulverized coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors which can be accomplished by the addition of pulverized coal to increase the heat content and generate the proper reducing conditions. Samples from a 78%-yield sodium bisulfite pulping process employing a hardwood furnish were mixed with 10-50% pulveriized coal and burned at 950[degrees]C under reducing conditions in a box furnace. Even in these uncontrolled combustion conditions 76. 5% of the sulfur found in the soluble portion of the smelt was converted from lignousulfonates to useful sulfide ion. For the remainder of the sulfur, analyses determined it to be 19. 5% as sulfite ion, 3. 1% as thiosulfate ion, and 0.9% as sulfate ion.

Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. (Natural and Applied Sciences, Univ. of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

K Basin sludge treatment process description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

Westra, A.G.

1998-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

124

COMPARATIVE HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENTS ON FECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i COMPARATIVE HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENTS ON FECAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: A CASE STUDY OF KLONG Fecal sludge (FS) is widely acknowledged as a major source of infectious pathogens. However, the proper

Richner, Heinz

125

Development of risk assessment methodology for municipal sludge incineration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. The sludge management practices addressed by the series include land application practices, distribution and marketing programs, landfilling, surface disposal, incineration and ocean disposal. In particular, these reports provide methods for evaluating potential health and environmental risks from toxic chemicals that may be present in sludge. The document addresses risks from chemicals associated with incineration of municipal sludge. These proposed risk assessment procedures are designed as tools to assist in the development of regulations for sludge management practices. The procedures are structured to allow calculation of technical criteria for sludge disposal/reuse options based on the potential for adverse health or environmental impacts. The criteria may address management practices (such as site design or process control specifications), limits on sludge disposal rates or limits on toxic chemical concentrations in the sludge.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Maintenance and Operations study for K basins sludge treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study evaluates maintenance and operating concepts for the chemical treatment of sludge from the 100 K Basins at Hanford. The sludge treatment equipment that will require remote operation or maintenance was identified. Then various maintenance and operating concepts used in the nuclear industry were evaluated for applicability to sludge treatment. A hot cell or cells is recommended as the best maintenance and operating concept for a sludge treatment facility.

WESTRA, A.G.

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Phase Chemistry of Tank Sludge Residual Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate nearby groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Performance assessment (PA) calculations must be carried out prior to closing the tanks. This requires developing radionuclide release models from the sludges so that the PA calculations can be based on credible source terms. These efforts continued to be hindered by uncertainties regarding the actual nature of the tank contents and the distribution of radionuclides among the various phases. In particular, it is of vital importance to know what radionuclides are associated with solid sludge components. Experimentation on actual tank sludges can be difficult, dangerous and prohibitively expensive. The research funded under this grant for the past three years was intended to provide a cost-effective method for developing the needed radionuclide release models using non-radioactive artificial sludges. Insights gained from this work will also have more immediate applications in understanding the processes responsible for heel development in the tanks and in developing effective technologies for removing wastes from the tanks.

J.L. Krumhansl

2002-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

128

Reduction of excess sludge production by 3,3?,4?, 5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide in an activated sludge process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The potential of 3,3?,4?,5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS) addition to an activated sludge continuous process to reduce excess sludge production by disrupting coupling between anabolism and ... test in a lab-scal...

Fen Xia Ye; Ying Li

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Municipal sludge management: Health aspects of crop uptake of cadmium from sludge-amended soil and recommendations for regulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regulations have been proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to promote the proper management of sludge disposal on croplands. The application of municipal sludge to croplands raises seriou...

William H. Hallenbeck

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Effect of sludge treatment on the bioaccumulation of nonylphenol in grass grown on sludge-amended soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We studied the accumulation of p353-nonylphenol residues in the biomass of grass grown in soil amended with sewage sludge submitted to various conditioning/dewatering treatments. Incubation...Poa pratensis in sludge

K. M. Nowak; V. N. Kouloumbos; A. Schäffer…

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Novel Nanoscale Materials Reduce Electricity Needed for Sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

removal from sludge using less energy. The addition of nanoscale materials will increase the volume that removes as much water from digested sludge as possible. Dewatering is necessary to reduce the sludge of benchscale work that showed nanoscale materials enhanced the performance of polymer additives currently

132

PROPERTIES OF TREATMENT SLUDGE DURING SEDIMENTATION AND CONSOLIDATION TESTS1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROPERTIES OF TREATMENT SLUDGE DURING SEDIMENTATION AND CONSOLIDATION TESTS1 Lincar Pedroni2 , Jean on sludge produced from an acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment plant. The testing program involved test, physical and geotechnical properties of the resulting sludge were measured. In this paper

Aubertin, Michel

133

Review article The use of urban sewage sludge on pastures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review article The use of urban sewage sludge on pastures: the cysticercosis threat Jacques appears to be one of the major pathological threats when sewage sludge is used to fertilise cattle highly prevalent) and Asia (Taenia saginata-like are prevalent). The processing of sludge and the delay

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

Survival of parasite eggs upon storage in sludge.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Survival of parasite eggs upon storage in sludge. C J O'Donnell K B Meyer J V Jones...Destruction rates of parasite eggs in stored sludge were examined to help understand the fate of these agents of enteric diseases in sludge lagoons. Eggs from the roundworms, Ascaris...

C J O'Donnell; K B Meyer; J V Jones; T Benton; E S Kaneshiro; J S Nichols; F W Schaefer 3rd

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Temperature Modeling in Activated Sludge Systems: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature Modeling in Activated Sludge Systems: A Case Study Jacek Makinia, Scott A. Wells, Piotr Zima ABSTRACT: A model of temperature dynamics was developed as part of a general model of activated-sludge biochemical-energy inputs and other activated-sludge, heat-balance terms. All the models were tested under

Wells, Scott A.

136

Sensitivity of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensitivity of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model Antonio Araujo, Simone sensitivity analysis of optimal operation conducted on an activated sludge process model based on the test.[7] applied a systematic procedure for control structure design of an activated sludge process

Skogestad, Sigurd

137

Volatile organic compound losses from sewage sludge-amended soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) applied to soil in sludge have been assumed to disappear quickly and completely. The VOC behavior in sludge-amended soils has been studied previously only in laboratory systems where the sludged soil has been spiked with compounds of interest. Behavior in these systems may not necessarily represent compound behavior in field soils to which contaminated sludge is added. A series of laboratory microcosm experiments were designed therefore to investigate the behavior of toluene, ethyl benzene, o-, m-, and p-xylene applied to soil in contaminated sludge, and factors influencing loss processes. The VOC loss from sludge-amended soil was well described by a simple one step pseudo-first-order model but in certain soils was better described by a two step first-order model. Volatilization was the predominant loss process. Rates of loss depended on sludge application rate, method of sludge application, soil properties, and on compound characteristics. Experiments indicated that spiking sludge-amended soils gave a reasonable indication of VOC loss rates from systems amended with contaminated sludge at least over a period of 23 d. The majority of VOCs applied to soils in sludge volatilizes quickly to the atmosphere over a few to 10s of days with a small fraction lost more slowly. Potential for VOC crop uptake, livestock ingestion, and contamination of ground water is low under routine, managed applications of sewage sludge to agricultural land.

Wilson, S.C.; Jones, K.C.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;#12;Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1 Code Red 2 settles into weekly pattern Nimda enters the ecosystem Code Red 2 dies off as programmed CR 1 returns thanks to bad clocks #12;Code Red 2 dies off as programmed Nimda hums along, slowly cleaned up With its predator gone, Code Red 1 comes back, still

Paxson, Vern

139

Removal of hydrogen sulphide on sewage sludge/industrial sludge based carbonaceous adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The adsorbents were prepared for sewage sludge, waste oil sludge and metal oil sludge. On the materials obtained dynamic adsorption of H2S was measured. The initial and exhausted adsorbents were characterised using sorption of nitrogen, thermal analysis, and XRF, XRD and surface pH measurements. The adsorbents have high capacity for H2S (10% wt) The high volume of mesopores contributes significantly to reactive adsorption and provides space to store sulphur as the oxidation product. The highly dispersed mineral-like phase formed during pyrolysis provides basicity and catalytic centres for hydrogen sulphide dissociation and its oxidation to sulphur.

Teresa J. Bandosz

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Sludge utilization and disposal in Virginia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This state-of-the-art study was initiated to determine the problem issues, present knowledge about the issues, and additional research needs in the area of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge. Three questionnaires were developed to survey technically oriented professional, county extension agents, and Virginia NPDES permit holders to obtain these groups' views on problems and deficiencies needing further investigation. Another phase of the study was to conduct an extensive review of the literature on the subject of land application of sewage sludge. Listings of pertinent literature relating to land application with specific interest toward potentially toxic metals, pathogens, nitrogen, and phosphorus were obtained and reviewed. Additional research is needed in the following areas: a method that accurately estimates metal availability within the soil; a method to determine the potential for a disease outbreak from controlled application of treated municipal sewage sludge; a more precise method of N-balancing; the impact of P loading on water quality.

Martens, D.C.; McCart, G.D.; Reneau, R.B. Jr; Simpson, T.W.; Ban-Kiat, T.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Influence of sewage sludge from sludge beds of Ulan-Ude on the soil properties and the yield and quality of potatoes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of sewage sludge from sludge beds of the city of Ulan-Ude ... was studied. It was shown that sewage sludge could be used both separately (15 t...

E. P. Pakhnenko; A. V. Ermakov; L. L. Ubugunov

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Biliary Sludge Extruding into the Duodenum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To the Editor: Hokama and Kinjo (Oct. 22 issue) show us a clear endoscopic view of biliary sludge extruding from the papilla of a patient with cholangitis. The authors, however, have failed to mention whether they attempted endoscopic sphincterotomy or any biliary-drainage procedure at the time of the... To the Editor: Hokama and Kinjo (Oct. 22 issue)1 show us a clear endoscopic view of biliary sludge extruding from the papilla of a patient with cholangitis. The authors, however, have failed to mention whether they attempted endoscopic sphincterotomy or ...

1999-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

143

Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) Residuals, Sludge, and Composting (Maine) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maine Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection The Maine Department of Environmental Protection's Residuals, Sludge, and Composting program regulates the land application and post-processing of organic wastes, including sewage sludge, septage, food waste, and wood

144

EM Employs Innovative Technology to Remove Radioactive Sludge | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Employs Innovative Technology to Remove Radioactive Sludge Employs Innovative Technology to Remove Radioactive Sludge EM Employs Innovative Technology to Remove Radioactive Sludge September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Testing and equipment simulations ensure first-of-a-kind technological processes for sludge removal can be conducted safely and efficiently. Testing and equipment simulations ensure first-of-a-kind technological processes for sludge removal can be conducted safely and efficiently. RICHLAND, Wash. - The Richland Operations Office and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company successfully removed a portion of a highly radioactive sludge from underwater storage in a large basin adjacent to the K West reactor at the Hanford site this month. In that milestone, workers removed sludge originating from knock-out pots,

145

Risk to animal health from pathogens in municipal sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Public and legislative concerns directed toward resource and materials recycling have stimulated widespread interest in the use of sewage sludge to improve the fertility and water-holding capacity of soil. The use of sludge on land to grow crops for human or animal consumption has raised concerns over the health hazards from the sludge pathogens. Relatively little attention has been focused on the risks to the health of animals that may graze on sudge-amended pastures or consume feedstuffs grown on these lands. Concern about the animal health risks is justified because economic losses from animal disease that may be associated with the use of sewage sludge could be quite large. In fact, these losses may exceed poential economic losses from human disease associated with sludge use. This review emphasizes the risk to animal health from zoonotic and human pathogens in sludge and from specific animal pathogens that may be found in sludge.

Yeager, J.G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

69. Red Butte-Red Fir Ridge (Shasta Red Fir) (Imper 1988b, Cheng 1996d) Location This established (fig. 139). Ecological subsection ­ High Cascades (M261Df). Target Element Red Fir (Abies magnifica) Distinctive Features Shasta Red Fir Forest: Taxonomically, the description of Shasta red fir (Abies magnifica

Standiford, Richard B.

147

Gasification behavior of carbon residue in bed solids of black liquor gasifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam gasification of carbon residue in bed solids of a low-temperature black liquor gasifier was studied using a thermogravimetric system at 3 bar. Complete gasification of the carbon residue, which remained unreactive at 600 C, was achieved in about 10 min as the temperature increased to 800 C. The rate of gasification and its temperature dependence were evaluated from the non-isothermal experiment results. Effects of particle size and adding H{sub 2} and CO to the gasification agent were also studied. The rate of steam gasification could be taken as zero order in carbon until 80% of carbon was gasified, and for the rest of the gasification process the rate appeared to be first order in carbon. The maximum rate of carbon conversion was around 0.003/s and the activation energy was estimated to be in the range of 230-300 kJ/mol. The particle size did not show significant effect on the rate of gasification. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide appeared to retard the onset of the gasification process. (author)

Preto, Fernando; Zhang, Xiaojie (Frank); Wang, Jinsheng [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources (Canada)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Crystallization of Congo Red  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... It has been confirmed that the potassium salt of Congo Red will crystallize as needles from various ethyl alcohol-water mixtures, but only with ... observation during a trial of various salting-out procedures, however, the potassium salt of Congo Red has been found to be precipitated in crystalline form by salting out with potassium ...

PETER MITCHELL

1950-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

149

Proper Sanitization of Sewage Sludge: a Critical Issue for a Sustainable Society  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...significantly benefit the recycling of sewage sludge back...implementation in municipal wastewater treatment facilities...Response of bacteria in wastewater sludge to moisture...for hygienic nutrient recycling. Bioresour. Technol...regrowth of bacteria in wastewater sludge. Appl. Environ...

Veronica Arthurson

2008-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

150

Examination of Uranium(VI) Leaching During Ligand Promoted Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

speciation in Hanford waste tank sludge simulants. J. Nucl.and Sr(II) from simulated tank waste sludges. Sep. Sci.Promoted Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates. In

Powell, Brian A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Application of Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Modeling Wastewater Sludge Recycle System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sludge recycle system is an important part of wastewater treatment plants(WWTP), which can ensure ... Neural Network model for prediction of the Sludge recycling flowrate, which ultimately affect the Sludge recycling

Long Luo; Liyou Zhou

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Examination of Uranium(VI) Leaching During Ligand Promoted Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Hanford waste tank sludge simulants. J. Nucl. Sci.from simulated tank waste sludges. Sep. Sci. Tech. 38(2),Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates. In preparation,

Powell, Brian A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Field-Measured Oxidation Rates of Biologically Reduced Selenium in Sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced Selenium in Sludge Sally M. Benson, John Daggett andCalifornia 94720 U.S.A. Sludge generated during surface-Finding safe and economical sludge disposal methods requires

Benson, Sally M.; Daggett, John; Zawislansi, Peter

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Use of nutrients of sewage sludge in the initial development of Copaifera langsdorffii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

under the 20 t ha -1 of sludge rate. Figure 1: CopaibaSupl. K) and sewage sludge doses (2.5, 5, 10, 15 e 20 t ha -dm Fe Mn Zn Table 2: Sewage sludge chemical characteristics.

Sampaio, Thalita Fernanda; Guerrini, Iraę Amaral; Croce, Ciro; de Toledo, Maria Angélica; Morales, Marina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Behavior of Uranium(VI) during HEDPA Leaching for Aluminum Dissolution in Tank Waste Sludges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dissolution in Tank Waste Sludges Brian A. Powell 1 ,to produce a clay-like sludge layer, a slurry phase, and anto be concentrated in the sludge phase, which is primarily

Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Martin, Leigh

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Degradation and Fate of Carbon Tetrachloride in Unadapted Methanogenic Granular Sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Tetrachloride in Unadapted Methanogenic Granular Sludge Miriam H. A. Van Eekert Thomas J. Schroder Alfons...algemeen.mt.wau.nl. The potential of granular sludge from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors for bioremediation of...

Miriam H. A. Van Eekert; Thomas J. Schröder; Alfons J. M. Stams; Gosse Schraa; Jim A. Field

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention from simulated tank sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decommissioning high level nuclear waste tanks will leave small amounts of residual sludge clinging to the walls and floor of the structures. The permissible amount of material left in the tanks depends on the radionuclide release characteristics of the sludge. At present, no systematic process exists for assessing how much of the remaining inventory will migrate, and which radioisotopes will remain relatively fixed. Working with actual sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive. Consequently, methods were developed for preparing sludge simulants and doping them with nonradioactive surrogates for several radionuclides and RCRA metals of concern in actual sludges. The phase chemistry of these mixes was found to be a reasonable match for the main phases in actual sludges. Preliminary surrogate release characteristics for these sludges were assessed by lowering the ionic strength and pH of the sludges in the manner that would occur if normal groundwater gained access to a decommissioned tank. Most of the Se, Cs and Tc in the sludges will be released into the first pulse of groundwater passing through the sludge. A significant fraction of the other surrogates will be retained indefinitely by the sludges. This prolonged sequestration results from a combination coprecipitated and sorbed into or onto relatively insoluble phases such as apatite, hydrous oxides of Fe, Al, Bi and rare earth oxides and phosphates. The coprecipitated fraction cannot be released until the host phase dissolves or recrystallizes. The sorbed fraction can be released by ion exchange processes as the pore fluid chemistry changes. However, these releases can be predicted based on a knowledge of the fluid composition and the surface chemistry of the solids. In this regard, the behavior of the hydrous iron oxide component of most sludges will probably play a dominant role for many cationic radionuclides while the hydrous aluminum oxides may be more important in governing anion releases.

KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; LIU,J.; ARTHUR,SARA E.; HUTCHERSON,SHEILA K.; QIAN,MORRIS; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

160

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Review, June 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1-06-17 1-06-17 Site: DOE-Richland Operations Office Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 06/13/2011 - 06/17/2011 Report Preparer: Jake Wechselberger Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Result: During the period June 13-17, 2011, an HSS representative participated in tours of the STP test facility. The HSS representative was also briefed by the CHPRC STP Test Director and the DOE-Richland Operations Office principal support

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, August 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8-25 8-25 Site: DOE-Richland Operations Office Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 08/22/2011 - 08/25/2011 Report Preparer: Jake Wechselberger Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Result: During the period August 22-25, 2011, an HSS representative attended the STP ECRTS Design Review, Value Engineering. The design review was attended by virtually all STP designated personnel, including managers and experts, representing

162

Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal.

Poirier, M.R.

2000-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

163

Heavy metals removal from oil sludge using ion exchange textiles.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this research, ion exchange textiles were used for the first time for the removal of heavy metals from oil sludge. The target metals which… (more)

Muslat, Ziyad

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Using sludge on land raises more than crops  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Applying sludge to croplands has been one solution to the dilemma of accumulating sewage. At the present time, approximately 25 percent of all sludge disposal programs are conducted as land application, specifically land reclamation and agricultural utilization. The application of sludge to croplands is developing from a small and scattered program into a large-scaled program because of the prohibition of ocean dumping of sludge, increased costs for incineration of sludge and its pollution control, and an increasing national production of over 280 million tons/yr of wet sludge. Agricultural utilization of sewage sludge has several notable benefits including the recycling of essential and trace nutrients, improvement of marginal soil with organic matter, increased crop yield, and direct costs comparable to commercial fertilizers. However, cropland utilization of sewage sludge may involve risks if proper management is not followed. Besides the risk of metal contamination of soil and plants which has received considerable notoriety, the overall environmental impact of sludge application programs must also consider the public health hazards of nitrate (Ntheta/sub 3/) pollution and the spread of pathogenic (disease-causing) organisms, and any odor nuisance which may be associated with these programs.

Gerardi, M.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Summary - K Basins Sludge Treatment Process  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

K Basin K Basin DOE is Proces the va at Han subsys oxidati objecti of-fact maturi Eleme Techn The as which seven * M * M * Pr * Pr * As The Ele Site: H roject: K P Report Date: A ited States Why DOE ns Sludge Treatme s constructing ss (STP) for re rious sludge st nford. The STP stems: sludge ion, assay, pac ive of the asse t" appraisal of t ty by first ident ents (CTEs) of t ology Readine What th ssessment team was further div CTEs and the Material Mobiliza Material Transfe rocess Chemis rocess Instrum ssay (TRL=2) To view the full T http://www.em.doe. objective of a Tech ements (CTEs), usin Hanford/ORP K Basins Slud Process/STP August 2007 Departmen K Bas E-EM Did This ent Process Flow D a K Basins Slu trieving, treatin treams stored i P is comprised containerizatio ckaging, and dr ssment was to the project's ov

166

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative sewage sludge Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: spreading machines. Key words: Spreading technology, environmental performances, LCA, sewage sludge... of sewage sludge spreading scenarios involving different types of...

167

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic sewage sludge Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: spreading machines. Key words: Spreading technology, environmental performances, LCA, sewage sludge... of sewage sludge spreading scenarios involving different types of...

168

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge removing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 8 Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Summary: on the activated sludge process...

169

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge bacterial Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: activated sludge bacterial Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Summary: is a traditional build plant base don...

170

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge treatment Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on the activated sludge... the in this way with the operating conditions of the wastewater treatment plant. Images of activated sludge... Figure 9 shows the influences of...

171

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline sludge treatment Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

developed the world's first facility, in Neenah, Wisconsin, to recycle sludge from wastewater treatment... 224 THE WINNEBAGO COUNTY, WISCONSIN STORY ... PAPERMILL SLUDGE...

172

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic sludge bed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

was selected be cause of its (a) prior successful application in municipal sludge incineration, (b... LEWIS Mountain View, California ABSTRACT Municipal sewage sludge can be...

173

The Little Red Schoolhouse  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Little Red Schoolhouse Little Red Schoolhouse Nature Bulletin No. 424 September 10, 1971 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Daniel Ryan, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor David H. Thompson, Senior Naturalist THE LITTLE RED SCHOOLHOUSE We have opened the doors of The Little Red Schoolhouse, our new nature center in the Palos forest preserves. You are invited to visit it and urged to use it. Many youth organizations, summer day camps, and teachers with their classes have already done so. It is now open every day, including Saturdays and Sundays, from 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. From late October until April it probably will be closed. The entrance is on 104th Ave. (Willow Springs Road), one mile west of U.S. 45 and a half-mile south of 95th St. There is ample parking space for buses.

174

Red Pepper Sauce  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

... chopped 2 cloves garlic, minced 1/4 cup water 1/2 Tbs. white wine vinegar 1/8 tsp. crushed red pepper 1/8 tsp. white pepper dash or two Tabasco sauce 1/2 to ...

