National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rectangular precast concrete

  1. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production The feasibility of using carbon dioxide as feedstock in precast concrete production is studied. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium compounds in concrete, producing solid calcium carbonates in binding matrix. Two typical precast products are examined for their capacity to store carbon dioxide during

  2. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production Shao, Yixin 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental Processes Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental...

  3. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yixin

    2014-06-26

    The feasibility of using carbon dioxide as feedstock in precast concrete production is studied. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium compounds in concrete, producing solid calcium carbonates in binding matrix. Two typical precast products are examined for their capacity to store carbon dioxide during the production. They are concrete blocks and fiber-cement panels. The two products are currently mass produced and cured by steam. Carbon dioxide can be used to replace steam in curing process to accelerate early strength, improve the long-term durability and reduce energy and emission. For a reaction within a 24-hour process window, the theoretical maximum possible carbon uptake in concrete is found to be 29% based on cement mass in the product. To reach the maximum uptake, a special process is developed to promote the reaction efficiency to 60-80% in 4-hour carbon dioxide curing and improve the resistance to freeze-thaw cycling and sulfate ion attack. The process is also optimized to meet the project target of $10/tCO2 in carbon utilization. By the use of self-concentrating absorption technology, high purity CO2 can be produced at a price below $40/t. With low cost CO2 capture and utilization technologies, it is feasible to establish a network for carbon capture and utilization at the vicinity of carbon sources. If all block produces and panel producers in United States could adopt carbon dioxide process in their production in place of steam, carbon utilization in these two markets alone could consume more than 2 Mt CO2/year. This capture and utilization process can be extended to more precast products and will continue for years to come.

  4. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    By the use of self-concentrating absorption technology, high purity COsub 2 can be produced at a price below 40t. With low cost COsub 2 capture and utilization technologies, ...

  5. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  6. Concrete Company Aims Higher for More Wind Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, most steel towers that support utility-scale turbines stand about 80 meters tall, but the Tindall Corporation wants to go higher using precast concrete to raise turbines over 100 meters in height to capture stronger, steadier winds - and more energy.

  7. Constructing earth sheltered housing with concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spears, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This manual provides a state - of - the - art review of the design and construction of an earth - sheltered house using cast - in - place concrete, precast concrete, and concrete masonry. Based on a literature survey, theoretical work, and discussions with researchers and engineers in the concrete industry, the text is designed for use by architects, engineers, and homebuilders. The features of concrete construction that are current accepted practice for the concrete products discussed are shown to be applicable with reasonable care to building a safe, dry, and comfortable earth - sheltered house. The main considerations underlying the recommendations were the use of the earth's mass and passive solar effects to minimize energy needs, the structural capacity of the separate concrete products and their construction methods, and drainage principles and waterproofing details. Shelter ranging from those with at least 2 feet of earth cover to those with an uncovered roof of usual construction are included. To be considered an earth - sheltered residential building, at least half of the exterior wall and roof area that is in direct contact with the conditioned living space must be sheltered from the environment by earth berm or earthfill. Siting considerations, the fundamentals of passive solar heating, planning considerations, and structural considerations are discussed. Detailed guidelines are provided on concrete masonry construction, joint details in walls and floors, waterproofing, formwork and form removal, concrete construction practices, concrete masonry, and surface finishes. Numerous illustrations, tables, and a list of 32 references are provided. (Author abstract modified).

  8. DOE-Funded Research Yields U.S. Patent for Use of CO2 in Concrete Curing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The United States Patent and Trademark Office has issued a patent to Solidia Technologies Inc. (Piscataway, NJ) for a process that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) rather than water to cure pre-cast concrete. Development of the process was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  9. Composite reinforced concrete and timber pile section and method of installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillen, G.J. Jr.

    1987-09-29

    A method is described for installing a composite pile of a timber pile section and a precast, reinforced concrete pile section comprising the steps of: a. simultaneously driving a timber pile section and a tubular sleeve positioned vertically above the sleeve and connected into the earth so that the timber pile section is a distance well below the earth's surface, a distance substantially equal to the length of the reinforced concrete pile section; b. using a tubular sleeve with a hollow bore during the simultaneous driving of the timber pile section and the tubular sleeve to prevent soil from entering the area vertically above the timber pile; c. placing a precast, reinforced concrete pile in the bore of the sleeve; d. joining the bottom of the concrete pile and the top of the timber pile with a connector that is embedded partially in the lower end of the concrete pile prior to joining; e. removing the tubular sleeve so that soil encroachment can laterally support the reinforced concrete pile section.

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  11. Counter-current flow limitation in thin rectangular channels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Counter-current flow limitation in thin rectangular channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Counter-current flow limitation in thin rectangular channels The phenomenon ...

  12. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E

    2013-09-10

    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  13. Refractory concretes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1979-01-01

    Novel concrete compositions comprise particles of aggregate material embedded in a cement matrix, said cement matrix produced by contacting an oxide selected from the group of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3, Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3, Sm.sub.2 O.sub.3, Eu.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Gd.sub.2 O.sub.3 with an aqueous solution of a salt selected from the group of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3, NH.sub.4 Cl, YCl.sub.3 and Mg(NO.sub.3).sub.2 to form a fluid mixture; and allowing the fluid mixture to harden.

  14. Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete Print Wednesday, 25 September 2013 00:00 The material secrets of a concrete Roman breakwater that has...

  15. Insulating polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schorr, H. Peter; Fontana, Jack J.; Steinberg, Meyer

    1987-01-01

    A lightweight insulating polymer concrete formed from a lightweight closed cell aggregate and a water resistance polymeric binder.

  16. Electron beam energy chirp control with a rectangular corrugated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electron beam energy chirp control with a rectangular corrugated structure at the Linac Coherent Light Source Authors: Zhang, Zhen ; Bane, Karl ; Ding, Yuantao ; Huang, ...

  17. Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in a Rectangular Chamber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scaling Law of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in...

  18. Alternating current loss reduction for rectangular busbars by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alternating current loss reduction for rectangular busbars by covering their edges with low permeable magnetic caps Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Alternating current...

  19. Rectangular Dielectric-lined Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Changbiao; Yakovlev, V.P.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    2004-12-07

    Results are reported from analysis of a rectangular X-band dielectric-lined accelerator structure operating in the symmetric LSM-11 mode that has a number of favorable attributes, by comparison with dielectric-lined cylindrical structures. These attributes include use of two planar one-piece precision-ground TiN coated dielectric slabs free of joints, open slots along two opposing metallic faces to suppress all anti-symmetric higher-order modes and to facilitate high-speed pumping, and significant reduction of wall losses by use of evanescent vacuum gaps beyond the dielectric slabs. It is shown that a structure operating at 11.424 GHz can be built with a shunt impedance > 60 M{omega}/m using low-loss alumina as the dielectric.

  20. Method and structure for cache aware transposition via rectangular subsections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Gunnels, John A

    2014-02-04

    A method and structure for transposing a rectangular matrix A in a computer includes subdividing the rectangular matrix A into one or more square submatrices and executing an in-place transposition for each of the square submatrices A.sub.ij.

  1. Applications for concrete offshore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The report collects and summarizes the various proposals for development offshore which have in common the use of concrete as the main structural material, and where possible, indicates their relative feasibility. A study encompassing such diverse schemes as offshore windmills, concrete LNG carriers, hydrocarbon production platforms and floating airports cannot be completely exhaustive on each subject, so references to sources of further information have been given wherever possible. Details of individual projects and proposals are included for Power plants, Hydrocarbon production platforms, Concrete ships, Storage systems and industrial plants, Subsea systems, Offshore islands, Coastal works and Other concrete structures.

  2. Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the ancient samples pinpointed why the best Roman concrete was superior to most modern concrete in durability, why its manufacture was less environmentally damaging, and how...

  3. Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete Print The material secrets of a concrete Roman breakwater that has spent the last 2000 years submerged in the Mediterranean Sea have been...

  4. Antifouling marine concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vind, H P; Mathews, C W

    1980-07-01

    Various toxic agents were evaluated as to their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete for OTEC plants. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives. Two proprietary formulations were applied as coatings on untreated concrete. Test specimens were exposed at Port Hueneme, CA, and Key Biscayne, FL. The efficacy of toxicants was determined by periodically weighing the adhering fouling organisms. Concrete prepared with an aggregate impregnated with a TBTO/creosote mixture has demonstrated the best antifouling performance of those specimens exposed for more than one year. The two proprietary coatings and the concrete containing methoxychlor, TPTH, and cuprous oxide as dry additives have exhibited good antifouling properties, but they have been exposed for a shorter time. The strength of concrete containing the toxicants was acceptable, and the toxicants did not increase the corrosion rate of reinforcing rods. Organotin compounds were essentially unchanged in concrete specimens exposed 6-1/2 years in seawater.

  5. Antifouling marine concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vind, H P; Mathews, C W

    1980-07-01

    Various toxic agents were evaluated as the their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives. Two proprietary formulations were applied as coatings on untreated concrete. Test specimens were exposed at Port Hueneme, CA, and Key Biscayne, FL. The efficacy of toxicants was determined by periodically weighing the adhering fouling organisms. Concrete prepared with an aggregate impregnated with a TBTO/creosote mixture has demonstrated the best antifouling performance of those specimens exposed for more than one year. The two proprietary coatings and the concrete containing methoxychlor, TPTH, and cuprous oxide as dry additives have exhibited good antifouling properties, but they have been exposed for a shorter time. The strength of concrete containing the toxicants was acceptable, and the toxicants did not increase the corrosion rate of reinforcing rods. Organotin compounds were essentially unchanged in concrete specimens exposed 6 1/2 years in seawater.

  6. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomasney, H.L.; SenGupta, A.K.; Yachmenev, V.

    1996-12-31

    ELECTROSORB Electrokinetic Extraction Technology, developed by ISOTRON Corp., offers a cost-effective approach to treating contaminated concrete. Heavy metals/radionuclides trapped in concrete can be extracted using this process if they are chemically solubilized; solubilizers used are citric acid alone and a mixture of citric and nitric acids. A DC electric field is applied across the contaminated concrete to electrokinetically transport the solubilized contaminants from the concrete pores to a collector on the concrete surface. The collector is an extraction pad laid on the surface. The pad provides confinement for a planar electrode and solubilizer solution; it is operated under a vacuum to hold the pad against the concrete surface. Operation requires little attendance, reducing the workers` health hazards. The process incorporates a mechanism for recycling the solubilizer solution. A field demonstration of the process took place in Building 21 of DOE`s Mound facility in Miamisburg, OH, over 12 days in June 1996. The thorium species present in this building`s concrete floors included ThO{sub 2} and thorium oxalate. The nitric acid was found to facilitate Th extraction.

  7. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomasney, H.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  8. Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete Print The material secrets of a concrete Roman breakwater that has spent the last 2000 years submerged in the Mediterranean Sea have been uncovered by an international team of researchers using a variety of techniques, including x-ray microdiffraction, x-ray spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based high-pressure x-ray diffraction. Analyses of the ancient samples pinpointed why the best Roman concrete was superior to most modern concrete in durability, why its

  9. Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete Print The material secrets of a concrete Roman breakwater that has spent the last 2000 years submerged in the Mediterranean Sea have been uncovered by an international team of researchers using a variety of techniques, including x-ray microdiffraction, x-ray spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based high-pressure x-ray diffraction. Analyses of the ancient samples pinpointed why the best Roman concrete was superior to most modern concrete in durability, why its

  10. Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete Print The material secrets of a concrete Roman breakwater that has spent the last 2000 years submerged in the Mediterranean Sea have been uncovered by an international team of researchers using a variety of techniques, including x-ray microdiffraction, x-ray spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based high-pressure x-ray diffraction. Analyses of the ancient samples pinpointed why the best Roman concrete was superior to most modern concrete in durability, why its

  11. Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete Print The material secrets of a concrete Roman breakwater that has spent the last 2000 years submerged in the Mediterranean Sea have been uncovered by an international team of researchers using a variety of techniques, including x-ray microdiffraction, x-ray spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based high-pressure x-ray diffraction. Analyses of the ancient samples pinpointed why the best Roman concrete was superior to most modern concrete in durability, why its

  12. Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete Print The material secrets of a concrete Roman breakwater that has spent the last 2000 years submerged in the Mediterranean Sea have been uncovered by an international team of researchers using a variety of techniques, including x-ray microdiffraction, x-ray spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based high-pressure x-ray diffraction. Analyses of the ancient samples pinpointed why the best Roman concrete was superior to most modern concrete in durability, why its

  13. Solves Poisson's Equation in Axizymmetric Geometry on a Rectangular Mesh

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-09-10

    DATHETA4.0 computes the magnetostatic field produced by multiple point current sources in the presence of perfect conductors in axisymmetric geometry. DATHETA4.0 has an interactive user interface and solves Poisson''s equation using the ADI method on a rectangular finite-difference mesh. DATHETA4.0 uncludes models specific to applied-B ion diodes.

  14. High temperature polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.

    1984-05-29

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system.

  15. Effect of shell drilling stiffness on response calculations of rectangular plates and tubes of rectangular cross-section under compression.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, Jhana; Hales, Jason Dean; Corona, Edmundo

    2010-05-01

    This report considers the calculation of the quasi-static nonlinear response of rectangular flat plates and tubes of rectangular cross-section subjected to compressive loads using quadrilateralshell finite element models. The principal objective is to assess the effect that the shell drilling stiffness parameter has on the calculated results. The calculated collapse load of elastic-plastic tubes of rectangular cross-section is of particular interest here. The drilling stiffness factor specifies the amount of artificial stiffness that is given to the shell element drilling Degree of freedom (rotation normal to the plane of the element). The element formulation has no stiffness for this degree of freedom, and this can lead to numerical difficulties. The results indicate that in the problems considered it is necessary to add a small amount of drilling tiffness to obtain converged results when using both implicit quasi-statics or explicit dynamics methods. The report concludes with a parametric study of the imperfection sensitivity of the calculated responses of the elastic-plastic tubes with rectangular cross-section.

  16. Laser ablation of concrete.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savina, M.

    1998-10-05

    Laser ablation is effective both as an analytical tool and as a means of removing surface coatings. The elemental composition of surfaces can be determined by either mass spectrometry or atomic emission spectroscopy of the atomized effluent. Paint can be removed from aircraft without damage to the underlying aluminum substrate, and environmentally damaged buildings and sculptures can be restored by ablating away deposited grime. A recent application of laser ablation is the removal of radioactive contaminants from the surface and near-surface regions of concrete. We present the results of ablation tests on concrete samples using a high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiber optic beam delivery. The laser-surface interaction was studied on various model systems consisting of Type I Portland cement with varying amounts of either fine silica or sand in an effort to understand the effect of substrate composition on ablation rates and mechanisms. A sample of non-contaminated concrete from a nuclear power plant was also studied. In addition, cement and concrete samples were doped with non-radioactive isotopes of elements representative of cooling waterspills, such as cesium and strontium, and analyzed by laser-resorption mass spectrometry to determine the contamination pathways. These samples were also ablated at high power to determine the efficiency with which surface contaminants are removed and captured. The results show that the neat cement matrix melts and vaporizes when little or no sand or aggregate is present. Surface flows of liquid material are readily apparent on the ablated surface and the captured aerosol takes the form of glassy beads up to a few tens of microns in diameter. The presence of sand and aggregate particles causes the material to disaggregate on ablation, with intact particles on the millimeter size scale leaving the surface. Laser resorption mass spectrometric analysis showed that cesium and potassium have similar chemical environments in the

  17. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S. R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444kW/cm2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control overmore » the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.« less

  18. Radial Eigenmodes for a Toroidal Waveguide with Rectangular Cross Section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Li

    2012-07-01

    In applying mode expansion to solve the CSR impedance for a section of toroidal vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, we identify the eigenvalue problem for the radial eigenmodes which is different from that for cylindrical structures. In this paper, we present the general expressions of the radial eigenmodes, and discuss the properties of the eigenvalues on the basis of the Sturm-Liouville theory.

  19. Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete Learning from Roman Seawater Concrete Print Wednesday, 25 September 2013 00:00 The material secrets of a concrete Roman breakwater that has spent the last 2000 years submerged in the Mediterranean Sea have been uncovered by an international team of researchers using a variety of techniques, including x-ray microdiffraction, x-ray spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based high-pressure x-ray diffraction. Analyses of the ancient samples pinpointed why the best Roman

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Insulating Concrete Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-10-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project investigated insulating concrete forms—rigid foam, hollow walls that are filled with concrete for highly insulated, hurricane-resistant construction.

  1. Width effects in transonic flow over a rectangular cavity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beresh, Steven J.; Wagner, Justin L.; Henfling, John F.; Spillers, Russell Wayne; Pruett, Brian Owen Matthew

    2015-07-24

    A previous experiment by the present authors studied the flow over a finite-width rectangular cavity at freestream Mach numbers 1.5–2.5. In addition, this investigation considered the influence of three-dimensional geometry that is not replicated by simplified cavities that extend across the entire wind-tunnel test section. The latter configurations have the attraction of easy optical access into the depths of the cavity, but they do not reproduce effects upon the turbulent structures and acoustic modes due to the length-to-width ratio, which is becoming recognized as an important parameter describing the nature of the flow within narrower cavities.

  2. Improved approximate formulas for flux from cylindrical and rectangular sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, O.J.; Bokharee, S.A.

    1993-03-01

    This report provides two new approximate formulas for the flux at detector points outside the radial and axial extensions of a homogeneous cylindrical source and improved approximate formulas for the flux at points opposite rectangular surface sources. These formulas extend the range of geometries for which analytic approximations may be used by shield design engineers to make rapid scoping studies and check more extensive calculations for reasonableness. These formulas can be used to support skeptical, independent evaluations and are also valuable teaching tools for introducing shield designers to complex shield analyses.

  3. Corner heating in rectangular solid oxide electrochemical cell generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Disclosed is an improvement in a solid oxide electrochemical cell generator 1 having a rectangular design with four sides that meet at corners, and containing multiplicity of electrically connected fuel cells 11, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen containing gas is passed into said cells, and said fuel is burned to form heat, electricity, and an exhaust gas. The improvement comprises passing the exhaust gases over the multiplicity of cells 11 in such a way that more of the heat in said exhaust gases flows at the corners of the generator, such as through channels 19.

  4. Nusselt numbers in rectangular ducts with laminar viscous dissipation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morini, G.L.; Spiga, M.

    1999-11-01

    The need for high thermal performance has stimulated the use of rectangular ducts in a wide variety of compact heat exchangers, mainly in tube-fin and plate-fin exchangers, in order to obtain an enhancement in heat transfer, with the same cross-sectional area of the duct. In this paper, the steady temperature distribution and the Nusselt numbers are analytically determined for a Newtonian incompressible fluid in a rectangular duct, in fully developed laminar flow with viscous dissipation, for any combination of heated and adiabatic sides of the duct, in H1 boundary condition, and neglecting the axial heat conduction in the fluid. The Navier-Stokes and the energy balance equations are solved using the technique of the finite integral transforms. For a duct with four uniformly heated sides (4 version), the temperature distribution and the Nusselt numbers are obtained as a function of the aspect ratio and of the Brinkman number and presented in graphs and tables Finally it is proved that the temperature field in a fully developed T boundary condition can be obtained as a particular case of the H1 problem and that the corresponding Nusselt numbers do not depend on the Brinkman number.