175

Effects of red tide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effects of red tide Effects of red tide Name: Mrs. Corwin's 5th grade class Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: My 5th grade class would like to know why is it that red tide only affects humans and not lobsters, fish, etc. Why is the micro-organism so toxic to humans? Waiting to learn.... Replies: Without going into too much detail, the microorganisms responsible for causing red tide can live within the shellfish without killing them because the chemicals they produce which imbue everything with the characteristic red color aren't toxic to the shellfish. It's just our bad luck that those very same chemicals happen to interact with our body chemistries in the ways that can't occur in shellfish. --Wordsworth As it turns out, red tides do affect other vertebrates (animals with backbones), in fact, they are responsible for huge, stinky die-offs of fish that wash up on shore during a "red tide". The microorganism responsible for the occurrence of a red tide is the "dinoflagellate", there are different types of dinoflagellates, and as I understand it, they produce different types of toxins, but usually the toxin responsible for the die-offs is what is called a "neurotoxin", which affects the heart , slowing it down. This reduces blood circulation, and the reduced blood circulation to the gills results in oxygen starvation, and the fish dies. As far as I know, however, this toxin only affects vertebrates, and not invertebrates (animals without backbones) like the clam and lobster.

176

The intoxicating brew of black liquor and son of black liquor: Deciphering the tax planning, research, policy and financial statement implications of tax credits via financial reporting income tax disclosures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 2007, a change in the law regarding the alternative fuel mixture credit opened the door for paper mills to qualify a byproduct of paper manufacturing, black liquor, as a fuel eligible for the credit. The credit is a refundable credit of $0.50 per gallon. Paper mills can produce hundreds of millions of gallons of black liquor per year and qualified for the credit in 2009. In addition, in 2010 the IRS determined that these firms qualified for the cellulosic biofuels producer credit. Paper mill companies could amend their 2009 tax returns and swap their alternative fuel mixture credits for cellulosic biofuels producer credits worth $1.01 per gallon. The catch was that the alternative fuels mixture credit was refundable; the cellulosic biofuels producer credit was nonrefundable. This paper provides a series of mini cases exploring the tax planning, tax research, tax policy and financial statement implications of Packaging Corporation of America’s use of the alternative fuel mixture tax credit and subsequent amendment of its 2009 tax return in 2010 to swap its alternative fuel mixture tax credits for cellulosic biofuel producer credits. These cases may be directed for use in either upper-division undergraduate courses or graduate courses.

Beth B. Kern

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank S-110 Sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the Hanford Tank S-110 sludge caustic leaching test conducted in FY 2001 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The data presented here can be used to develop the baseline and alternative flowsheets for pretreating Hanford tank sludge. The U.S. Department of Energy funded the work through the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP; EM?50).

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Carson, Katharine J.; Darnell, Lori P.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoopes, Francis V.; Sell, Richard L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Urie, Michael W.; Wagner, John J.

2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Growth of chrysanthemums in sewage sludge amended media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of seedlings of Lironden- d ~tl' 'f, L. d C fl d, L. g t tt screened compost (224 metric tons/ha) made from degested sewage sludge and woodchips. However, Kirkham and Emino (50) found with increasing rates of liquid sewage sludge (50 ml...

Schlutt, Edward Frederick

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Phosphorus Adsorption by Dewatered and Activated Alum Sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, a series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus (P) adsorption properties of alum sludge dried at 100°C (AS100) and activated at 300 (AS300), 500 (AS500) and 900°C (AS900). In the adsorption test, the ... Keywords: alum sludge, phosphorus adsorption

Jingxi Tie; Lei Zhao; Hongcao Guo

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Model calculations and cost "Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge" is supported by EnergiNet.DK under the PSO-F&U projects having National Laboratory, Rambøll, the Estate of Overgaard and SamRas. The wastewater treatment plant Esbjerg

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, December 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, December 2008 Revised Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg Vest wastewater treatment plant, Denmark PSO-F&U project nr. 2006 This project "Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge" is supported by EnergiNet .DK under the PSO

182

Microsoft Word - Sludge Test Area CX Determination Form12172012  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sludge Test Facility at the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Center (TWPC) [CX-TWPC-13-0001] Sludge Test Facility at the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Center (TWPC) [CX-TWPC-13-0001] Program or Field Office: Environmental Management - Oak Ridge Location(s) (City/County/State): Oak Ridge, Tennessee Proposed Action Description: The proposed action is to construct and operate a sludge test facility at the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Center (TWPC) to conduct testing activities for sludge mobilization, mixing, and removal from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The testing is needed to develop appropriate, compliant treatment to a final waste form that will meet the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). This testing is needed for the mobilization, removal, and treatment of the sludge regardless of

183

First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from River |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from River First of Hanford's Highly Radioactive Sludge Moved Away from River July 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Geoff Tyree, DOE Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov 509-376-4171 Dee Millikin, CH2M HILL Dee_Millikin@rl.doe.gov 509-376-1297 RICHLAND, Wash. - Workers have started moving highly radioactive material, called sludge, away from the Columbia River, marking a significant milestone in the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s cleanup of the Hanford Site in Washington State. Today, DOE contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) safely transferred the first large container of highly radioactive sludge from a basin next to a former plutonium production reactor to dry storage in the center of the site. Today's transfer is the first of six shipments

184

CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Office of River Protection K Basin Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Emergency Management program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System

185

Solidification of low-volume power plant sludges. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature review was conducted to obtain information on the status of hazardous waste solidification technology and application of this technology to low-volume power plant waste sludges. Because of scarcity of sludge composition data, anticipated major components were identified primarily by chemical reactions that are known to occur during treatment of specific wastewaters. Chemical and physical properties of these sludges were critically analyzed for compatibility with several types of commercially available solidification processes. The study pointed out the need for additional information on the nature of these sludges, especially leaching characteristics and the presence of substances that will interfere with solidification processes. Laboratory studies were recommended for evaluation of solidification process which have the greatest potential for converting hazardous low-volume sludges to non-hazardous waste forms.

Bell, N.E.; Halverson, M.A.; Mercer, B.M.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

KETUSKY, EDWARD

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

187

SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, but were acceptable compared to the EA glass when tested. These glasses fell outside of the lower 95% confidence band, which demonstrates conservatism in the model. A few of the glasses fell outside of the upper 95% confidence band; however, these particular glasses have normalized release values that were much lower than the values of EA and should be of no practical concern. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable to the SB7b sludge system with a range of Na{sub 2}O concentrations blended with Frits 418 or 702. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable by the current DWPF PCCS models and/or acceptable with respect to the EA benchmark glass regardless of thermal history or compositional view.

Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

188

Sludge Treatment Evaluation: 1992 Technical progress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents Fiscal Year 1992 technical progress on the Sludge Treatment Evaluation Task, which is being conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of this task is to develop a capability to predict the performance of pretreatment processes for mixed radioactive and hazardous waste stored at Hanford and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Significant cost savings can be achieved if radionuclides and other undesirable constituents can be effectively separated from the bulk waste prior to final treatment and disposal. This work is initially focused on chemical equilibrium prediction of water washing and acid or base dissolution of Hanford single-shell tank (SST) sludges, but may also be applied to other steps in pretreatment processes or to other wastes. Although SST wastes contain many chemical species, there are relatively few constituents -- Na, Al, NO[sub 3], NO[sub 2], PO[sub 4], SO[sub 4], and F -- contained in the majority of the waste. These constituents comprise 86% and 74% of samples from B-110 and U-110 SSTS, respectively. The major radionuclides of interest (Cs, Sr, Tc, U) are present in the sludge in small molal quantities. For these constituents, and other important components that are present in small molal quantities, the specific ion-interaction terms used in the Pitzer or NRTL equations may be assumed to be zero for a first approximation. Model development can also be accelerated by considering only the acid or base conditions that apply for the key pretreatment steps. This significantly reduces the number of chemical species and chemical reactions that need to be considered. Therefore, significant progress can be made by developing all the specific ion interactions for a base model and an acid dissolution model.

Silva, L.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Ding, E.R.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge model Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

model Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: activated sludge model...

190

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge process Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

process Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: activated sludge process...

191

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge systems Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: activated sludge systems...

192

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge system Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: activated sludge system...

193

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic sludge digestion Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

digestion Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic sludge digestion...

194

Effect of Fly Ash on Solidification and Heavy Metals Chemical Speciation of Sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to explore new municipal sewage sludge treatment method and reduce its harm for environment, fly ash discarded from power plant was used as conditioner in sludge treatment in the paper. The properties of sewage sludge were changed after adding ... Keywords: fly ash, sludge, compressive strength, heavy metal, speciation

Yongjian Piao; Mingsong Wu; Xun Xu; Qingliang Zhao; Fugui Zhang; Nanqi Ren

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge plants Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

plants Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: activated sludge plants...

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge models Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

models Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: activated sludge models...

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge plant Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

plant Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: activated sludge plant...

198

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic sludge digester Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

digester Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic sludge digester...

199

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge processes Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

processes Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: activated sludge processes...

200

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008. “Utilization of sewage sludge in EU application of old2007. “Cost evaluation of sludge treatment options andwastewater treatment plant sludge treating leather tanning

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Fundamental study of black liquor gasification kinetics using a pressurized entrained-flow reactor (PEFR). Quarterly progress report for the period July 1999 to September 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the program is to identify the optimal operating window for black liquor gasification. The goals during this year are to prepare the PEFR for operation, conduct a series of preliminary screening tests to bracket BLG operating conditions, and develop a process model that can guide identification of the optimal operating window.

NONE

1999-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

202

Safety evaluation of the ESP sludge washing baselines runs. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose is to provide the technical basis for evaluation of unreviewed safety question for the Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) Sludge Washing Baseline Runs, which are necessary to resolve technical questions associated with process control (sludge suspension, sludge settling, heat transfer, temperature control). The sludge is currently stored in below-ground tanks and will be prepared for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility as part of the Integrated Waste Removal Program for Savannah River Site.

Gupta, M.K.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Effectiveness of irradiation in killing pathogens. [Treatment of sewage sludge for land application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations include gamma ray irradiation of sludge as an approved Process to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) prior to land application. Research at Sandia National Laboratories on pathogen inactivation in sludge by gamma irradiation has demonstrated that the 1 Mrad PFRP dose is capable, by itself, of eliminating bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens from sludge. Gamma irradiation of sludge in conjunction with the required Processes to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) should also eliminate the viral hazard from wastewater sludges.

Yeager, J.G.; Ward, R.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Use and disposal of waste-water sludge in Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) proposed Part 503 Rules on sludge were first published in February 1989. Part 503 proposed sludge regulations address five categories of sludge use or disposal: land application, distribution and marketing, monofills, surface disposal sites, and incineration. The report on sludge management in Illinois examines the probable effects that the proposed federal rules on use and disposal of sewage sludge will have on current practices by Illinois publicly owned treatment works outside the City of Chicago.

John, S.F.; Kane, D.N.; Hinesly, T.D.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

ERPENBECK EG; LESHIKAR GA

2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

206

Low temperature thermal treatment for petroleum refinery waste sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment requirements for waste sludges generated by petroleum refinery operations and designated as waste codes K048, K049, K050, K051 and K052 under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) became effective in November, 1990 under the Landban regulations. An experimental program evaluated low temperature thermal treatment of filter cakes produced from these sludges using laboratory and pilot-scale equipment. One set of experiments on waste samples from two different refineries demonstrated the effective removal of organics of concern from the sludges to meet the RCRA Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) treatment standards. Cyanides were also within the acceptable limit. Combined with stabilization of heavy metals in the treatment residues, low temperature thermal treatment therefore provides an effective and efficient means of treating refinery sludges, with most hydrocarbons recovered and recycled to the refinery. A milder thermal treatment was used to remove the bulk of the water from a previously filtered waste sludge, providing effective waste minimization through a 40% decrease in the mass of sludge to be disposed. The heating value of the sludge was increased simultaneously by one-third, thereby producing a residue of greater value in an alternative fuels program. A process based on this approach was successfully designed and commercialized.

Ayen, R.J.; Swanstrom, C.P. (Geneva Research Center, IL (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Landfarming of municipal sewage sludge at Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been applying municipal sanitary sludge to 9 sites comprising 90 ha on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) since 1983. Approximately 13,000,000 L are applied annually by spraying sludge (2 to 3% solids) under pressure from a tanker. Under an ongoing monitoring program, both the sludge and the soil in the application areas are analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radioactive parameters on a regular basis. Organic pollutants are analyzed in sludge on a semiannual basis and in the soil application areas on an annual basis. Inorganic parameters are analyzed daily (e.g., pH, total solids) or monthly (e.g., nitrogen, manganese) in sludge and annually in soil in application areas. Radionuclides (Co-60, Cs-137, I-131, Be-7, K-40, Ra-228, U-235, U-238) are scanned daily during application by the sewage treatment plant and analyzed weekly in composite sludge samples and annually in soil. Additionally, data on radioactive body burden for maximally exposed workers who apply the sludge show no detectable exposures. This monitoring program is comprehensive and is one of the few in the United States that analyzes radionuclides. Results from the monitoring program show heavy metals and radionuclides are not accumulating to levels in the soil application areas.

Tischler, M.L.; Pergler, C.; Wilson, M.; Mabry, D.; Stephenson, M.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Bioavailability to plants of sludge-borne toxic organics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large numbers of man-made organic chemicals occur in sewage sludge and many are thought to represent an environmental hazard. This is particularly true of the compounds classified as priority pollutants (TOs) which typically occur in sludges in the mg/kg concentration range. Concerns about their environmental fate, specifically their bioavailability to food-chain crops, have disrupted land application of sludges. A review of the pertinent literature (especially field studies utilizing sludge-amended soils and confirmational analysis for parent compound) suggest the concern is largely groundless. The vast majority of TOs in sludge occur at low concentrations and when applied to soil are strongly sorbed in the soil-sludge matrix, degraded, or are otherwise lost from the soil during the cropping season. Plant bioconcentration factors for most TOs are less 0.01 DW. Even if taken up by plants the TOs may be metabolized within the plant or accumulate in plant parts that are usually not consumed. In contrast a second general group of man-made organics (aromatic surfactants) exist in sludge at much greater concentrations (g/kg).

O'Connor, G.A.; Chaney, R.L.; Ryan, J.A.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive sludges from four tanks were tested in a lab-scale apparatus. Maximum hydrogen generation rates varied from 5 {times}10{sup {minus}7} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the least reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 51) to 2 {times}10{sup {minus}4} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the most reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 11). The time required for the hydrogen generation to reach a maximum varied from 4.1 to 25 hours. In addition to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were produced and the pH of the reaction slurry increased. In all cases, the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were generated before the hydrogen. The results are in agreement with large-scale studies using simulated sludges.

Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive sludges from four tanks were tested in a lab-scale apparatus. Maximum hydrogen generation rates varied from 5 {times}10{sup {minus}7} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the least reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 51) to 2 {times}10{sup {minus}4} g H{sub 2}/hr/g of sludge from the most reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 11). The time required for the hydrogen generation to reach a maximum varied from 4.1 to 25 hours. In addition to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were produced and the pH of the reaction slurry increased. In all cases, the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were generated before the hydrogen. The results are in agreement with large-scale studies using simulated sludges.

Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Red hot sea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... region of very young seafloor spreading. Some of the evidence for this view comes from geothermal studies, which is only to be expected, although it comes as a surprise to ... to draw a much better, though still far from complete, picture of Red Sea geothermal characteristics.

Peter J. Smith

1977-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

212

Sewage Sludge Management Rule (West Virginia) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sewage Sludge Management Rule (West Virginia) Sewage Sludge Management Rule (West Virginia) Sewage Sludge Management Rule (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Siting and Permitting This rule establishes requirements for the permitting siting, bonding, installation, establishment, construction, modification, and operation of any facility that generates, processes, recycles and/or disposes of sewage

213

Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Comparative study on kinetic adsorption of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions using activated sludge and dried sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The adsorption of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions by activated sludge and dried sludge was investigated under laboratory conditions to assess ... The adsorption behavior of metal ions onto a...

Soon-An Ong; Eiichi Toorisaka; Makoto Hirata; Tadashi Hano

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four residues generated in a Kraft, pulp and paper plant, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimmetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. Emphasis was given on the identification of the mineral components of each material. The green liquor dregs and the lime mud contain Calcite and Gipsite. The slaker grits contains Calcite, Portlandite, Pirssonite, Larnite and Brucite. The Calcite phase, present in the dregs and in the lime mud, has small amounts of magnesium replacing calcium. The wood ash contains Quartz as the major crystalline mineral phase.

Fernanda Machado Martins; Joaniel Munhoz Martins; Luiz Carlos Ferracin; Carlos Jorge da Cunha

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Ayrshire Red Squirrel Group Squirrelpox  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ayrshire Red Squirrel Group SSG Report 1st March 2012 Squirrelpox Sero-positive grey squirrels. Concerns are also rising that there may be outbreaks of pox in red squirrel populations which have gone

217

Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD waste liquors. Quarterly technical report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this quarterly period, an experimental investigation was performed to study the precipitation kinetics and hydrolysis characteristics of calcium imido disulfonate crystals (CaADS). The CaADS crystals were precipitated by a metathetical reaction of lime, supplied by Dravo Lime Co., with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber waste liquor. Before approaching for the continuous Double Draw-Off (DDO) crystallization studies, the influence of a Dravo lime slurry on the precipitation characteristics of N-S compounds will be established. A series of N-S compound batch crystallization studies were completed in a wide range of pH (7.0--9.0), and the influence of pH on the amount of lime required, as well as the amount of precipitate obtained, was investigated. Although the amount of precipitate increased with increase in solution pH, the safe or optimum pH for the precipitation of CaADS lies in the vicinity of 8.2 to 8.3. For studying the crystallization characteristics of CaADS crystals, a bench scale 7.0 liter DDO crystallizer was built. DDO crystallizer is found to be superior compared to Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer. The precipitated crystals were analyzed for elemental composition by chemical analysis. The crystals were also examined under optical microscope for their morphological features. The present studies confirmed our prediction that N-S compounds in the waste liquor can be precipitated by a reaction with lime slurry. The precipitated crystals were mostly calcium imido disulfonate.

Randolph, A.D.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Unrau, E.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

Microsoft Word - 2010 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Visit...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tour of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - May 17-19, 2010 The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Independent Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security...

219

Proper Lagoon Management to Reduce Odor and Excessive Sludge Accumulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proper management techniques to reduce odor and excessive sludge accumulation include maintaining pH and salt levels, pumping regularly, maintaining adequate bacteria levels, and designing for efficiency. Definitions of key words are boxed for easy...

Mukhtar, Saqib

1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

220

Sludge application program at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 1980 a research program has been conducted at the Savannah River Plant to evaluate the use of domestic sewage sludge to enhance forest productivity. The objectives of the program have been to determine the cost effectiveness and environmental impact of using sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and slow-release fertilizer. The potential impacts of sludge application on nutrient cycling, organic carbon budgets, forest wildlife, and biomass production have been studied. Soil, soil water, groundwater, and stand biomass samples have been analyzed to monitor the availability and movement of nutrients and metals. Remote sensing techniques have been applied to the plots to see if they have large scale application to biomass determinations. Results of the study have been used to develop guidelines for land application of domestic sewage sludge.

Corey, J C; Lower, M W; Davis, C E

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Rules and Regulations for Sewage Sludge Management (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of these rules and regulations is to ensure that sewage sludge that is treated, land applied, disposed, distributed, stockpiled or transported in the State of Rhode Island is done so in...

222

A reburning process using sewage sludge-derived syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The motivation for this work was to define the reburning potential of sewage sludge (SS) gasification gas (syngas). A numerical simulation of the co-combustion process of syngas in a hard coal-fired boiler was .....

Sebastian Werle

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River September 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Cameron Salony, DOE Cameron.Salony@rl.doe.gov 509-376-0402 Dee Millikin, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company Dee_Millikin@rl.gov 509-376-1297 RICHLAND, WASH. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) announced today the removal of the first phase of highly radioactive sludge from under water storage in the K West Basin about 400 yards away from the Columbia River. "This is a major step forward in protecting the river and a historic

224

Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River September 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Cameron Salony, DOE Cameron.Salony@rl.doe.gov 509-376-0402 Dee Millikin, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company Dee_Millikin@rl.gov 509-376-1297 RICHLAND, WASH. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) announced today the removal of the first phase of highly radioactive sludge from under water storage in the K West Basin about 400 yards away from the Columbia River. "This is a major step forward in protecting the river and a historic

225

Red Paper Wasps  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Red Paper Wasps Red Paper Wasps Name: Sheldon Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: There are a lot of red paper wasps in and around our house. Why are there so many, and why do they hand around our front door? Replies: I'm not sure what species of wasp you have so I can't give you a very detailed answer. Paper wasps overwinter as fertile queens, all the rest die in the winter. In the spring a queen starts a paper nest and lays a few eggs, which hatch into workers. Over the summer the nest expands, and there are more and more workers until they all die again when it freezes in winter. how many workers there will be depends on the species of wasp and food supply, etc. So you have many wasps at this time of year because there is a nest somewhere nearby and they are at the maximum number of individuals before frost. Why they are by your door is probably just a coincidence, an accident, but I can't be sure

226

Land disposal of water treatment plant sludge -- A feasibility analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the following alternative disposal methods for the Buffalo Pound Water Treatment Sludge were evaluated: landfilling, discharge into sanitary sewers, long-term lagooning, use in manufacturing, co-composting, alum recovery and land application. Land application was chosen at the best disposal alternative. Preliminary design resulted in a 1% dry alum sludge loading rate (25 tonnes/ha), requiring 35 ha over a nine-year period and a phosphorus fertilizer supplement of about 50kg/ha.

Viraraghavan, T.; Multon, L.M.; Wasylenchuk, E.J.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Sludge Settling Rate Observations and Projections at the Savannah River Site - 13238  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since 2004, sludge batches have included a high percentage of stored sludge generated from the H- modified (HM) process. The slow-settling nature of HM sludge means that the settling is often the major part of the washing tank quiescent period between required pump runs to maintain flammability control. Reasonable settling projections are needed to wash soluble salts from sludge in an efficient manner, to determine how much sludge can be washed in a batch within flammability limits, and to provide composition projections for batch qualification work done in parallel with field preparation. Challenges to providing reasonably accurate settling projections include (1) large variations in settling behavior from tank-to-tank, (2) accounting for changing initial concentrations, sludge masses, and combinations of different sludge types, (3) changing the settling behavior upon dissolving some sludge compounds, and (4) sludge preparation schedules that do not allow for much data collection for a particular sludge before washing begins. Scaling from laboratory settling tests has provided inconsistent results. Several techniques have been employed to improve settling projections and therefore the overall batch preparation efficiency. Before any observations can be made on a particular sludge mixture, projections can only be made based on historical experience with similar sludge types. However, scaling techniques can be applied to historical settling models to account for different sludge masses, concentrations, and even combinations of types of sludge. After sludge washing/settling cycles begin, the direct measurement of the sludge height, once generally limited to a single turbidity meter measurement per settle period, is now augmented by examining the temperature profile in the settling tank, to help determine the settled sludge height over time. Recently, a settling model examined at PNNL [1,2,3] has been applied to observed thermocouple and turbidity meter readings to quickly provide settling correlations to project settled heights for other conditions. These tools improve the accuracy and adaptability of short and mid-range planning for sludge batch preparation. (authors)

Gillam, Jeffrey M.; Shah, Hasmukh B.; Keefer, Mark T. [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS SUMMARY REPORT [VOLUME 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly radioactive sludge (containing up to 300,000 curies of actinides and fission products) resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in temporary containers located in the 105-K West storage basin near the Columbia River. The background, history, and known characteristics of this sludge are discussed in Section 2 of this report. There are many compelling reasons to remove this sludge from the K-Basin. These reasons are discussed in detail in Section1, and they include the following: (1) Reduce the risk to the public (from a potential release of highly radioactive material as fine respirable particles by airborne or waterborn pathways); (2) Reduce the risk overall to the Hanford worker; and (3) Reduce the risk to the environment (the K-Basin is situated above a hazardous chemical contaminant plume and hinders remediation of the plume until the sludge is removed). The DOE-RL has stated that a key DOE objective is to remove the sludge from the K-West Basin and River Corridor as soon as possible, which will reduce risks to the environment, allow for remediation of contaminated areas underlying the basins, and support closure of the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The environmental and nuclear safety risks associated with this sludge have resulted in multiple legal and regulatory remedial action decisions, plans,and commitments that are summarized in Table ES-1 and discussed in more detail in Volume 2, Section 9.