  5. Richards Equation Solver; Rectangular Finite Volume Flux Updating Solution.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-01-18

    Version: 00 POLYRES solves the transient, two-dimensional, Richards equation for water flow in unsaturated-saturated soils. The package is specifically designed to allow the user to easily model complex polygon-shaped regions. Flux, head, and unit gradient boundary conditions can be used. Spatial variation of the hydraulic properties can be defined across individual polygon-shaped subdomains, called objects. These objects combine to form a polygon-shaped model domain. Each object can have its own distribution of hydraulic parameters. Themore » resulting model domain and polygon-shaped internal objects are mapped onto a rectangular, finite-volume, computational grid by a preprocessor. This allows the user to specify model geometry independently of the underlying grid and greatly simplifies user input for complex geometries. In addition, this approach significantly reduces the computational requirements since complex geometries are actually modeled on a rectangular grid. This results in well-structured, finite difference-like systems of equations that require minimal storage and are very efficient to solve.« less

  6. Cementitious barriers partnership concrete mixture characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Protiere, Yannick

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the characterization study performed on two concrete mixtures used for radioactive waste storage.

  7. Testing of concrete by laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flesher, Dann J.; Becker, David L.; Beem, William L.; Berry, Tommy C.; Cannon, N. Scott

    1997-01-01

    A method of testing concrete in a structure in situ, by: directing a succession of pulses of laser radiation at a point on the structure so that each pulse effects removal of a quantity of concrete and transfers energy to the concrete; detecting a characteristic of energy which has been transferred to the concrete; determining, separately from the detecting step, the total quantity of concrete removed by the succession of pulses; and calculating a property of the concrete on the basis of the detected energy characteristic and the determined total quantity of concrete removed.

  8. Testing of concrete by laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flesher, D.J.; Becker, D.L.; Beem, W.L.; Berry, T.C.; Cannon, N.S.

    1997-01-07

    A method is disclosed for testing concrete in a structure in situ, by: directing a succession of pulses of laser radiation at a point on the structure so that each pulse effects removal of a quantity of concrete and transfers energy to the concrete; detecting a characteristic of energy which has been transferred to the concrete; determining, separately from the detecting step, the total quantity of concrete removed by the succession of pulses; and calculating a property of the concrete on the basis of the detected energy characteristic and the determined total quantity of concrete removed. 1 fig.

  9. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  10. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  11. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  12. Stress analysis and evaluation of a rectangular pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezvani, M.A.; Ziada, H.H.; Shurrab, M.S.

    1992-10-01

    This study addresses structural analysis and evaluation of an abnormal rectangular pressure vessel, designed to house equipment for drilling and collecting samples from Hanford radioactive waste storage tanks. It had to be qualified according to ASME boiler and pressure vessel code, Section VIII; however, it had the cover plate bolted along the long face, a configuration not addressed by the code. Finite element method was used to calculate stresses resulting from internal pressure; these stresses were then used to evaluate and qualify the vessel. Fatigue is not a concern; thus, it can be built according to Section VIII, Division I instead of Division 2. Stress analysis was checked against the code. A stayed plate was added to stiffen the long side of the vessel.

  13. Quantitative study of rectangular waveguide behavior in the THz.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowen, Adam M.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wanke, Michael Clement

    2009-10-01

    This report describes our efforts to quantify the behavior of micro-fabricated THz rectangular waveguides on a configurable, robust semiconductor-based platform. These waveguides are an enabling technology for coupling THz radiation directly from or to lasers, mixers, detectors, antennas, and other devices. Traditional waveguides fabricated on semiconductor platforms such as dielectric guides in the infrared or co-planar waveguides in the microwave regions, suffer high absorption and radiative losses in the THz. The former leads to very short propagation lengths, while the latter will lead to unwanted radiation modes and/or crosstalk in integrated devices. This project exploited the initial developments of THz micro-machined rectangular waveguides developed under the THz Grand Challenge Program, but instead of focusing on THz transceiver integration, this project focused on exploring the propagation loss and far-field radiation patterns of the waveguides. During the 9 month duration of this project we were able to reproduce the waveguide loss per unit of length in the waveguides and started to explore how the loss depended on wavelength. We also explored the far-field beam patterns emitted by H-plane horn antennas attached to the waveguides. In the process we learned that the method of measuring the beam patterns has a significant impact on what is actually measured, and this may have an effect on most of the beam patterns of THz that have been reported to date. The beam pattern measurements improved significantly throughout the project, but more refinements of the measurement are required before a definitive determination of the beam-pattern can be made.

  14. LEDA 074886: A REMARKABLE RECTANGULAR-LOOKING GALAXY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Alister W.; Spitler, Lee R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Lisker, Thorsten; Janz, Joachim; Moore, Ben

    2012-05-10

    We report the discovery of an interesting and rare rectangular-shaped galaxy. At a distance of 21 Mpc, the dwarf galaxy LEDA 074886 has an absolute R-band magnitude of -17.3 mag. Adding to this galaxy's intrigue is the presence of an embedded, edge-on stellar disk (of extent 2 R{sub e,disk} = 12'' = 1.2 kpc) for which Forbes et al. reported v{sub rot}/{sigma} Almost-Equal-To 1.4. We speculate that this galaxy may be the remnant of two (nearly edge-on) merged disk galaxies in which the initial gas was driven inward and subsequently formed the inner disk, while the stars at larger radii effectively experienced a dissipationless merger event resulting in this 'emerald cut galaxy' having very boxy isophotes with a{sub 4}/a = -0.05 to -0.08 from 3 to 5 kpc. This galaxy suggests that knowledge from simulations of both 'wet' and 'dry' galaxy mergers may need to be combined to properly understand the various paths that galaxy evolution can take, with a particular relevance to blue elliptical galaxies.

  15. Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Joliet, IL); Singh, Dileep (Westmont, IL); Pullockaran, Jose D. (Trenton, NJ); Knox, Lerry (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for producing quick setting concrete is provided comprising hydrng a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO.sub.3 of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring.

  16. Thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet with quantum effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lifeng, E-mail: walfe@nuaa.edu.cn; Hu, Haiyan [State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 210016 Nanjing (China)

    2014-06-21

    The thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet is investigated by using a rectangular nonlocal elastic plate model with quantum effects taken into account when the law of energy equipartition is unreliable. The relation between the temperature and the Root of Mean Squared (RMS) amplitude of vibration at any point of the rectangular single-layered graphene sheet in simply supported case is derived first from the rectangular nonlocal elastic plate model with the strain gradient of the second order taken into consideration so as to characterize the effect of microstructure of the graphene sheet. Then, the RMS amplitude of thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet simply supported on an elastic foundation is derived. The study shows that the RMS amplitude of the rectangular single-layered graphene sheet predicted from the quantum theory is lower than that predicted from the law of energy equipartition. The maximal relative difference of RMS amplitude of thermal vibration appears at the sheet corners. The microstructure of the graphene sheet has a little effect on the thermal vibrations of lower modes, but exhibits an obvious effect on the thermal vibrations of higher modes. The quantum effect is more important for the thermal vibration of higher modes in the case of smaller sides and lower temperature. The relative difference of maximal RMS amplitude of thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet decreases monotonically with an increase of temperature. The absolute difference of maximal RMS amplitude of thermal vibration of a rectangular single-layered graphene sheet increases slowly with the rising of Winkler foundation modulus.

  17. Concrete Pour in NSLS-II Ring

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bruno Semon

    2013-07-22

    The mezzanine floor of the ring building tunnel for NSLS-II was completed when the last concrete was placed in February 2011.

  18. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production Shao Yixin MATERIALS SCIENCE Clean Coal Technology Coal Environmental Processes Clean Coal Technology Coal Environmental...

  19. High temperature polymer concrete compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J.; Reams, Walter

    1985-01-01

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system. A preferred formulation emphasizing the major necessary components is as follows: ______________________________________ Component A: Silica sand 60-77 wt. % Silica flour 5-10 wt. % Portland cement 15-25 wt. % Acrylamide 1-5 wt. % Component B: Styrene 50-60 wt. % Trimethylolpropane 35-40 wt. % trimethacrylate ______________________________________ and necessary initiators, accelerators, and surfactants.

  20. The analysis of Raman scattering in a free-electron laser with a rectangular hybrid wiggler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kordbacheh, A. Shahsavand, M.

    2015-10-15

    A one dimensional theory of the stimulated Raman backscattering process in a free electron laser with rectangular hybrid wiggler (RHW) is analyzed. The dispersion relation in the rest frame of the electron beam and also a formula for the lab-frame spatial growth rate are derived. A numerical computation of the growth rate for RHW is conducted and a comparison with that for coaxial hybrid wiggler is made away from the resonance. The growth rate is found larger for the rectangular wiggler than for the coaxial wiggler. A much narrower magnetoresonance associated with the third spatial harmonic is also obtained compared to the first one.

  1. Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Knox, L.

    1997-04-29

    A method for producing quick setting concrete is provided comprising mixing a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO{sub 3} of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring. 2 figs.

  2. Radiation Damage In Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Naus, Dan J; Remec, Igor; Busby, Jeremy T; Rosseel, Thomas M; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and recently, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete [1]. Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete [2] does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure [3]. To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working to disposition radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines the research program within this pathway including: (i) defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield concrete for extended operation (80 years of operation and beyond), (ii) determining the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation as well as extended time at temperature on concrete, (iii) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish a conservative bound and share data obtained from different flux, temperature, and fluence levels, (iv) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, (v) developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in the results from the various concretes and research reactors, (vi) furthering the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete (see companion paper) and (vii) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge.

  3. Radiation Damage In Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Naus, Dan J; Remec, Igor; Busby, Jeremy T; Rosseel, Thomas M; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and recently, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete. Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure. To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working to disposition radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines the research program within this pathway including: (i) defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield concrete for extended operation (80 years of operation and beyond), (ii) determining the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation as well as extended time at temperature on concrete, (iii) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish a conservative bound and share data obtained from different flux, temperature, and fluence levels, (iv) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, (v) developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in the results from the various concretes and research reactors, (vi) furthering the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete (see companion paper) and (vii) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge.

  4. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  5. RF window assembly comprising a ceramic disk disposed within a cylindrical waveguide which is connected to rectangular waveguides through elliptical joints

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Yeremian, Anahid D.

    2016-03-15

    A high-power microwave RF window is provided that includes a cylindrical waveguide, where the cylindrical waveguide includes a ceramic disk concentrically housed in a central region of the cylindrical waveguide, a first rectangular waveguide, where the first rectangular waveguide is connected by a first elliptical joint to a proximal end of the cylindrical waveguide, and a second rectangular waveguide, where the second rectangular waveguide is connected by a second elliptical joint to a distal end of the cylindrical waveguide.

  6. Progress Update: H4 Basin Concrete Pour

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-06-14

    The Recovery Act funded project in the H area basin. A concrete ditch built longer than half a mile to prevent contaminated water from expanding and to reduce the footprint on the environment.

  7. Synthesis and Raman spectrum of crystalline indium oxide micro-rods with rectangular cross-section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Kavita Mehta, B. R. Singh, J. P.

    2014-04-24

    Indium oxide (IO) micro-rods with rectangular cross section were synthesized without catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system by carbothermal reduction of indium oxide at 900 °C. The rectangular micro-rods (RMRs) were grown on Si substrate in presence of water vapors and Ar atmosphere. Water was used as oxidizing reagent which controls the In/O stoichiometry in RMRs. The IO RMRs have dimensions of about 20 μm in length and about 1 μm width. The growth process involved in formation of RMRs is vapor-solid (VS) mechanism. Raman analysis was performed to obtain the phonon modes of the RMRs and the peaks of Raman spectrum were indexed to the modes being associated with bcc−In{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  8. Experimental research on heat transfer of natural convection in vertical rectangular channels with large aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Qing; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Tian, Wenxi; Ye, Zhonghao

    2010-01-15

    This work presents the experimental research on the steady laminar natural convection heat transfer of air in three vertical thin rectangular channels with different gap clearance. The much higher ratio of width to gap clearance (60-24) and the ratio of length to gap clearance (800-320) make the rectangular channels similar with the coolant flow passage in plate type fuel reactors. The vertical rectangular channels were composed of two stainless steal plates and were heated by electrical heating rods. The wall temperatures were detected with the K-type thermocouples which were inserted into the blind holes drilled in the steal plates. Also the air temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the channel were detected. The wall heat fluxes added to the air flow were calculated by the Fourier heat conduction law. The heat transfer characteristics were analyzed, and the average Nusselt numbers in all the three channels could be well correlated with the Rayleigh number or the modified Rayleigh number in a uniform correlation. Furthermore, the maximum wall temperatures were investigated, which is a key parameter for the fuel's integrity during some accidents. It was found that even the wall heat flux was up to 1500 W/m{sup 2}, the maximum wall temperature was lower than 350 C. All this work is valuable for the plate type reactor's design and safety analysis. (author)

  9. Concrete shaver. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) for many of its nuclear facilities throughout the United States. These facilities must be dismantled and the demolition waste sized into manageable pieces for handling and disposal. The facilities undergoing D and D are typically chemically and/or radiologically contaminated. To facilitate this work, DOE requires a tool capable of removing the surface of radiologically contaminated concrete floors. Operating requirements for the tool include simple and economical operation, the capability of operating in ambient temperatures from 3 C to 40 C (37 F to 104 F), and the ability to be easily decontaminated. The tool also must be safe for workers. The Marcrist Industries Limited concrete shaver is an electrically driven, self-propelled concrete and coating removal system. This technology consists of a 25-cm (10-in.)-wide diamond impregnated shaving drum powered by an electric motor and contains a vacuum port for dust extraction. The concrete shaver is ideal for use on open, flat, floor areas. The shaver may also be used on slightly curved surfaces. This shaver is self-propelled and produces a smooth, even surface with little vibration. The concrete shaver is an attractive alternative to traditional pneumatic scabbling tools, which were considered the baseline in this demonstration. The use of this tool reduces worker fatigue (compared to the baseline) due to lower vibration. The shaver is more than five times faster than the five-piston pneumatic scabbler at removing contamination from concrete. Because of this increased productivity, the shaver is 50% less costly to operate than baseline technologies. The DOE has successfully demonstrated the concrete shaver for decontaminating floors for free-release surveys prior to demolition work.

  10. SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE FOR WIND TURBINE FOUNDATIONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2004-06-01

    The use of wind power to generate electricity continues to grow, especially given commitments by various countries throughout the world to ensure that a significant percentage of energy comes from renewable sources. In order to meet such objectives, increasingly larger turbines with higher capacity are being developed. The engineering aspects of larger turbine development tend to focus on design and materials for blades and towers. However, foundations are also a critical component of large wind turbines and represent a significant cost of wind energy projects. Ongoing wind research at BNL is examining two areas: (a) structural response analysis of wind turbine-tower-foundation systems and (b) materials engineering of foundations. This work is investigating the dynamic interactions in wind turbine systems, which in turn assists the wind industry in achieving improved reliability and more cost efficient foundation designs. The results reported herein cover initial studies of concrete mix designs for large wind turbine foundations and how these may be tailored to reduce cost and incorporate sustainability and life cycle concepts. The approach taken was to investigate material substitutions so that the environmental, energy and CO{sub 2}-impact of concrete could be reduced. The use of high volumes of ''waste'' materials in concrete was examined. These materials included fly ash, blast furnace slag and recycled concrete aggregate. In addition, the use of steel fiber reinforcement as a means to improve mechanical properties and potentially reduce the amount of bar reinforcement in concrete foundations was studied. Four basic mixes were considered. These were: (1) conventional mix with no material substitutions, (2) 50% replacement of cement with fly ash, (3) 50% replacement of cement with blast furnace slag and (4) 25% replacement of cement with fly ash and 25% replacement with blast furnace slag. Variations on these mixes included the addition of 1% by volume steel

  11. Concrete decontamination by electro-hydraulic scabbling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldfarb, V.; Gannon, R.

    1995-10-01

    Textron Defense Systems (TDS) is developing an electro-hydraulic device that has the potential for faster, safer, and less expensive scabbling of contaminated concrete surfaces. In the device, shock waves and cavitating bubbles are produced in water by the electric pulses, and the direct and reflected shock waves impinging on the concrete surface result in the crushing and cracking of the concrete. Pulse energy, frequency, and traverse speed control the depth of the scabbling action. Performance thus far has demonstrated the capability of a prototype unit to process a swath 24 inches wide, up to 3/4 inch deep at a linear velocity of up to 6 feet per hour, i.e., at a scabbling rate of 12 sq. ft. per hour.

  12. Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Weiju; Naus, Dan J

    2012-05-01

    The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

  13. Innovative technology summary report: Concrete grinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The Flex concrete grinder is a lightweight, hand-held concrete and coating removal system used for decontaminating or stripping concrete surfaces. The US Department of Energy has successfully demonstrated it for decontaminating walls and floors for free release surveys prior to demolition work. The grinder is an electric-powered tool with a vacuum port for dust extraction and a diamond grinding wheel. The grinder is suitable for flat or slightly curved surfaces and results in a smooth surface, which makes release surveys more reliable. The grinder is lightweight and produces very little vibration, thus reducing worker fatigue. The grinder is more efficient than traditional baseline, tools at removing contamination from concrete surfaces (more than four times faster than hand-held pneumatic scabbling and scaling tools). Grinder consumables (i.e., replacement diamond grinding wheel) are more expensive than the replacement carbide parts for the scaler and scabbler. However, operating costs are outweighed by the lower purchase price of the grinder (50% of the price of the baseline scaler and 8% of the price of the baseline scabbler). Overall, the concrete grinder is an attractive alternative to traditional scabbling and scaling pneumatic tools. To this end, in July 1998, the outer rod room exposed walls of the Safe Storage Enclosure (SSE), an area measuring approximately 150 m{sup 2}, may be decontaminated with the hand-held grinder. This concrete grinder technology was demonstrated for the first time at the DOE`s Hanford Site. Decontamination of a sample room walls was performed at the C Reactor to free release the walls prior to demolition. The demonstration was conducted by onsite D and D workers, who were instructed by the vendor prior to and during the demonstration.

  14. TRANSPORT THROUGH CRACKED CONCRETE: LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.

    2012-05-11

    Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

  15. Concrete material characterization reinforced concrete tank structure Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkel, B.V.

    1995-03-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project position on the concrete mechanical properties needed to perform design/analysis calculations for the MWTF secondary concrete structure. This report provides a position on MWTF concrete properties for the Title 1 and Title 2 calculations. The scope of the report is limited to mechanical properties and does not include the thermophysical properties of concrete needed to perform heat transfer calculations. In the 1970`s, a comprehensive series of tests were performed at Construction Technology Laboratories (CTL) on two different Hanford concrete mix designs. Statistical correlations of the CTL data were later generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). These test results and property correlations have been utilized in various design/analysis efforts of Hanford waste tanks. However, due to changes in the concrete design mix and the lower range of MWTF operating temperatures, plus uncertainties in the CTL data and PNL correlations, it was prudent to evaluate the CTL data base and PNL correlations, relative to the MWTF application, and develop a defendable position. The CTL test program for Hanford concrete involved two different mix designs: a 3 kip/in{sup 2} mix and a 4.5 kip/in{sup 2} mix. The proposed 28-day design strength for the MWTF tanks is 5 kip/in{sup 2}. In addition to this design strength difference, there are also differences between the CTL and MWTF mix design details. Also of interest, are the appropriate application of the MWTF concrete properties in performing calculations demonstrating ACI Code compliance. Mix design details and ACI Code issues are addressed in Sections 3.0 and 5.0, respectively. The CTL test program and PNL data correlations focused on a temperature range of 250 to 450 F. The temperature range of interest for the MWTF tank concrete application is 70 to 200 F.