FREDERICKSON JR; ROURK RJ; HONEYMAN JO; JOHNSON ME; RAYMOND RE

2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

230

Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part II. Sludge-grown algae as feeds for aquatic organisms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae (Chlorella...-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the...

M. H. Wong; K. M. Hung; S. T. Chiu

231

Sequential anaerobic/anaerobic digestion for enhanced sludge stabilization: comparison of the process performance for mixed and waste sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sequential anaerobic-aerobic digestion has been demonstrated as a promising alternative for enhanced sludge stabilization. In this paper, a feasibility ... the sequential digestion applied to real waste activated...

M. Concetta Tomei; Nicola Antonello Carozza

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advanced Algorithm Design Red-black Tree Jingjing Xia #12;Red-Black Tree A red-black tree is a binary search tree, and each node contains one extra field: its color, it can be either black or red of the binary search tree. If a binary search tree satisfies all the following red-black properties, it is a red

Chen, Yangjun

233

Sludge application and monitoring program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1986--1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Municipal sewage sludge has been applied to forests and pastures on the Oak Ridge Reservation since 1983 as a method of both disposal and beneficial reuse. Application was carried out under Tennessee permits issued to the city of Oak Ridge for land disposal of sewage sludge. In conjunction with these applications, information has been collected concerning sludge quantity and characteristics, soil parameters, soil water constituents, groundwater quality, surface runoff water quality, and various chemical constituents in vegetation on application sites. This information provides (1) a record of sludge application on the DOE reservations and (2) documentation of changes in soil parameters following sludge application. The information also provides a basis for evaluating the implications of the land application of municipal sewage sludge for soil and water quality and for evaluating the fate of sludge constituents when sludge is either sprayed or injected on pasture sites or surface applied in forested sites. This report covers in detail sludge applications conducted from 1986 through 1993, with some data from the period between 1983 and 1986. Anaerobically digested liquid sludge (2% to 4% solids) from the city of Oak Ridge had a relatively high nitrogen content (8% dry weight) and average to low concentrations of potentially problematic metals, compared with typical municipal sludges. Few potentially hazardous organic chemicals were detected in the sludge, and when found, these were at very low concentrations. Oak Ridge sludge is somewhat unique in that it contains radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 131}I, uranium isotopes, {sup 90}Sr, and occasionally {sup 99}Tc) at concentrations much higher than typical municipal sludges. Land application of sewage sludge can dilute or destroy problematic sludge constituents while improving soil fertility. Correct management has made these sludge applications a model of environmentally responsible waste management.

Gunderson, C.A.; Larsen, I.L.; Boston, H.L.; Bradburn, D.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Van Miegroet, H. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Morris, J.L. [Jaycor, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Walzer, A.E. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Central Environmental Compliance; Adler, T.C. [Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huq, M. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

K Basin sludge polychlorinated biphenyl removal technology assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two Hanford K Basins are water-filled concrete pools that contain over 2,100 metric tons of N Reactor fuel elements stored in aluminum or stainless steel canisters. During the time the fuel has been stored, approximately 50 m3 of heterogeneous solid material have accumulated in the basins. This material, referred to as sludge, is a mixture of fuel corrosion products, metallic bits of spent fuel and zirconium clad iron and metal corrosion products and silica from migrating sands. Some of the sludges also contain PCBs. The congener group of PCBs was identified as Aroclor 1254. The maximum concentration of sludge PCBS was found to be 140 ppm (as settled wet basis). However, the distribution of the PCBs is non-uniform throughout the sludge (i.e., there are regions of high and low concentrations and places where no PCBs are present). Higher concentrations could be present at various locations. Aroclors 1016/1242, 1221, 1248, 1254, and 1260 were identified and quantified in K West (KW) Canister sludge. In some of these samples, the concentration of 1260 was higher than 1254. The sludge requires pre-treatment to meet tank farm waste acceptance criteria, Among the numerous requirements, the sludge should be retreated so that it does not contain regulated levels of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) compounds. Because of their stable chemistry and relative insolubility in water, PCBs are difficult to treat. They also resist degradation from heat and electrical charges. This stability has resulted in environmental persistence which has prompted the development of a variety of new cleanup processes including supercritical processes, advanced oxidation, dehalogenation and others. Hopefully, most of the new processes are discussed herein. Information on new processes are being received and will be evaluated in a future revision.

Ashworth, S.C.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

235

Gas production and transport in artificial sludge depots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a study to determine the impact of gas production in dredging sludge on the storage capacity of artificial sludge depots. Gas is produced as a result of the decomposition of organic material present in dredging spoil. This process, in which methane and carbon dioxide are formed, may lead to expansion of sludge layers, partly or even completely counterbalancing consolidation. The study shows that, even with a very conservative estimation of the rate of gas production, accumulation of gas occurs as convective and diffusive transport proceed very slowly. Nucleation of gas bubbles occurs already at a limited oversaturation of pore water. During their growth, bubbles push aside the surrounding grain matrix. Resulting stresses may initiate cracks around bubbles. If these cracks join, they may form channels stretching out to the depot surface and along which gas may escape. However, channels are only stable to a limited depth below which bubble accumulation may continue. The gas content at which sufficient cracks and channels are formed to balance the rate of gas production with the rate of outflow strongly depends on the constitutive properties of the dredging sludge considered. In sludge with a high shear strength (>10 kPa), stable channels are created already at low deformations. However, a large expansion may occur in sludge with a low strength. The present study shows that accumulation of gas may continue until a bulk density less than that of water is attained. This is equivalent to a gas fraction of about 25–37%, depending on the initial water content of the sludge. Only then can gas escape as a result of instabilities in the sediment matrix. This should be well taken into account during the design and management of artificial depots.

T. van Kessel; W.G.M. van Kesteren

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

www.vopen.net 1994 Young Mark Ewing Red Hat Red H  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

www.vopen.net Linux --- 1994 Young Mark Ewing Red Hat Red H at Linux Linux Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux Red Hat Linux MandrakeSOT BestConnectivaAbit KondaraRed Hat Linux 2001 4 16 Red Hat Red Hat Linux 7.1 Red Hat Linux 1 1.1 1 Linux 2.4.2 2 Xfree86 4.0.3 3 4 Big5 5 CPU CPU 4

Li, Tiejun

237

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge characteristics Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application Source: Cornell...

238

Control of Sludge Recycle Flow in Wastewater Treatment Plants Using Fuzzy Logic Controller  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sludge recycling system is an important part of wastewater treatment plants, because the lack of control ... almost all of the sludge return system with wastewater treatment plants is simply the ratio by ... appl...

Wangyani

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

E-Print Network 3.0 - acclimated activated sludge Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application... is a...

240

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge micro-organism Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application... is a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge performing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application Source: Cornell...

242

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge biofac Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application... is a...

243

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge bulking Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application... is a...

244

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge exposed Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application... is a...

245

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge solubilisation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application... is a...

246

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge unit Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application... is a...

247

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge flocculation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application... is a...

248

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge steuerung Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application... is a...

249

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge flocs Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application... is a...

250

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge deflocculation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zone of Land-Applied Sludge T A M M O S . S T E E N H U... , Ithaca, New York 14853 Recycling nutrients in wastewater sludge (biosolids) via land application... is a...

251

Research of sludge compost maturity degree modeling method based on wavelet neural network for sewage treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of the complicated interaction of the sludge compost components, it makes the compost maturity degree judging system appear the nonlinearity and uncertainty. According to the physical circumstances of sludge compost, a compost maturity degree ...

Meijuan Gao; Jingwen Tian; Wei Jiang; Kai Li

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Systematic Multimodeling Methodology Applied to an Activated Sludge Reactor Anca Maria Nagy,*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Systematic Multimodeling Methodology Applied to an Activated Sludge Reactor Model Anca Maria Nagy for analysis or control purpose. This method is applied to an activated sludge reactor model. Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

DEVELOPMENT OF DATABASE ON FECAL SLUDGE COLLECTION, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL IN THACHIN,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i DEVELOPMENT OF DATABASE ON FECAL SLUDGE COLLECTION, TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL IN THACHIN, CHAOPRAYA Sludge (FS) management and lacking of data on FS collection, treatment and disposal. Nevertheless, FS

Richner, Heinz

254

Thermal characteristics of the combustion process of biomass and sewage sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion of two kinds of biomass and sewage sludge was studied. The biomass fuels were wood biomass (pellets) and agriculture biomass (oat). The sewage sludge came from waste water treatment plant. The biomass

Aneta Magdziarz; Ma?gorzata Wilk

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Red Raider Orientation COLLEGE DISMISSAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Management Wildlife Science #12;RED RAIDER ORIENTATION University Studies University Studies Wind Energy Architecture Natural Resources Management Plant & Soil Science Wildlife, Aquatic, & Wildlands Science

Rock, Chris

257

Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective.

Vail, T.S.

1997-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

258

Survivorship of meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, from sewage sludge-treated fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A long-term field study was begun in 1977 at Miami University to evaluate the effects of land application of sewage sludge on experimental old-field communities. The effects of sludge application on toxic metal concentrations in meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) organs during the first two years of the study have been reported. During the first two years of sludge application, no detrimental effects were observed in vole survivorship as a result of sludge treatment.

Maly, M.S.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Environmental regulations and technology: use and disposal of municipal waste-water sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The document describes the five major sludge use/disposal options currently available--land application, distribution and marketing of sludge products, land-filling, incineration, and ocean disposal--and factors influencing their selection and implementation. It also provides an initial framework for evaluating sludge use/disposal alternatives, and describes accepted and proven use/disposal technologies and Federal regulations pertinent to sludge management.

Not Available

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sewage sludge Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University Collection: Geosciences ; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 66 Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes Summary: Treatment Plant Conventional Activated Sludge Process...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ASSESSING GHG EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ROUTES THE METHOD BEHIND GESTABOUES TOOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSESSING GHG EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ROUTES ­ THE METHOD BEHIND GESTABOUES TOOL Pradel M., Reverdy, A.L. ORBIT2012 1 Assessing GHG emissions from sludge treatment and disposal. These different disposal routes as well as the sludge treatments produce greenhouse gases (GHG). To help

Boyer, Edmond

262

Effect of initial physical characteristics on sludge compost performance Anne Trmier1,2,*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of initial physical characteristics on sludge compost performance Anne Trémier1,2,* ,Cécile of wastewater sludge, the bulking agent (BA) plays a major role in establishing the recipe structure, exposed particle surface area and porosity. To optimize the biodegradation of a sludge compost recipe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

Effects of oxygen transport limitation on nitrification in the activated sludge process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of oxygen transport limitation on nitrification in the activated sludge process ABSTRACT: Apseudohomogeneous model ofthe nitrifying activated sludge process was developed to investigate the effects ofmass and autotrophic ammonia oxidation within activated sludge flocs were described by an interactive-type, multiple

Stenstrom, Michael K.

264

Water Research 36 (2002) 11811192 Accuracy analysis of a respirometer for activated sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Research 36 (2002) 1181­1192 Accuracy analysis of a respirometer for activated sludge dynamic transfer, pH, and the influence of sludge condition on ``start-up'' behaviour. It is shown to what extent Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Respirometry; Oxygen uptake rate; Activated sludge

265

Total nitrogen removal in a hybrid, membrane-aerated activated sludge process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total nitrogen removal in a hybrid, membrane-aerated activated sludge process Leon S. Downing wastewater. Air-filled hollow-fiber membranes are incorporated into an activated sludge tank removal in activated sludge. ÂŞ 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The removal

Nerenberg, Robert

266

Location and chemical composition of microbially induced phosphorus precipitates in anaerobic and aerobic granular sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and aerobic granular sludge A. Mañasa,b,c,e , M. Spérandioa,b,c , F. Deckerd and B. Biscanse aINSA, UPS, INP X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) applied to granular sludge used for biological treatment of high sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and two aerobic granular sequenced batch reactors (GSBR) were evaluated

Boyer, Edmond

267

Using water activity measurements to evaluate rheological consistency and structure strength of sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of sludge G. Agoda-Tandjawa, E. Dieudé-Fauvel*, R. Girault. and J.-C. Baudez Irstea, UR TSCF, Domaine des/solid matter interactions in sewage sludge has been developed, based on both rheological characteristics parameters (G' and G'') of both raw and flocculated sewage sludge at optimal dose of polymer increase

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

268

Assessing nitrogen losses after sewage sludge spreading: A method based on simulation models and spreader  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Assessing nitrogen losses after sewage sludge spreading: A method based on simulation models performances. We define 45 sewage sludge spreading scenarios covering a wide range of situations in France. Several models are used to (i) assess nitrogen losses due to sewage sludge spreading and (ii) calculate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

Microbial oxygen uptake in sludge as influenced by compost physical parameters1 Ardavan Mohajer1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Microbial oxygen uptake in sludge as influenced by compost physical parameters1 Ardavan Mohajer1 uptake rate (OUR) in 16 sludge waste recipes, offering a4 range of moisture content (MC), waste to 14 days to20 evaluate the overall O2 consumption or biodegradability of a sludge mixture.21 Keywords

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

Amyloid-Like Adhesins Produced by Floc-Forming and Filamentous Bacteria in Activated Sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and Filamentous Bacteria in Activated Sludge Published ahead of print on 11 January...importance to the floc properties in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP...abundance of amyloid adhesins in activated sludge flocs from different WWTP and the identity...

Poul Larsen; Jeppe Lund Nielsen; Daniel Otzen; Per Halkjćr Nielsen

2008-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

271

A GEOCHEMICAL MODULE FOR "AMDTreat" TO COMPUTE CAUSTIC QUANTITY, EFFLUENT QUALITY, AND SLUDGE VOLUME1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1413 A GEOCHEMICAL MODULE FOR "AMDTreat" TO COMPUTE CAUSTIC QUANTITY, EFFLUENT QUALITY, AND SLUDGE with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearlyH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical

272

Treatment of septage in sludge drying reed beds: a case study on pilot-scale beds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Treatment of septage in sludge drying reed beds: a case study on pilot-scale beds S. Troesch***, A systems by local authorities. This will result in a large increase of the quantity of sludge from septic to treat this sludge because they may have reached their nominal load or they are not so numerous in rural

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE ON SOIL AND PLANTS (COLZA and WHEAT)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE ON SOIL AND PLANTS (COLZA and WHEAT) Najla LASSOUED1@emse.fr Abstract We are testing the impact of heavy metals in sludge from urban and industrial wastewater treatment> Cu> Ni> Co> Cd The contents of heavy metals in the sludge is made very high and exceed European

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft-glassy materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft confronted with a dramatically increasing flow of sewage sludge. To improve treatment efficiency, process reliable flow properties to simulate the process, this work is an attempt to approach sludge rheological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Removal of Plant Nutrients by Means of Aerobic Stabilization of Sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Nutrients by Means of Aerobic Stabilization of Sludge Roar L. Irgens 1 H. Orin Halvorson Department...investigation, we found that, if the sludges were treated by an aerobic process, a...Nutrients by Means of Aerobic Stabilization of Sludge ROAR L. IRGENS' AND H. ORIN HALVORSON...

Roar L. Irgens; H. Orin Halvorson

1965-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Effect of Processing Mode on Trace Elements in Dewatered Sludge Products Brian K. Richards1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Processing Mode on Trace Elements in Dewatered Sludge Products Brian K. Richards1 *, John considering the land application of wastewater sludges. The effects of pelletization/drying, composting compared. A single day's production of dewatered anaerobically-digested sludge (Syracuse, NY) was used

Walter, M.Todd

277

A modified Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) with two-step nitrificationedenitrification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A modified Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) with two-step nitrificationedenitrification Ilenia of the Activated Sludge Models (ASM) [Henze, M., Gujer, W., Mino, T., van Loosdrecht, M.C.M., 2000. Ac- tivated Sludge Models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d, and ASM3. IWA Scientific and Technical Report No. 9. IWA Publishing

278

The Use of Nonionic and Anionic Surfactant in the Treatment of Oily Sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oily sludge, produced mostly in petroleum refineries and petrochemical industries, is one of the major industrial wastes that require treatment. The objective of this work was to recovery oil by washing of oily sludge with Nonionic and Anionic surfactant. ... Keywords: oily sludge, Washing method, surfactant, Recovered oil, Nonionic, Anionic

Jing Guolin; Li Ming; Qin Shaopeng

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Improving rheological sludge characterization with electrical measurements1 Dieud-Fauvel E.1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Improving rheological sludge characterization with electrical measurements1 2 Dieudé-Fauvel E.1 to obtain information on the rheological behaviour of sewage11 sludge by performing electrical resistivity suitable for implementation in the field. The viscosity and resistivity of sludges containing17 between 4

280

Impact of sludge mechanical behaviour on spatial distribution parameters obtained with centrifugal spreader  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Impact of sludge mechanical behaviour on spatial distribution parameters obtained to analyse organic spreading and opens the way to more developments. Keywords: sludge rheological behaviour a large amount of residues which are spread on agricultural fields. This process of sludge reuse is mainly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for treatment in EU, followed by spreading on land, which accounted for 37% of the sewage sludge produced allow recycling of nutrients. Hence, bioprocessed sewage sludge application on agricultural soilRemoval of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N

282

ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

digestion, aerobic digestion, dewatering, al composting, drying) and sludge disposal route (land applicationORBIT2012 G ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di-laure.reverdy@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sewage sludge production increases continuously reaching almost 20% (946 700 t 1 118 795

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

Analysis of sludge from K East basin floor and weasel pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sludge samples from the floor of the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and possibly assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements.

Makenas, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

284

Modeling and computer simulation of the identification problem related to the sludge concentration in a settler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mathematical model of sludge particles settling in the water treatment plant (settler) is considered. In the case of the residence time of sludge particles in the settler the model leads to a nonlinear age-dependent transport-diffusion with a nonlocal ... Keywords: Nonlocal condition, Optimal control, Settler model, Sludge concentration, Transport-diffusion equation

Burhan Pekta?

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Optimal Siting of Regional Fecal Sludge Treatment Facilities: St. Elizabeth, Jamaica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for rural wastewater treatment. However, there are serious environmental and human health effects associ for wastewater treatment. Fecal sludge FS is defined as the sludge of variable consistency collected from onOptimal Siting of Regional Fecal Sludge Treatment Facilities: St. Elizabeth, Jamaica Ana Martha

Vogel, Richard M.

286

A nonlinear observer design for an activated sludge wastewater treatment process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A nonlinear observer design for an activated sludge wastewater treatment process B. Boulkrounea , M : Activated sludge, wastewater treatment process, Lyapunov function, Lips- chitz singular discrete the recent results of [2] and [5]. In the last decades, the modeling of the activated sludge wastewater

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Ambiguous Red Shifts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A one-parameter conformal invariance of Maxwell's equations allows the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves to change as they propagate, and do so even in otherwise field-free space. This produces an ambiguity in interpretations of stellar red shifts. Experiments that will determine the value of the group parameter, and thereby remove the ambiguity, are proposed. They are based on an analysis of the anomalous frequency shifts uncovered in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft studies, and physical interpretation of an isomorphism discovered by E. L. Hill. If the group parameter is found to be non-zero, Hubble's relations will have to be reinterpreted and space-time metrics will have to be altered. The cosmological consequences of the transformations are even more extensive because, though they change frequencies, they do not alter the energy and momentum conservations laws of classical and quantum-electrodynamical fields established by Cunningham and by Bialynicki-Birula.

Carl E. Wulfman

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

288

Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • The high output of MSS highlights the need for alternative routes of valorization. • Evaluation of 3 sludge-to-energy valorisation methods through SWOT analysis. • Pyrolysis is an energy and material recovery process resulting to ‘zero waste’. • Identification of challenges and barriers for MSS pyrolysis in Greece was investigated. • Adopters of pyrolysis systems face the challenge of finding new product markets. - Abstract: For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a ‘zero waste’ solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated.

Samolada, M.C. [Dept. Secretariat of Environmental and Urban Planning – Decentralized Area Macedonian Thrace, Taki Oikonomidi 1, 54008 Thessaloniki (Greece); Zabaniotou, A.A., E-mail: azampani@auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University Box 455, University Campus, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Land treatment of contaminated sludge with wastewater irrigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large-scale field experiment was conducted to test the feasibility of land application of sludge from industrial and domestic wastewater treatment to determine the fate and environmental impact of the contaminants. The sludge contained 13 organic priority pollutants, 16 additional environmentally significant organic compounds, and high concentrations of several metals (zinc, copper, lead, nickel, and cadmium). Each compound was monitored as the irrigation water percolated through the soil and the groundwater over time. Most of the organic compounds diminished to non-detectable levels by the end of the study, and the metals proved harmless to the environment. The effectiveness of land application of sludge with wastewater irrigation was clearly demonstrated. 1 figure, 11 tables.

Demirjian, Y.A.; Westman, T.R.; Joshi, A.M.; Rop, D.J.; Buhl, R.V.; Clark, W.R.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

Higgins, A.J.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

White Baneberry and Red Baneberry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 White Baneberry and Red Baneberry Actaea pachypoda and Actaea rubra buttercup family (ranunculaceae) both white baneberry and red baneberry are poisonous plants native to the northeast inhabit swamps. Range: white baneberry--parts of the canadian mari- times and the southern border

Landweber, Laura

292

Red Rice Research and Control.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s cu l t iva ted white r i c e , Oryza sativa L. Red r i c e crosses read i ly .- with white r i c e and i s very s i m i l a r t o it i n appearance. The main morpho- logical d i f ferences t h a t d i s t ingu i sh it from white r i c... l e s i n white r i c e . Since these characters can be t r ans fe r red by crossing, new red r i c e types can and do appear. Red r i c e i s undesirable because: 1. Red r i c e p l a n t s compete with cu l t iva ted r i c e...