  16. Advanced Numerical Model for Irradiated Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorla, Alain B.

    2015-03-01

    In this report, we establish a numerical model for concrete exposed to irradiation to address these three critical points. The model accounts for creep in the cement paste and its coupling with damage, temperature and relative humidity. The shift in failure mode with the loading rate is also properly represented. The numerical model for creep has been validated and calibrated against different experiments in the literature [Wittmann, 1970, Le Roy, 1995]. Results from a simplified model are shown to showcase the ability of numerical homogenization to simulate irradiation effects in concrete. In future works, the complete model will be applied to the analysis of the irradiation experiments of Elleuch et al. [1972] and Kelly et al. [1969]. This requires a careful examination of the experimental environmental conditions as in both cases certain critical information are missing, including the relative humidity history. A sensitivity analysis will be conducted to provide lower and upper bounds of the concrete expansion under irradiation, and check if the scatter in the simulated results matches the one found in experiments. The numerical and experimental results will be compared in terms of expansion and loss of mechanical stiffness and strength. Both effects should be captured accordingly by the model to validate it. Once the model has been validated on these two experiments, it can be applied to simulate concrete from nuclear power plants. To do so, the materials used in these concrete must be as well characterized as possible. The main parameters required are the mechanical properties of each constituent in the concrete (aggregates, cement paste), namely the elastic modulus, the creep properties, the tensile and compressive strength, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the drying shrinkage. These can be either measured experimentally, estimated from the initial composition in the case of cement paste, or back-calculated from mechanical tests on concrete. If some

  17. Detection Of Concrete Deterioration By Staining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guthrie, Jr., George D.; Carey, J. William

    1999-09-21

    A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobaltinitrite and a rhodamine dye is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR), and to identify degraded concrete which results in a porous or semi-permeable paste due to carbonation or leaching. These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na--K--Ca--Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca--Si gels are identified by pink staining.

  18. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2014-06-15

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 ?m in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  19. Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 870/sup 0/C (950 to 1600/sup 0/F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium.

  20. Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-10-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  1. Nuclear waste package fabricated from concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1987-03-01

    After the United States enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1983, the Department of Energy must design, site, build and operate permanent geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The Department of Energy has recently selected three sites, one being the Hanford Site in the state of Washington. At this particular site, the repository will be located in basalt at a depth of approximately 3000 feet deep. The main concern of this site, is contamination of the groundwater by release of radionuclides from the waste package. The waste package basically has three components: the containment barrier (metal or concrete container, in this study concrete will be considered), the waste form, and other materials (such as packing material, emplacement hole liners, etc.). The containment barriers are the primary waste container structural materials and are intended to provide containment of the nuclear waste up to a thousand years after emplacement. After the containment barriers are breached by groundwater, the packing material (expanding sodium bentonite clay) is expected to provide the primary control of release of radionuclide into the immediate repository environment. The loading conditions on the concrete container (from emplacement to approximately 1000 years), will be twofold; (1) internal heat of the high-level waste which could be up to 400/sup 0/C; (2) external hydrostatic pressure up to 1300 psi after the seepage of groundwater has occurred in the emplacement tunnel. A suggested container is a hollow plain concrete cylinder with both ends capped. 7 refs.

  2. Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-11-01

    EHS is being developed for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals. EHS involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface; high impulse pressure results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. Objective of Phase I was to prove the technical feasibility of EH for controlled scabbling and decontamination of concrete. Phase I is complete.

  3. An Alternative Mechanism for Accelerated Carbon Sequestration in Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haselbach, Liv M.; Thomle, Jonathan N.

    2014-07-01

    The increased rate of carbon dioxide sequestration (carbonation) is desired in many primary and secondary life applications of concrete in order to make the life cycle of concrete structures more carbon neutral. Most carbonation rate studies have focused on concrete exposed to air under various conditions. An alternative mechanism for accelerated carbon sequestration in concrete was investigated in this research based on the pH change of waters in contact with pervious concrete which have been submerged in carbonate laden waters. The results indicate that the concrete exposed to high levels of carbonate species in water may carbonate faster than when exposed to ambient air, and that the rate is higher with higher concentrations. Validation of increased carbon dioxide sequestration was also performed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is theorized that the proposed alternative mechanism reduces a limiting rate effect of carbon dioxide dissolution in water in the micro pores of the concrete.

  4. Salado mass concrete: Mixture development and preliminary characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.; Neeley, B.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1994-06-01

    A salt-saturated concrete proportioned with Class H oilwell cement, Class F fly ash, and a shrinkage compensating component was developed to meet performance requirements for mass placement as seal components at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Target properties of the concrete included 8-in. slump 3 hr after mixing, no aggregate segregation, heat rise of < 25{degrees}F 4 hr after mixing, compressive strength of 4,500 psi at 180 days, minimal volume change, and probable geochemical stability for repository conditions. Thermal and mechanical properties of promising candidate concrete mixtures were measured. Modulus of elasticity and creep behavior were similar to those of ordinary portland cement mass concretes. Thermal expansion for the salt-saturated concrete developed here was typical of ordinary concrete with similar silicate aggregates. Thermal conductivity, diffusivity, and specific heat approximated values measured for other mass concretes and were similar to values of the host salt rock.

  5. Brittle failure kinetics model for concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silling, S.A.

    1997-03-01

    A new constitutive model is proposed for the modeling of penetration and large stress waves in concrete. Rate effects are incorporated explicitly into the damage evolution law, hence the term brittle failure kinetics. The damage variable parameterizes a family of Mohr-Coulomb strength curves. The model, which has been implemented in the CTH code, has been shown to reproduce some distinctive phenomena that occur in penetration of concrete targets. Among these are the sharp spike in deceleration of a rigid penetrator immediately after impact. Another is the size scale effect, which leads to a nonlinear scaling of penetration depth with penetrator size. This paper discusses the theory of the model and some results of an extensive validation effort.

  6. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, Dwight A

    2015-01-01

    Materials issues are a key concern for the existing nuclear reactor fleet in the United States as material degradation can lead to increased maintenance, increased downtime, and increased risk. Extending reactor life to 60 years and beyond will likely increase susceptibility and severity of both known and new forms of degradation. A multitude of concrete-based structures are typically part of a light water reactor plant to provide foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. The size and complexity of nuclear power plant containment structures and the heterogeneity of Portland cement concrete make characterization of the degradation extent a difficult task. This paper examines the benefits of using time-frequency analysis with Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT). By using wavelet packet decomposition, the original ultrasound signals are decomposed into various frequency bands that facilitates highly selective analysis of the signal’s frequency content and can be visualized using the familiar SAFT image reconstruction algorithm.

  7. Magnetic vortex-antivortex dynamics on a picosecond timescale in a rectangular Permalloy pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.-H.; Mesler-Lai, B.; Anderson, E.; Fischer, P.; Moon, J.-H.; Lee, K.-J.

    2009-06-25

    We report our experimental finding that there exists a pair of magnetic vortex and antivortex generated during an excited motion of a magnetic vortex core. Two vortices structure in 2 x 4 {micro}m{sup 2} rectangular Permalloy pattern is excited by an external field pulse of 1-ns duration, where each vortex is excited and followed by the vortex core splitting. X-ray microscopy with high spatiotemporal resolution enables us to observe a linking domain between two temporarily generated pairs of vortex-antivortex cores only surviving for several hundreds of picoseconds. The linking domain structure is found to depend on the combinational configuration of two original vortex cores, which is supported by micromagnetic simulations with a very good agreement.

  8. Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low-­‐Energy, Carbon-­Dioxide-­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

    2012-05-14

    -based concrete with HFC in infrastructure we can reduce energy use in concrete production by 70%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 98%; thus the potential to reduce the impact of building materials on global warming and climate change is highly significant. Low Temperature Solidification (LTS) is a breakthrough technology that enables the densification of inorganic materials via a hydrothermal process. The resulting product exhibits excellent control of chemistry and microstructure, to provide durability and mechanical performance that exceeds that of concrete or natural stone. The technology can be used in a wide range of applications including facade panels, interior tiles, roof tiles, countertops, and pre-cast concrete. Replacing traditional building materials and concrete in these applications will result in significant reduction in both energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions.

  9. Some engineering properties of heavy concrete added silica fume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akka?, Ay?e; Ba?yi?it, Celalettin; Esen, Serap

    2013-12-16

    Many different types of building materials have been used in building construction for years. Heavy concretes can be used as a building material for critical building as it can contain a mixture of many heavy elements. The barite itself for radiation shielding can be used and also in concrete to produce the workable concrete with a maximum density and adequate structural strength. In this study, some engineering properties like compressive strength, elasticity modules and flexure strength of heavy concretes added Silica fume have been investigated.

  10. A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A novel technique for the production of cool ...

  11. Roman Seawater Concrete Holds the Secret to Cutting Carbon Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "one of the most durable construction materials on the planet," says UC Berkeley's Marie Jackson, a leading member of the team. Says Monteiro, "It's not that modern concrete...

  12. Evolution of an interfacial crack on the concrete-embankment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Evolution of an interfacial crack on the concrete-embankment boundary Authors: Glascoe, L ; Antoun, T ; Kanarska, Y ; Lomove, I ; Hall, R ; Woodson, S ; Smith, J Publication ...

  13. Performance of Damaged Soil-Concrete Wraparound Dam Sections...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predicting seismic or shock loading damage of the soil-concrete interface where an ... erosion process, and deposition within interface cracks; and (2) to investigate the ...

  14. Concrete growth problems and remedial measures at TVA projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammer, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Most concrete structures are designed and detailed to provide for a volume decrease without excessive cracking. Occasionally, however, a concrete structure exhibits a long-term increase in volume termed concrete growth. Concrete growth may result from a variety of reactions, such as the hydration of unstable oxides included in the concrete mix, or the oxidation of minerals or from an outside attack of sulfates. The most important reaction creating concrete growth is that between minor alkali hydroxides from cement and the concrete aggregates. Two distinctly different harmful reactions have been recognized: the alkali-silicate and alkali-carbonate reactions. Concrete deteriorating from an alkali-aggregate reaction, regardless of the type, develops an obvious network of cracks called pattern or map cracking. These alkali-aggregate reactions and their accompanying concrete growth have presented numerous problems at TVA's Fontana Dam, Chickamauga Dam and lock, and Hiwassee Dam. Much has been learned about alkali-aggregate reaction since 1940. Most harmful reactions can now be prevented in proposed structures by interpreting the results of standard test methods. It is not possible, however, in existing structures to determine how far the growth phenomenon has progressed, how long the effects will have to be dealt with, or what the future effects will be. A program of close surveillance and monitoring is maintained at these projects, and problems are dealt with as they arise.

  15. Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claytor, T.N.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). This paper reviews the state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

  16. CONCRETE SUPPORT DESIGN FOR MISCELLANEOUS ESF UTILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.A. Misiak

    1999-06-21

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to design concrete supports for the miscellaneous utility equipment used at the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Two utility systems are analyzed: (1) the surface collection tanks of the Waste Water System, and (2) the chemical tracer mixing and storage tanks of the Non-Potable Water System. This analysis satisfies design recommended in the Title III Evaluation Reports for the Subsurface Fire Water System and Subsurface Portion of the Non-Potable Water System (CRWMS M&O 1998a) and Waste Water Systems (CRWMS M&O 1998b).

  17. EERE Success Story-Concrete Company Moving to Natural Gas with...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concrete Company Moving to Natural Gas with Clean Cities EERE Success Story-Concrete Company Moving to Natural Gas with Clean Cities March 10, 2015 - 10:25am Addthis Concrete ...

  18. Perforation of thin unreinforced concrete slabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cargile, J.D.; Giltrud, M.E.; Luk, V.K.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses fourteen tests which were conducted to investigate the perforation of thin unreinforced concrete slabs. The 4340-steel projectile used in the test series is 50.8 mm in diameter, 355.6 mm in length, has a mass of 2.34 kg. and an ogive nose with caliber radius head of 3. The slabs, contained within steel culverts, are 1.52 m in diameter and consist of concrete with a nominal unconfined compressive strength of 38.2 MPa and maxima aggregate size of 9.5 mm. Slab thicknesses are 284.4, 254.0, 215.9 and 127.0 mm. Tests were conducted at impact velocities of about 313 m/s on all slab thicknesses and about 379 and 471 m/s on the 254.0-mm-thick slab. All tests were conducted at normal incidence to the slab. All tests were conducted at normal incidence to the slab. Information obtained from the tests used to determine the loading (deceleration) on the projectile during the perforation process, the velocity-displacement of the projectile as it perforated the slab, and the projectile position as damage occurred on the backface of the slab. The test projectile behaved essentially as a rigid body for all of the tests.

  19. Multiscale Concrete Modeling of Aging Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammi, Yousseff; Gullett, Philipp; Horstemeyer, Mark F.

    2015-07-31

    In this work a numerical finite element framework is implemented to enable the integration of coupled multiscale and multiphysics transport processes. A User Element subroutine (UEL) in Abaqus is used to simultaneously solve stress equilibrium, heat conduction, and multiple diffusion equations for 2D and 3D linear and quadratic elements. Transport processes in concrete structures and their degradation mechanisms are presented along with the discretization of the governing equations. The multiphysics modeling framework is theoretically extended to the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) by introducing the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and based on the XFEM user element implementation of Giner et al. [2009]. A damage model that takes into account the damage contribution from the different degradation mechanisms is theoretically developed. The total contribution of damage is forwarded to a Multi-Stage Fatigue (MSF) model to enable the assessment of the fatigue life and the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures in a nuclear power plant. Finally, two examples are presented to illustrate the developed multiphysics user element implementation and the XFEM implementation of Giner et al. [2009].

  20. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  1. Concrete decontamination by electro-hydraulic scabbling (EHS). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    Contamination of concrete structures by radionuclides, hazardous metals and organic substances (including PCB`s) occurs at many DOE sites. The contamination of concrete structures (walls, floors, ceilings, etc.) varies in type, concentration, and especially depth of penetration into the concrete. In many instances, only the surface layer of concrete is contaminated, up to a depth of one inch, according to estimates provided in the R and D ID document. Then, removal of the concrete surface layer (scabbling) is considered to be the most effective decontamination method. Textron Systems Corp. (TSC) has developed a scabbling concept based on electro-mechanical phenomena accompanying strong electric pulses generated by applying high voltage at the concrete/water interface. Depending on the conditions, the electric discharge may occur either through a waste layer or through the concrete body itself. This report describes the development, testing, and results of this electro-mechanical process. Phase 1 demonstrated the feasibility of the process for the controlled removal of a thin layer of contaminated concrete. Phase 2 designed, fabricated, and tested an integrated subscale unit. This was tested at Fernald. In Phase 3, the scabbling unit was reconfigured to increase its power and processing rate. Technology transfer to an engineering contracting company is continuing.

  2. Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, G.A.; Smith, J.W.; Ihle, N.C.

    1982-07-08

    A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with Portland cement to form concrete.

  3. Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA; Smith, Jeffrey W [Lancaster, OH; Ihle, Nathan C [Walla Walla, WA

    1984-01-01

    A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with portland cement to form concrete.

  4. Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.; Horn, William H.

    1985-01-01

    Quick setting polymer concrete compositions with excellent structural properties are disclosed; these polymer concrete compositions are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate, which may be wet, and with a source of bivalent metallic ions.

  5. Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Horn, W.H.

    1981-11-04

    Quick setting polymer concrete compositions which are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate which may be wet and a source of bivalent metallic ions which will set to polymer concrete with excellent structural properties.

  6. Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Horn, W.H.

    1983-05-13

    Quick setting polymer concrete compositions are described which are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate which may be wet and a source of bivalent metallic ions which will set to polymer concrete with excellent structural properties.

  7. Probabilistic Characterization of Partial Volume Effects in Imaging of Rectangular Objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulaevskaya, V.

    2015-05-06

    In imaging, a partial volume effect refers to the problem that arises when the system resolution is low relative to the size of the object being imaged [1, 2]. In this setting, it is likely that most voxels occupied by the object are only partially covered, and that the fraction covered in each voxel is low. This makes the problem of object detection and image segmentation very difficult because the algorithms designed for these purposes rely on pixel summary statistics. If the area covered by the object is very low in relatively many of the total number of the voxels the object occupies, these summary statistics may not reach the thresholds required to detect this object. It is thus important to understand the extent of partial volume effect for a given object size and resolution. This technical report focuses on rectangular objects and derives the probability distributions for three quantities for such objects: 1) the number of fully covered voxels, 2) the number of partially covered voxels, and 3) the fractions of the total volume covered in the partially covered voxels. The derivations are first shown for 2-D settings and are then extended to 3-D settings.

  8. Testing and evaluation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Harris, M.T.; Ally, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    The goals and objectives of the technical task plan (TTP) are to (1) describe the nature and extent of concrete contamination within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and emerging and commercial technologies applicable to these problems; (2) to match technologies to the concrete problems and recommend up to four demonstrations; (3) to initiate recommended demonstrations; and (4) to continue investigation and evaluation of the application of electrokinetic decontamination processes to concrete. This document presents findings of experimental and theoretical studies of the electrokinetic decontamination (EK) process and their implications for field demonstrations. This effort is an extension of the work performed under TTP 142005, ``Electroosmotic Concrete Decontamination. The goals of this task were to determine the applicability of EK for treating contaminated concrete and, if warranted, to evaluate EK as a potential technology for demonstration. 62 refs.

  9. SLAM: a sodium-limestone concrete ablation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1983-12-01

    SLAM is a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region. The model includes a solution to the mass, momentum, and energy equations in each region. A chemical kinetics model is included to provide heat sources due to chemical reactions between the sodium and the concrete. Both isolated model as well as integrated whole code evaluations have been made with good results. The chemical kinetics and water migration models were evaluated separately, with good results. Several small and large-scale sodium limestone concrete experiments were simulated with reasonable agreement between SLAM and the experimental results. The SLAM code was applied to investigate the effects of mixing, pool temperature, pool depth and fluidization. All these phenomena were found to be of significance in the predicted response of the sodium concrete interaction. Pool fluidization is predicted to be the most important variable in large scale interactions.

  10. Code System to Calculate Heat and Mass Transfer In Concrete

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-05-26

    Version 00 This version is designated USINTC and was developed to model the thermal response of concrete to very high heating rates such as might occur from sodium spills on concrete surfaces in a breeder reactor. The major phenomena treated are conductive energy transport; chemical decomposition of concrete; and two-phase, three-component heat and mass transfer of the decomposition products: steam, liquid water, and carbon dioxide. The USINT model provides for porosity to increase as watermore » and carbon-dioxide are formed from the concrete. The concrete is treated generally as divided into two basic regions, wet and dry. In the wet region, steam, carbon-dioxide, and liquid water may co-exist, but in the dry region, there is no liquid water. There is also the possibility of a third region in which there is only liquid water and no gases.« less

  11. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turick, C; Berry, C.

    2012-10-15

    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  12. Diamond Shaving of Contaminated Concrete Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, Lisa K.

    2008-01-15

    Decommissioning and decontamination of existing facilities presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of surface contamination from concrete floors and walls while eliminating the spread of contamination and volumetric reduction of the waste stream. Numerous methods have been tried with a varying degree of success. Recent technology has made this goal achievable and has been used successfully. This new technology is the Diamond Floor Shaver and Diamond Wall shaver. The Diamond Floor Shaver is a self-propelled, walk behind machine that literally shaves the contaminated concrete surface to specified depths. This is accomplished by using a patented system of 100 dry cutting diamond blades with offset diamond segments that interlock to provide complete shaving of the concrete surface. Grooves are eliminated which allows for a direct frisk reading to analyze results. When attached to an appropriate size vacuum, the dust produced is 100% contained. Dust is collected in drums ready for disposition and disposal. The waste produced in shaving 7,500 square feet at 1/8 inch thickness would fill a single 55 gallon drum. Production is dependent on depth of shaving but averages 100 square feet per hour. The wall shaver uses the same patented diamond drum and blades but is hydraulically driven and is deployed using a robotic arm allowing its operation to be to totally remote. It can reach ceilings as high as 20 feet. Numerous small projects were successfully completed using this technology. Large scale deployment came in 2003. Bluegrass, in conjunction with Bartlett Services, deployed this technology to support decontamination activities for closing of the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons site. Up to six floor shavers and one wall shaver were deployed in buildings B371 and B374. These buildings had up to one half-inch, fixed plutonium and beryllium contamination. Hundred-thousands of square feet of floors and walls were shaved successfully to depths of up to

  13. Normal and refractory concretes for LMFBR applications. Volume 2. Evaluation of concretes for LMFBR applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chern, J.C.; Abrams, M.S.; Gillen, M.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive literature on the properties and behavior at elevated temperature of portland cement concrete and various refractory concretes was reviewed to collect in concise form the physical and chemical properties of castable refractory concretes and of conventional portland cement concretes at elevated temperature. This survey, together with an extensive bibliography of source documents, is presented in Volume 1. A comparison was made of these properties, the relative advantages of the various concretes was evaluated for possible liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications, and a selection was made of several materials of interest for such applications. Volume 2 concludes with a summary of additional knowledge needed to support such uses of these materials together with recommendations on research to provide that knowledge.

  14. High temperature chemically resistant polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    High temperature chemically resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites consist of about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder. The binder is polymerized in situ from a liquid vinyl-type monomer or mixture of vinyl containing monomers such as triallylcyanurate, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methyl-methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene. About 5 to 40% by weight of a reactive inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate and mixtures containing less than 2% free lime, and about 48 to 83% by weight of silica sand/ and a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other orgaic peroxides and combinations to initiate polymerization of the monomer in the presence of the inorganic filers are used.

  15. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  16. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-06-30

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance. 6 figs.

  17. Particle-driven gravity currents in non-rectangular cross section channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemach, T.

    2015-10-15

    We consider a high-Reynolds-number gravity current generated by suspension of heavier particles in fluid of density ρ{sub i}, propagating along a channel into an ambient fluid of the density ρ{sub a}. The bottom and top of the channel are at z = 0, H, and the cross section is given by the quite general −f{sub 1}(z) ≤ y ≤ f{sub 2}(z) for 0 ≤ z ≤ H. The flow is modeled by the one-layer shallow-water equations obtained for the time-dependent motion which is produced by release from rest of a fixed volume of mixture from a lock. We solve the problem by the finite-difference numerical code to present typical height h(x, t), velocity u(x, t), and volume fraction of particles (concentration) ϕ(x, t) profiles. The methodology is illustrated for flow in typical geometries: power-law (f(z) = z{sup α} and f(z) = (H − z){sup α}, where α is positive constant), trapezoidal, and circle. In general, the speed of propagation of the flows driven by suspensions decreases compared with those driven by a reduced gravity in homogeneous currents. However, the details depend on the geometry of the cross section. The runout length of suspensions in channels of power-law cross sections is analytically predicted using a simplified depth-averaged “box” model. The present approach is a significant generalization of the classical gravity current problem. The classical formulation for a rectangular channel is now just a particular case, f(z) = const., in the wide domain of cross sections covered by this new model.

  18. Code System for Analysis of 3-D Reinforced Concrete Structures.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-11-22

    Version 00 NONSAP-C is a finite element program for determining the static and dynamic response of three-dimensional reinforced concrete structures. Long-term, or creep, behavior of concrete structures can also be analyzed. Nonlinear constitutive relations for concrete under short-term loads are incorporated in two time-independent models, a variable-modulus approach with orthotropic behavior induced in the concrete due to the development of different tangent moduli in different directions and an elastic-plastic model in which the concrete ismore » assumed to be a continuous, isotropic, and linearly elastic-plastic strain-hardening-fracture material. A viscoelastic constitutive model for long-term thermal creep of concrete is included. Three-dimensional finite elements available in NONSAP-C include a truss element, a multinode tendon element for prestressed and post tensioned concrete structures, an elastic-plastic membrane element to represent the behavior of cavity liners, and a general isoparametric element with a variable number of nodes for analysis of solids and thick shells.« less

  19. Demonstration recommendations for accelerated testing of concrete decontamination methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Ally, M.R.; Brown, C.H.; Morris, M.I.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    A large number of aging US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facilities located throughout the US require deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning. Although several technologies are available commercially for concrete decontamination, emerging technologies with potential to reduce secondary waste and minimize the impact and risk to workers and the environment are needed. In response to these needs, the Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods project team described the nature and extent of contaminated concrete within the DOE complex and identified applicable emerging technologies. Existing information used to describe the nature and extent of contaminated concrete indicates that the most frequently occurring radiological contaminants are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and its daughters), {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and tritium. The total area of radionuclide-contaminated concrete within the DOE complex is estimated to be in the range of 7.9 {times} 10{sup 8} ft{sup 2}or approximately 18,000 acres. Concrete decontamination problems were matched with emerging technologies to recommend demonstrations considered to provide the most benefit to decontamination of concrete within the DOE complex. Emerging technologies with the most potential benefit were biological decontamination, electro-hydraulic scabbling, electrokinetics, and microwave scabbling.

  20. Recent Advances in Understanding Radiation Damage in Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosseel, Thomas M; Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Remec, Igor; Giorla, Alain B; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has resulted in a renewed focus on long-term aging of materials at nuclear power plants (NPPs) including concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Nuclear Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete (Graves et al., (2014)). Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete (Hilsdorf et al., (1978)) does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure (Kontani et al., (2011)). To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, the Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are working to better understand radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines recent progress toward: 1) assessing the radiation environment in concrete biological shields and defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield for extended operation, and estimating adsorbed dose, 2) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, 3) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete and its components under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish conservative bounds and inform damage models, 4) developing improved models to enhance the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete and 5) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge including developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in data obtained from various concretes and from accelerated irradiation experiments.

  1. Roadmap 2030: The U.S. Concrete Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2002-12-01

    Roadmap 2030: The U.S. Concrete Industry Technology Roadmap tracks the eight goals published in the American Concrete Institute Strategic Development Council's Vision 2030: A Vision for the U.S. Concrete Industry. Roadmap 2030 highlights existing state-of-the-art technologies and emerging scientific advances that promise high potential for innovation, and predicts future technological needs. It defines enabling research opportunities and proposes areas where governmental-industrial-academic partnerships can accelerate the pace of development. Roadmap 2030 is a living document designed to continually address technical, institutional, and market changes.

  2. Investigating Radiation Shielding Properties of Different Mineral Origin Heavyweight Concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basyigit, Celalettin; Uysal, Volkan; Kilincarslan, Semsettin; Akkas, Ayse; Mavi, Betuel; Guenoglu, Kadir; Akkurt, Iskender

    2011-12-26

    The radiation although has hazardous effects for human health, developing technologies bring lots of usage fields to radiation like in medicine and nuclear power station buildings. In this case protecting from undesirable radiation is a necessity for human health. Heavyweight concrete is one of the most important materials used in where radiation should be shielded, like those areas. In this study, used heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin (Limonite, Siderite), in order to prepare different series in concrete mixtures and investigated radiation shielding properties. The experimental results on measuring the radiation shielding, the heavyweight concrete prepared with heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin show that, are useful radiation absorbents when they used in concrete mixtures.

  3. Modeling of fracture of protective concrete structures under impact loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radchenko, P. A. Batuev, S. P.; Radchenko, A. V.; Plevkov, V. S.

    2015-10-27

    This paper presents results of numerical simulation of interaction between a Boeing 747-400 aircraft and the protective shell of a nuclear power plant. The shell is presented as a complex multilayered cellular structure consisting of layers of concrete and fiber concrete bonded with steel trusses. Numerical simulation was performed three-dimensionally using the original algorithm and software taking into account algorithms for building grids of complex geometric objects and parallel computations. Dynamics of the stress-strain state and fracture of the structure were studied. Destruction is described using a two-stage model that allows taking into account anisotropy of elastic and strength properties of concrete and fiber concrete. It is shown that wave processes initiate destruction of the cellular shell structure; cells start to destruct in an unloading wave originating after the compression wave arrival at free cell surfaces.

  4. Water retention and gas relative permeability of two industrial concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Wei; Liu Jian; Brue, Flore; Skoczylas, Frederic; Davy, C.A.; Bourbon, Xavier; Talandier, Jean

    2012-07-15

    This experimental study aims at identifying the water retention properties of two industrial concretes to be used for long term underground nuclear waste storage structures. Together with water retention, gas transfer properties are identified at varying water saturation level, i.e. relative gas permeability is assessed directly as a function of water saturation level S{sub w}. The influence of the initial de-sorption path and of the subsequent re-saturation are analysed both in terms of water retention and gas transfer properties. Also, the influence of concrete microstructure upon water retention and relative gas permeability is assessed, using porosity measurements, analysis of the BET theory from water retention properties, and MIP. Finally, a single relative gas permeability curve is proposed for each concrete, based on Van Genuchten-Mualem's statistical model, to be used for continuous modelling approaches of concrete structures, both during drying and imbibition.

  5. Transcending Portland Cement with 100 percent fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, D.; Akin, M.; Stephens, J.; Cuelh, E.

    2009-07-01

    The use of concrete, made with 100% fly ash and no Portland cement, in buildings at the Transportation Institute in Bozeman, MT, USA, is described. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Geopolymer concretes: a green construction technology rising from the ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allouche, E.

    2009-07-01

    Researchers at Louisiana Tech University have embarked on a multi-year research initiative to develop applications for inorganic polymer concrete, or geopolymer concrete, in the area of civil construction, and to bring solve of these applications to market. One objective was to produce a spray-on coating for use in the harsh environment of wastewater conveyance and treatment facilities. Another project is to establish relationships between fly ash composition and particle size distribution and the mechanical attributes and workability of the resulting geopolymer concrete. A third project is to develop a 'smart' geopolymer concrete whose response to a given electric current can be correlated to the stress level to which the structure is subjected. 1 fig., 6 photos.

  7. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-12-29

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  8. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  9. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  10. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-04-29

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  11. A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced ...

  12. Rarefied gas flow in a rectangular enclosure induced by non-isothermal walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, Manuel; Tatsios, Giorgos; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Stefanov, Stefan

    2014-05-15

    The flow of a rarefied gas in a rectangular enclosure due to the non-isothermal walls with no synergetic contributions from external force fields is investigated. The top and bottom walls are maintained at constant but different temperatures and along the lateral walls a linear temperature profile is assumed. Modeling is based on the direct numerical solution of the Shakhov kinetic equation and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Solving the problem both deterministically and stochastically allows a systematic comparison and verification of the results as well as the exploitation of the numerical advantages of each approach in the investigation of the involved flow and heat transfer phenomena. The thermally induced flow is simulated in terms of three dimensionless parameters characterizing the problem, namely, the reference Knudsen number, the temperature ratio of the bottom over the top plates, and the enclosure aspect ratio. Their effect on the flow configuration and bulk quantities is thoroughly examined. Along the side walls, the gas flows at small Knudsen numbers from cold-to-hot, while as the Knudsen number is increased the gas flows from hot-to-cold and the thermally induced flow configuration becomes more complex. These flow patterns with the hot-to-cold flow to be extended to the whole length of the non-isothermal side walls may exist even at small temperature differences and then, they are enhanced as the temperature difference between the top and bottom plates is increased. The cavity aspect ratio also influences this flow configuration and the hot-to-cold flow is becoming more dominant as the depth compared to the width of the cavity is increased. To further analyze the flow patterns a novel solution decomposition into ballistic and collision parts is introduced. This is achieved by accordingly modifying the indexing process of the typical DSMC algorithm. The contribution of each part of the solution is separately examined and a physical

  13. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Tindall Homes, Columbus, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-04-01

    The builder worked with IBACOS to build 20 HERS-58 homes with R-49 mixed attic insulation, poly-iso foam in advanced framed walls, precast concrete basement walls with rigid foam, tight airsealing, and HRV

  14. Design & Construct New Buildings | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    cooling, precast concrete insulated panels, and an on-site solar energy system, NREL's Research Support Facility (RSF) is 50 percent more efficient than ASHRAE 90.1 2004 Standards. ...

  15. Microsoft Word - DE-FE0004285-final report-ys.docx

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... For high humid condition, more energy may be required to dry the product within 24h ... Precast concrete is considered a green building material and can qualify for LEED credits. ...

  16. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: S&A Homes, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This builder worked with IBACOS to design urban infill HERS-51 homes with compact duct layout in conditioned space, foam insulated precast concrete foundations, high-efficiency HVAC, and tankless water heaters

  17. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Suo-Anttila, A.

    1983-09-01

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600/sup 0/C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-30/sup 0/C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-10/sup 0/C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients.

  18. SU-E-T-598: The Effects of Arm Speed for Quality Assurance and Commissioning Measurements in Rectangular and Cylindrical Scanners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakhtiari, M; Schmitt, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cylindrical and rectangular scanning water tanks are examined with different scanning speeds to investigate the TG-106 criteria and the errors induced in the measurements. Methods: Beam profiles were measured in a depth of R50 for a low-energy electron beam (6 MeV) using rectangular and cylindrical tanks. The speeds of the measurements (arm movement) were varied in different profile measurements. Each profile was measured with a certain speed to obtain the average and standard deviation as a parameter for investigating the reproducibility and errors. Results: At arm speeds of ?0.8 mm/s the errors were as large as 2% and 1% with rectangular and cylindrical tanks, respectively. The errors for electron beams and for photon beams in other depths were within the TG-106 criteria of 1% for both tank shapes. Conclusion: The measurements of low-energy electron beams in a depth of R50, as an extreme case scenario, are sensitive to the speed of the measurement arms for both rectangular and cylindrical tanks. The measurements in other depths, for electron beams and photon beams, with arm speeds of less than 1 cm/s are within the TG-106 criteria. An arm speed of 5 mm/s appeared to be optimal for fast and accurate measurements for both cylindrical and rectangular tanks.

  19. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, Dwight A.; Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and

  20. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Code requirements for concrete repository and processing facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hookham, C.J. [Black & Veatch, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Palaniswamy, R. [Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., North Augusta, SC (United States)

    1993-04-01

    The design and construction of facilities and structures for the processing and safe long-term storage of low- and high-level radioactive wastes will likely employ structural concrete. This concrete will be used for many purposes including structural support, shielding, and environmental protection. At the present time, there are no design costs, standards or guidelines for repositories, waste containers, or processing facilities. Recently, the design and construction guidelines contained in American Concrete Institute (ACI), Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures (ACI 349), have been cited for low-level waste (LLW) repositories. Conceptual design of various high-level (HLW) repository surface structures have also cited the ACI 349 Code. However, the present Code was developed for nuclear power generating facilities and its application to radioactive waste repositories was not intended. For low and medium level radioactive wastes, concrete has a greater role and use in processing facilities, engineered barriers, and repository structures. Because of varied uses and performance/safety requirements this review of the current ACI 349 Code document was required to accommodate these special classes of structures.

  2. Survey of four damage models for concrete.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leelavanichkul, Seubpong; Brannon, Rebecca Moss

    2009-08-01

    Four conventional damage plasticity models for concrete, the Karagozian and Case model (K&C), the Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma model (RHT), the Brannon-Fossum model (BF1), and the Continuous Surface Cap Model (CSCM) are compared. The K&C and RHT models have been used in commercial finite element programs many years, whereas the BF1 and CSCM models are relatively new. All four models are essentially isotropic plasticity models for which 'plasticity' is regarded as any form of inelasticity. All of the models support nonlinear elasticity, but with different formulations. All four models employ three shear strength surfaces. The 'yield surface' bounds an evolving set of elastically obtainable stress states. The 'limit surface' bounds stress states that can be reached by any means (elastic or plastic). To model softening, it is recognized that some stress states might be reached once, but, because of irreversible damage, might not be achievable again. In other words, softening is the process of collapse of the limit surface, ultimately down to a final 'residual surface' for fully failed material. The four models being compared differ in their softening evolution equations, as well as in their equations used to degrade the elastic stiffness. For all four models, the strength surfaces are cast in stress space. For all four models, it is recognized that scale effects are important for softening, but the models differ significantly in their approaches. The K&C documentation, for example, mentions that a particular material parameter affecting the damage evolution rate must be set by the user according to the mesh size to preserve energy to failure. Similarly, the BF1 model presumes that all material parameters are set to values appropriate to the scale of the element, and automated assignment of scale-appropriate values is available only through an enhanced implementation of BF1 (called BFS) that regards scale effects to be coupled to statistical variability of material

  3. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  4. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  5. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  6. Electrochemical Aging of Thermal-Sprayed Zinc Anodes on Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Cryer, C.B.; McGill, G.E.

    1996-10-01

    Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are used in impressed current cathodic protection systems for some of Oregon's coastal reinforced concrete bridges. Electrochemical aging of zinc anodes results in physical and chemical changes at the zinc-concrete interface. Concrete surfaces heated prior to thermal-spraying had initial adhesion strengths 80 pct higher than unheated surfaces. For electrochemical aging greater than 200 kC/m{sup 2} (5.2 A h/ft{sup 2}), there was no difference in adhesion strengths for zinc on preheated and unheated concrete. Adhesion strengths decreased monotonically after about 400 to 600 kC/m{sup 2} (10.4 to 15.6 A-h/ft{sup 2}) as a result of the reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. A zone adjacent to the metallic zinc (and originally part of the zinc coating) was primarily zincite (ZnO), with minor constituents of wulfingite (Zn(OH){sub 2}), simonkolleite (Zn{sub 5}(OH) {sub 8}C{sub l2}{sup .}H{sub 2}O), and hydrated zinc hydroxide sulfates (Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}{sup .}xH{sub 2}O). This zone is the locus for cohesive fracture when the zinc coating separates from the concrete during adhesion tests. Zinc ions substitute for calcium in the cement paste adjacent to the coating as the result of secondary mineralization. The initial estimate of the coating service life based on adhesion strength measurements in accelerated impressed current cathodic protection tests is about 27 years.

  7. Tierra Concrete Homes Honored with Energy Star Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tierra Concrete Homes Honored with Energy Star Award For more information contact: Sarah Holmes Barba, 303-275-3023 email: Sarah Homes Barba Golden, Colo., August 8, 2001 - Tierra Concrete Homes, Inc. of Pueblo, Colo., has been recognized as a leader in energy-efficient home building by Energy Star, a national program that develops energy-saving partnerships with the home building industry. The first-ever "Most Energy-Efficient Homes of the New Millennium" award was presented to

  8. High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-15

    This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

  9. Quick setting water-compatible furfuryl alcohol polymer concretes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.; Horn, William H.