Baker, John B.; Baldwin, Ford L.; Bourgeois, W.J.; Cox, Clodis H.; Craigmiles, Julian P.; Dishman, William D.; Eastin, E. Ford; Helpert, Charles W.; Hill, Lewis C.; Huey, Bobby A.; Klosterboer, Arlen D.; Sonnier, Earl A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Status Report on Phase Identification in Hanford Tank Sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify Hanford's underground storage tank wastes. The vitrified wastes will be divided into low-activity and high-level fractions. There is an effort to reduce the quantity of high-activity wastes by removing nonradioactive components because of the high costs involved in treating high-level waste. Pretreatment options, such as caustic leaching, to selectively remove nonradioactive components are being investigated. The effectiveness of these proposed processes for removing nonradioactive components depends on the chemical phases in the tank sludges. This review summarizes the chemical phases identified to date in Hanford tank sludges.

Rapko, Brian M.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2000-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

294

SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior to initiating a new sludge batch in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is required to simulate this processing, including Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation, waste glass fabrication, and chemical durability testing. This report documents this simulation for the next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). SB6 consists of Tank 12 material that has been transferred to Tank 51 and subjected to Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD), Tank 4 sludge, and H-Canyon Pu solutions. Following LTAD and the Tank 4 addition, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided SRNL a 3 L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB6 qualification. Pu solution from H Canyon was also received. SB6 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of Pu from H Canyon), DWPF CPC simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass characterization and chemical durability evaluation. The following are significant observations from this demonstration. Sludge settling improved slightly as the sludge was washed. SRNL recommended (and the Tank Farm implemented) one less wash based on evaluations of Tank 40 heel projections and projections of the glass composition following transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40. Thorium was detected in significant quantities (>0.1 wt % of total solids) in the sludge. In past sludge batches, thorium has been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS), seen in small quantities, and reported with the radionuclides. As a result of the high thorium, SRNL-AD has added thorium to their suite of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) elements. The acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing of 115%, or 1.3 mol acid per liter of SRAT receipt slurry, was adequate to accomplish some of the goals of SRAT processing: nitrite was destroyed to below 1,000 mg/kg and mercury was removed to below the DWPF target with 750 g of steam per g of mercury. However, rheological properties did not improve and were above the design basis. Hydrogen generation rates did not exceed DWPF limits during the SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles. However, hydrogen generation during the SRAT cycle approached the DWPF limit. The glass fabricated with the Tank 51 SB6 SME product and Frit 418 was acceptable with respect to chemical durability as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The PCT response was also predictable by the current durability models of the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). It should be noted, however, that in the first attempt to make glass from the SME product, the contents of the fabrication crucible foamed over. This may be a result of the SME product's REDOX (Reduction/Oxidation - Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe) of 0.08 (calculated from SME product analytical results). The following are recommendations drawn from this demonstration. In this demonstration, at the request of DWPF, SRNL caustic boiled the SRAT contents prior to acid addition to remove water (to increase solids concentration). During the nearly five hours of caustic boiling, 700 ppm of antifoam was required to control foaming. SRNL recommends that DWPF not caustic boil/concentrate SRAT receipt prior to acid addition until further studies can be performed to provide a better foaming control strategy or a new antifoam is developed for caustic boiling. Based on this set of runs and a recently completed demonstration with the SB6 Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) sample, it is recommended that DWPF not add formic acid at the design addition rate of two gallons per minute for this sludge batch. A longer acid addition time appears to be helpful in allowing slower reaction of formic acid with the sludge and possibly decreases the chance of a foam over during acid addition.

Pareizs, J.; Pickenheim, B.; Bannochie, C.; Billings, A.; Bibler, N.; Click, D.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

296

CRAD, Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Management at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge

297

Development of risk-assessment methodology for municipal-sludge landfilling. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. The sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution and marketing programs, landfilling, incineration and ocean disposal. These reports provide methods for evaluating potential health and environmental risks from toxic chemicals that may be present in sludge. The document addresses risks from chemicals associated with landfilling of municipal sludge. These proposed risk assessment procedures are designed as tools to assist in the development of regulations for sludge management practices. The criteria may address management practices (such as site design or process control specifications), limits on sludge disposal rates or limits on toxic chemical concentrations in the sludge.

Not Available

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

SCOTTISH RED SQUIRREL ACTION PLAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCOTTISH RED SQUIRREL ACTION PLAN 2006­2011 #12;#12;S C O T T I S H R E D S Q U I R R E L A C T I O.1 Background 1 1.2 Action Plan Working Group 1 1.3 Issues affecting the conservation of the red squirrel 1 1.2 Timescale and partnership working 3 2.3 Rationale 3 2.4 Key actions 4 2.4.1 Establish and monitor the red

299

Sludge application and monitoring program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1986 through 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Municipal sewage sludge has been applied to forests and pastures on the DOE (U.S. Department of Energy) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) since 1983 as a method of both disposal and beneficial reuse. Application was carried out under State of Tennessee permits issued to the City of Oak Ridge for land disposal of. sewage sludge. In conjunction with these applications, information has been collected concerning sludge quantity and characteristics, soil parameters, soil water constituents, groundwater quality, surface runoff water quality, and various chemical constituents in vegetation on application sites. This information provides (1) a record of sludge application on the DOE ORR, and (2) documentation of changes in soil parameters following sludge application. The information also provides a basis for evaluating the implications of the land application of municipal sewage sludge for soil and water quality and for evaluating the fate of sludge constituents when sludge is either sprayed onto or injected into pasture sites or applied to the surface of forested sites. This report covers in detail sludge applications conducted from 1986 through 1993, with some data from the period between 1983 and 1986. Land application has been recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a desirable alternative for disposal of ORR waste. Municipal sewage sludge is in many ways similar to dilute animal manure fertilizer, but it also contains metals, organic chemicals, human pathogens, and other constituents reflective of inputs into the municipal sewage treatment plant. When applied to land, nutrients in the sludge improve soil fertility, and minerals and organic matter in the sludge improve soil structure. Under optimal conditions, metals are immobilized, and organic chemicals and pathogens are immobilized or destroyed. If the sludge is not managed effectively, however, sludge constituents have the potential to affect human health and the environment.

Gunderson, C.A.; Boston, H.L.; Van Miegroet, H., Morris, J.L.; Larsen, I.L.; Walzer, A.E.; Adler, T.C.; Bradburn, D.M.; Huq, M.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Removal of heavy metals from samples of residual sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitric acid leaching processes were evaluated for removal of heavy metals from samples of residual sludge from an industrial and municipal wastewater plant. The study showed that an acid:water ratio of 1:1 and a nitric acid concentration of 2 mol 1?1 gave efficient removal of 86.7%, 100% and 100% of copper, nickel and arsenic.

Jose Abrego

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Stabilization of a mixed waste sludge for land disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solidification and stabilization technique was developed for a chemically complex mixed waste sludge containing nitrate processing wastes, sewage sludge and electroplating wastewaters, among other wastes. The sludge is originally from a solar evaporation pond and has high concentrations of nitrate salts; cadmium, chromium, and nickel concentrations of concern; and low levels of organic constituents and alpha and beta emitters. Sulfide reduction of nitrate and precipitation of metallic species, followed by evaporation to dryness and solidification of the dry sludge in recycled high density polyethylene with added lime was determined to be a satisfactory preparation for land disposal in a mixed waste repository. The application of post-consumer polyethylene has the added benefit of utilizing another problem-causing waste product. A modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure was used to determine required treatment chemical dosages and treatment effectiveness. The waste complexity prohibited use of standard chemical equilibrium methods for prediction of reaction products during treatment. Waste characterization followed by determination of thermodynamic feasibility of oxidation and reduction products. These calculations were shown to be accurate in laboratory testing. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Powers, S.E.; Zander, A.K. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGES AND COMPOSTS BPG NOTE 6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the nutrients without resulting in damage to the tree stand. Soil pH will be affected by the application or increase pH · Most immobilise metal contamination · Act as slow release fertiliser (nitrogen and phosphorus NOTE 6 PAGE 2 Applications of sewage sludges and composts Forestry Tree growth on nutrient

303

BEHAVIOR CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS) FOLLOWING A SEWAGE SLUDGE TREATMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION In Tunisia, the amount of sludge produced by wastewater treatment stations is constantly waste water treatment stations, in other words, most of it is wastewater from domestic sources. The second type is obtained from the treatment of industrial wastewater or partly from industrial wastewater

Boyer, Edmond

304

SLUDGE BATCH 7 PREPARATION TANK 4 AND 12 CHARACTERIZATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 and HM sludge from Tank 12 were characterized in preparation for Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) formulation in Tank 51. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 and Tank 12 were requested in separate Technical Assistance Requests (TAR). The Tank 4 samples were pulled on January 19, 2010 following slurry operations by F-Tank Farm. The Tank 12 samples were pulled on February 9, 2010 following slurry operations by H-Tank Farm. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), two 200 mL dip samples of Tank 4 and two 200 mL dip samples of Tank 12 were received in the SRNL Shielded Cells. Each tank's samples were composited into clean 500 mL polyethylene storage bottles and weighed. The composited Tank 4 sample was 428.27 g and the composited Tank 12 sample was 502.15 g. As expected there are distinct compositional differences between Tank 4 and Tank 12 sludges. The Tank 12 slurry is much higher in Al, Hg, Mn, and Th, and much lower in Fe, Ni, S, and U than the Tank 4 slurry. The Tank 4 sludge definitely makes the more significant contribution of S to any sludge batch blend. This S, like that observed during SB6 washing, is best monitored by looking at the total S measured by digesting the sample and analyzing by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). Alternatively, one can measure the soluble S by ICP-AES and adjust the value upward by approximately 15% to have a pretty good estimate of the total S in the slurry. Soluble sulfate measurements by ion chromatography (IC) will be biased considerably lower than the actual total S, the difference being due to the non-sulfate soluble S and the undissolved S. Tank 12 sludge is enriched in U-235, and hence samples transferred into SRNL from the Tank Farm will need to be placed on the reportable special nuclear material inventory and tracked for total U per SRNL procedure requirements.

Bannochie, C.; Click, D.; Pareizs, J.

2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

305

FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

306

HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

307

Jamaican red clay tobacco pipes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JAMAICAN RED CLAY TOBACCO PIPES A Thesis by KENAN PAUL HEIDTKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1992 Major Subject...: Anthropology JAMAICAN RED CLAY TOBACCO PIPES A Thesis by KENAN PAUL HEIDTKE Approved as to style and content by: Dorm L. Hamilton (Chair of Committee) Frederick H. van Doorninck, J (Member) enry C. Schmidt (Member) Vaughn M. Bryant (Head...

Heidtke, Kenan Paul

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

308

Strength Measurements of Archive K Basin Sludge Using a Soil Penetrometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spent fuel radioactive sludge present in the K East and K West spent nuclear fuel storage basins now resides in the KW Basin in six large underwater engineered containers. The sludge will be dispositioned in two phases under the Sludge Treatment Project: (1) hydraulic retrieval into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport to interim storage in Central Plateau and (2) retrieval from the STSCs, treatment, and packaging for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In the years the STSCs are stored, sludge strength is expected to increase through chemical reaction, intergrowth of sludge crystals, and compaction and dewatering by settling. Increased sludge strength can impact the type and operation of the retrieval equipment needed prior to final sludge treatment and packaging. It is important to determine whether water jetting, planned for sludge retrieval from STSCs, will be effective. Shear strength is a property known to correlate with the effectiveness of water jetting. Accordingly, the unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) of archive K Basin sludge samples and sludge blends were measured using a pocket penetrometer modified for hot cell use. Based on known correlations, UCS values can be converted to shear strengths. Twenty-six sludge samples, stored in hot cells for a number of years since last being disturbed, were identified as potential candidates for UCS measurement and valid UCS measurements were made for twelve, each of which was found as moist or water-immersed solids at least 1/2-inch deep. Ten of the twelve samples were relatively weak, having consistencies described as 'very soft' to 'soft'. Two of the twelve samples, KE Pit and KC-4 P250, were strong with 'very stiff' and 'stiff' consistencies described, respectively, as 'can be indented by a thumb nail' or 'can be indented by thumb'. Both of these sludge samples are composites collected from KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit locations. Despite both strong sludges having relatively high iron concentrations, attribution of their high strengths to this factor could not be made with confidence as other measured sludge samples, also from the KE Basin floor and of high iron concentration, were relatively weak. The observed UCS and shear strengths for the two strong sludges were greater than observed in any prior testing of K Basin sludge except for sludge processed at 185 C under hydrothermal conditions.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

309

Use of wastewater ER sludges for the immobilization of heavy metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The distribution, mobility, and bioavailability of heavy metals in soils, surface water, and ground water have been of major interest and concern from both environmental and geochemical standpoints. Wastewater sludges represent an important anthropogenic factor whose impact on these processes is not fully understood. In the past, incineration and landfilling were common practices for discarding wastewater sludges. However, as local and state laws governing the disposal of these materials have become more stringent, land application has been used as an alternative. Reported studies have shown that the impact of land application of sludges can vary widely and is influenced by a number of factors, including the source of the sludge; the organic matter content of the sludge; the form in which the sludge is applied; and the prevailing conditions of the receiving soils. It has also been shown that sewage sludge can have solubilizing effects on solid-phase heavy metals, thereby causing geochemical shifts of the insoluble fractions of metals to the more soluble forms. The work presented in this paper utilized synthetic minerals, standard solutions, sludges, and agricultural soils obtained from different sources to determine the mechanisms involved in the mineralization of heavy metals by sludge; the influence of soil conditions; interelemental effects; the influence of natural organic matter; and possible microbial activity that may come into play. Several types of sludge were evaluated for lead binding capacity.

Macha, S.; Murray, D.; Urasa, I.T. [Hampton Univ., VA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1 Automatic Red Eye Removal for Digital Photography FRANCESCA GASPARINI DISCo, Dipartimento The red eye effect is a well known problem in photography. It is often seen in amateur shots taken with a built-in flash, but the problem is also well known to professional photographers. Red eye is the red

Schettini, Raimondo

311

Re-use of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) sludge: Characterization and technological behaviour of cement mortars with atomized sludge additions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper aims to characterize spray-dried DWTP sludge and evaluate its possible use as an addition for the cement industry. It describes the physical, chemical and micro-structural characterization of the sludge as well as the effect of its addition to Portland cements on the hydration, water demand, setting and mechanical strength of standardized mortars. Spray drying DWTP sludge generates a readily handled powdery material whose particle size is similar to those of Portland cement. The atomized sludge contains 12-14% organic matter (mainly fatty acids), while its main mineral constituents are muscovite, quartz, calcite, dolomite and seraphinite (or clinoclor). Its amorphous material content is 35%. The mortars were made with type CEM I Portland cement mixed with 10 to 30% atomized sludge exhibited lower mechanical strength than the control cement and a decline in slump. Setting was also altered in the blended cements with respect to the control.

Husillos Rodriguez, N., E-mail: nuriah@ietcc.csic.e [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja (CSIC), Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Martinez Ramirez, S.; Blanco Varela, M.T. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja (CSIC), Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Guillem, M.; Puig, J. [Cementos Molins S.A., Crta. N-340, 2 al 38, E-08620 Sant Vicenc dels Horts, Barcelona (Spain); Larrotcha, E.; Flores, J. [Aguas de Barcelona S.A., Avenida Diagonal 211, 08018 Barcelona (Spain)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sludge disposition will be managed in two phases under the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. The first phase is to retrieve the sludge that currently resides in engineered containers in the K West (KW) Basin pool at ~10 to 18°C. The second phase is to retrieve the sludge from interim storage in the sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and treat and package it in preparation for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The work described in this report was conducted to gain insight into how sludge may change during long-term containerized storage in the STSCs. To accelerate potential physical and chemical changes, the tests were performed at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures significantly greater than those expected in the T Plant canyon cells where the STSCs will be stored. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of 50°C oxygenated water exposure on settled quiescent uraninite (UO2) slurry and a full simulant of KW containerized sludge to determine the effects of oxygen and heat on the composition and mechanical properties of sludge. Shear-strength measurements by vane rheometry also were conducted for UO2 slurry, mixtures of UO2 and metaschoepite (UO3•2H2O), and for simulated KW containerized sludge. The results from these tests and related previous tests are compared to determine whether the settled solids in the K Basin sludge materials change in volume because of oxidation of UO2 by dissolved atmospheric oxygen to form metaschoepite. The test results also are compared to determine if heating or other factors alter sludge volumes and to determine the effects of sludge composition and settling times on sludge shear strength. It has been estimated that the sludge volume will increase with time because of a uranium metal ? uraninite ? metaschoepite oxidation sequence. This increase could increase the number of containers required for storage and increase overall costs of sludge management activities. However, the volume might decrease because of decreases in the water-volume fraction caused by sludge solid reactions, compaction, or intergrowth and recrystallization of metaschoepite. In that case, fewer STSCs may be needed, but the shear strength would increase, and this could challenge recovery by water jet erosion and require more aggressive retrieval methods. Overall, the tests described herein indicate that the settled solids volume remains the same or decreases with time. The only case for which the sludge solids volumes increase with time is for the expansion factor attendant upon the anoxic corrosion of uranium metal to produce UO2 and subsequent reaction with oxygen to form equimolar UO2.25 and UO3•2H2O.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

313

Effect of Cd-Enriched Sewage Sludge on Plant Growth, Nutrients and Heavy Metals Concentrations in the Soil–Plant System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from waste-activated sludge, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, 60:505-utilization of sewage sludge. A twenty-year study atCd-enriched sewage sludge (SS) and diammonium phosphate (

Rusan, Munir Mohammad; Athamneh, Bayan Mahmoud

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

CRAD, Training - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Training - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Environment, Safety and Health program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Training - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge

315

CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Engineering program at the Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Engineering - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Emergency Management - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge

316

EA-1042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application 042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application Program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennesee EA-1042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application Program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennesee SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to raise the sludge land application loading limits from the current, self-imposed conservative 48 metric tons/ha lifetime loading to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation-permitted level of 110 metric tons/ha. The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory also proposes to add its K-25 Site pretreated sewage sludge to the existing sewage sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

317

Chemical analysis of distribution and marketing (D and M) municipal sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The land application of municipal wastewater treatment sludges is widely practiced both as an economic treatment or disposal method and to provide an economic soil nutrient amendment for agricultural use. Recent studies have shown that municipal sewage sludge effluents derived from both domestic and industrial wastewater elicited mutagenic activity as determined by the Ames test. Biological treatment processes remove some degradable organic chemicals but many persistent chemicals remain in the sludge and are hence applied to soils. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of chemicals in D and M sludges to provide a data base of priority pollutant trace metals and organics from sludges produced at facilities in 26 cities across the US. In addition to priority pollutant analysis, efforts were made to characterize non-target organic chemicals that predominated in sample extracts from each city using GC/MS. A total of 67 composite samples were analyzed. This paper discusses the results of chemical analyses of the sludge products.

Coleman, W.E. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Baird, R.; Gabrielian, S.M. (County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (USA))

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Improvement of Forest Sites in the Southeast  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In eight field experiments dried municipal sewage sludge was applied to forest sites before planting of seedlings. In all cases, tree growth was faster on sludge-amended plots than on plots that received fertilizer and lime or no amendment. In all studies, concentrations of total nitrogen in the soil were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots, even on good forest sites. In seven of the eight studies, concentrations of phosphorus also were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots. Nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher in foliage from trees growing on sludge plots. Deep subsoiling was beneficial regardless of soil amendment. Where weeds were plentiful at the outset, they became serious competitors on plots receiving sludge.

Charles R. Berry

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Sludge fertilization of state forest land in Northern Michigan. Final report, June 1980-March 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A five-year research-demonstration project to examine the logistic, economic, environmental and sociological aspects of municipal wastewater sludge application was conducted on State Forest land occupied by forest types of major commercial importance in northern Michigan. The procedures utilized for site preparation, sludge transportation and sludge application proved to be cost-effective and made possible uniform distribution of sludge upon the forest floor. As the public comes to recognize the environmental hazards and economic limitations inherent with incineration and the value of sludge as a byproduct resource, forest land application should receive increasing attention as a major sludge management alternative. State regulatory and resource management authorities are committed to use of the newly developed technology in addressing waste management and land management issues.

Brockway, D.G.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Model of sludge behavior in nuclear plant steam generators. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The accumulation of large amounts of sludge in pressurized water reactor steam generators is thought to be a cause of accelerated corrosion by trace impurities which concentrate in such deposits. Based on fundamental principles, this study develops a mathematical model for predicting the behavior (e.g., deposition and reentrainment) of sludge in steam generators. The calculated sludge behavior shows good agreement with the limited amount of experimental data available. The results suggest that the continued accumulation of sludge on the tubesheet might be preventable, and that if it could be, the incoming sludge would be removed by blowdown. An analysis of the uncertainties in the model led to suggested priorities for further analytical and experimental work to gain a better understanding of sludge behavior. 29 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

Beal, S.K.; Chen, J.H.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Conditions of utilization of coal mining and processing sludges as slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of this study have shown that coal sludge can be used as slurry fuel (like coal-water fuel (CWF)) providing that its ash content does not exceed 30% and the amount in the fuel is at least 55%. The conventional CWF preparation technologies are inapplicable to the fabrication of water-sludge fuel; therefore, special technologies with allowance for the ash content, the particle size, and the water content of coal sludge are demanded.

E.G. Gorlov; A.I. Seregin; G.S. Khodakov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

none,

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

324

Review of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, February 2012  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HSS Independent Activity Report - Rev. 0 Report Number: HIAR-RL-2012-02-27 Site: DOE-Richland Operations Office Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 02/27/2012 - 03/01/2012 Report Preparer: Jake Wechselberger Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Result: During the period February 27 - March 1, 2012, an HSS representative attended the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board

325

Review of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project, February 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HSS Independent Activity Report - Rev. 0 Report Number: HIAR-RL-2012-02-27 Site: DOE-Richland Operations Office Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Sludge Treatment Project Dates of Activity : 02/27/2012 - 03/01/2012 Report Preparer: Jake Wechselberger Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), performed operational awareness reviews of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) during site visits. Result: During the period February 27 - March 1, 2012, an HSS representative attended the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board

326

Incineration of a biomass sludge in a bubbling FBC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CSIR was approached by one of its licensees, International Combustion (Africa) Ltd (ICAL), to design the fluidized bed combustion zone for a 26 t/h boiler. This boiler had been requested by a multi-national food company based in Estcourt, Natal, South Africa. Two design requirements emerged from the clients needs: additional plant steam and disposal of 12 t/h of coffee grounds sludge containing up to 87% water. The dual purpose of the FB posed a considerable challenge. Coffee sludge, although combustible, contains insufficient energy to evaporate its own water and maintain the bed at operating temperature (900 C). Coal therefore had to be co-fired as a support fuel. Further, additional fuel was required in order to produce the full rated capacity of 26 t/h steam. A great deal of calculation and test work was carried out to optimize FBC. It was commissioned in January 1994, and performed as per design parameters.