    1982-11-30

    A novel quick setting polymer concrete composite comprising a furfuryl alcohol monomer, an aggregate containing a maximum of 8% by weight water, and about 1-10% trichlorotoluene initiator and about 20-80% powdered metal salt promoter, such as zinc chloride, based on the weight of said monomer, to initiate and promote polymerization of said monomer in the presence of said aggregate, within 1 hour after mixing at a temperature of -20.degree. C. to 40.degree. C., to produce a polymer concrete having a 1 hour compressive strength greater than 2000 psi.

  10. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Materials and Structures - a Literature Review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, Dan J

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this limited study was to provide an overview of the effects of elevated temperature on the behavior of concrete materials and structures. In meeting this objective the effects of elevated temperatures on the properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete constituent materials and concretes are summarized. The effects of elevated temperature on high-strength concrete materials are noted and their performance compared to normal strength concretes. A review of concrete materials for elevated-temperature service is presented. Nuclear power plant and general civil engineering design codes are described. Design considerations and analytical techniques for evaluating the response of reinforced concrete structures to elevated-temperature conditions are presented. Pertinent studies in which reinforced concrete structural elements were subjected to elevated temperatures are described.

  11. Derivation and generalization of the dispersion relation of rising-sun magnetron with sectorial and rectangular cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Di-Fu; Qian, Bao-Liang; Wang, Hong-Gang; Li, Wei

    2013-12-15

    Field analysis method is used to derive the dispersion relation of rising-sun magnetron with sectorial and rectangular cavities. This dispersion relation is then extended to the general case in which the rising-sun magnetron can be with multi-group cavities of different shapes and sizes, and from which the dispersion relations of conventional magnetron, rising-sun magnetron, and magnetron-like device can be obtained directly. The results show that the relative errors between the theoretical and simulation values of the dispersion relation are less than 3%, the relative errors between the theoretical and simulation values of the cutoff frequencies of ? mode are less than 2%. In addition, the influences of each structure parameter of the magnetron on the cutoff frequency of ? mode and on the mode separation are investigated qualitatively and quantitatively, which may be of great interest to designing a frequency tuning magnetron.

  12. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE, SQUIRREL-I, and SQUIRREL-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation conducted during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended. Because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place, results may be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  13. Optimizing the use of fly ash in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.

    2007-07-01

    The optimum amount of fly ash varies not only with the application, but also with composition and proportions of all the materials in the concrete mixture (especially the fly ash), the conditions during placing (especially temperature), construction practices (for example, finishing and curing) and the exposure conditions. This document discusses issues related to using low to very high levels of fly ash in concrete and provides guidance for the use of fly ash without compromising the construction process or the quality of the finished product. The nature of fly ashes including their physical, mineralogical and chemical properties is covered in detail, as well as fly ash variability due to coal composition and plant operating conditions. A discussion on the effects of fly ash characteristics on fresh and hardened concrete properties includes; workability, bleeding, air entrainment, setting time, heat of hydration, compressive strength development, creep, drying shrinkage, abrasion resistance, permeability, resistance to chlorides, alkali-silica reaction (ASR), sulfate resistance, carbonation, and resistance to freezing and thawing and deicer salt scaling. Case studies were selected as examples of some of the more demanding applications of fly ash concrete for ASR mitigation, chloride resistance, and green building.

  14. Reuse of industrial sludge as pelletized aggregate for concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, J.H.; Hong, S.Y.; Show, K.Y.

    2000-03-01

    Industrial sludge is generated at a rate of 100 metric tons/day, from a copper slag recycling plant. The industrial sludge is currently being landfilled. However, limited availability of landfill sites has raised the need of an alternative disposal. A renewed interest in converting the industrial sludge into construction materials has been prompted to achieve a viable disposal option in saving the depleting natural resources of raw materials as well as the environment. This study describes the use of sintered sludge pellets as a complete replacement for regular granite aggregates in concrete. The pelletized sludge was fired to a temperature of 1,135 C at which the sintering process occurs, producing a hard fused basalt-like mass. In comparison with normal granite aggregates, the sintered sludge pellets display a higher aggregate strength, a higher porosity, and a lower aggregate density that manifests attributes better than that required of construction aggregates. The concrete cast with the pelletized aggregates achieved a compressive strength of 38.5 N/mm{sup 2} after 28 days and was comparable to the control specimen. Leaching tests conducted on the sludge pellets and concrete showed that all leachate contamination levels determined using the column leaching test are within acceptable ranges after 130 days of stabilization. The experimental results indicated that a complete replacement of conventional aggregates with sintered sludge pellets for structural concrete is both technically and environmentally feasible.

  15. Modeling Blast Loading on Buried Reinforced Concrete Structures with Zapotec

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bessette, Greg C.

    2008-01-01

    A coupled Euler-Lagrange solution approach is used to model the response of a buried reinforced concrete structure subjected to a close-in detonation of a high explosive charge. The coupling algorithm is discussed along with a set of benchmark calculations involving detonations in clay and sand.

  16. INTERIM REPORT ON CONCRETE DEGRADATION MECHANISMS AND ONLINE MONITORING TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Agarwal, Vivek; Neal, Kyle; Kosson, David; Adams, Douglas

    2014-09-01

    The existing fleets of nuclear power plants in the United States have initial operating licenses of 40 years, though most these plants have applied for and received license extensions. As plant structures, systems, and components age, their useful life—considering both structural integrity and performance—is reduced as a result of deterioration of the materials. The online monitoring of concrete structure conducted under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory will develop and demonstrate concrete structures health monitoring capabilities. Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Therefore, the structural health monitoring is required to produce actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. Through this research project, several national laboratories and Vanderbilt University proposes to develop a framework of research activities for the health monitoring of nuclear power plant concrete structures that includes integration of four elements—damage modeling, monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty quantification. This report briefly discusses available techniques and ongoing challenges in each of the four elements of the proposed framework with emphasis on degradation mechanisms and online monitoring techniques.

  17. A Simple Demonstration of Concrete Structural Health Monitoring Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Agarwal, Vivek; Cai, Guowei; Nath, Paromita; Bao, Yanqing; Bru Brea, Jose Maria; Koester, David; Adams, Douglas; Kosson, David

    2015-03-01

    Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Structural health monitoring of concrete structures aims to understand the current health condition of a structure based on heterogeneous measurements to produce high confidence actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. This ongoing research project is seeking to develop a probabilistic framework for health diagnosis and prognosis of aging concrete structures in a nuclear power plant subjected to physical, chemical, environment, and mechanical degradation. The proposed framework consists of four elements—damage modeling, monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty quantification. This report describes a proof-of-concept example on a small concrete slab subjected to a freeze-thaw experiment that explores techniques in each of the four elements of the framework and their integration. An experimental set-up at Vanderbilt University’s Laboratory for Systems Integrity and Reliability is used to research effective combination of full-field techniques that include infrared thermography, digital image correlation, and ultrasonic measurement. The measured data are linked to the probabilistic framework: the thermography, digital image correlation data, and ultrasonic measurement data are used for Bayesian calibration of model parameters, for diagnosis of damage, and for prognosis of future damage. The proof-of-concept demonstration presented in this report highlights the significance of each element of the framework and their integration.

  18. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation.

  19. Radionuclide Migration through Sediment and Concrete: 16 Years of Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Snyder, Michelle MV; Powers, Laura; Whyatt, Greg A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-11-06

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Part of these services includes safe disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, performance assessment analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires continuing data collection to increase confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied on to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the order. Cement-based solidification and stabilization is considered for hazardous waste disposal because it is easily done and cost-efficient. One critical assumption is that concrete will be used as a waste form or container material at the Hanford Site to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The radionuclides iodine-129, selenium-75, technetium-99, and uranium-238 have been identified as long-term dose contributors (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, these constituents of potential concern may be released from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and migrate into the surrounding subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989; 1992; 1993a, b; 1995). Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. Each of the

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    to Its Fleet Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to Its Fleet on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ozinga Adds 14 Natural Gas Concrete Mixers to

  1. Concrete as secondary containment for interior wall embedded waste lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C.L.

    1993-10-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are numerous facilities that handle hazardous waste solutions. Secondary containment of tank systems and their ancillary piping is a major concern for existing facilities. The Idaho Division of Environmental Quality was petitioned in 1990 for an Equivalent Device determination regarding secondary containment of waste lines embedded in interior concrete walls. The petition was granted, however it expires in 1996. To address the secondary containment issue, additional studies were undertaken. One study verified the hypothesis that an interior wall pipe leak would follow the path of least resistance through the naturally occurring void found below a rigidly supported pipe and pass into an adjacent room where detection could occur, before any significant deterioration of the concrete takes place. Other tests demonstrated that with acidic waste solutions rebar and cold joints are not an accelerated path to the environment. The results from these latest studies confirm that the subject configuration meets all the requirements of secondary containment

  2. Alkali-silica reaction and its effectes on concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, D.

    1995-12-31

    Alkali-silica reactivity (ASR) has resulted in cracking of concrete in numerous dams in the United States and elsewhere. Many of these dams were constructed prior to the initial discovery of ASR in California in the late 1930`s, thus no special precautions could have been taken to prevent its development Since that time, ASR has been identified in all types of structures located in many parts of the world. Voluminous research has been carried out to better characterize its development, to more completely understand the mechanisms of expansion and distress, and to design means to mitigate its development in new and existing construction. Based on this work, this paper describes the nature of ASR, its effects on concrete, and means to control its development, with special reference to dams.

  3. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Concrete Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, Dwight A; Barker, Alan M; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Albright, Austin P; Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years [1]. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.

  4. Contaminated concrete: Occurrence and emerging technologies for DOE decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Morris, M.I.

    1995-08-01

    The goals of the Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition Focus Area, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, are to select, demonstrate, test, and evaluate an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific problems posed by deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning, (D&D). In response to these goals, technical task plan (TTP) OR152002, entitled Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods, was submitted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report describes the results from the initial project tasks, which focused on the nature and extent of contaminated concrete, emerging candidate technologies, and matching of emerging technologies to concrete problems. Existing information was used to describe the nature and extent of contamination (technology logic diagrams, data bases, and the open literature). To supplement this information, personnel at various DOE sites were interviewed, providing a broad perspective of concrete contamination. Because characterization is in the initial stage at many sites, complete information is not available. Assimilation of available information into one location is helpful in identifying potential areas of concern in the future. The most frequently occurring radiological contaminants within the DOE complex are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and it daughters), and {sup 60}Co, followed closely by {sup 90}Sr and tritium, which account for {minus}30% of the total occurrence. Twenty-four percent of the contaminants were listed as unknown, indicating a lack of characterization information, and 24% were listed as other contaminants (over 100 isotopes) with less than 1% occurrence per isotope.

  5. Computational Design of Novel Multiscale Concrete Rheometers | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Leadership Computing Facility Suspended particles in a rheometer This simulation image shows suspended particles in a rheometer for NIST's proposed mortar SRM. The spheres, which are color coded by their starting location in the rheometer, are suspended in a cement paste with properties derived from NIST's cement paste SRM. Nicos Martys and Steven G. Satterfield, National Institute of Standards and Technology Computational Design of Novel Multiscale Concrete Rheometers PI Name: William

  6. Performance of concrete members subjected to large hydrocarbon pool fires

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zwiers, Renata I.; Morgan, Bruce J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss an investigation to determine analytically if the performance of concrete beams and columns in a hydrocarbon pool test fire would differ significantly from their performance in a standard test fire. The investigation consisted of a finite element analysis to obtain temperature distributions in typical cross sections, a comparison of the resulting temperature distribution in the cross section, and a strength analysis of a beam based on temperature distribution data. Results of the investigation are reported.

  7. Geometrical and band-structure effects on phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional germanium nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, H. Mori, S.; Morioka, N.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2014-12-21

    We calculated the phonon-limited hole mobility in rectangular cross-sectional [001], [110], [111], and [112]-oriented germanium nanowires, and the hole transport characteristics were investigated. A tight-binding approximation was used for holes, and phonons were described by a valence force field model. Then, scattering probability of holes by phonons was calculated taking account of hole-phonon interaction atomistically, and the linearized Boltzmann's transport equation was solved to calculate the hole mobility at low longitudinal field. The dependence of the hole mobility on nanowire geometry was analyzed in terms of the valence band structure of germanium nanowires, and it was found that the dependence was qualitatively reproduced by considering an average effective mass and the density of states of holes. The calculation revealed that [110] germanium nanowires with large height along the [001] direction show high hole mobility. Germanium nanowires with this geometry are also expected to exhibit high electron mobility in our previous work, and thus they are promising for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) applications.

  8. Properties of slag concrete for low-level waste containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Wong, P.B. (Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag was incorporated in the concrete mix used for construction of low-level radioactive waste disposal vaults. The vaults were constructed as six 100 {times} 100 {times} 25 ft cells with each cell sharing internal walls with the two adjacent cells. The vaults were designed to contain a low-level radioactive wasteform called saltstone and to isolate the saltstone from the environment until the landfill is closed. Closure involves backfilling with native soil, installation of clay cap, and run-off control. The design criteria for the slag-substituted concrete included compressive strength, 4000 psi after 28 days; slump, 6 inch; permeability, less than 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec; and effective nitrate, chromium and technetium diffusivities of 10{sup {minus}8}, 10{sup {minus}12} and 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}/sec, respectively. The reducing capacity of the slag resulted in chemically reducing Cr{sup +6} to Cr{sup +3} and Tc{sup +7} to Tc{sup +4} and subsequent precipitation of the respective hydroxides in the alkaline pore solution. Consequently, the concrete vault enhances containment of otherwise mobile waste ions and contributes to the overall protection of the groundwater at the disposal site.

  9. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Porthouse, R.A. [Chimney Consultants, West Lebanon, NH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950`s, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F{sub {mu}} factor. The calculated value of F{sub {mu}} exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F{sub {mu}} value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ``Moment Reduction Factor``, R{sub w} or F{sub {mu}} for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects.

  10. Properties of slag concrete for low-level waste containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wong, P.B. [Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag was incorporated in the concrete mix used for construction of low-level radioactive waste disposal vaults. The vaults were constructed as six 100 {times} 100 {times} 25 ft cells with each cell sharing internal walls with the two adjacent cells. The vaults were designed to contain a low-level radioactive wasteform called saltstone and to isolate the saltstone from the environment until the landfill is closed. Closure involves backfilling with native soil, installation of clay cap, and run-off control. The design criteria for the slag-substituted concrete included compressive strength, 4000 psi after 28 days; slump, 6 inch; permeability, less than 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec; and effective nitrate, chromium and technetium diffusivities of 10{sup {minus}8}, 10{sup {minus}12} and 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}/sec, respectively. The reducing capacity of the slag resulted in chemically reducing Cr{sup +6} to Cr{sup +3} and Tc{sup +7} to Tc{sup +4} and subsequent precipitation of the respective hydroxides in the alkaline pore solution. Consequently, the concrete vault enhances containment of otherwise mobile waste ions and contributes to the overall protection of the groundwater at the disposal site.

  11. Normal and refractory concretes for LMFBR applications. Volume 1. Review of literature on high-temperature behavior of portland cement and refractory concretes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chern, J.C.; Abrams, M.S.; Gillen, M.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive literature on the properties and behavior at elevated temperature of portland cement concrete and various refractory concretes was reviewed to collect in concise form the physical and chemical properties of castable refractory concretes and of conventional portland cement concretes at elevated temperature. This survey, together with an extensive bibliography of source documents, is presented in Volume 1. A comparison was made of these properties, the relative advantages of the various concretes was evaluated for possible liquid metal fast breeder reactor applications, and a selection was made of several materials of interest for such applications. Volume 2 concludes with a summary of additional knowledge needed to support such uses of these materials together with recommendations on research to provide that knowledge.

  12. Performance of intact and partially degraded concrete barriers in limiting mass transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, J.C. )

    1992-06-01

    Mass transport through concrete barriers and release rate from concrete vaults are quantitatively evaluated. The thorny issue of appropriate diffusion coefficients for use in performance assessment calculations is covered, with no ultimate solution found. Release from monolithic concrete vaults composed of concrete waste forms is estimated with a semi-analytical solution. A parametric study illustrates the importance of different parameters on release. A second situation of importance is the role of a concrete shell or vault placed around typical waste forms in limiting mass transport. In both situations, the primary factor controlling concrete performance is cracks. The implications of leaching behavior on likely groundwater concentrations is examined. Frequently, lower groundwater concentrations can be expected in the absence of engineered covers that reduce infiltration.

  13. Blunt-crack band propagation in finite-element analysis for concrete structures. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Bazant, Z.P.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    The knowledge of concrete fracture is needed in nuclear reactor safety. The question of safety arises from the potential of concrete to crack under thermal loading. It has been postulated that structural concrete could be exposed to very high temperature, which may result from hot reactor coolant or even core debris coming in direct contact with the concrete. The utilization of the blunt crack approach for simulating concrete cracking in a general-purpose code is explored. The difficulties encountered in establishing the proper direction of crack propagation in an arbitrary discretization are described. Crack propagation is considered within the context of two types of solution techniques: (1) implicit solution of the static crack advance, and (2) explicit time integration using a dynamic relaxation technique to simulate the static crack advance. Also, in both solution techniques an elastic model is used to characterize the concrete.

  14. Lintel testing for reduced shear reinforcement in insulation concrete form systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    Historically, cast-in-place concrete for residential construction has been primarily limited to below grade applications such as footings and foundation walls. Such construction was relatively labor intensive, and, therefore was not considered a viable alternative for other parts of the building. However, the recent advent of insulating concrete form (ICF) wall construction and the Prescriptive Method for Insulating Concrete Forms in Residential Construction (Prescriptive Method) has resulted in a competitive and energy efficient alternative for above grade walls in residential construction. The purpose of this test program is to investigate the structural capacity and performance of the concrete lintels typically used in ICF construction. Lintels are reinforced concrete structural elements that support loads above openings in concrete walls.

  15. Illinois: Ozinga Concrete Runs on Natural Gas and Opens Private Station |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Illinois: Ozinga Concrete Runs on Natural Gas and Opens Private Station Illinois: Ozinga Concrete Runs on Natural Gas and Opens Private Station November 6, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In 2012, Ozinga Brothers Concrete opened Chicago's first privately owned compressed natural gas fueling station to local businesses and government agencies. The station is specifically designed for medium and heavy-use trucks and buses, but can handle light-duty vehicles and can fill more than

  16. TRANS4: a computer code calculation of solid fuel penetration of a concrete barrier. [LMFBR; GCFR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, C. M.; Kumar, R.; Fink, J. K.

    1980-07-01

    The computer code, TRANS4, models the melting and penetration of a solid barrier by a solid disc of fuel following a core disruptive accident. This computer code has been used to model fuel debris penetration of basalt, limestone concrete, basaltic concrete, and magnetite concrete. Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the importance of various properties on the rate of penetration. Comparisons were made with results from the GROWS II code.

  17. EERE Success Story-Concrete Company Moving to Natural Gas with Clean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cities | Department of Energy Concrete Company Moving to Natural Gas with Clean Cities EERE Success Story-Concrete Company Moving to Natural Gas with Clean Cities March 10, 2015 - 10:25am Addthis Concrete mixing in the Great Lakes region is increasingly fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG), thanks to the help of the Vehicle Technologies Office's Clean Cities program. In 2010, the Chicago Area Clean Cities Coalition's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act project covered the incremental

  18. Summary of Uranium Solubility Studies in Concrete Waste Forms and Vadose Zone Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bovaird, Chase C.

    2011-09-30

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. This report presents the results of investigations elucidating the uranium mineral phases controlling the long-term fate of uranium within concrete waste forms and the solubility of these phases in concrete pore waters and alkaline, circum-neutral vadose zone environments.

  19. 221-U Facility concrete and reinforcing steel evaluations specification for the canyon disposition initiative (CDI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, J.T.

    1998-05-28

    This describes a test program to establish the in-situ material properties of the reinforced concrete in Building 221-U for comparison to the original design specifications. Field sampling and laboratory testing of concrete and reinforcing steel structural materials in Building 221-U for design verification will be undertaken. Forty seven samples are to be taken from radiologically clean exterior walls of the canyon. Laboratory testing program includes unconfined compressive strength of concrete cores, tensile strength of reinforcing steel, and petrographic examinations of concrete cores taken from walls below existing grade.

  20. Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus

    2003-09-18

    This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

  1. Postcrack creep of polymeric fiber-reinforced concrete in flexure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Balaguru, P.

    2000-02-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the creep-time behavior of polypropylene and nylon fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) are presented. Gravity loads were applied in flexure to precracked low volume fraction (0.1%) polypropylene and nylon FRC beams. Beams were tested at a range of stress levels to produce three outcomes: load sustained indefinitely (low stress), creep failure (intermediate stress), and rapid failure (high stress). Emphasis was placed on determining the maximum flexural stress that is sustainable indefinitely. The results indicate that polypropylene FRC has higher initial strength but nylon FRC can sustain a higher stress level. For both groups the sustainable stress is much lower than the postcrack strength.

  2. CONCRETE REFLECTED ARRAYS OF U(93.2) METAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackenzie Gorham; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Virginia Dean; Davis Reed

    2010-09-01

    During the period from 1963 1973, experiments involving highly enriched uranium units were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine various critical configurations of three-dimensional arrays. The experiments formed a four-part series, and were reported by several different experimenters; the results of interest for this evaluation are those reported for the fourth experimentation, Critical Three-Dimensional Arrays of Neutron Interacting Units: Part IV, published and performed by D.W.Magnuson (Ref 1). Information is also available in the logbook . This set of experiments utilized subcritical metal units on a split table apparatus to determine critical configurations for 222 arrangements of highly enriched uranium reflected by concrete. Magnuson manipulated the configuration of several uranium cylinders and blocks within a concrete reflector. The different permutations utilized uranium cylinders of two different heights in various positions in the three dimensional array; certain cases also placed thin uranium blocks on top of the cylinders. The thickness of the surrounding concrete, as well as the inner dimensions of the concrete reflector was also varied in certain cases. The variations resulted in fourteen different experimental permutations or configurations. All fourteen configurations were judged to be unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmarks. All experiments were initially evaluated; however only three configurations were evaluated in detail. Configurations 2, 4, 6 and 12 were not evaluated in detail because they are subcritical and configurations 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 were also were not evaluated in detail because they were supercritical by more than beta effective (~0.007), or prompt critical. The experiments evaluated in detail for this benchmark were configurations 1, 3, and 11. The experimental report also contains the information for HEU-MET-FAST-056. Closely related work has been recorded

  3. Innovative Retrofit Insulation Strategies for Concrete Masonry Foundations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huelman, P.; Goldberg, L.; Jacobson, R.

    2015-05-01

    Basements in climates 6 and 7 can account for a fraction of a home's total heat loss when fully conditioned. Such foundations are a source of moisture, with convection in open block cavities redistributing water from the wall base, usually when heating. Even when block cavities are capped, the cold foundation concrete can act as a moisture source for wood rim joist components that are in contact with it. Because below-grade basements are increasingly used for habitable space, cold foundation walls pose challenges for moisture contribution, energy use, and occupant comfort.

  4. Concrete Dust Suppression System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    The improved technology is a water-based dust suppression system for controlling concrete dust generated by demolition equipment, in this case a demolition ram. This demonstration was performed to assess the effectiveness of this system to (1) minimize the amount of water used to suppress potentially contaminated dust, (2) focus the water spray on the dust-generating source and (3) minimize the dust cloud generated by the demolition activity. The technology successfully reduced the water required by a factor of eight compared to the traditional (baseline) method, controlled the dust generated, and permitted a reduction in the work force. The water spray can be focused at the ram point, but it is affected by wind. Prior to the use of this dust control system, dust generated by the demolition ram was controlled manually by spraying with fire hoses (the baseline technology). The improved technology is 18% less expensive than the baseline technology for the conditions and parameters of this demonstration, however, the automated system can save up to 80% versus the baseline whenever waste water treatment costs are considered. For demolishing one high-walled room and a long slab with a total of 413 m{sup 3} (14,580 ft{sup 3}) of concrete, the savings are $105,000 (waste water treatment included). The improved technology reduced the need for water consumption and treatment by about 88% which results in most of the savings.

  5. Earth-mounded concrete bunker PLAP technical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eng, R.

    1989-11-01

    Under the US DOE Prototype License Application Project (PLAP), Ebasco Services Incorporated was commissioned to develop a preliminary design of the Earth-Mounded Concrete Bunker (EMCB) concept for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. The EMCB disposal concept is of great interest because it represents the only engineered LLW disposal technology currently in use in the commercial sector. By definition, the EMCB disposal structure is located partially below grade and partially above grade. The concrete bunker is an engineered structure designed to be structurally stable for the prerequisite time horizon. The basic design parameters of the disposal facility were stipulated by US DOE, a northeast site location, representative waste, 30 year operational life, and a 250,000 ft{sup 3}/year disposal capacity. The design was developed to satisfy only US NRC Part 61 disposal requirements, not individual state requirements that may go beyond Part 61 requirements. The technical safety analysis of the preliminary design was documented according to the format specifications of NUREG-1199, to the extent practicable with quite limited resources.

  6. Humectant use in the cathodic protection of reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Russell, James H.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Collins, W.K.; Bennett, J.E.; Laylor, H.M.

    2000-11-01

    Use of humectants to improve the thermal-sprayed zinc anode performance during the cathodic protection (CP) of reinforced concrete was examined. A humectant is a hygroscopic material. It is applied onto the surface of the zinc anode to keep the concrete-anode interface moist and a good conductor. The thermodynamics of humectants are discussed. Laboratory results are presented on the effects of using lithium bromide (LiBr) and lithium nitrate (LiNO{sub 3}) as humectants in galvanic cathodic protection (GCP) and impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems, in high and low relative humidities, and on new and previously electrochemically aged CP systems. LiNO{sub 3} and LiBr promoted more effective CP performance. Both improved the performance of aged slabs, suggesting that application of humectants onto existing CP systems would be of benefit. Microscopy showed that humectant-treated slabs develop the same cement-reaction zone, zinc anode structures as untreated slabs. Microscopy of LiBr-treated slabs revealed that the highest concentration of bromide was in the reaction zone. In GCP tests, LiBr was more effective than LiNO{sub 3}. In accelerated ICCP tests, LiNO{sub 3} was more effective than LiBr. It was surmised that bromide could be oxidized in the high-voltage accelerated ICCP tests. At the lower impressed currents of most installed ICCP systems, LiBr may perform as well as or better than LiNO{sub 3}.

  7. Humectant use in the cathodic protection of reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S. Jr.; Russell, J.H.; Bullard, S.J.; Cramer, S.D.; Collins, W.K.; Bennett, J.E.; H.M. Laylor

    2000-03-01

    The use of humectants to improve the thermal-sprayed zinc anode performance during the cathodic protection (CP) of reinforced concrete is examined. A humectant is a hygroscopic material. It is applied onto the surface of the zinc anode to keep the concrete-anode interface moist and a good conductor. The thermodynamics of humectants are discussed. Laboratory results are presented on the effects of using LiBr and LiNO{sub 3} as humectants in galvanic (GCP) and impressed current (ICCP) systems, in high and low relative humidities, and on new and previously electrochemically aged CP systems. LiNO{sub 3} and LiBr promoted more effective CP performance. Both improved the performance of aged slabs, suggesting that application of humectants onto existing CP systems would be of benefit. Microscopy showed that humectant-treated slabs develop the same cement-reaction zone-zinc anode structures as untreated slabs. Microscopy of LiBr-treated slabs revealed that the highest concentration of bromide was in the reaction zone. In GCP tests, LiBr was more effective than LiNO{sub 3}. In accelerated ICCP tests, LiNO{sub 3} was more effective than LiBr. It was surmised that bromide could be oxidized in the high-voltage accelerated ICCP tests. At the lower impressed currents of most installed ICCP systems, LiBr may perform as well as or better than LiNO{sub 3}.

  8. Carbon paint anode for reinforced concrete bridges in coastal environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Cryer, C.B.; Laylor, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Solvent-based acrylic carbon paint anodes were installed on the north approach spans of the Yaquina Bay Bridge (Newport OR) in 1985. The anodes continue to perform satisfactorily after more than 15 years service. The anodes were inexpensive to apply and field repairs are easily made. Depolarization potentials are consistently above 100 mV with long-term current densities around 2 mA/m 2. Bond strength remains adequate, averaging 0.50 MPa (73 psi). Some deterioration of the anode-concrete interface has occurred in the form of cracks and about 4% of the bond strength measurements indicated low or no bond. Carbon anode consumption appears low. The dominant long-term anode reaction appears to be chlorine evolution, which results in limited further acidification of the anode-concrete interface. Chloride profiles were depressed compared to some other coastal bridges suggesting chloride extraction by the CP system. Further evidence of outward chloride migration was a flat chloride profile between the anode and the outer rebar.

  9. Combined Effects of Temperature and Irradiation on Concrete Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Pape, Yann; Giorla, Alain; Sanahuja, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Aggregate radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) is a predominant mechanism in the formation of mechanical damage in the hardened cement paste (hcp) of irradiated concrete under fast-neutron flux (Giorla et al. 2015). Among the operating conditions difference between test reactors and light water reactors (LWRs), the difference of irradiation flux and temperature is significant. While a temperature increase is quite generally associated with a direct, or indirect (e.g., by dehydration) loss of mechanical properties (Maruyama et al. 2014), we found that it causes a partial annealing of irradiation amorphization of α-quartz, hence, reducing RIVE rate. Based on data collected by Bykov et al. (1981), an incremental RIVE model coupling neutron fluence and temperature is developed. The elastic properties and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of irradiated polycrystalline quartz are interpreted through analytical homogenization of experimental data on irradiated α-quartz published by Mayer and Lecomte (1960). Moreover, the proposed model, implemented in the meso-scale simulation code AMIE, is compared to experimental data obtained on ordinary concrete made of quartz/quartzite aggregate (Dubrovskii et al. 1967). Substantial discrepancy, in terms of damage and volumetric expansion developments, is found when comparing irradiation scenarios assuming constant flux and temperature, as opposed to more realistic test reactor operation conditions.

  10. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorla, Alain B.; Vaitová, M.; Le Pape, Yann; Štemberk, P.

    2015-10-18

    In this paper, we detail a numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al.,1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damage around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al.,2015). In conclusion, the proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.

  11. Combined Effects of Temperature and Irradiation on Concrete Damage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Pape, Yann; Giorla, Alain; Sanahuja, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Aggregate radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) is a predominant mechanism in the formation of mechanical damage in the hardened cement paste (hcp) of irradiated concrete under fast-neutron flux (Giorla et al. 2015). Among the operating conditions difference between test reactors and light water reactors (LWRs), the difference of irradiation flux and temperature is significant. While a temperature increase is quite generally associated with a direct, or indirect (e.g., by dehydration) loss of mechanical properties (Maruyama et al. 2014), we found that it causes a partial annealing of irradiation amorphization of α-quartz, hence, reducing RIVE rate. Based on data collected by Bykovmore » et al. (1981), an incremental RIVE model coupling neutron fluence and temperature is developed. The elastic properties and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of irradiated polycrystalline quartz are interpreted through analytical homogenization of experimental data on irradiated α-quartz published by Mayer and Lecomte (1960). Moreover, the proposed model, implemented in the meso-scale simulation code AMIE, is compared to experimental data obtained on ordinary concrete made of quartz/quartzite aggregate (Dubrovskii et al. 1967). Substantial discrepancy, in terms of damage and volumetric expansion developments, is found when comparing irradiation scenarios assuming constant flux and temperature, as opposed to more realistic test reactor operation conditions.« less

  12. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Giorla, Alain B.; Vaitová, M.; Le Pape, Yann; Štemberk, P.

    2015-10-18

    In this paper, we detail a numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al.,1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damagemore » around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al.,2015). In conclusion, the proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.« less

  13. Advance study of fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mironova, M. Ivanova, M. Naidenov, V.; Georgiev, I.; Stary, J.

    2015-10-28

    Incorporation in concrete composition of steel macro- and micro – fiber reinforcement with structural function increases the degree of ductility of typically brittle cement-containing composites, which in some cases can replace completely or partially conventional steel reinforcement in the form of rods and meshes. Thus, that can reduce manufacturing, detailing and placement of conventional reinforcement, which enhances productivity and economic efficiency of the building process. In this paper, six fiber-reinforced with different amounts of steel fiber cement-containing self-compacting compositions are investigated. The results of some of their main strength-deformation characteristics are presented. Advance approach for the study of structural and material properties of these type composites is proposed by using the methods of industrial computed tomography. The obtained original tomography results about the microstructure and characteristics of individual structural components make it possible to analyze the effective macro-characteristics of the studied composites. The resulting analytical data are relevant for the purposes of multi-dimensional modeling of these systems. Multifactor structure-mechanical analysis of the obtained with different methods original scientific results is proposed. It is presented a conclusion of the capabilities and effectiveness of complex analysis in the studies to characterize the properties of self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete.

  14. Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, Dan J

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program.

  15. Identification of concrete deteriorating minerals by polarizing and scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregerova, Miroslava; Vsiansky, Dalibor

    2009-07-15

    The deterioration of concrete represents one of the most serious problems of civil engineering worldwide. Besides other processes, deterioration of concrete consists of sulfate attack and carbonation. Sulfate attack results in the formation of gypsum, ettringite and thaumasite in hardened concrete. Products of sulfate attack may cause a loss of material strength and a risk of collapse of the concrete constructions. The authors focused especially on the microscopical research of sulfate attack. Concrete samples were taken from the Charles Bridge in Prague, Czech Republic. A succession of degrading mineral formation was suggested. Microscope methods represent a new approach to solving the deterioration problems. They enable evaluation of the state of concrete constructions and in cooperation with hydro-geochemistry, mathematics and statistics permit prediction of the durability of a structure. Considering the number of concrete constructions and their age, research of concrete deterioration has an increasing importance. The results obtained can also be useful for future construction, because they identify the risk factors associated with formation of minerals known to degrade structures.

  16. Ballistic penetration test results for Ductal and ultra-high performance concrete samples.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III

    2010-03-01

    This document provides detailed test results of ballistic impact experiments performed on several types of high performance concrete. These tests were performed at the Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility using a 50 caliber powder gun to study penetration resistance of concrete samples. This document provides test results for ballistic impact experiments performed on two types of concrete samples, (1) Ductal{reg_sign} concrete is a fiber reinforced high performance concrete patented by Lafarge Group and (2) ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) produced in-house by DoD. These tests were performed as part of a research demonstration project overseen by USACE and ERDC, at the Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research (STAR) facility. Ballistic penetration tests were performed on a single stage research powder gun of 50 caliber bore using a full metal jacket M33 ball projectile with a nominal velocity of 914 m/s (3000 ft/s). Testing was observed by Beverly DiPaolo from ERDC-GSL. In all, 31 tests were performed to achieve the test objectives which were: (1) recovery of concrete test specimens for post mortem analysis and characterization at outside labs, (2) measurement of projectile impact velocity and post-penetration residual velocity from electronic and radiographic techniques and, (3) high-speed photography of the projectile prior to impact, impact and exit of the rear surface of the concrete construct, and (4) summarize the results.

  17. A PERMEABLE ACTIVE AMENDMENT CONCRETE (PAAC) FOR CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION AND EROSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Dixon, K.

    2012-06-29

    The final project report for SEED SERDP ER - 2134 describes the development of permeable active amendment concrete (PAAC), which was evaluated through four tasks: 1) development of PAAC; 2) assessment of PAAC for contaminant removal; 3) evaluation of promising PAAC formulations for potential environmental impacts; and 4) assessment of the hydraulic, physical, and structural properties of PAAC. Conventional permeable concrete (often referred to as pervious concrete) is concrete with high porosity as a result of an extensive and interconnected void content. It is made from carefully controlled amounts of water and cementitious materials used to create a paste that forms a coating around aggregate particles. The mixture has a substantial void content (e.g., 15% - 25%) that results in a highly permeable structure that drains quickly. In PAAC, the aggregate material is partly replaced by chemically-active amendments that precipitate or adsorb contaminants in water that flows through the concrete interstices. PAAC combines the relatively high structural strength, ample void space, and water permeability of pervious concrete with the contaminant sequestration ability of chemically-active amendments to produce a new material with superior durability and ability to control contaminant mobility. The high surface area provided by the concrete interstices in PAAC provides significant opportunity for contaminants to react with the amendments incorporated into the concrete matrix. PAAC has the potential to immobilize a large variety of organic and inorganic contaminants by incorporating different active sequestering agents including phosphate materials (rock phosphate), organoclays, zeolite, and lime individually or in combinations.

  18. Monitoring, Modeling, and Diagnosis of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Small Concrete Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Cai, Guowei; Gribok, Andrei V.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2015-09-01

    Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Structural health monitoring of concrete structures aims to understand the current health condition of a structure based on heterogeneous measurements to produce high-confidence actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. This report describes alkali-silica reaction (ASR) degradation mechanisms and factors influencing the ASR. A fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical model developed by Saouma and Perotti by taking into consideration the effects of stress on the reaction kinetics and anisotropic volumetric expansion is presented in this report. This model is implemented in the GRIZZLY code based on the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment. The implemented model in the GRIZZLY code is randomly used to initiate ASR in a 2D and 3D lattice to study the percolation aspects of concrete. The percolation aspects help determine the transport properties of the material and therefore the durability and service life of concrete. This report summarizes the effort to develop small-size concrete samples with embedded glass to mimic ASR. The concrete samples were treated in water and sodium hydroxide solution at elevated temperature to study how ingress of sodium ions and hydroxide ions at elevated temperature impacts concrete samples embedded with glass. Thermal camera was used to monitor the changes in the concrete sample and results are summarized.

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: survey of models for concrete degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Benjamin W; Huang, Hai

    2014-08-01

    Concrete has been used in the construction of nuclear facilities because of two primary properties: its structural strength and its ability to shield radiation. Concrete structures have been known to last for hundreds of years, but they are also known to deteriorate in very short periods of time under adverse conditions. The use of concrete in nuclear facilities for containment and shielding of radiation and radioactive materials has made its performance crucial for the safe operation of the facility. The goal of this report is to review and document the main aging mechanisms of concern for concrete structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and the models used in simulations of concrete aging and structural response of degraded concrete structures. This is in preparation for future work to develop and apply models for aging processes and response of aged NPP concrete structures in the Grizzly code. To that end, this report also provides recommendations for developing more robust predictive models for aging effects of performance of concrete.