North, B.C.; Eleftheriades, C.M. [CSIR, Pretoria (South Africa)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Vacuum pyrolysis of bark residues and primary sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black spruce bark residues and primary sludges derived from the operation of the Daishowa pulp and paper plant in Quebec City, PQ, were processed by vacuum pyrolysis in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The pyrolysis oil, water, charcoal, and gas were recovered and analyzed. The bark residues yielded 30.6% oil and 34.1% charcoal, and the primary sludges gave 40.1% oil and 30.1% charcoal on a feedstock air-dry basis. The oil phases recovered from the two pyrolysis experiments were fractionated into eight fractions; they were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both pyrolysis oil samples had a high content of phenolic compounds. These oils contained various fine chemicals that have possible commercial potential. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as long- and short-chain carboxylic acids, are also present in both pyrolysis oils.

Pakdel, H.; Couture, G.; Roy, C. (Univ. Laval, Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada))

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Drying and recycling of primary sludge at Champion International  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Champion International Corp.'s Hamilton, OH, mill uses a triple pass rotary dryer to dry primary sludge to a nominal 85% total solids content. The sludge can be recycled and used in the manufacture of such products as paperboard or portland cement. A state of the art landfill was constructed in Reily township in 1990. This landfill is licensed to receive the papermaking waste and boiler ash from the mill. It is the goal of the environmental department of the mill only to use this facility as an absolute emergency backup to the recycling options available to the mill for these two waste streams. At the time of the writing of this article, no waste had been taken to this new landfill.

Hardesty, K.L.; Beer, E.H. (Champion International Corp., Hamilton, OH (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Application of Municipal Sewage Sludge to Forest and Degraded Land  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper summarizes research done over a decade at the Savannah River Site and elsewhere in the South evaluating the benefits of land application of municipal wastes. Studies have demonstrated that degraded lands, ranging from borrow pits to mine spoils can be successfully revegetated using a mixture of composed municipal sewage sludge and other amendments. The studies have demonstrated a practical approach to land application and restoration.

D.H. Marx, C. R. Berry, and P. P. Kormanik

1995-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

330

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge wastewater Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Activated Sludge ... Source: Gelt, Joe - Water Resources Research Center, College of Agriculture, The University of Arizona Collection: Renewable Energy 2 Impact of EPS on...

331

PROGRESS WITH K BASINS SLUDGE RETRIEVAL STABILIZATION & PACKAGING AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper shows how Fluor Hanford and BNG America have combined nuclear plant skills from the U.S. and the U.K. to devise methods to retrieve and treat the sludge that has accumulated in K Basins at the Hanford Site over many years. Retrieving the sludge is the final stage in removing fuel and sludge from the basins to allow them to be decontaminated and decommissioned, so as to remove the threat of contamination of the Columbia River. A description is given of sludge retrieval using vacuum lances and specially developed nozzles and pumps into Consolidation Containers within the basins. The special attention that had to be paid to the heat generation and potential criticality issues with the irradiated uranium-containing sludge is described. The processes developed to re-mobilize the sludge from the Consolidation Containers and pump it through flexible and transportable hose-in-hose piping to the treatment facility are explained with particular note made of dealing with the abrasive nature of the sludge. The treatment facility, housed in an existing Hanford building, is described, and the uranium-corrosion and grout packaging processes explained. The uranium corrosion process is a robust, tempered process very suitable for dealing with a range of differing sludge compositions. Optimization and simplification of the original sludge corrosion process design is described and the use of transportable and reusable equipment is indicated. The processes and techniques described in the paper are shown to have wide applicability to nuclear cleanup.

KNOLLMEYER, P.M.; PHILLIPS, C; TOWNSON, P.S.

2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge microbial Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the soil microbial communities. Sludge... -fold decrease in dehy- drogenase ... Source: Kelly, John J. - Department of Biology, Loyola University Chicago Collection: Environmental...

333

Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations ({+-}10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample.

Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

334

Bioremediation of petroleum sludge through Phytoremediation.Land farming and Microbial enhanced oil separation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objective of this research is to study the feasibility of bioremediating the oily sludge from a refinery site. Three different methods of waste treatment… (more)

Joseph, P J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic activated sludge Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Management and Restoration Technologies 42 Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Summary: is a traditional build plant base don...

336

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge dewatering Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Project, US EPA Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 10 Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Summary: is a traditional build plant base don...

337

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge oxygen Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 4 Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Summary: is a traditional build plant base don...

338

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge microorganisms Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Environmental Management and Restoration Technologies 35 Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Summary: is a traditional build plant base don...

339

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge samples Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Massachusetts at Amherst Collection: Materials Science 6 Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Summary: is a traditional build plant base don...

340

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge bacteria Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 44 Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Summary: is a traditional build plant base don...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Determination of Uranium Metal Concentration in Irradiated Fuel Storage Basin Sludge Using Selective Dissolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium metal corroding in water-saturated sludges now held in the US Department of Energy Hanford Site K West irradiated fuel storage basin can create hazardous hydrogen atmospheres during handling, immobilization, or subsequent transport and storage. Knowledge of uranium metal concentration in sludge thus is essential to safe sludge management and process design, requiring an expeditious routine analytical method to detect uranium metal concentrations as low as 0.03 wt% in sludge even in the presence of 30 wt% or higher total uranium concentrations.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Welsh, Terri L.; Pool, Karl N.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Non-destructive quantification of water gradient in sludge composting with Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sludge from a slaughter-house wastewater plant, and mixtures of bulking agent (crushed wood pallet) and sludge were studied by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The NMR spin-spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) and spin-lattice relaxation (T{sub 1}) signals for sludge, wet crushed wood pallet and mixtures of sludge and bulking agent were decomposed into three relaxation time components. Each relaxation time component was explained by a non-homogeneous water distribution on a microscopic length scale and by the porosity of the material. For all samples, the T{sub 2} relaxation time value of each component was directly related to the dry matter content. The addition of wet crushed wood to sludge induced a decrease in the relaxation time, explained by water transfer between the sludge and the wood. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and respirometric measurements were performed on sludge and wood mixtures. MR images of the mixtures were successfully obtained at different biodegradation states. Based on specific NMR measurements in an identified area located in the MRI cells, the results showed that grey levels of MR images reflected dry matter content. This preliminary study showed that MRI would be a powerful tool to measure water distribution in sludge and bulking agent mixtures and highlights the potential of this technique to increase the understanding of sludge composting.

Duval, F.P.; Quellec, S. [Cemagref, UR TERE, 17 Avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes (France); Universite europeenne de Bretagne (France); Tremier, A.; Druilhe, C. [Cemagref, UR GERE, F-35044 Rennes (France); Universite europeenne de Bretagne (France); Mariette, F., E-mail: francois.mariette@cemagref.f [Cemagref, UR TERE, 17 Avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes (France); Universite europeenne de Bretagne (France)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

An assessment of methyl mercury and volatile mercury in land-applied sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency issued regulations covering the land-application of municipal sewage sludge. These regulations established maximum pollutant concentrations and were based upon a risk assessment of human exposure. Mercury, assumed to be inorganic and non-volatile, was one pollutant evaluated. From April, 1995 through February, 1996, the authors studied the species of mercury contaminating municipal sludge applied to land, and the potential for volatilization of mercury from land-applied sludge. Methyl mercury was found at 0.1% of total mercury concentrations and was emitted from land-applied sludge to the atmosphere. Elemental mercury (Hg) was formed in land-applied sludge via the reduction of oxidized mercury and was also emitted to the atmosphere. Hg emission from land-applied sludge was significantly elevated over background soil emission. Methyl mercury is more toxic and more highly bioaccumulated than inorganic mercury, and warrants assessment considering these special criteria. Additionally, mercury emission from sludge-amended soil may lead to the contamination of other environmental media with significant concentrations of the metal. Although these pathways were not evaluated in the regulatory risk assessment, they are an important consideration for evaluating the risks from mercury in land-applied sludge. This presentation will summarize the results of a re-assessment of US EPA regulations regarding the land-application of municipal sewage sludge using data on methyl mercury toxicity and mercury transport in the atmosphere.

Carpi, A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lindberg, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

Metal uptake by agricultural plant species grown in sludge-amended soil following ecosystem restoration practices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disposal of municipal sewage sludge is an important environmental problem presently facing society. Because sludge is rich in plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous, land application as a fertilizer has been proposed as a cost-effective means of disposal. This method of disposal, however, is frequently the subject of public health concern since municipal sludge may contain heavy metals that potentially could be introduced into the human food chain. This study examined metal concentrations in two agricultural species at a study site where ecosystem restoration practices (liming and tilling) had been conducted for 5 years following 11 years of sludge enrichment. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

Peles, J.D.; Barrett, G.W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)] [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Brewer, S.R. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)] [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid tar sludges Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of diethylphosphorodithioic acid in the production of phorate. K040 Wastewater treatment sludge from the production of phorate... of facilities within the iron and steel...

346

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge treating Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. This analysis indicates that all the sludge produced by the proposed wastewater treatment plant at McMurdo could Source: United States Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions...

347

E-Print Network 3.0 - amended sludge projects Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

or experiment... and forest residues, mixed municipal solid waste, and sludge from wastewater treatment. "Renewable energy Source: Reich, Peter B. - Department of Forest...

348

E-Print Network 3.0 - aeration activated sludge Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Information Sciences 3 Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Summary: , Dominic Frigon Department of Civil...

349

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated sludge aeration Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Information Sciences 3 Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Summary: , Dominic Frigon Department of Civil...

350

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerated active sludge Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Information Sciences 3 Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Summary: , Dominic Frigon Department of Civil...

351

Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

352

Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

order rate constants for americium leaching from sludgeT.V. Hydrolysis of Americium(III). J Radioanal. Nucl.I.G. Hydroxides of Pentavalent Americium. Translated from

Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Examination of the Potential for Formation of Energetic Compounds in Dry Sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details initial results from an investigation of the potential formation and fate of energetic compounds in Savannah River Site sludge.

Barnes, M.J.

1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

354

Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

Brar, Satinder K., E-mail: satinder.brar@ete.inrs.c [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Verma, Mausam [Department of Biological Engineering, Sexton Campus, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 2X4 (Canada); Tyagi, R.D. [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Surampalli, R.Y. [US Environmental Protection Agency, P.O. Box 17-2141, Kansas City, KS 66117 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

The effect of heavy metals on the activated sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of heavy metal shock loading on biological treatment systems was studied by traditional methods and molecular biological techniques. Two kinds of SBR (sequence batch reactor) operation units, unacclimated and acclimated activated sludge systems, were studied. The addition of special nutrients and powdered activated carbon (PAC) to stimulate heavy metal uptake and recovery were studied. The kinetic constants could be used to describe the effect of the inhibition of substance utilisation. The results showed that heavy metal shock loading had a greater effect on the unacclimated activated sludge system than on the acclimated one. The special nutrients greatly enhanced the uptake of copper, and the PAC improved sludge settling and decreased the turbidity of the effluent. The variation of dominant species and the diversity of the bacterial community were analysed using 16S ribosomal DNA. Compared with the slight change of dominant species during acclimation by copper, there was a great change in the acclimated system shocked by a high concentration of copper. The results confirmed that the acclimation could improve the resistance of microorganisms to heavy metal toxicity.

B. Xie; K.S. Kang; E. Nakamura; K. Itoh

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Pyrolysis, combustion and gasification characteristics of miscanthus and sewage sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The energetic conversion of biomass into syngas is considered as reliable energy source. In this context, biomass (miscanthus) and sewage sludge have been investigated. A simultaneous thermal analyzer and mass spectrometer was used for the characterization of samples and identified the volatiles evolved during the heating of the sample up to 1100 °C under combustion and gasification conditions. The TG and DTA results were discussed in argon, oxygen, steam and steam blended gas atmospheres. Different stages of pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples have been examined. It was shown that the combustion and gasification of char were occurred in two different temperature zones. The DTA–MS profile of the sample gives information on combustion and gasification process of the samples (ignition, peak combustion and burnout temperatures) and gases released (H2, O2, CO and CO2). The results showed that the different processes were mainly dependent on temperature. The evolution of the gas species was consistent with the weight loss of the samples during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification process. The effect of the ambiences during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification of the samples were reported. The appropriate temperature range to the sludge and miscanthus gasification was evaluated. The kinetic parameters of the biomass and sewage sludge were estimated for TGA using two models based on first-order reactions with distributed activation energies. The presence of ash in the biomass char was more influential during the gasification process.

Kandasamy Jayaraman; Iskender Gökalp

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k{sub 20} (the first-order rate constant at 20 {sup o}C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k{sub 20}, k{sub 20s} (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 {sup o}C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d{sup -1}, respectively.

Zhang Jun [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao Ding, E-mail: gaod@igsnrr.ac.c [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin [Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11A Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Du Wei [Beijing GreenTech Environmental Engineering Company, Beijing 100080 (China)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Plant uptake of pentachlorophenol from sludge-amended soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of {sup 14}C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Minimal intact PCP was detected in the fescue and lettuce by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. No intact PCP was detected in the carrot tissue extracts. Chile pepper was not analyzed for intact PCP because methylene chloride extracts contained minimal {sup 14}C. The GC/MS analysis of soil extracts at harvest suggests a half-life of PCP of about 10 d independent of sludge rate or PCP loading rate. Rapid degradation of PCP in the soil apparently limited PCP availability to the plant. Bioconcentration factors (dry plant wt./initial soil PCP concentration) based on intact PCP were <0.01 for all crops, suggesting little PCP uptake. Thus, food-chain crop PCP uptake in these alkaline soils should not limit land application of sludge.

Bellin, C.A.; O'Connor, G.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Waste Acceptance for Vitrified Sludge from Oak Ridge Tank Farms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tanks Focus Area of the DOE`s Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has funded the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to develop formulations which can incorporate sludges from Oak Ridge Tank Farms into immobilized glass waste forms. The four tank farms included in this study are: Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST), Bethel Valley Evaporation Service Tanks (BVEST), Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT), and Old Hydrofracture Tanks (OHF).The vitrified waste forms must be sent for disposal either at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Waste loading in the glass is the major factor in determining where the waste will be sent and whether the waste will be remote-handled (RH) or contact-handled (CH). In addition, the waste loading significantly impacts the costs of vitrification operations and transportation to and disposal within the repository.This paper focuses on disposal options for the vitrified Oak Ridge Tank sludge waste as determined by the WIPP (1) and NTS (2) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The concentrations for both Transuranic (TRU) and beta/gamma radionuclides in the glass waste form will be presented a a function of sludge waste loading. These radionuclide concentrations determine whether the waste forms will be TRU (and therefore disposed of at WIPP) and whether the waste forms will be RH or CH.

Harbour, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Andrews, M.K.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sludge treatment to increase biogas production. Available atal. , no date) Use of biogas from anaerobic sludge digestionsludge are mass reduction, biogas production, and improved

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z #12;Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison with its associated (2,4) tree

Alechina, Natasha

362

Fuel Pond Sludge - Lessons Learned from Initial De-sludging of Sellafield's Pile Fuel Storage Pond - 12066  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) at Sellafield was built and commissioned between the late 1940's and early 1950's as a storage and cooling facility for irradiated fuel and isotopes from the two Windscale Pile reactors. The pond was linked via submerged water ducts to each reactor, where fuel and isotopes were discharged into skips for transfer along the duct to the pond. In the pond the fuel was cooled then de-canned underwater prior to export for reprocessing. The plant operated successfully until it was taken out of operation in 1962 when the First Magnox Fuel Storage Pond took over fuel storage and de-canning operations on the site. The pond was then used for storage of miscellaneous Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) and fuel from the UK's Nuclear Programme for which no defined disposal route was available. By the mid 1970's the import of waste ceased and the plant, with its inventory, was placed into a passive care and maintenance regime. By the mid 1990s, driven by the age of the facility and concern over the potential challenge to dispose of the various wastes and fuels being stored, the plant operator initiated a programme of work to remediate the facility. This programme is split into a number of key phases targeted at sustained reduction in the hazard associated with the pond, these include: - Pond Preparation: Before any remediation work could start the condition of the pond had to be transformed from a passive store to a plant capable of complex retrieval operations. This work included plant and equipment upgrades, removal of redundant structures and the provision of a effluent treatment plant for removing particulate and dissolved activity from the pond water. - Canned Fuel Retrieval: Removal of canned fuel, including oxide and carbide fuels, is the highest priority within the programme. Handling and export equipment required to remove the canned fuel from the pond has been provided and treatment routes developed utilising existing site facilities to allow the fuel to be reprocessed or conditioned for long term storage. - Sludge Retrieval: In excess of 300 m{sup 3} of sludge has accumulated in the pond over many years and is made up of debris arising from fuel and metallic corrosion, wind blown debris and bio-organic materials. The Sludge Retrieval Project has provided the equipment necessary to retrieve the sludge, including skip washer and tipper machines for clearing sludge from the pond skips, equipment for clearing sludge from the pond floor and bays, along with an 'in pond' corral for interim storage of retrieved sludge. Two further projects are providing new plant processing routes, which will initially store and eventually passivate the sludge. - Metal Fuel Retrieval: Metal Fuel from early Windscale Pile operations and various other sources is stored within the pond; the fuel varies considerably in both form and condition. A retrieval project is planned which will provide fuel handling, conditioning, sentencing and export equipment required to remove the metal fuel from the pond for export to on site facilities for interim storage and disposal. - Solid Waste Retrieval: A final retrieval project will provide methods for handling, retrieval, packaging and export of the remaining solid Intermediate Level Waste within the pond. This includes residual metal fuel pieces, fuel cladding (Magnox, aluminium and zircaloy), isotope cartridges, reactor furniture, and miscellaneous activated and contaminated items. Each of the waste streams requires conditioning to allow it to be and disposed of via one of the site treatment plants. - Pond Dewatering and Dismantling: Delivery of the above projects will allow operations to progressively remove the radiological inventory, thereby reducing the hazard/risk posed by the plant. This will then allow subsequent dewatering of the pond and dismantling of the structure. (authors)

Carlisle, Derek; Adamson, Kate [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

RED with ACK Spoofing Dept. of Electrical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RED with ACK Spoofing Zhong Xu Dept. of Electrical Engineering University of California, Riverside Early Detection (RED). Using simulation, we compare RED/Spoofing with Tail Drop, RED, and RED/ECN. Our results show that RED/Spoofing performs as well as RED/ECN, even though it avoids ECN's deployment problem

Molle, Mart

364

Towards a metagenomic understanding on enhanced biomethane production from waste activated sludge after pH 10 pretreatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding the effects of pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of sludge waste from wastewater treatment plants is becoming increasingly important, as impetus moves towards the utilization of sludge for rene...

Mabel Ting Wong; Dong Zhang; Jun Li; Raymond Kin Hi Hui…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Fate of PCBs During K Basin Sludge Dissolution in Nitric Acid and with Hydrogen Peroxide Addition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work described in this report is part of the studies being performed to address the fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in K Basin sludge before the sludge can be transferred to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) double shell tanks. One set of tests examined the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the disposition of PCBs in a simulated K Basin dissolver solution containing 0.5 M nitric acid/1 M Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. A second series of tests examined the disposition of PCBs in a much stronger ({approx}10 M) nitric acid solution, similar to that likely to be encountered in the dissolution of the sludge.

GM Mong; AJ Schmidt; EW Hoppe; KH Pool; KL Silvers; BM Thornton

1999-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

366

Ferrocyanide safety program: An assessment of the possibility of ferrocyanide sludge dryout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Much attention has been focused on the Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tanks as a results of problems that have been envisioned for them. One problem is the potential chemical reaction between ferrocyanide precipitate particles and nitrates in the absence of water. This report addresses the question of whether dryout of a portion of ferrocyanide sludge would render it potentially reactive. Various sludge dryout mechanisms were examined to determine if any of them could occur. The mechanisms are: (1) bulk heating of the entire sludge inventory to its boiling point; (2) loss of liquid to the atmosphere via sludge surface evaporation; (3) local drying by boiling in a hot spot region; (4) sludge drainage through a leak in the tank wall; and (5) local drying by evaporation from a warm segment of surface sludge. From the simple analyses presented in this report and more detailed published analyses, it is evident that global loss of water from bulk heating of the sludge to its boiling point or from surface evaporation and vapor transport to the outside air is not credible. Also, from the analyses presented in this report and experimental and analytical work presented elsewhere, it is evident that formation of a dry local or global region of sludge as a result of tank leakage (draining of interstitial liquid) is not possible. Finally, and most importantly, it is concluded that formation of dry local regions in the ferrocyanide sludge by local hot spots or warm surface regions is not possible. The conclusion that local or global dryout is incredible is consistent with four decades of waste storage history, during which sludge temperature have gradually decreased or remained constant and the sludge moisture content has been retained. 54 refs.

Epstein, M.; Fauske, H.K. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Dickinson, D.R.; Crippen, M.D.; McCormack, J.D.; Cash, R.J.; Meacham, J.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, C.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Degradation of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates during the Composting of Sludges from Wool Scour Effluents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After the scouring process, only a portion of the wax and dirt (?30%) removed from the wool is recovered from the scour liquor in the recovery loops. ... While there is a steady trend toward the use of the more readily biodegradable alcohol ethoxylates, one of the main classes of detergents still used in aqueous wool scours are the nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE). ...

F. William Jones; David J. Westmoreland

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

368

Mechanism of toxicity formation and spatial distribution in activated sludge treating synthetic effluent containing bisphenol A (BPA)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Organic sludge toxicity is a critical issue for sludge land applications. To investigate sludge organic toxicity formation and spatial distribution properties, sludge was acclimated using synthetic effluent containing various bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in sequential aerobic activated sludge reactors (SBRs). Acute sludge toxicity, which was characterized by the inhibition rate of the luminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum, was the focus of this study. The original influent COD of the SBR was approximately 300 mg/L; the sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were controlled at 20 d and 12 h, respectively. The results indicated that a positive correlation existed between sludge toxicity and the influent BPA concentration. Furthermore, the toxicity was centralized in the intracellular and inner sections of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) in sludge flocs. BPA concentrations were controlled at 2.5 mg/L, 5.0 mg/L, 7.5 mg/L and 20 mg/L; the sludge toxicities, measured by comparing the control SBR with the blank, were 2.99%, 4.05%, 6.99% and 10.64%, respectively, at the end of 28-day operation. In the 12-h SBR treatment process, aqueous and sludge phase BPA was completely removed within 2 h. However, the maximum sludge toxicity appeared in the 8th hour. The DGGE analysis suggested that the existence of BPA in wastewater increased bacterial diversity in activated sludge. However, the bacterial similarity between sludge in \\{SBRs\\} decreased with increasing BPA concentration. Lastly, the bacterial similarity between blank sludge and control sludge of 20 mg/L BPA was 0.47.

Jianguo Zhao; Xiurong Chen; Fengkai Lin; Na Yang; Hua Huang; Jun Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

EA-1692: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon Manufacturing Facility, Red River Parish, LA EA-1692: Red River Environmental Products, LLC Activated Carbon Manufacturing...

370

Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE Purpose 1. The Programme Board has been formed to have an overview of the administration and science of Red Band Needle Blight (RBNB), to underpin decisions made

371

Microsoft Word - Red Detector Tests _3_.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Red Detector Tests May 5 ed -2006 1. Black Body @ 900F, Comparison between red and blue detectors: Table 1: Detector's signal with and without filters -BB at 900F Filter(micron)...

372

Improvement of the activated sludge treatment by its combination with electro Fenton for the mineralization of sulfamethazine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Improvement of the activated sludge treatment by its combination with electro Fenton and quantified intermediates are proposed. In a second part, biological treatments with fresh activated sludge the relevance of the proposed combined process. Keywords: Activated sludge; Combined process; Degradation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

Activated carbon and biochar amendments decrease pore-water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge Patryk Oleszczuk a,b, , Sarah E. Hale a , Johannes Lehmann c , Gerard Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Bioavailability Sewage sludge a b s t r a c t The aim of the research of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge. Two different biochars (MSB and PMW) and two ACs

Lehmann, Johannes

374

Journal of Hazardous Materials B132 (2006) 244252 Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Hazardous Materials B132 (2006) 244­252 Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low 2005 Available online 4 November 2005 Abstract Paper sludge ash was partially converted into zeolites by reaction with 3 M NaOH solution at 90 C for 24 h. The paper sludge ash had a low abundance of Si

Downs, Robert T.

375

Study of two sampling procedures for the valorization of metal hydroxide sludge as pollutant trapper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

treatment, CrVI 1 Introduction Industrial aqueous pollution (heavy metals) accounts for 30 to 40% of all1 Study of two sampling procedures for the valorization of metal hydroxide sludge as pollutant@emse.fr Abstract: For the valorisation of metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent of pollutant, it is necessary to make

Boyer, Edmond

376

Forest land application of sewage sludge on the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1980, a sewage sludge application study was initiated on the Savannah River Plant to evaluate the effects of sludge additions on nutrient cycling processes in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest ecosystems and to determine whether or not such additions beneficially enhance forest productivity. Sewage sludge, either as a liquid anaerobic sludge at 0, 402, or 804 kg N/ha (360 and 720 lb/ac) containing approximately 7% N (oven dry) or a solid aerobic material at 632 kg N/ha (560 lb/ac) with approximately 1.3% N (oven dry), was applied to 1-, 3-, 8-, and 28-year-old loblolly pine stands on sandy and clayey upper coastal plain soils. A total of 525,000 gallons of liquid sludge and 560 tons of solid sludge was applied on 11.6 hectares (28.7 acres) of loblolly pine forest plots. Sludge additions were monitored to determine availability and movement so that potential impacts could be evaluated on water quality, nutrient and heavy metal cycling, soil and forest floor, understory vegetation, tree foliage, stand growth, biomass production, and wood quality. This study concluded that using liquid sludge at rates of 400 kg N/ha or less as a silvicultural treatment to fertilize pulp and sawtimber loblolly pine stands resulted in increased forest productivity without environmental or wood quality degradation. Application recommendations for stand age and loading rates for management purposes are addressed.

Davis, C.E. (comp.)

1989-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

Preference of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, for plants grown in sewage sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since passage of the Clean Water Act in the 1970s, disposal of the millions of tonnes of sewage sludge generated annually has become a major concern of municipalities throughout the United States. With the range of other disposal options having narrowed in recent years, application of sludge to land is increasingly viewed as a practical and economical means to recycle this waste material. However, sludges from large cities with industries may be contaminated with various toxic chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), other organic chemicals, such as pesticides, and heavy metals. Sludge application to land thus has the potential adversely to affect biota and the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The authors previously demonstrated marked reductions in fecundity and survival of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, on collard plants, Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, growing in soil treated with chemically contaminated sludge as compared to aphids on plants growing either in soil treated with uncontaminated sludge of soil conventionally fertilized. Reduced plant growth and increased restlessness in aphids in the contaminated sludge treatment were also observed. The purpose of the present study was to examine more closely the influence of sludge contaminants on aphid settling behavior as indicated by differential preference of M. persicae for leaves of its collard host grown under different soil conditions.

Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge Shabnam Qureshia; Trace metals; Mobilization; Land application 1. Introduction Trace elements in land-applied wastewater sludge (sewage biosolids) are potentially phyto- or zoo-toxic if present in sufficient concentration

Walter, M.Todd

379

Sensitivity Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model for Economic Controlled Variable Selection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensitivity Analysis of Optimal Operation of an Activated Sludge Process Model for Economic operation conducted on an activated sludge process model based on the test-bed benchmark simulation model no structure that leads to optimal economic operation, while promptly rejecting disturbances at lower layers

Skogestad, Sigurd

380

TEMPEST code modifications and testing for erosion-resisting sludge simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The TEMPEST computer code has been used to address many waste retrieval operational and safety questions regarding waste mobilization, mixing, and gas retention. Because the amount of sludge retrieved from the tank is directly related to the sludge yield strength and the shear stress acting upon it, it is important to incorporate the sludge yield strength into simulations of erosion-resisting tank waste retrieval operations. This report describes current efforts to modify the TEMPEST code to simulate pump jet mixing of erosion-resisting tank wastes and the models used to test for erosion of waste sludge with yield strength. Test results for solid deposition and diluent/slurry jet injection into sludge layers in simplified tank conditions show that the modified TEMPEST code has a basic ability to simulate both the mobility and immobility of the sludges with yield strength. Further testing, modification, calibration, and verification of the sludge mobilization/immobilization model are planned using erosion data as they apply to waste tank sludges.

Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Washing and alkaline leaching of Hanford tank sludges: A status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of the assumed high cost of high-level waste (HLW) immobilization and disposal, pretreatment methods are being developed to minimize the volume of HLW requiring vitrification. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating several options for pretreating the radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The pretreatment methods under study for the tank sludges include: (1) simply washing the sludges with dilute NaOH, (2) performing caustic leaching (as well as washing) to remove certain wash components, and (3) dissolving the sludges in acid and extracting key radionuclides from the dissolved sludge solutions. The data collected in this effort will be used to support the March 1998 decision on the extent of pretreatment to be performed on the Hanford tank sludges. This document describes sludge washing and caustic leaching tests conducted in FY 1994. These tests were performed using sludges from single-shell tanks (SST) B-201 and U-110. A summary is given of all the sludge washing and caustic leaching studies conducted at PNL in the last few years.

Lumetta, G.J.; Rapko, B.M.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

3, 383408, 2006 The northern Red  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 3, 383­408, 2006 The northern Red Sea ­ A system in balance? C. H¨ase et al. Title Page in balance? ­ Implications of deep vertical mixing for the nitrogen budget in the northern Red Sea, including The northern Red Sea ­ A system in balance? C. H¨ase et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Tuning RED for Web Traffic* Mikkel Christiansen,**  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

139 Tuning RED for Web Traffic* Mikkel Christiansen,** Kevin Jeffay, David Ott, F. Donelson Smith http://www.cs.unc.edu/Research/dirt Abstract We study the effects of RED on the performance of Web -- response time for HTTP request-response pairs. We empirically evaluate RED across a range of parameter

Jeffay, Kevin

384

Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Italian Herb Red Potato Salad Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds red potatoes 1 green pepper 1 red onion 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper Directions 1. Wash potatoes, and cut into quarters. Place potatoes in sauce pan with cool water, cover and bring to a boil, turn to low and cook until

Liskiewicz, Maciej

385

Corn steep liquor and fermented ammoniated condensed whey as protein sources for lactating cows and yearling heifers grazing winter native range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermented ammoniated condensed whey (FACW) were compared to cottonseed meal (CSM) as protein sources for wintering 61 lactating first-calf Hereford heifers and 32 yearling Hereford heifers on native range. Cattle were allotted by weight and individually fed 6 days per week for 12 weeks one of four protein treatments: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), CSL and FACW to provide .7, 1.5, .15 and 1.5 lb crude protein (CP) per day, respectively, to the lacating heifers and .2, .4, .4 and .4lb cP per day, respectively, to the yearling heifers. CMS was supplied in the CSL and FACW treatments at the same level as in the negative control. Lactating heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight and body condition (120 lb and 1.6 units) than those fed the PC (45.8 lb and .9 units). Weight and condition losses were similar (P more than .05) for lactating heifers fed PC, CSL and FACW. Yearling heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (49.4 vs 10.6 lb). Yearling heifers fed CSL and FACW gained more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (17.6 and 9.3 vs - 10.6 lb). Feeding CSL resulted in signficantly lower rumen pH, lower ruminal acetate and higher ruminal butyrate, isovalerate and caproate levels than did feeding either control. Supplementing with FACW produced significantly lower rumen pH, higher rumen ammonia and soluble carbohydrate levels, lower ruminal acetate, and higher ruminal propionate and butyrate concentrations than did either control supplement. Corn steep liquor and FDCW appear to be effective protein sources for cows and heifers grazing winter native range.

Wagner, J.J.; Lusby, K.S.; Horn, G.W.; Dvorak, M.J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

DETERMINATION OF THE FRACTION OF GIBBSITE AND BOEHMITE FORMS OF ALUMINUM IN TANK 51H SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with developing a test to determine the fraction of the gibbsite and boehmite forms of aluminum in the sludge solids. Knowledge of the fractions of gibbsite and boehmite in the sludge contained in various waste tanks would facilitate better sludge mass reduction estimates and allow better planning/scheduling for sludge batch preparation. The composite sludge sample prepared for use in the test from several small samples remaining from the original 3-L sample appears to be representative of the original sample based on the characterization data. A Gibbsite/Boehmite Test was developed that uses 8 M NaOH and a temperature of 65 C to dissolve aluminum. The soluble aluminum concentration data collected during the test indicates that, for the three standards containing gibbsite, all of the gibbsite dissolved in approximately 2 hours. Under the test conditions boehmite dissolved at more than an order of magnitude more slowly than gibbsite. An estimate based on the soluble aluminum concentration from the sludge sample at two hours into the test indicates the sludge solids contain a form of aluminum that dissolves at a rate similar to the 100% Boehmite standard. Combined with the XRD data from the original 3-L sample, these results provide substantial evidence that the boehmite form of aluminum predominates in the sludge. A calculation from the results of the Gibbsite/Boehmite test indicates the sludge contains {approx}3% gibbsite and {approx}97% boehmite. The sludge waste in Tank 51H was recently treated under Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD) conditions and a substantial fraction of aluminum (i.e., sludge mass) was removed, avoiding production of over 100 glass canisters in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Results of the Gibbsite/Boehmite test indicate that the aluminum in this sludge was in the form of the more difficult to dissolve boehmite form of aluminum. Since boehmite may be the dominant form of aluminum in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tank sludge, this result suggests that the conditions of the LTAD process can be used to dissolve both the gibbsite and boehmite forms of aluminum in tank sludge and costly tank infrastructure upgrades required for the higher temperature baseline process can be avoided. However, this conclusion should be confirmed by testing additional waste tank samples.

Hay, M; Kofi Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Far-Red Fluorescent Protein Excitable with Red Lasers for Flow Cytometry and Superresolution STED Nanoscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Far-Red Fluorescent Protein Excitable with Red Lasers for Flow Cytometry and Superresolution STED Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut ABSTRACT Far-red fluorescent proteins are required for deep-tissue and whole-animal imaging and multicolor labeling in the red wavelength range

Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

388

Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management Sally, under submission Abstract The RED active queue management algorithm allows net- work operators is quite sensitive to the level of congestion and to the RED parameter settings, and is therefore not pre

Floyd, Sally

389

Red Band Needle Blight Programme Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group Minutes Support Welcome and introduction 1. Jim thanked everyone for attending the first meeting of the Red Band and that the private 1 | Paper 1 - Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 23/01/2009 #12;Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group

390

Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive RED: An Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of RED's Active Queue Management Sally, under submission Abstract The RED active queue management algorithm allows net­ work operators is quite sensitive to the level of congestion and to the RED parameter settings, and is therefore not pre

Floyd, Sally

391

Microsoft Word - 2010 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project Visit _May 17-19 2010_ _final_  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tour of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - May 17-19, 2010 Tour of the Hanford Sludge Treatment Project - May 17-19, 2010 The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Independent Oversight, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), conducted an orientation visit to the Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington during the period May 17-19, with DOE-RL managers/staff and contractor managers and supporting staff responsible for the ongoing K-Basins Sludge Treatment Project. The purpose of the visit was to ascertain ways in which HSS would be able to carry out its independent oversight responsibilities with respect to this project in a method that encourages collaboration with DOE-RL. The K-Basin Sludge Treatment Project involves transferring sludge that has been recovered from

392

Site Visit Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW - August 2011 |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW - August Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW - August 2011 Site Visit Report, Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW - August 2011 August 2011 Hanford Sludge Treatment Project 105-KW Final Safety Analysis Report Review This report documents the results of a review conducted by the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) of selected aspects of the 105-KW Basin Final Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Revision 14C) for the Sludge Treatment Project at the Hanford Site. HSS's review of the K-West Basin FSAR found it to be generally adequate with respect to the scope of this review. However, some aspects of the FSAR accident analyses of two events may warrant further review: MCO transport cask drop into the K-Basin, and the fire accident event involving the cask

393

Resuspension and Settling of Monosodium Titanate and Sludge in Supernate Simulate for the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is testing several methods for their effectiveness in removing the major radionuclides from the supernate solutions that are stored in the high-level waste tanks at the site. One option is to mix the tank contents (sludge and supernate), in situ, with monosodium titanate (MST) powder to remove 90Sr and transuranics. The sludge and MST would be allowed to settle, and thet reated supernate would then be decanted. The sludge and MST would need to be resuspended later so that the solids could be pumped to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. Small-scale tests evaluated the effect of various storage conditions on the rheological properties of the sludge/MST slurry. Laboratory-scale and pilot-scale tests were conducted to determine the mixing requirements for resuspending slurries of sludge simulant and MST, following settleing periods of various lengths.`

Taylor, P.A.; Mattus, C.H.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Oxygen-enriched multiple-hearth sewage sludge incineration demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen-enhanced multiple-hearth sludge incineration was the focus of a five-month joint study by Praxair and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Testing and demonstration were conducted in Rochester NY, at Monroe County`s Frank E. Van Lare Sewage Treatment Plant. A simple retrofit of high-momentum oxygen lances created a convection hearth in which convective heat and mass transfer with the drying sludge were greatly enhanced, while hearth temperatures were moderated by the wet sludge to prevent overheating. Based on the results of short- and long-term controlled tests discussed in this report, oxygen enhancement of multiple-hearth sludge incinerators can be economically viable, with a savings between $30 and $60 per hour at Van Lare based upon increased sludge throughput and reduced fuel consumption.

NONE

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Guide for revegetation of mined land in Eastern United States using municipal sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of municipal sewage sludge to reclaim and revegetate land disturbed by mining activity could deal with two major problems (the 60% of land still unreclaimed and the increasing problem of finding landfills for sewage sludge disposal). An alternative to using sludge as an agricultural fertilizer (and possibly introducing heavy metals into the food chain) is to reclaim marginal and disturbed lands. Guidelines for metal loadings in sludge application for reclamation suggest following those developed for agricultural applications. Regulations to date only cover cadmium, but the guidelines include lead, zinc, curium, and niobium. Other regulations cover permit applications, public participation, site investigations, constraints based on the sludge characteristics, and the selection and management of vegetations. A monitoring program is necessary to assure compliance. The appendix identifies appropriate plants for revegetation. 97 references, 12 figures, 12 tables.

Sopper, W.E.; Seaker, E.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Grout and Glass Performance in Support of Stabilization/Solidification of the MVST Tank Sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supematant. Some of the supematant from these tanks has been decanted, solidified into a grout, and stored for disposal as a solid low-level waste. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating ,for several years. Some of the sludges contain a high amount of gamma activity (e.g., `37CS concentration range of 0.01 3-11 MBq/g) and contain enough transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes to be classified as TRU wastes. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough in the available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge to be classified as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste.

Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Optimization of diclofenac quantification from wastewater treatment plant sludge by ultrasonication assisted extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A rapid quantification method of diclofenac from sludge samples through ultrasonication assisted extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE) was developed and used for the quantification of diclofenac concentrations in sludge samples with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Although the concentration of diclofenac in sludge samples taken from different units of wastewater treatment plants in Istanbul was below the limit of quantification (LOQ; 5 ng/g), an optimized method for sludge samples along with the total mass balances in a wastewater treatment plant can be used to determine the phase with which diclofenac is mostly associated. Hence, the results will provide information on fate and transport of diclofenac, as well as on the necessity of alternative removal processes. In addition, since the optimization procedure is provided in detail, it is possible for other researchers to use this procedure as a starting point for the determination of other emerging pollutants in wastewater sludge samples.

Emel Topuz; Sevgi Sari; Gamze Ozdemir; Egemen Aydin; Elif Pehlivanoglu-Mantas; Didem Okutman Tas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Environmental Assessment for the new sanitary sludge land application sites at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Action is necessary to allow the Savannah River Site (SRS) to provide for efficient disposal of sanitary sludge for SRS as forecast by the latest site projections (WSRC, 1991) and modified by the latest US Department of Energy (DOE) planning guidance for SRS (Stello, 1993). From 1986 to 1992, sanitary wastewater sludge was applied on SRS lands in accordance with a South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) permit as part of the reclamation of SRS`s F- and H-Area borrow pits (disturbed land). This reclamation is essentially complete and, if land disposal of sludge is to continue, new land application sites on SRS must be selected as the extended permit for applying sludge to the borrow pits expired in 1992. Currently, sludge is being trucked offsite for disposal by a subcontractor to a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW) near Augusta, Georgia (WSRC, 1992a). This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by DOE to assess the potential environmental impacts of onsite land disposal of treated sanitary sewage sludge from SRS. The proposed action is to replace the present offsite disposal of the treated sanitary sludge from existing SRS wastewater treatment plants with onsite reuse through land application. The proposed action is independent of SRS production operations and is necessary for more efficient disposal of SRS sanitary sludge at lower costs. The proposed land application at SRS is treated as part of the preliminary Reconfiguration Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) ``No Action`` alternative (DOE, 1991). The sludge from SRS sanitary wastewater treatment plants is nonhazardous. Onsite disposal of this sludge allows SRS to comply with current DOE policies to keep any DOE wastes onsite where possible and to eliminate any potential accidents due to continuing offsite transportation of sanitary wastes (DOE, 1990a).

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Red-black Trees To know what a red-black tree is (10.1).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

809 CHAPTER 10 Red-black Trees Objectives · To know what a red-black tree is (§10.1). · To convert a red-black tree to a 2-4 tree and vice versa (§10.2). · To design the RBTree class that extends the BinaryTree class (§10.3). · To insert an element in a red-black tree and resolve the double red problem

Liang, Y. Daniel

400

Arsenic in an Alkaline AMD Treatment Sludge: Characterization and Stability Under Prolonged Anoxic Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lime treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates large volumes of neutralization sludge that are often stored under water covers. The sludge consists mainly of calcite, gypsum and a widespread ferrihydrite-like Fe phase with several associated species of metal(loid) contaminants. The long-term stability of metal(loid)s in this chemically ill-defined material remains unknown. In this study, the stability and speciation of As in AMD sludge subjected to prolonged anoxic conditions is determined. The total As concentration in the sludge is 300 mg kg{sup -1}. In the laboratory, three distinct water cover treatments were imposed on the sludge to induce different redox conditions (100%N{sub 2}, 100%N{sub 2} + glucose, 95%N{sub 2}:5%H{sub 2}). These treatments were compared against a control of oxidized, water-saturated sludge. Electron micro-probe (EMP) analysis and spatially resolved synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) results indicate that As is dominantly associated with Fe in the sludge. In all treatments and throughout the experiment, measured concentrations of dissolved As were less than 5 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Dissolved Mn concentration in the N{sub 2} + glucose treatment increased significantly compared to other treatments. Manganese and As K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) analyses showed that Mn was the redox-active element in the solid-phase, while As was stable. Arsenic(V) was still the dominant species in all water-covered sludges after 9 months of anoxic treatments. In contrast, Mn(IV) in the original sludge was partially reduced into Mn(II) in all water-covered sludges. The effect was most pronounced in the N{sub 2} + glucose treatment, suggesting microbial reduction. Micro-scale SXRF and XANES analysis of the treated sludge showed that Mn(II) accumulated in areas already enriched in Fe and As. Overall, the study shows that AMD sludges remain stable under prolonged anoxic conditions. External sources of chemical reductants or soluble C were needed to induce lower redox state in the systems, and even under these imposed treatments, only weakly reducing conditions (Mn threshold) developed. The results suggest that As(V) in AMD sludge will remain stable under prolonged anoxic conditions as long as Mn(IV) is present and organic matter accumulation is negligible.

Beauchemin, S.; Fiset, J; Poirier, G; Ablett, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Interim Storage of Hanford Spent Fuel & Associated Sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford site is currently dealing with a number of types of Spent Nuclear Fuel. The route to interim dry storage for the various fuel types branches along two different paths. Fuel types such as metallic N reactor fuel and Shippingport Core 2 Blanket assemblies are being placed in approximately 4 m long canisters which are then stored in tubes below grade in a new canister storage building. Other fuels such as TRIGA{trademark} and Light Water Reactor fuel will be relocated and stored in stand-alone casks on a concrete pad. Varying degrees of sophistication are being applied with respect to the drying and/or evacuation of the fuel interim storage canisters depending on the reactivity of the fuel, the degree of damaged fuel and the previous storage environment. The characterization of sludge from the Hanford K Basins is nearly complete and canisters are being designed to store the sludge (including uranium particles from fuel element cleaning) on an interim basis.

MAKENAS, B.J.

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Treatment of pulp mill sludges by supercritical water oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is new process that can oxidize organics very effectively at moderate temperatures (400 to 650{degree}C) and high pressure (3700 psi). It is an environmentally acceptable alternative for sludge treatment. In bench scale tests, total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) reductions of 99 to 99.9% were obtained; dioxin reductions were 95 to 99.9%. A conceptual design for commercial systems has been completed and preliminary economics have been estimated. Comparisons confirm that SCWO is less costly than dewatering plus incineration for treating pulp mill sludges. SCWO can also compete effectively with dewatering plus landfilling where tipping fees exceed $35/yd{sup 3}. In some regions of the US, tipping fees are now $75/yd{sup 3} and rising steadily. In the 1995 to 2000 time frame, SCWO has a good chance of becoming the method of choice. MODEC's objective is to bring the technology to commercial availability by 1993. 10 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

Modell, M.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in Jordanian petroleum sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bioremediation, or the use of micro-organisms to decontaminate soil or groundwater, is being increasingly seen as an effective, environment-friendly treatment for oil-contaminated sites. In this study, the results are presented concerning a laboratory screening of several natural bacterial consortia and laboratory tests to establish the performance in degradation of hydrocarbons contained in oily sludge from the Jordan Oil Refinery Plant. As a result of the laboratory screening, 18 isolates were selected and grouped into two main clusters; cluster 1 containing 12 isolates grown at 43°C, and cluster 2 containing six isolates grown at 37°C. Three natural bacterial consortia with ability to degrade total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were prepared from these isolates. Experiments were conducted in Erlenmeyer flasks under aerobic conditions, with TPH removal percentage varying from 5.9% to 25.1%, depending upon consortia type and concentration. Consortia 7B and 13B exhibited the highest TPH removal percentages of 25% and 23%, respectively before nutrient addition. TPH removal rate was enhanced after addition of nutrients to incubated flasks. The highest TPH reduction (37%) was estimated after addition of a combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur to consortia 7B. This is the first report concerning biological treatment of total petroleum hydrocarbon by bacteria isolated from the oil refinery plant, where it lay the ground for full integrated studies recommended for hydrocarbon degradation that assist in solving sludge problems.