  20. Effects of the air–steam mixture on the permeability of damaged concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medjigbodo, Sonagnon; Darquennes, Aveline; Khelidj, Abdelhafid; Loukili, Ahmed

    2013-12-15

    Massive concrete structures such as the containments of nuclear power plant must maintain their tightness at any circumstances to prevent the escape of radioactive fission products into the environment. In the event of an accident like a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the concrete wall is submitted to both hydric and mechanical loadings. A new experimental device reproducing these extreme conditions (water vapor transfer, 140 °C and 5 bars) is developed in the GeM Laboratory to determine the effect of the saturation degree, the mechanical loading and the flowing fluid type on the concrete transfer properties. The experimental tests show that the previous parameters significantly affect the concrete permeability and the gas leakage rate. Their evolution as a function of the mechanical loading is characterized by two phases that are directly related to concrete microstructure and crack development.

  1. Measurement of concrete E-modulus evolution since casting: A novel method based on ambient vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azenha, Miguel; Magalhaes, Filipe; Faria, Rui; Cunha, Alvaro

    2010-07-15

    The use of ambient vibration tests to characterize the evolution of E-modulus of concrete right after casting is investigated in this paper. A new methodology is proposed, which starts by casting a concrete cylindrical beam inside a hollow acrylic formwork. This beam is then placed horizontally, simply supported at both extremities, and vertical accelerations resulting from ambient vibration are measured at mid-span. Processing these mid-span acceleration time series using power spectral density functions allows a continuous identification of the first flexural frequency of vibration of the composite beam, which in turn is correlated with the evolutive E-modulus of concrete since casting. Together with experiments conducted with the proposed methodology, a complementary validation campaign for concrete E-modulus determination was undertaken by static loading tests performed on the composite beam, as well as by standard compressive tests of concrete cylinders of the same batch loaded at different ages.

  2. Concrete Model Descriptions and Summary of Benchmark Studies for Blast Effects Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, C; Kokko, E; Darnell, I; Dunn, T; Hagler, L; Leininger, L

    2005-07-21

    Concrete is perhaps one of the most widely used construction materials in the world. Engineers use it to build massive concrete dams, concrete waterways, highways, bridges, and even nuclear reactors. The advantages of using concrete is that it can be cast into any desired shape, it is durable, and very economical compared to structural steel. The disadvantages are its low tensile strength, low ductility, and low strength-to-weight ratio. Concrete is a composite material that consists of a coarse granular material, or aggregate, embedded in a hard matrix of material, or cement, which fills the gaps between the aggregates and binds them together. Concrete properties, however, vary widely. The properties depend on the choice of materials used and the proportions for a particular application, as well as differences in fabrication techniques. Table 1 provides a listing of typical engineering properties for structural concrete. Properties also depend on the level of concrete confinement, or hydrostatic pressure, the material is being subjected to. In general, concrete is rarely subjected to a single axial stress. The material may experience a combination of stresses all acting simultaneously. The behavior of concrete under these combined stresses are, however, extremely difficult to characterize. In addition to the type of loading, one must also consider the stress history of the material. Failure is determined not only by the ultimate stresses, but also by the rate of loading and the order in which these stresses were applied. The concrete model described herein accounts for this complex behavior of concrete. It was developed by Javier Malvar, Jim Wesevich, and John Crawford of Karagozian and Case, and Don Simon of Logicon RDA in support of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's programs. The model is an enhanced version of the Concrete/Geological Material Model 16 in the Lagrangian finite element code DYNA3D. The modifications that were made to the original model

  3. Impact of ASCE-95 wind provisions on reinforced concrete chimneys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Porthouse, R.A. [Chimney Consultants, Inc., West Lebanon, NH (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents a summary of the study on the impact of the ASCE 7-95 provisions primarily on the along wind load calculations for reinforced concrete chimneys. The results of this study provided, in part, a basis for the adoption of the revised load and strength factors for wind load design in ACI 307-98. The study was undertaken to: compare unfactored along wind chimney loads resulting from fastest miles per hour (FMPH) and three second gust (TSG) procedures; quantify design changes resulting from FMPH to TSG in terms of the reinforcing steel; review the historical basis for the current load factors (LF) and strength factors (SF); and to recommend a set of LF and SF for the design of chimneys without significantly changing the present design confidence level.

  4. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Schaich, C.R.; Foster, D. Jr.

    1997-06-03

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface. 7 figs.

  5. Mobile system for microwave removal of concrete surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Terry L.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Schaich, Charles R.; Foster, Jr., Don

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the microwave removal of contaminated concrete surfaces. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to pass over a support surface. The housing includes a waveguide for directing microwave energy to the surface at an angle maximizing absorption of microwave energy by the surface. The apparatus is further provided with a source of microwave energy operably associated with the waveguide, wherein the microwave energy has a frequency of between about 10.6 GHz and about 24 GHz and acts to remove the uppermost layer from the surface. The apparatus further includes a debris containment assembly comprising a vacuum assembly operably associated with the housing. The vacuum assembly is adapted to remove debris from the area adjacent the surface.

  6. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeldin, Arkady; Carciello, Neal; Kukacka, Lawrence; Fontana, Jack

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to high temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10-30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures theroef; and about 70-90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and preferably a member selected from the group consisting of portland cement, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, carbon black and mixtures thereof; and optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  7. Yield Line Evaluation Methodology for Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-12-30

    Yield line theory is an analytical technique that can be used to determine the ultimate bending capacity of flat reinforced concrete plates subject to distributed and concentrated loadings. Alternately, yield line theory, combined with rotation limits can be used to determine the energy absorption capacity of plates subject to impulsive and impact loadings. Typical components analyzed by yield line theory are basemats, floor and roof slabs subject to vertical loads along with walls subject tomore » out of plane loadings. One limitation of yield line theory is that it is computationally difficult to evaluate some mechanisms. This problem is aggravated by the complex geometry and reinforcing layouts commonly found in practice. The program has the capability to either evaluate a single user defined mechanism or to iterate over a range of mechanisms to determine the minimum ultimate capacity. The program is verified by comparison to a series of yield line mechanisms with known solutions.« less

  8. A mobile computed tomographic unit for inspecting reinforced concrete columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumitra, T.; Srisatit, S.; Pattarasumunt, A.

    1994-12-31

    A mobile computed tomographic unit applicable in the inspection of reinforced concrete columns was designed, constructed and tested. A CT image reconstruction programme written in Quick Basic was first developed to be used on an IBM PC/AT microcomputer. It provided user friendly menus for data processing and displaying CT image. The prototype of a gamma-ray scanning system using a 1.11 GBq Cs-137 source and a NaI(T1) scintillation detector was also designed and constructed. The system was a microcomputer controlled, single-beam rotate-translate scanner used for collecting transmitted gamma-ray data in different angles. The CT unit was finally tested with a standard column and a column of an existing building. The cross sectional images of the columns could be clearly seen. The positions and sizes of the reinforced bars could be estimated.

  9. High temperature concrete composites containing organosiloxane crosslinked copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeldin, A.; Carciello, N.; Kukacka, L.; Fontana, J.

    High temperature polymer concrete composites comprising about 10 to 30% by weight of a liquid monomer mixture is described. It consists essentially of an organosiloxane polymer crosslinked with an olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of styrene, methyl methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, triallyl cyanurate, n-phenylmalimide, divinyl benzene and mixtures thereof. About 70 to 90% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and portland cement, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, carbon black or mixtures thereof. Optionally a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobyutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide and other organic peroxides are used to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of the inorganic filler.

  10. Insulating concrete forms: Installed cost and acoustic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    The NAHB Research Center conducted a study to compare the cost and performance of Insulating Concrete Form (ICF) walls to conventional wood-frame exterior walls. This report contains the results of the cost study and sound transmission tests. Three home were built and monitored. One home has an ICF plank system, one has an ICF block system, and one is of conventional 2x4 lumber construction. The homes have identical floor plans and are located side by side. The findings indicate that the labor costs for the ICFs were slightly to moderately higher than the wood framing. However, the sound tests indicate that the ICF walls perform significantly better than the wood walls when no openings were present. The report summarizes the findings and recommends ways to increase the cost-effectiveness of ICFs.

  11. Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

    2006-08-01

    Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

  12. Comparison of composition and texture of calcite-cemented concretions and host sandstones, northern Apennines, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cibin, U. . Dept. de Scienze Geologiche); Cavazza, W. . Dept de Scienze Mineralogiche); Fontana, D. . Inst. di Geologia); Milliken, K.L.; McBride, E.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-09-01

    Compositional and textural characteristics of 13 calcite-cemented concretions are compared with those in adjacent but essentially uncemented host sandstones to test the belief that concretions better preserve original detrital compositions than do host rocks. Sandstones sampled are from five upper Eocene to Pliocene clastic units deposited in a piggy-back setting and from one Miocene unit in the foreland basin of the northern Apennines. The authors' data indicate that calcite-cemented concretions do not necessarily preserve unstable grains more readily than host sandstones, especially if cementation occurs late in the burial history of the sandstones. In the examined formations the main factors controlling the capability of concretions to preserve unstable framework grains seem to be (1) the types of unstable grains, (2) their susceptibility to dissolution by interstitial fluids or replacement by calcite, (3) burial depth and temperature during and after concretion development, and (4) time. Correct provenance reconstructions of sandstone units containing concretions must be preceded by assessment of any diagenetic alteration affecting the framework grains of both concretions and host rocks.

  13. Long-term degradation (or improvement?) of cementitious grout/concrete for waste disposal at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepho, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    If grout and/or concrete barriers and containments are considered for long-term (500 yrs to 100,000 ) waste disposal, then long-term degradation of grout/cement materials (and others) need to be studied. Long-term degradations of a cementitious grout monolith (15.4mW x 10.4mH x 37.6mL) and its containment concrete shell and asphalt shell (each 1-m thick) were analyzed. The main degradation process of the concrete shell was believed to be fractures due to construction joints, shrinkage, thermal stress, settlement, and seismic events. A scenario with fractures was modeled (flow and transport model) for long-term risk performance (out to a million yrs). Even though the concrete/grout is expected to fracture, the concrete/grout chemistry, which has high Ph value, is very beneficial in causing calcite deposits from calcium in the water precipitating in the fractures. These calcite deposits will tend to plug the fracture and keep water from entering. The effectiveness of such plugging needs to be studied more. It`s possible that the plugged fractures are more impermeable than the original concrete/grout. The long-term performance of concrete/grout barriers will be determined by its chemistry, not its mechanical properties.

  14. Implementation Plan and Initial Development of Nuclear Concrete Materials Database for Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The FY10 activities for development of a nuclear concrete materials database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database will be designed and constructed...

  15. Large-scale exploratory tests of sodium/limestone concrete interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randich, E.; Smaardyk, J.E.; Acton, R.U.

    1983-02-01

    Eleven large-scale tests examining the interaction of molten sodium and limestone (calcite) concrete were performed. The tests typically used between 100 and 200 kg of sodium at temperatures between 723 K and 973 K and a total sodium/concrete contact area of approx. 1.0m/sup 2/. The results show that energetic reactions can occur between sodium and limestone concrete. Delay times of less than 30 minutes were observed before the onset of the energetic phase. Not all tests exhibited energetic reactions and the results indicate that there is a sodium temperature threshold of 723 K to 773 K which is necessary to initiate the energetic phase. Maximum heat fluxes during the energetic phase were measured at 3.6 x 10/sup 5/ J/m/sup 2/-s. Maximum penetration rates were 4 mm/min. Total concrete erosion varied from 1 to 15 cm.

  16. Site Selection for Concrete Batch Plant to Support Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wike, L.D.

    2001-06-15

    WSRC conducted a site selection study to identify, assess, and rank candidate sites for an onsite concrete batch plant at the Savannah River Site in the vicinity of F-Area.

  17. Influence of compaction on the interfacial transition zone and the permeability of concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leemann, Andreas . E-mail: andreas.leemann@empa.ch; Muench, Beat; Gasser, Philippe; Holzer, Lorenz

    2006-08-15

    The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is regarded as a key feature for the transport properties and the durability of concrete. In this study one self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixture and two conventionally vibrated concrete (CVC) mixtures are studied in order to determine the influence of compaction on the porosity of the ITZ. Additionally oxygen permeability and water conductivity were measured in vertical and horizontal direction. The quantitative analysis of images made with an optical microscope and an environmental scanning electron microscope shows a significantly increased porosity and width of the ITZ in CVC compared to SCC. At the same time oxygen permeability and water conductivity of CVC are increased in comparison to SCC. Moreover, considerable differences in the porosity of the lower, lateral and upper ITZ are observed in both types of concrete. The anisotropic distribution of pores in the ITZ does not necessarily cause anisotropy in oxygen permeability and water conductivity though.

  18. Investigation of the effect of aggregates' morphology on concrete creep properties by numerical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavergne, F.; Sab, K.; Sanahuja, J.; Bornert, M.; Toulemonde, C.

    2015-05-15

    Prestress losses due to creep of concrete is a matter of interest for long-term operations of nuclear power plants containment buildings. Experimental studies by Granger (1995) have shown that concretes with similar formulations have different creep behaviors. The aim of this paper is to numerically investigate the effect of size distribution and shape of elastic inclusions on the long-term creep of concrete. Several microstructures with prescribed size distribution and spherical or polyhedral shape of inclusions are generated. By using the 3D numerical homogenization procedure for viscoelastic microstructures proposed by Šmilauer and Bažant (2010), it is shown that the size distribution and shape of inclusions have no measurable influence on the overall creep behavior. Moreover, a mean-field estimate provides close predictions. An Interfacial Transition Zone was introduced according to the model of Nadeau (2003). It is shown that this feature of concrete's microstructure can explain differences between creep behaviors.

  19. Activities in Support of Continuing the Service of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status provided. Operating experience related to performance of the concrete structures is presented. Basic components of a program to manage aging of the concrete structures are identified and described: (1) Degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; (2) Assessment and remediation: i.e., component selection, in- service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions; and (3) Estimation of performance at present or some future point in time: i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk. Finally, areas are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  20. Dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete: A progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, M.; Yong-gang Zhang; Lotze, D.

    1995-04-01

    In early 1993, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission began a research program at The University of Texas at Austin, dealing with the dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete. In this paper, the progress of that research program is reviewed. The test program is summarized, the work performed to date is reviewed, with emphasis on the dynamic and static behavior of single tensile anchors in uncracked concrete. General conclusions from that work are discussed, and future plans are presented.

  1. The Ontario Hydro dry irradiated fuel storage program and concrete integrated container demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.J.; Grande, L. )

    1990-05-01

    The practicality of loading irradiated fuel into a concrete cask underwater in an existing pool facility has been successfully demonstrated. The cask holds about 7.7 metric-tons-uranium. Special design features allow the cask to be used for dry storage, for transportation, and for disposal without re-handling the fuel. The cask, called the concrete integrated container, or CIC, has been developed. This paper describes the loading, monitoring, and IAEA-based transportation certification of testing of the CIC.

  2. RESTORING A DAMAGED 16-YEAR -OLD INSULATING POLYMER CONCRETE DIKE OVERLAY: REPAIR MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at KeySpan liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NY, just over sixteen years ago. It also included undertaking a small-scale field demonstration to ensure that the commercial repairing technologies were applicable to the designed and formulated materials.

  3. Application of clearance automatic laser inspection system to clearance measurement of concrete waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, Michiya; Ogino, Haruyuki; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2007-07-01

    Recently, the Clearance Automatic Laser Inspection System (CLALIS) has been developed for the clearance measurement of metal scraps. It utilizes three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning, y-ray measurement and Monte Carlo calculation, and has outstanding detection ability. For the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the effect of background (BG) gamma rays from natural radionuclides in the measurement target, such as K-40 and the radioactive decay products of Th-232 and U-238, should be compensated for to ensure adequate waste management. Since NE102A plastic scintillation detectors are used for y-ray measurement in CLALIS, it is impossible to distinguish between count rates of natural radionuclides and contaminants on the basis of gamma-ray energy information. To apply CLALIS to the clearance measurement of concrete segments, the original activity evaluation method was improved by adding a new compensation procedure. In this procedure, BG count rate due to natural radionuclides is estimated by a Monte Carlo calculation with pre-analyzed data of a representative sample of the measurement target. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in concrete differs markedly depending on the production location of its components, such as cement and aggregates. In this study, using six mock concrete waste samples, which were composed of cement and fine aggregate from various production locations, the accuracy of BG compensation was experimentally estimated. In addition, the accuracy of calibration for concrete waste was also estimated using a number of mock concrete segments of small and large triangular prisms. By considering the uncertainties of BG compensation and calibration, the detection limit of CLALIS for concrete waste was estimated. As a result, it was revealed that CLALIS could be applied to the clearance measurement of concrete segments when the mass of the measurement target is greater than approximately 1.1 kg and the key radionuclide is Co-60

  4. LWR Sustainability: Assessment of Aging of Nuclear Power Plant Safety Related Concrete Strutures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves III, Herman; Naus, Dan J

    2013-01-01

    Current regulatory testing and inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience is presented. Techniques commonly used to inspect NPP concrete structures to assess and quantify age-related degradation are summarized. An approach for conduct of condition assessments of structures in NPPs is presented. Criteria, based primarily on visual indications, are provided for use in classification and assessment of concrete degradation. Materials and techniques for repair of degraded structures are generally discussed.

  5. Characterization of basin concrete in support of structural integrity demonstration for extended storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, A.

    2014-09-30

    Concrete core samples from C basin were characterized through material testing and analysis to verify the design inputs for structural analysis of the L Basin and to evaluate the type and extent of changes in the material condition of the concrete under extended service for fuel storage. To avoid the impact on operations, core samples were not collected from L area, but rather, several concrete core samples were taken from the C Basin prior to its closure. C basin was selected due to its similar environmental exposure and service history compared to L Basin. The microstructure and chemical composition of the concrete exposed to the water was profiled from the water surface into the wall to evaluate the impact and extent of exposure. No significant leaching of concrete components was observed. Ingress of carbonation or deleterious species was determined to be insignificant. No evidence of alkali-silica reactions (ASR) was observed. Ettringite was observed to form throughout the structure (in air voids or pores); however, the sulfur content was measured to be consistent with the initial concrete that was used to construct the facility. Similar ettringite trends were observed in the interior segments of the core samples. The compressive strength of the concrete at the mid-wall of the basin was measured, and similar microstructural analysis was conducted on these materials post compression testing. The microstructure was determined to be similar to near-surface segments of the core samples. The average strength was 4148 psi, which is well-above the design strength of 2500 psi. The analyses showed that phase alterations and minor cracking in a microstructure did not affect the design specification for the concrete.

  6. BUILDING MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION USING A CONCRETE FLOOR AND WALL CONTAMINATION PROFILING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aggarwal, Dr. S.,; Charters, G.; Thacker, Dr. D.

    2003-02-27

    Certain radioisotopes can penetrate concrete and contaminate the concrete well below the surface. The challenge is to determine the extent and magnitude of the contamination problem in real-time. The concrete profiling technology, TRUPROSM in conjunction with portable radiometric instrumentation produces a profile of radiological or chemical contamination through the material being studied. The data quality, quantity, and representativeness may be used to produce an activity profile from the hot spot surface into the material being sampled. This activity profile may then be expanded to ultimately characterize the facility and expedite waste segregation and facility closure at a reduced cost and risk. Performing a volumetric concrete or metal characterization safer and faster (without lab intervention) is the objective of this characterization technology. This way of determining contamination can save considerable time and money. Currently, concrete core bores are shipped to certified laboratories where the concrete residue is run through a battery of tests to determine the contaminants. The existing core boring operation volatilizes or washes out some of the contaminants (like tritium) and oftentimes cross-contaminates the area around the core bore site. The volatilization of the contaminants can lead to airborne problems in the immediate vicinity of the core bore. Cross-contamination can increase the contamination area and thereby increase the amount of waste generated. The goal is to avoid those field activities that could cause this type of release.

  7. Intermediate-scale tests of sodium interactions with calcite and dolomite aggregate concretes. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randich, E.; Acton, R.U.

    1983-09-01

    Two intermediate-scale tests were performed to compare the behavior of calcite and dolomite aggregate concretes when attacked by molten sodium. The tests were performed as part of an interlaboratory comparison between Sandia National Laboratories and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratories. Results of the tests at Sandia National Laboratories are reported here. The results show that both concretes exhibit similar exothermic reactions with molten sodium. The large difference in reaction vigor suggested by thermodynamic considerations of CO/sub 2/ release from calcite and dolomite was not realized. Penetration rates of 1.4 to 1.7 mm/min were observed for short periods of time with reaction zone temperatures in excess of 800/sup 0/C during the energetic attack. The penetration was not uniform over the entire sodium-concrete contact area. Rapid attack may be localized due to inhomogeneities in the concrete. The chemical reaction zone is less then one cm thick for the calcite concrete but is about seven cm thick for the dolomite concrete.

  8. From micro- to nano-scale molding of metals : size effect during molding of single crystal Al with rectangular strip punches.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.; Meng, W. J.; Mei, F.; Hiller, J.; Miller, D. J. (Materials Science Division); (Louisiana State Univ.); (Enervana Tech. LLC)

    2011-02-01

    A single crystal Al specimen was molded at room temperature with long, rectangular, strip diamond punches. Quantitative molding response curves were obtained at a series of punch widths, ranging from 5 {micro}m to 550 nm. A significant size effect was observed, manifesting itself in terms of significantly increasing characteristic molding pressure as the punch width decreases to 1.5 {micro}m and below. A detailed comparison of the present strip punch molding results was made with Berkovich pyramidal indentation on the same single crystal Al specimen. The comparison reveals distinctly different dependence of the characteristic pressure on corresponding characteristic length. The present results show the feasibility of micro-/nano-scale compression molding as a micro-/nano-fabrication technique, and offer an experimental test case for size-dependent plasticity theories.

  9. Understanding the scabbling of concrete using microwave energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttress, A.J.; Jones, D.A.; Dodds, C.; Dimitrakis, G.; Campbell, C.J.; Dawson, A.; Kingman, S.W.

    2015-09-15

    Concrete blocks supplied by the UK Sellafield nuclear site were treated with microwave energy using a 15 kW system operating at 2.45 GHz. The effect of aggregate type (Whinstone, Gravel and Limestone); standoff distance; and effect of surface coating were studied to determine their influence on the systems performance in terms of mass and area removal rates and evaluate the controllability of the process. All blocks were scabbled successfully, with mass and area removal rates averaging 11.3 g s{sup −} {sup 1} and 3 cm s{sup −} {sup 1} respectively on treating large areas to a depth of 25 mm. The use of a Kevlar barrier between the block and applicator was found to significantly reduce the generation of dust as only 1.6% of the scabbled mass was in the < 106 μm — that generally considered to be airborne. Importantly Brazilian disc testing of the scabbled block showed that the process did not adversely affect structural properties of the test blocks after treatment.

  10. Innovative Retrofit Insulation Strategies for Concrete Masonry Foundations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huelman, P.; Goldberg, L.; Jacobson, R.

    2015-05-06

    This study was designed to test a new approach for foundation insulation retrofits, with the goal of demonstrating improved moisture control, improved occupant comfort, and reduced heat loss. Because conducting experimental research on existing below-grade assemblies is very difficult, most of the results are based on simulations. The retrofit approach consists of filling open concrete block cores with an insulating material and adding R-10 exterior insulation that extends 1 ft below grade. The core fill is designed to improve the R-value of the foundation wall and increase the interior wall surface temperature, but more importantly to block convection currents that could otherwise increase moisture loads on the foundation wall and interior space. The exterior insulation significantly reduces heat loss through the most exposed part of the foundation and further increases the interior wall surface temperature. This improves occupant comfort and decreases the risk of condensation. Such an insulation package avoids the full-depth excavation necessary for exterior insulation retrofits, reduces costs, and eliminates the moisture and indoor air quality risks associated with interior insulation retrofits. Retrofit costs for the proposed approach were estimated at roughly half those of a full-depth exterior insulation retrofit.

  11. Method of lining a vertical mine shaft with concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eklund, James D.; Halter, Joseph M.; Rasmussen, Donald E.; Sullivan, Robert G.; Moffat, Robert B.

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus includes a cylindrical retainer form spaced inwardly of the wall of the shaft by the desired thickness of the liner to be poured and having overlapping edges which seal against concrete flow but permit the form to be contracted to a smaller circumference after the liner has hardened and is self-supporting. A curb ring extends downwardly and outwardly toward the shaft wall from the bottom of the retainer form to define the bottom surface of each poured liner section. An inflatable toroid forms a seal between the curb ring and the shaft wall. A form support gripper ring having gripper shoes laterally extendable under hydraulic power to engage the shaft wall supports the retainer form, curb ring and liner until the newly poured liner section becomes self-supporting. Adjusting hydraulic cylinders permit the curb ring and retainer form to be properly aligned relative to the form support gripper ring. After a liner section is self-supporting, an advancing system advances the retainer form, curb ring and form support gripper ring toward a shaft boring machine above which the liner is being formed. The advancing system also provides correct horizontal alignment of the form support gripper ring.

  12. The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abedi-Nik, Farhad; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2008-07-08

    Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understanding the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative 'dry' cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered.

  13. Pseudorandom functions revisited: The cascade construction and its concrete security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellare, M.; Canetti, R.; Krawczyk, H.

    1996-12-31

    Pseudorandom function families are a powerful cryptographic primitive, yielding, in particular, simple solutions for the main problems in private key cryptography. Their existence based on general assumptions (namely, the existence of one-way functions) has been established. In this work we investigate new ways of designing pseudorandom function families. The goal is to find constructions that are both efficient and secure, and thus eventually to bring the benefits of pseudorandom functions to practice. The basic building blocks in our design are certain limited versions of pseudorandom function families, called finite-length input pseudorandom function families, for which very efficient realizations exist in practical cryptography. Thus rather than starting from one-way functions, we propose constructions of {open_quote}full-fledged{close_quotes} pseudorandom function families from these limited ones. In particular we propose the cascade construction, and provide a concrete security analysis which relates the strength of the cascade to that of the underlying finite pseudorandom function family in a precise and quantitative way.

  14. Prescriptive method for insulating concrete forms in residential construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrankar, A.; Elhajj, N.

    1998-05-01

    Characterized as strong, durable, and energy-efficient, a new wall system for housing called Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs) is emerging as an alternative to lumber wall frames. Due to rising costs and varying quality of framing lumber, home builders are increasing their use of ICFs even though added engineering costs make ICF homes slightly more expensive than homes with wood framing. To improve the affordability and acceptance of ICF homes, this report sets guidelines on the design, construction and inspection of ICF wall systems in residential construction. Based on thorough testing and research, the Prescriptive Method section of the report outlines minimum requirements for ICF systems including wall thickness, termite protection, reinforcement, lintel span, and connection requirements. It highlights construction and thermal guidelines for ICFs and explains how to apply the prescriptive requirements to one- and two-family homes. The Commentary section provides supplemental information and the engineering assumptions and methods used for the prescriptive method. Appendices contain step-by-step examples on how to apply ICF requirements when designing a home. They also contain engineering technical substantiation and metric conversion factors.

  15. EVALUATION OF SULFATE ATTACK ON SALTSTONE VAULT CONCRETE AND SALTSTONESIMCO TECHNOLOGIES, INC. PART1 FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C

    2008-08-19

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a durability analysis performed by SIMCO Technologies Inc. to assess the effects of contacting saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes with highly alkaline solutions containing high concentrations of dissolved sulfate. The STADIUM{reg_sign} code and data from two surrogate concretes which are similar to the Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes were used in the preliminary durability analysis. Simulation results for these surrogate concrete mixes are provided in this report. The STADIUM{reg_sign} code will be re-run using transport properties measured for the SRS Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concrete samples after SIMCO personnel complete characterization testing on samples of these materials. Simulation results which utilize properties measured for samples of Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes will be provided in Revision 1 of this report after property data become available. The modeling performed to date provided the following information on two concrete mixes that will be used to support the Saltstone PA: (1) Relationship between the rate of advancement of the sulfate front (depth of sulfate ion penetration into the concrete) and the rate of change of the concrete permeability and diffusivity. (2) Relationship between the sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate and the rate of the sulfate front progression. (3) Equation describing the change in hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity) as a function of sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate. These results have been incorporated into the current Saltstone PA analysis by G. Flach (Flach, 2008). In addition, samples of the Saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes have been prepared by SIMCO Technologies, Inc. Transport and physical properties for these materials are currently being measured and sulfate exposure testing to three high alkaline, high sulfate leachates provided by SRNL is

  16. Review of the Current State of Knowledge on the Effects of Radiation on Concrete

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosseel, Thomas M.; Maruyama, Ippei; Le Pape, Yann; Kontani, Osamu; Giorla, Alain B.; Remec, Igor; Wall, James J.; Sircar, Madhumita; Andrade, Carmen; Ordonez, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    A review of the current state of knowledge on the effects of radiation on concrete in nuclear applications is presented. Emphasis is placed on the effects of radiation damage as reflected by changes in engineering properties of concrete in the evaluation of the long-term operation (LTO) and for Plant Life or Aging Management of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Japan, Spain, and the United States. National issues and concerns are described for Japan and the US followed by a discussion of the fundamental understanding of the effects radiation on concrete. Specifically, the effects of temperature, moisture content, and irradiation onmore » ordinary Portland cement paste and the role of temperature and neutron energy spectra on radiation induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of aggregate-forming minerals are described. This is followed by a discussion of the bounding conditions for extended operation, the significance of accelerated irradiation conditions, the role of temperature, creep, and how these issues are being incorporated into numerical and meso-scale models. From these insights on radiation damage, analyses of these effects on concrete structures are reviewed and the current status of work in Japan and the US are described. Also discussed is the recent formation of a new international scientific and technical organization, the International Committee on Irradiated Concrete (ICIC), to provide a forum for timely information exchanges among organizations pursuing the identification, quantification, and modeling of the effects of radiation on concrete in commercial nuclear applications. Lastly, the paper concludes with a discussion of research gaps including: 1) interpreting test-reactor data, 2) evaluating service-irradiated concrete for aging management and to inform radiation damage models with the Zorita NPP (Spain) serving as the first comprehensive test case, 3) irradiated-assisted alkali-silica reactions, and 4) RIVE under constrained conditions.« less

  17. Feasibility studies to rehabilitate TVA`s Chickamauga Navigation Facility due to the effects of concrete growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niznik, J.A.; Conner, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    Chickamauga Dam is a multi-purpose project constructed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in the early 1940s. Shortly after construction it was evident there was an alkali-aggregate reaction taking place in the concrete structures. This reaction resulted in a phenomenon of concrete growth; i.e., unchecked expansion of the concrete which causes high stresses, cracking and movement of concrete structures, and undesirable side effects. This problem has increased in severity resulting in increased concerns about structural integrity of the dam structures and long term outages to navigation.

  18. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2013-07-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total

  19. Fatal and nonfatal risk associated with recycle of D&D-generated concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boren, J.K.; Ayers, K.W.; Parker, F.L.

    1997-02-01

    As decontamination and decommissioning activities proceed within the U.S. Department of Energy Complex, vast volumes of uncontaminated and contaminated concrete will be generated. The current practice of decontaminating and landfilling the concrete is an expensive and potentially wasteful practice. Research is being conducted at Vanderbilt University to assess the economic, social, legal, and political ramifications of alternate methods of dealing with waste concrete. An important aspect of this research work is the assessment of risk associated with the various alternatives. A deterministic risk assessment model has been developed which quantifies radiological as well as non-radiological risks associated with concrete disposal and recycle activities. The risk model accounts for fatal as well as non-fatal risks to both workers and the public. Preliminary results indicate that recycling of concrete presents potentially lower risks than the current practice. Radiological considerations are shown to be of minor importance in comparison to other sources of risk, with conventional transportation fatalities and injuries dominating. Onsite activities can also be a major contributor to non-fatal risk.

  20. Cleareye In-Ground and In-Concrete DIV Inspections: FY11 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braatz, Brett G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Morra, Marino; Knopik, Clint D.; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Jones, Anthony M.; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Good, Morris S.; Sorensen, Jerry B.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2012-01-23

    This report summarizes the results of a series of feasibility testing studies for in-ground and in-concrete imaging/detection technologies including radar imaging and acoustic time-of flight method. The objectives of this project are: (1) Design Information Verification (DIV) Tools for In-Concrete Inspections - To determine the feasibility of using holographic radar imaging (HRI), radar imaging, and acoustic time-of-flight (TOF) non-destructive evaluation technologies to detect, locate and identify pipes and voids embedded in standard-density and high-density concrete walls that typify those the IAEA will need to verify during field inspections; (2) DIV Tools for In-Ground Inspections - To determine the feasibility of using HRI and radar imaging non-destructive evaluation technologies to detect, locate, and identify objects buried at various depths made of various materials (metal, plastic, wood, and concrete) and representing geometries that typify those the IAEA will need to verify during field inspections; and (3) Based on the results of the studies, recommend the next steps needed to realize fieldable tools for in-concrete and in-ground inspections (including detection of deeply buried polyvinyl chloride [PVC] pipes) that employ the technologies shown to be feasible.

  1. Buildings Energy Data Book: 1.6 Embodied Energy of Building Assemblies

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    7 Embodied Energy of Floor Structures in the U.S. Floor Structure with Interior Ceiling Finish of Gypsum Board, Latex Paint Embodied Energy CO2 Equivalent (MMBtu/SF) (1) Emissions (lbs/SF) Glulam joist and plank decking 0.04 3.06 Precast Hollowcore 0.05 13.43 Wood I-joist 0.02 2.03 Open-web Steel Joist 0.06 7.94 Open-web Steel Joist with concrete topping 0.07 12.30 Precast Double-T 0.04 11.38 Precast Double-T with concrete topping 0.06 16.45 Steel Joist 0.06 8.82 Steel Joist with plywood decking

  2. Structural and seismic analyses of waste facility reinforced concrete storage vaults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1995-07-01

    Facility 317 of Argonne National Laboratory consists of several reinforced concrete waste storage vaults designed and constructed in the late 1940`s through the early 1960`s. In this paper, structural analyses of these concrete vaults subjected to various natural hazards are described, emphasizing the northwest shallow vault. The natural phenomenon hazards considered include both earthquakes and tornados. Because these vaults are deeply embedded in the soil, the SASSI (System Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction) code was utilized for the seismic calculations. The ultimate strength method was used to analyze the reinforced concrete structures. In all studies, moment and shear strengths at critical locations of the storage vaults were evaluated. Results of the structural analyses show that almost all the waste storage vaults meet the code requirements according to ACI 349--85. These vaults also satisfy the performance goal such that confinement of hazardous materials is maintained and functioning of the facility is not interrupted.

  3. Investigation of air-entraining admixture dosage in fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ley, M.T.; Harris, N.J.; Folliard, K.J.; Hover, K.C.

    2008-09-15

    The amount of air-entraining admixture (AEA) needed to achieve a target air content in fresh concrete can vary significantly with differences in the fly ash used in the concrete. The work presented in this paper evaluates the ability to predict the AEA dosage on the basis of tests on the fly ash alone. All results were compared with the dosage of AEA required to produce an air content of 6% in fresh concrete. Fly ash was sampled from six separate sources. For four of these sources, samples were obtained both before and after the introduction of 'low-NOx burners'. Lack of definitive data about the coal itself or the specifics of the burning processes prevents the ability to draw specific conclusions about the impact of low-NOx burners on AEA demand. Nevertheless, the data suggest that modification of the burning process to meet environmental quality standards may affect the fly ash-AEA interaction.

  4. Distinctive microstructural features of aged sodium silicate-activated slag concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Nicolas, Rackel; Bernal, Susan A.; Mejía de Gutiérrez, Ruby; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van; Provis, John L.

    2014-11-15

    Electron microscopic characterisation of 7-year old alkali-activated blast-furnace slag concretes enabled the identification of distinct microstructural features, providing insight into the mechanisms by which these materials evolve over time. Backscattered electron images show the formation of Liesegang-type ring formations, suggesting that the reaction at advanced age is likely to follow an Oswald supersaturation–nucleation–depletion cycle. Segregation of Ca-rich veins, related to the formation of Ca(OH){sub 2}, is observed in microcracked regions due to the ongoing reaction between the pore solution and available calcium from remnant slag grains. A highly dense and uniform interfacial transition zone is identified between siliceous aggregate particles and the alkali activated slag binders, across the concretes assessed. Alkali-activated slag concretes retain a highly dense and stable microstructure at advanced ages, where any microcracks induced at early ages seem to be partially closing, and the remnant slag grains continue reacting.

  5. Application of Nonlinear Elastic Resonance Spectroscopy For Damage Detection In Concrete: An Interesting Story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, Loren W.; Ten Cate, James A.; Johnson, Paul A.

    2012-06-28

    Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately, nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.

  6. Analytical Results For MOX Colemanite Concrete Samples Received On November, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-12-18

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received two samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on November 21, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. For all the samples tested, the total density and the boron partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. None of the samples met the lower limit for hydrogen partial density.

  7. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE CONCRETE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON SEPTEMBER 4, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2014-05-19

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received three samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on September 4, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the boron partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. None of the samples met the lower limit for hydrogen partial density.

  8. ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR MOX COLEMANITE CONCRETE SAMPLES RECEIVED ON NOVEMBER 21, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2014-05-19

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received two samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on November 21, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the boron partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. None of the samples met the lower limit for hydrogen partial density.

  9. Analytical Results For MOX Colemanite Concrete Samples Received On September 4, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, Marissa M.

    2013-09-24

    The Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) will use colemanite bearing concrete neutron absorber panels credited with attenuating neutron flux in the criticality design analyses and shielding operators from radiation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is tasked with measuring the total density, partial hydrogen density, and partial boron density of the colemanite concrete. SRNL received three samples of colemanite concrete for analysis on September 4, 2013. The average total density of each of the samples measured by the ASTM method C 642, the average partial hydrogen density was measured using method ASTM E 1131, and the average partial boron density of each sample was measured according to ASTM C 1301. The lower limits and measured values for the total density, hydrogen partial density, and boron partial density are presented. For all the samples tested, the total density and the boron partial density met or exceeded the specified limit. None of the samples met the lower limit for hydrogen partial density.

  10. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.