Bassam Mrayyan; Mohammad Battikhi

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

Domene, Xavier, E-mail: x.domene@creaf.uab.es [Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF), Facultat de Ciencies i Biociencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Valles, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar [Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications (CREAF), Facultat de Ciencies i Biociencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Valles, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Mechanical Properties of K Basin Sludge Constituents and Their Surrogates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey of the technical literature was performed to summarize the mechanical properties of inorganic components in K Basins sludge. The components included gibbsite, ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite and goethite, hematite, quartz, anorthite, calcite, basalt, Zircaloy, aluminum, and, in particular, irradiated uranium metal and uranium dioxide. Review of the technical literature showed that information on the hardness of uranium metal at irradiation exposures similar to those experienced by the N Reactor fuel present in the K Basins (typically up to 3000 MWd/t) were not available. Measurements therefore were performed to determine the hardness of coupons taken from three irradiated N Reactor uranium metal fuel elements taken from K Basins. Hardness values averaged 30 {+-} 8 Rockwell C units, similar to values previously reported for uranium irradiated to {approx}1200 MWd/t. The physical properties of candidate uranium metal and uranium dioxide surrogates were gathered and compared. Surrogates having properties closest to those of irradiated uranium metal appear to be alloys of tungsten. The surrogate for uranium dioxide, present both as particles and agglomerates in actual K Basin sludge, likely requires two materials. Cerium oxide, CeO2, was identified as a surrogate of the smaller UO2 particles while steel grit was identified for the UO2 agglomerates.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

2004-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

406

Engineering Work Plan for Development of Sludge Pickup Adapter for Fuel Cleanliness Inspections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The plan for developing an adapter to suction up sludge into a calibrated tube for fuel cleanliness inspection activities is described. A primary assessment of fuel cleanliness to be performed after processing through the Primary Cleaning Machine is whether the volume of any remaining canister sludge in or on a fuel assembly exceeds the allowable 14 cm{sup 3} limit. It is anticipated that a general visual inspection of the sludge inventory after fuel assembly separation will usually suffice in making this assessment, but occasions may arise where there is some question as to whether or not the observed quantity of sludge exceeds this limit. Therefore a quantitative method of collecting and measuring the sludge volume is needed for these borderline situations. It is proposed to develop an adapter that fits on the end of the secondary cleaning station vacuum wand that will suction the material from the sludge collection tray into a chamber marked with the limiting volume to permit a direct go/no-go assessment of the sludge quantity.

PITNER, A.L.

2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

407

Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500 deg. C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

Park, Sang-Woo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Cheol-Hyeon, E-mail: jangch@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Crop and soil responses to sewage sludge applied to reclaimed prime farmland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improvements in reclamation of surface mined prime farmland may be obtained by adding sewage sludge to topsoil and subsoil. This prime farmland reclamation study was done in western Kentucky. The experiment was conducted to investigate effects of the sludge amendment to topsoil and subsoil on soil and crop responses. The experiment showed, in most cases at highest application rates, that the sludge addition significantly increased the soil organic matter, total N content, and available P levels. However, water holding capacity, CEC, and exchangeable cations were not significantly affected. Higher microbial populations and activates were also obtained. The wheat biomass, tiller number, tissue N, grain N, grain yield, and N removal in grain were well correlated with application rates of sewage sludge. Corn also responded positively to additions of sewage sludge. The corn ear-leaf N concentration, grain yield, and grain N removal increased with application rates of sewage sludge. Experiments indicated that topsoil and subsoil sewage sludge addition was beneficial practices in terms of increasing crop yield and improving some soil properties.

Zhai, Qiang; Barnhisel, R.I. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

Multi-step process for concentrating magnetic particles in waste sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention involves a multi-step, multi-force process for dewatering sludges which have high concentrations of magnetic particles, such as waste sludges generated during steelmaking. This series of processing steps involves (1) mixing a chemical flocculating agent with the sludge; (2) allowing the particles to aggregate under non-turbulent conditions; (3) subjecting the mixture to a magnetic field which will pull the magnetic aggregates in a selected direction, causing them to form a compacted sludge; (4) preferably, decanting the clarified liquid from the compacted sludge; and (5) using filtration to convert the compacted sludge into a cake having a very high solids content. Steps 2 and 3 should be performed simultaneously. This reduces the treatment time and increases the extent of flocculation and the effectiveness of the process. As partially formed aggregates with active flocculating groups are pulled through the mixture by the magnetic field, they will contact other particles and form larger aggregates. This process can increase the solids concentration of steelmaking sludges in an efficient and economic manner, thereby accomplishing either of two goals: (a) it can convert hazardous wastes into economic resources for recycling as furnace feed material, or (b) it can dramatically reduce the volume of waste material which must be disposed.

Watson, John L. (Rolla, MO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Hanford Tanks 241-AY-102 and 241-BX-101: Sludge Composition and Contaminant Release Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of testing sludge samples from Hanford tanks 241-AY-102 (AY-102) and 241-BX-101 (BX-101). These tests were conducted to characterize the sludge and assess the water leachability of contaminants from the solids. This work is being conducted to support the tank closure risk assessments being performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy. This is the first report of testing of BX-101 sludge and the second report of testing of AY-102. Lindberg and Deutsch (2003) described the first phase of testing on AY-102 material.

Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Hess, Nancy J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Ultrasonic sludge disintegration in the presence of iron (II) as catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Increasing environmental awareness worldwide and subsequent regulations have led to the application of improved and novel technologies in excess sludge treatment. Sludge is the by-product of wastewater treatment plants rich in organic carbons, pathogens and metals. To enhance the ultrasonic sludge disintegration, a new method by introducing (Fe (II)) as a catalyst in the process has been explored. Studies were conducted to elucidate the parameters governing the disintegration process. The disintegration profiles show two phases, disruption of micro-organisms resulting release of organic-substances and mineralisation of dissolved organic substances. The optimal level of process parameters results in better solubilisation and mineralisation.

Chockalingam Lajapathi Rai; Arumugam Sivasamy; Subramani Rekha

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Acid dye removal from industrial wastewater by adsorption on treated sewage sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigated the suitability of sewage sludge for the removal of Acid Blue 93 industrial wastewater. Washed sewage sludge (WS) and sludge activated carbon (AS) were used as adsorbents. The effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and adsorption temperature was studied. Equilibrium isotherms for the adsorption were analysed by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second order, intra-particle diffusion and Bangham models were used to describe the adsorption kinetics. The results reveal that adsorption using AS show better results (removal 96.57%) than WS, while both adsorptions depended on pH, contact time and adsorbent dose.

M.N. Rashed

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Process-design manual: Land application of municipal sludge. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The manual presents a rational procedure for the design of municipal-sludge land-application systems. The utilization of sludge in agriculture, forestry, the reclamation of disturbed and marginal lands, and dedicated high-rate surface disposal practices are discussed in detail, with design concepts and criteria presented where available. A two-phased planning approach to site identification, evaluation, and selection along with information on field investigations are also presented. The manual includes examples of each land-application option and case studies of sludge utilization in agriculture and for reclamation of disturbed mining lands.

Not Available

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

The effect of sewage sludge on the physical properties of lignite overburden  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 47:770-775. 24. Ryan, J. A. , 0. E. Keeney, and L. M. Walsh. 1973. Nitrogen transformation and availability of an anaerobically digested sewage sludge in soil. J. Environ. Qual. 2:489-492. 32 25. Soppec, W. E. , and S. Kerr. 1981. Revegetation... if water is to penetrate downward. A study using raw and digested sewage sludge added to a Beltsville silt loam soil at 5% by weight resulted in an increase in percent water stable aggregates with the addition of sludge (Epstein, 1975). After 175 days...

Cocke, Catherine Lynn

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Right Turn on Red! | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Right Turn on Red! Right Turn on Red! Right Turn on Red! August 25, 2011 - 12:05pm Addthis Right Turn on Red is a policy that was enacted in the 1970s to help save drivers fuel and money at the pump. | Energy Department Image | Photo by Hantz Leger Right Turn on Red is a policy that was enacted in the 1970s to help save drivers fuel and money at the pump. | Energy Department Image | Photo by Hantz Leger Dan Leistikow Dan Leistikow Former Director, Office of Public Affairs Last week, as part of our inaugural edition of Plugged In! -- an email newsletter for staff and contractors here at the Energy Department -- I asked readers for more information about the Right Turn on Red policy that was enacted in the 1970s to help save fuel. I'm happy to report that we received several responses from individuals across the Department with more

418

Athlete's foot remedy for red tides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... volumes of antifungal are regulated by application valves.” Red tides might be bested by humble antifungals. NHPA/PETE ATKINSON Nakashima, T., Niwano, Y. & Takeshita, S. ...

Daniel Cressey

2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

419

Optical Design of a Red Sensitive Spectrograph  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the red. In this paper, we will discuss the selection of components as well as the choice of optical layouts and the theoretical throughput of the instrument....

Martin, Emily 1988-

2012-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

420

DOWNSTREAM IMPACTS OF SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION VIA ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION ON DWPF PROCESSING OF SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE - 9382  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SRS sludge that was to become a major fraction of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) contained a large fraction of H-Modified PUREX (HM) sludge, containing a large fraction of aluminum compounds that could adversely impact the processing and increase the vitrified waste volume. It is beneficial to reduce the non-radioactive fraction of the sludge to minimize the number of glass waste canisters that must be sent to a Federal Repository. Removal of aluminum compounds, such as boehmite and gibbsite, from sludge can be performed with the addition of NaOH solution and heating the sludge for several days. Preparation of SB5 involved adding sodium hydroxide directly to the waste tank and heating the contents to a moderate temperature through slurry pump operation to remove a fraction of this aluminum. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with demonstrating this process on actual tank waste sludge in our Shielded Cells Facility. This paper evaluates some of the impacts of aluminum dissolution on sludge washing and DWPF processing by comparing sludge processing with and without aluminum dissolution. It was necessary to demonstrate these steps to ensure that the aluminum removal process would not adversely impact the chemical and physical properties of the sludge which could result in slower processing or process upsets in the DWPF.

Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D

2009-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Availability and distribution of heavy metals, nitrogen, and phosphorus from sewage sludge in the plant-soil-water continuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research was conducted during 1984 and 1985 to determine Cd, Cu, N, Ni, P, and Zn availabilities to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and corn (Zea mays) grown on four sludge-amended soils. An aerobically digested sewage sludge, which was dewatered for approximately 2 years on sandbeds, was obtained from a sewage-treatment plant with major industrial inputs. A 14-day anaerobic N incubation study indicated that mineralization of sludge organic N varied from 9.2% at the 42 Mg ha(-1) sludge rate to 4.2% at the 210 Mg ha(-1) rate. This relatively low percentage of N mineralized from the sludge may reflect the inhibitory effects of the high sludge-metal levels on N transformations and the changes in sludge composition during long-term dewatering on sandbeds. Sludge application increased crop yields, except where the amounts of N mineralized from the sludge was inadequate to supply the N requirement of the crop. Crop yields were not decreased by either metal phytotoxity or P deficiency on the four sludge-amended soils.

Rappaport, B.D.; Scott, J.D.; Martens, D.C.; Reneau, R.B.; Simpson, T.W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

DOE/EA-0978 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT SLUDGE STABILIZATION AT  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

78 78 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT SLUDGE STABILIZATION AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT HANFORD SITE, RICHLAND, WASHINGTON U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCTOBER 1994 T h i s page intentionally left blank. DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

423

VOC transport in vented drums containing simulated waste sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model is developed to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement in a lab-scale vented waste drum containing simulated waste sludge. The VOC transport model estimates the concentration using the measured VOC concentration beneath the drum lid and model parameters defined or estimated from process knowledge of drum contents and waste drum configuration. Model parameters include the VOC diffusion characteristic across the filter vent, VOC diffusivity in air, size of opening in the drum liner lid, the type and number of layers of polymer bags surrounding the waste, VOC permeability across the polymer, and the permeable surface area of the polymer bags. Comparison of model and experimental results indicates that the model can accurately estimate VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement. The model may be useful in estimating the VOC concentration in actual waste drums.

Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The three main conclusions of this report are: (1) The pilot plant successfully demonstrated the continuous, fully-integrated, long-term process operation, including the mixing, pelletizing, and curing steps for aggregate production. The curing vessel, which was designed for the pilot plant test, was operated in a mass flow mode and performed well during pilot plant operation. (2) The pilot plant test demonstrated process flexibility. The same equipment was used to produce lightweight, medium-weight, and road aggregates. The only change was the mix formulation. Aggregates were produced from a variety of mix designs and from FGD sludge with solids concentrations between 45.0% and 56.7% and moisture contents between 55.0% and 43.3%. (3) The pilot plant provided operating data and experience to design and cost a commercial plant, which was not part of the cooperative agreement.

M.M. Wu; D.C. McCoy; R.O. Scandrol; M.L. Fenger; J.A. Withum; R.M. Statnick

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Application of dried anaerobic digested sewage sludge as phenol biosorbent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Untreated anaerobically digested sewage sludge was used for the first time as a biosorbent for removing phenol from aqueous solution. Results showed that adsorption capacity was influenced by the pH of the aqueous solution with an observed maximum phenol removal at pH around 6-8. The adsorption equilibrium of phenolic compounds was obtained after almost two hours with an adsorption of approximately 90% of the phenolic compounds. A sorbent concentration of 1.8 g/L was found to insure the best removal percentage and the best sorbent capacity. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models have provided reasonable fittings for the data of phenol adsorption. The experimental data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the intraparticle diffusion model. The values of change in Gibbs free energy (?G°), enthalpy (?H°) and entropy (?S°) were calculated. The thermodynamic study of adsorption process showed that the process was exothermic in nature.

Alaa H. Hawari

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Influence of reactor configuration on reliability of activated sludge process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of uncertainty in system parameters and the accuracy of the mathematical model used on the design and reliability of the activated sludge process is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Simulations indicate that the coefficient of variation for a reactor volume varies from 0.56 for a single mixed tank reactor to 0.44 for a plug flow reactor. The coefficient of variation for effluent for reactors designed on nominal values was found to be 0.56 for a mixed-tank reactor, 1.28 for two reactors in series, 1.56 for three reactors in series and 1.6 for a plug flow reactor. Significant contributing parameters to the reliability of the process are established. Reactor volumes for desired reliability levels are also calculated.

Puneet Sarna; Sanjeev Chaudhari

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Microsoft PowerPoint - 3-07_Williams_Mobilization of High Yield Sludges.pptm  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Storage, Mobilization, And Retrieval Of Storage, Mobilization, And Retrieval Of Very High Yield Strength Sludges EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange Atlanta November 16-18 2010 Martin Williams Vice President Advanced Process Systems NuVision Engineering 184B Rolling Hill Rd Mooresville NC 28117 USA Print Close 2 Storage, Mobilization, and Retrieval of Very High Yield Strength Sludges Sellafield Site in the UK Magnox Storage Pond *Constructed in 1940's *Major D&D project Print Close 3 Storage, Mobilization, and Retrieval of Very High Yield Strength Sludges Magnox Sludge *Up to 1200m3 arising from the corrosion of magnesium alloy clad Magnox reactor fuel in storage primarily magnesium and uranium corrosion products *small percentage of un-corroded Magnox metal *fission and activation products and their corrosion products

428

CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Office of River Protection K Basin Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System May 2004 A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a May 2004 assessment of the Conduct of Operations program at the Office of River Protection, K Basin Sludge Waste System. CRADs provide a recommended approach and the types of information to gather to assess elements of a DOE contractor's programs. CRAD, Conduct of Operations - Office of River Protection K Basin Sludge Waste System More Documents & Publications CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health - Office of River Protection K Basin

429

Washing and Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge: Results of FY 1998 Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sludge washing and parametric caustic leaching tests were performed on sludge samples tiom five Hanford tanks: B-101, BX-1 10, BX-112, C-102, and S-101. These studies examined the effects of both dilute hydroxide washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the residual sludge solids. ` Dilute hydroxide washing removed from <1 to 25% of the Al, -20 to 45% of the Cr, -25 to 97% of the P, and 63 to 99% of the Na from the Hdord tank sludge samples examined. The partial removal of these elements was likely due to the presence of water-soluble sodium salts of aluminate, chromate, hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, either in the interstitial liquid or as dried salts.

GJ Lumetta; BM Rapko; J Liu; DJ Temer; RD Hunt

1998-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

430

Experimental Research of the Oxygen-Enriched Combustion of Sewage Sludge and Coal in CFB  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sewage sludge is the by-products of sewage treatment, and it is a fuel of high moisture, high ash and low caloric. Oxygen-enriched combustion technology is one of the new and clean coal combustion technologies...

S. W. Xin; X. F. Lu; H. Z. Liu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Behavior of Uranium(VI) during HEDPA Leaching for Aluminum Dissolution in Tank Waste Sludges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aluminum Dissolution in Tank Waste Sludges Brian A. PowellThe underground storage tanks at the Hanford site containtime, the material in the tanks has stratified to produce a

Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Martin, Leigh

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Sewage sludge ash as an alternative low-cost oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, novel low-cost oxygen carriers containing Fe2O3 are evaluated for use in chemical looping combustion. Sewage sludge ashes and reference samples were...2...) fuel and a solid fuel (hard coal) were t...

Ewelina Ksepko

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Recovering and recycling Hg from chlor-alkali plant wastewater sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Montana Tech of the University of Montana and Universal Dynamics of British Columbia have developed a hydrometallurgical process for recovering and recycling mercury from chlorine plant wastewater sludge material...

L. G. Twidwell; R. J. Thompson

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Investigation of EPS Characteristics and their Effects on Waste Activated Sludge Digestion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of EPS Characteristics and their Effects on Waste Activated Sludge Digestion Thomas on digestibility, especially in regards to the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Samples possibilities. Characterizations made from extraction data showed curiously high EPS disruption in Amherst

Mountziaris, T. J.

435

The Effect of Slowly Biodegradable Carbon on the Morphology, Integrity and Performance of Aerobic Granular Sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the last two decades, a new biofilm process, aerobic granular sludge technology, has been applied by researchers for organic and nutrient removal from municipal wastewater. Most studies have been performed with high strength wastewater...

Faraj, Rasha Attwan

2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol. I: Impact of feeding frequency and mixing energy characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, conversion of paper sludge to ethanol was investigated with the objective of optimization ... optimize cellulase loading, and to determine mixing energy requirements. It was found that decreasing f...

Zhiliang Fan; Lee R. Lynd

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells and occasionally in HSS wells. Tritium and aluminum are the primary nonpermit constituents that exceed standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Yuan Ma-scale reactors were operated at the LaPrairie Wastewater Treatment plant (one control and one ozonated

Barthelat, Francois

439

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic granular sludge Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

71(11):7523-7527. Delong EF (1992) Archaea in coastal marine... in a Municipal Wastewater Sludge Daniel Williams1 and James W. Brown2* 1 Department of Biology, North...

440

PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Red-Black Trees 11/26/2007 11:09 AM Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red-Black Trees 11/26/2007 11:09 AM 1 Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison

Alechina, Natasha

442

Red-Black Trees 11/11/2004 10:02 AM Red-Black Trees 1 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red-Black Trees 11/11/2004 10:02 AM 1 Red-Black Trees 1© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia Red-Black Trees 6 3 8 4 v z Red-Black Trees 2© 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia From (2,4) to Red-Black Trees A red-black tree is a representation of a (2,4) tree by means of a binary tree whose nodes are colored red or black In comparison

Alechina, Natasha

443

SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be released. Installation requirements were also determined for a transfer pump which will remove tank contents, and which is also required to not disturb sludge. Testing techniques and test results for both types of pumps are presented.

Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

444

Red blood cell malformations Cell shapes Modeling and simulation of red blood cell light scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that have a "sickle" appearance (see figure to left). This malformed geometry prevents cells from traveling Red blood cell malformations Cell shapes Modeling and simulation of red blood cell light to various diseases and acute conditions, the shape and composition of erythrocytes (red blood cells

California at Berkeley, University of

445

Sonochemical degradation of Congo Red  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultrasound irradiation was found to be effective in treatment of refractory pollutants. The present communication reports ultrasound treatment of Congo Red (CR). The CR degradation by ultrasonic waves (50 kHz) was investigated at 25°C. After sonication for 60 min, the CR concentration gradually decreased from 100 mg/L to 27.7 mg/L. pH of the sonicated CR solution decreased from 6.8 to 4.2. Oxygen uptake rate demonstrated higher uptake of oxygen by microbia in the case of the sonicated sample. There is 68% chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency after ultrasound treatment. The combination of ultrasound and biodegradation in treatment of CR is studied here.

Srinivas Sistla; Suresh Chintalapati

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Red Mesa | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mesa Mesa Facility Red Mesa Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer Wanzek Construction Location Cibola County near Seboyeta NM Coordinates 35.197003°, -107.372611° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.197003,"lon":-107.372611,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

447

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

448

EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVEHIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned.

Ketusky, E

2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

449

K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report, Third quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During third quarter 1992, the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were sampled for analyses required each quarter or annually by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13,173 and for base-neutral/acid semivolatile constituents. None of the analytical results exceeded standards.

Thompson, C.Y.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Review of municipal sludge use as a soil amendment on disturbed lands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy is examining options of improving soil conditions at Hanford reclamation sites. One promising technology is the incorporation of municipal sewage sludge into the soil profile. This report reviews the potential benefits and adverse consequences of sludge use in land reclamation. Land reclamation comprises those activities instigated to return a mechanically disturbed site to some later successional state. Besides the introduction of suitable plant species to disturbed lands, reclamation generally requires measures to enhance long-term soil nutrient content, moisture retention or drainage, and mitigation of toxic effects from metals and pH. One of the more effective means of remediating adverse soil characteristics is the application of complex organic manures such as municipal sewage sludge. Sewage sludges contain complete macro- and micronutrients necessary to sustain plant growth. The application of sewage sludge may reestablish microbial activity in sterile soils. Physical properties, such as water-holding capacity and percentage water-stable aggregates, also improve with the addition of sewage sludge. Sludge applications may also increase the rate of degradation of some hydrocarbon pollutants in soils. Potential adverse impacts associated with the application of sewage sludge to land include negative public perception of human waste products; concerns regarding pathogen buildup and spread in the soils, plants, and water; entrance and accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain; salt accumulation in the soil and ground water; leaching of nitrates into ground water; and accumulation of other potentially toxic substances, such as boron and synthetic hydrocarbons, in the soil, plants, and food chain. 56 refs., 10 tabs.

Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111.

Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Evaluating the manufacturability and combustion behaviors of sludge-derived fuel briquettes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Based on the physical and chemical properties as well as calorific values of pulp sludge and textile sludge, this study investigates the differences between manufacturability, relationship between extrusion pressure and formability, as well as stability and combustion behaviors of extruded sludge-derived fuel briquettes (ESBB) and cemented sludge-derived fuel blocks (CSBB). The optimum proportion and relevant usage ESBB policies are proposed as well. Experimental results indicate that a large amount of water can be saved during the ESBB manufacturing process. Additionally, energy consumption decreases during the drying process. ESBB also has a more compact structure than that of CSBB, and its mean penetration loading is approximately 18.7 times higher as well. Moreover, the flame temperature of ESBB (624–968 °C) is significantly higher than that of CSBB (393–517 °C). Also, the dry bulk density and moisture regain of ESBB is significantly related to the penetration loading. Furthermore, the optimum mix proportion of ESBB is co-determined by the formability of pulp sludge and the calorific values of textile sludge. While considering the specific conditions (including formability, stability and calorific values), the recommended mix proportion for ESBB is PS50TS50.

Ing-Jia Chiou; I-Tsung Wu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Do red giants have short mode lifetimes?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show evidence that the red giant star ksi Hya has an oscillation mode lifetime, tau, of about 2 days significantly shorter than predicted by theory (tau = 17 days, Houdek & Gough 2002). If this is a general trend of red giants it would limit the prospects of asteroseismology on these stars because of poor coherence of the oscillations.

D. Stello; H. Kjeldsen; T. R. Bedding; D. Buzasi

2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

454

Evaluation of Sludge Batch 5 Qualification with ISDP Salt Batch 1 Compliance to DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of Sludge Batch 5 with the initial macrobatch operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) waste to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This report was prepared to comply with the requirements listed in the Waste Acceptance Criteria for Sludge, Actinide Removal Process (ARP), and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Process Transfers to 512-S and DWPF. The requirements for transfers to 512-S were evaluated during ISDP Salt Batch 1 qualification. The calculations of sludge concentrations are based entirely on the Tank 51 sample processed at SRNL. This is conservative because Tank 51 is blended with the dilute feed in the DWPF Feed Tank (Tank 40). This report documents the acceptability of sludge only as well as Sludge Batch 5 sludge slurry combined with ARP/MCU products for feed to DWPF. All criteria were met for unblended Tank 51 material.

Shafer, A.

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

455

Walmart Red Bluff | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Walmart Red Bluff Walmart Red Bluff Jump to: navigation, search Name Walmart Red Bluff Facility Walmart Red Bluff Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Foundation Windpower Developer Foundation Windpower Energy Purchaser Walmart Location Red Bluff CA Coordinates 40.11121276°, -122.1940291° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.11121276,"lon":-122.1940291,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

456

HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea transfers utilizing STPs from July 2006 to August 2007. This operation and successful removal of sludge material meets requirement of approximately 19,000 to 28,000 liters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. Removal of the last 35% of sludge was exponentially more difficult, as less and less sludge was available to mobilize and the lighter sludge particles were likely removed during the early mixing campaigns. The removal of the 72,000 liters (19,000 gallons) of sludge was challenging due to a number factors. One primary factor was the complex internal cooling coil array within Tank 6 that obstructed mixer discharge jets and impacted the Effective Cleaning Radius (ECR) of the Submersible Mixer Pumps. Minimal access locations into the tank through tank openings (risers) presented a challenge because the available options for equipment locations were very limited. Mechanical Sludge Removal activities using SMPs caused the sludge to migrate to areas of the tank that were outside of the SMP ECR. Various SMP operational strategies were used to address the challenge of moving sludge from remote areas of the tank to the transfer pump. This paper describes in detail the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and mitigative solutions to cooling coil obstructions and other challenges. The performance of the WOW system and SMP operational strategies were evaluated and the resulting lessons learned are described for application to future Mechanical Sludge Removal operations.

Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

*Please do NOT put out food if both red and grey squirrels are present* Feeding red squirrels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

*Please do NOT put out food if both red and grey squirrels are present* Feeding red squirrels The UK Red Squirrel Group does not generally recommend that people put out food for red squirrels, there are risks to red squirrels by enticing them into your garden, or other premises. These include disease

458

A rational approach for evaluation and screening of treatment and disposal options for the solar pond sludges at Rocky Flats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document consists of information about the treatment options for the sludge that is located in the evaporation ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant. The sludges are mixed low-level radioactive wastes whose composition and character were variable. Sludges similar to these are typically treated prior to ultimate disposal. Disposal of treated sludges includes both on-site and off-site options. The rational approach described in this paper is useful for technology evaluation and screening because it provides a format for developing objectives, listing alternatives, and weighing the alternatives against the objectives and against each other.

Dickerson, K.S.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

459

V-041: Red Hat CloudForms Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

V-041: Red Hat CloudForms Multiple Vulnerabilities V-041: Red Hat CloudForms Multiple Vulnerabilities December 6, 2012 - 4:01am Addthis PROBLEM: Red Hat CloudForms Multiple...

460

EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Red Leaf PNG Image EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image redleaf18215.png More Documents & Publications EERE: VTO - Hybrid Bus PNG Image EERE: VTO - UPS Truck PNG Image RedLeaf...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "red liquor sludge" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

U-156: Red Hat update for JBoss Enterprise Portal Platform |...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Addthis Related Articles V-138: Red Hat update for icedtea-web V-233: Red Hat update for JBoss Fuse T-712: Red Hat Enterprise MRG Grid 2.0 security, bug fix and enhancement update...

462

Congo Red Fibrin Powder for Experiments on Proteolytic Enzymes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... by alkalis. The difficulty was overcome by Roaf2, who as early as 1908 used Congo red instead of carmine. ... red instead of carmine. Congo red is not dissolved out of the stained fibrin by hydrochloric acid or by sodium ...

D. G. DUNCAN; H. ZWARENSTEIN

1945-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

463

The unique features of starch metabolism in red algae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...unique features of starch metabolism in red algae Roberto Viola 1 * Pi Nyvall 2 Marianne...SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden Red algae (Rhodophyceae) are photosynthetic eukaryotes...plastids. The starch granules from red algae (floridean starch) show structural similarities...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), high sulfate concentrations in the feed are a concern to DWPF as it can lead to the formation of a detrimental, sulfate-rich, molten salt phase on the surface of the glass melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit was implemented into the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Related to SB7a frit development efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessed the viability of using the current 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit set for SB6 (in glass) and the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solubility limit in PCCS to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations, targeted waste loadings, and inclusion of secondary streams (e.g., Actinide Removal Process (ARP)) with two recommended frits (Frit 418 and Frit 702) for SB7a processing. For a nominal SB7a blend with a 63 inch SB6 heel remaining in Tank 40 (projection SB7a-63), a 0.60 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass limit was determined for waste loadings of 34 wt% up to 40 wt% with Frit 418 based on crucible melts with batched chemicals. SRNL also examined the inclusion of ARP for the same blending scenario (SB7a-63-ARP) with Frit 418 and at least a 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} level, and waste loadings of 34 wt% to 40 wt% were also acceptable. When a visible yellow and/or white sulfate salt layer was visible on the surface of any cooled glass, it was assumed to have surpassed the solubility limit of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for that particular composition. All of the glasses fabricated at these concentrations did not exhibit a sulfate rich salt layer on the surface of the glass melt and retained the majority of the batched SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. At higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} 'spiked' into the projected sludge compositions over the aforementioned interval of waste loadings, with Frit 418, low viscosity sulfur layers were observed on the surface of glass melts which confirm exceeding the solubility limit. The same sludge scenarios were also tested with Frit 702 and all glasses did not exhibit sulfur layers on the surfaces of the glass melts at spiking levels up to 0.80 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. An ultimate SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit was not defined with Frit 702, but if projected SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations are expected to increase with the onset of SB7a processing, a higher limit is achievable with Frit 702 than is achievable with Frit 418. Given the anticipated concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for SB7a, a SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit of 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} is recommended for processing using Frit 418. Once the confirmed SB7a composition is known and should a higher limit be needed, SRNL can re-evaluate the limit based on the actual composition and provide an updated recommendation. It has been observed that higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass can be retained with compositional changes to the frit, as was demonstrated by the glasses fabricated using Frit 702. SRNL also recommends the continuation of studies to define a more 'global' sulfate concentration limit to account for future sludge batch composition uncertainties.

Billings, A.

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

465

On Bitcoin and Red Balloons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study scenarios in which the goal is to ensure that some information will propagate through a large network of nodes. In these scenarios all nodes that are aware of the information compete for the same prize, and thus have an incentive not to propagate information. One example for such a scenario is the 2009 DARPA Network Challenge (finding red balloons). We give special attention to a second domain, Bitcoin, a decentralized electronic currency system. Bitcoin, which has been getting a large amount of public attention over the last year, represents a radical new approach to monetary systems which has appeared in policy discussions and in the popular press. Its cryptographic fundamentals have largely held up even as its usage has become increasingly widespread. We find, however, that it exhibits a fundamental problem of a different nature, based on how its incentives are structured. We propose a modification to the protocol that can fix this problem. Bitcoin relies on a peer-to-peer network to track transac...

Babaioff, Moshe; Oren, Sigal; Zohar, Aviv

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

On bitcoin and red balloons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many large decentralized systems rely on information propagation to ensure their proper function. We examine a common scenario in which only participants that are aware of the information can compete for some reward, and thus informed participants have an incentive not to propagate information to others. One recent example in which such tension arises is the 2009 DARPA Network Challenge (finding red balloons). We focus on another prominent example: Bitcoin, a decentralized electronic currency system. Bitcoin represents a radical new approach to monetary systems. It has been getting a large amount of public attention over the last year, both in policy discussions and in the popular press [Davis 2011; Surowiecki 2011]. Its cryptographic fundamentals have largely held up even as its usage has become increasingly widespread. We find, however, that it exhibits a fundamental problem of a different nature, based on how its incentives are structured. We propose a modification to the protocol that can eliminate this problem. Bitcoin relies on a peer-to-peer network to track transactions that are performed with the currency. For this purpose, every transaction a node learns about should be transmitted to its neighbors in the network. As the protocol is currently defined and implemented, it does not provide an incentive for nodes to broadcast transactions they are aware of. In fact, it provides an incentive not to do so. Our solution is to augment the

Moshe Babaioff; Silicon Valley; Shahar Dobzinski; Sigal Oren

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Nutrient leaching following land application of aerobically digested municipal sewage sludge in a northern hardwood forest  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrations of selected cations and anions were determined in soil solutions from a forested site in southern New Hampshire during the first growing season after surface application of an aerobically digested, limed, liquid municipal sludge. Sludge was applied in June 1989 at 0, 3.3, 6.9, and 14.5 Mg ha{sup -1}, which corresponded to 199, 396, and 740 kg N ha{sup -1} as total Kjeldahl N (TKN). Porous, suction-cup lysimeters were used to sample soil solutions below the rooting zone ({approximately}60 cm) within subplots designed to include (untrenched) or exclude (trenched) uptake by vegetation. Following sludge application, measured solute concentrations remained low until September 1989, when NO{sub 3}, Cl, Ca, Mg, Na, and K in trenched subplots increased simultaneously to maximum values in October or November 1989, just before the soil froze for the winter. Nitrate was the dominant anion in soil solutions from trenched subplots and averaged in excess of 0.71 mmol L{sup -1} (10 mg L{sup -1} NO{sub 3}-N) at all loading rates. Highest concentrations of NO{sub 3} occurred on subplots with the highest sludge application rates. In the entrenched areas, NO{sub 3} concentrations rarely exceeded 0.001 mmol L{sup -1}; Cl increased in treated areas and was the dominant anion by the end of the season. Soil solution NH{sub 4}, PO{sub 4}, SO{sub 4} K, and pH did not change significantly for any sludge application rate. Comparison of results from trenched and untrenched areas suggests that, at application rates of up to 14.5 Mg ha{sup -1 }(799 kg TKN ha{sup -1}), a combination of physical, chemical, and biological factors (most likely plant uptake) limited the movement of sludge or sludge-derived constituents from the sites of application. 37 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Medalie, L.; Bowden, W.B.; Smith, C.T. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Los Alamos laser instrument arrives on Red Planet's surface  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laser instrument arrives on Red Planet's surface Los Alamos laser instrument arrives on Red Planet's surface The ChemCam laser characterization instrument was developed at LANL and...

469

Fish Ecology of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Among the important factors of Red Sea and Persian Gulf ecology are the following: A. The Red Sea is a deep basin with warm surfa...

H. Steinitz

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING POST ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION TANK 51 SLUDGE SLURRY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The remaining contents of Tank 51 from Sludge Batch 4 will be blended with Purex sludge from Tank 7 to constitute Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) has completed caustic addition to Tank 51 to perform low temperature Al dissolution on the H-Modified (HM) sludge material to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and Al being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) has also completed aluminum dissolution tests using a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry through funding by DOE EM-21. This report documents assessment of downstream impacts of the aluminum dissolved sludge, which were investigated so technical issues could be identified before the start of SB5 processing. This assessment included washing the aluminum dissolved sludge to a Tank Farm projected sodium concentration and weight percent insoluble solids content and DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing using the washed sludge. Based on the limited testing, the impact of aluminum dissolution on sludge settling is not clear. Settling was not predictable for the 3-L sample. Compared to the post aluminum dissolution sample, settling after the first wash was slower, but settling after the second wash was faster. For example, post aluminum dissolution sludge took six days to settle to 60% of the original sludge slurry height, while Wash 1 took nearly eight days, and Wash 2 only took two days. Aluminum dissolution did impact sludge rheology. A comparison between the as-received, post aluminum dissolution and washed samples indicate that the downstream materials were more viscous and the concentration of insoluble solids less than that of the starting material. This increase in viscosity may impact Tank 51 transfers to Tank 40. The impact of aluminum dissolution on DWPF CPC processing cannot be determined because acid addition for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle was under-calculated and thus under-added. Although the sludge was rheologically thick throughout the SRAT and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles, this may have been due to the under addition of acid. Aluminum dissolution did, however, impact analyses of the SRAT receipt material. Two methods for determining total base yielded significantly different results. The high hydroxide content and the relatively high soluble aluminum content of the washed post aluminum dissolution sludge likely contributed to this difference and the ultimate under addition of acid. It should be noted that the simulant used to provide input for the SRAT cycle was an inadequate representation of the waste in terms of acid demand, likely due to the differences in the form of aluminum and hydroxide in the simulant and actual waste. Based on the results of this task, it is recommended that: (1) Sludge settling and rheology during washing of the forthcoming Sludge Batch 5 qualification sample be monitored closely and communicated to the Tank Farm. (2) SRNL receive a sample of Tank 51 after all chemical additions have been made and prior to the final Sludge Batch 5 decant for rheological assessment. Rheology versus wt% insoluble solids will be performed to determine the maximum amount of decant prior to the Tank 51 to Tank 40 transfer. (3) As a result of the problem with measuring total base and subsequently under-calculating acid for the DWPF CPC processing of the post aluminum dissolution sludge; (4) Studies to develop understanding of how the sludge titrates (i.e., why different titration methods yield different results) should be performed. (5) Simulants that better match the properties of post aluminum dissolution sludge should be developed. (6) Work on developing an acid calculation less dependant on the total base measurement should be continued.

Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Erich Hansen, E; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

471

Quantitative Use of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization To Examine Relationships between Mycolic Acid-Containing Actinomycetes and Foaming in Activated Sludge Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a large pilot activated sludge plant situated at Stoke Bardolph Water...full-scale activated sludge plant occurs. The pilot plant consisted of a clarifier and a...plant received primary settled waste from the full-scale plant...

Russell J. Davenport; Thomas P. Curtis; Michael Goodfellow; Fiona M. Stainsby; Marc Bingley

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site in Thessaloniki, sending thick black  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dump fire leaves toxic air, sludge A fire which burned for four days at a landfill site to break. This led to sludge flowing into some nearby houses. Authorities are due to begin the cleanup

Columbia University

473

Sequential extraction of metals from mixed and digested sludge from aerobic WWTPs sited in the south of Spain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The content of heavy metals is the major limitation to the application of sewage sludge in soil. However, assessment of the pollution by total metal determination does not reveal the true environmental impact. It is necessary to apply sequential extraction techniques to obtain suitable information about their bioavailability or toxicity. In this paper, sequential extraction of metals from sludge before and after aerobic digestion was applied to sludge from five WWTPs in southern Spain to obtain information about the influence of the digestion treatment in the concentration of the metals. The percentage of each metal as residual, oxidizable, reducible and exchangeable form was calculated. For this purpose, sludge samples were collected from two different points of the plants, namely, sludge from the mixture (primary and secondary sludge) tank (mixed sludge, MS) and the digested-dewatered sludge (final sludge, FS). Heavy metals, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn, were extracted following the sequential extraction scheme proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Commission and determined by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The total concentration of heavy metals in the measured sludge samples did not exceed the limits set out by European legislation and were mainly associated with the two less-available fractions (27-28% as oxidizable metal and 44-50% as residual metal). However, metals as Co (64% in MS and 52% in FS samples), Mn (82% in MS and 79% in FS), Ni (32% in MS and 26% in FS) and Zn (79% in MS and 62% in FS) were present at important percentages as available forms. In addition, results showed a clear increase of the concentration of metals after sludge treatment in the proportion of two less-available fractions (oxidizable and residual metal)

Alonso, E. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Industrial Engineering School, University of Seville, c/Virgen de Africa 7, 41011, Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: ealonso@us.es; Aparicio, I.; Santos, J.L.; Villar, P.; Santos, A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Industrial Engineering School, University of Seville, c/Virgen de Africa 7, 41011, Sevilla (Spain)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

474

Desulfurization of Digester Gas on Industrial-Sludge-Derived Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of adsorbents in the breakthrough tests is summarized in Tables 1 and 2, where besides the capacity expressed in milligrams per unit mass of an adsorbent or in milligrams per unit bed volume, the amount of water adsorbed during prehumidification, bed density, and pH before and after exposure to DG are listed. ... Probably the most important negative effect can be linked to the engagement of magnesium and calcium oxides in the carbonate entities, which, besides lowering surface pH and thus the number of HS- ions formed, limits the extent of reactions 2 and 7. Nevertheless, the performance of our adsorbents in desulfurization of DG is better than that of catalytically activated carbons, such as Midas or DarcoH2S, for which 73 and 39 mg/g of H2S adsorbed, respectively, was reported. ... result in adsorbents whose capacity, although smaller than that for the single-component waste oil sludge-based adsorbent, is high compared to that of conventional activated carbons. ...

Mykola Seredych; Teresa J. Bandosz

2007-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

475

Activated sludge studies of selected contaminants of PFH wastewater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acetone, propionitrile, pyrrole, and thiocyanate were selected as representative compounds of wastewater expected from pressurized, fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) of Eastern oil shales. The PFH process has been the subject of investigation by the Institute of Gas Technology, under contract with the United States Department of Energy, for the purpose of obtaining higher oil yields from Eastern shales than has been possible using conventional retorting methods. Preliminary batch experiments illustrated that acetone, propionitrile, pyrrole, and thiocyanate are aerobically biodegradable by heterogeneous microbiological cultures. Three continuous flow activated sludge reactors were used to further evaluate the biological treatability of the synthetic waste. The studies revealed that the compounds could be removed at hydraulic residence times of as low as one day. Three one-day experiments demonstrated that biological system's capability to accept organic shock loadings without a change in effluent quality. A no-recycle reactor illustrated that the flocculent microbiological population had a high resistance to solids washout. Because a supplementary nitrogen source was not included in synthetic waste treated by the no-recycle unit, it was shown that propionitrile, pyrrole, and/or thiocyanate supplied the nitrogen necessary for biological activity.

Dudley, S.K. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Bustamante, R.B.; Bonner, W.P. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Activated sludge studies of selected contaminants of PFH wastewater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acetone, propionitrile, pyrrole, and thiocyanate were selected as representative compounds of wastewater expected from pressurized, fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) of Eastern oil shales. The PFH process has been the subject of investigation by the Institute of Gas Technology, under contract with the United States Department of Energy, for the purpose of obtaining higher oil yields from Eastern shales than has been possible using conventional retorting methods. Preliminary batch experiments illustrated that acetone, propionitrile, pyrrole, and thiocyanate are aerobically biodegradable by heterogeneous microbiological cultures. Three continuous flow activated sludge reactors were used to further evaluate the biological treatability of the synthetic waste. The studies revealed that the compounds could be removed at hydraulic residence times of as low as one day. Three one-day experiments demonstrated that biological system`s capability to accept organic shock loadings without a change in effluent quality. A no-recycle reactor illustrated that the flocculent microbiological population had a high resistance to solids washout. Because a supplementary nitrogen source was not included in synthetic waste treated by the no-recycle unit, it was shown that propionitrile, pyrrole, and/or thiocyanate supplied the nitrogen necessary for biological activity.

Dudley, S.K. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bustamante, R.B.; Bonner, W.P. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

477

Nitrification of centrate from dewatering of anaerobically digested sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrification of anaerobically digested sludge centrate was studied in bench-scale suspended growth and fixed film enhanced suspended growth systems at temperatures of 10.5-28.5°C and pH values of 6.0-9.1. Nitrification followed zero-order kinetics in both systems, and ammonia removals in excess of 99% were observed. The temperature dependency of the suspended growth nitrification rate observed under not fully acclimated biomass conditions at pH between 6.8 and 8.5, was expressed as kT = k20?T-20where k20 and ? were found to be 0.34 mg NH3-N/MLVSS-d and 1.033, respectively. The nitrification rate in the fixed film enhanced suspended growth system involving styrofoam pads ranged from 0.11 to 0.13 mg NH3-N/mg MLVSS-d at temperatures of 21.5-25°C and pH values of 7.8-8.6. The process contained suspended solids in the range of 10-20 mg/l.

M. Kawsar Ali; C.G. Marquez; J. Fillos; V. Diyamandoglu; L.A. Carrio

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Viscoelastic transient of confined Red Blood Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The unique ability of a red blood cell to flow through extremely small microcapillaries depends on the viscoelastic properties of its membrane. Here, we study in vitro the response time upon flow startup exhibited by red blood cells confined into microchannels. We show that the characteristic transient time depends on the imposed flow strength, and that such a dependence gives access to both the effective viscosity and the elastic modulus controlling the temporal response of red cells. A simple theoretical analysis of our experimental data, validated by numerical simulations, further allows us to compute an estimate for the two-dimensional membrane viscosity of red blood cells, $\\eta_{mem}^{2D}\\sim 10^{-7}$ N$\\cdot$s$\\cdot$m$^{-1}$. By comparing our results with those from previous studies, we discuss and clarify the origin of the discrepancies found in the literature regarding the determination of $\\eta_{mem}^{2D}$, and reconcile seemingly conflicting conclusions from previous works.

Gaël Prado; Alexander Farutin; Chaouqi Misbah; Lionel Bureau

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

479

Basic and Acidic Leaching of Sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bench-scale leaching tests were conducted with samples of tank waste sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate s