Sample records for recovery steam generators

  1. Options for Generating Steam Efficiently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment...

  2. Flash Steam Recovery Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronhold, C. J.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /condensate recovery system, resulting in condensate flash steam losses to the atmosphere. Using computer simulation models and pinch analysis techniques, the Operational Excellence Group (Six Sigma) was able to identify a project to recover the flash steam losses as a...

  3. Evaluation of a once-through heat recovery steam generator concept: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babione, R.A.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) evaluation of a once-through concept for a combined-cycle heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The project included a review of differences in reliability and maintainability characteristics of the once-through concept and a typical drum-type HRSG design. A special effort was placed on an investigation of the expected performance of the thin-wall alloy 800 boiler tubing used in the once-through HRSG. An analysis was performed by using the UNIRAM computer modeling methodology to compare the predicted availability of the once-through HRSG design with that of a drum-type system. The results of this project provide a basis for understanding the RAM characteristics of the once-through HRSG concept and identify areas where additional research may be beneficial in evaluating this new design for application within the utility industry. 28 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Proceedings: International Conference on Boiler Tube Failures and Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) Tube Failures and Inspections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tube failures remain the leading cause of availability loss in conventional fossil plants and combined cycle/heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) plants. These conference proceedings address state-of-the-art practices and techniques worldwide for understanding and reducing tube failures.

  5. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  6. Flash Steam Recovery Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bronhold, C. J.

    organic compounds, was targeted for improvement. This unit uses a portion of the high-pressure steam available from the plant's cogeneration facility. Continuous expansions within the unit had exceeded the optimum design capacity of the unit's steam...

  7. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  8. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  9. Waste Steam Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, J. M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .15 Jet Ejector - 165 p~ia Saturated Motive (965 psia/925?F) JO 2].22 2].]0 23.35 35 23. 22 23.]0 23.35 45 23.22 23.]0 23.35 ($2.l2/MM Btu fuel, 85% boiler efficiency,) 55 23.22 23.30 2].]5 ., 23. 22 23. )0 2].35 80 23. 22 23. JO 23. ]5 1243... technique, and the costs of fuel and electrical power. If turbine flows are unaffected so that no by-product power generation is lost, direct exchange to process and jet ejector compression will always yield an energy profit. Recovery via mechanical...

  10. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  11. In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Eric P

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

  12. Email To Friend Steam Electricity Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . keymanengravables.com Steam Turbine Generator Info, Pictures And Deals For Steam turbine generator ediscountshoppingBack One Email To Friend Steam Electricity Generator Need Steam Electricity Generator? See Steam Electricity Generator. greenshieldsindustrial.com Steam Generators Deals on Steam Generators Find what you

  13. New downhole steam generator tested

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Completion of 2 field tests of a new-model down-hole steam generator paves the way for further evaluation and development of a system destined to increase California's heavy oil production. Current air pollution restrictions there prevent installation of conventional steam generators in several areas of interest to oil operators. The current series of tests, conducted by Chemical Oil Recovery Co. (CORCO) of Bakersfield, California, follows an earlier prototype operation conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the US Department of Energy. The CORCO tests were conducted on the surface with the generator's output going into Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production Co.'s overland-Riokern Well No. 80, located in the Kern River field 4 miles north of Bakersfield. The first test was concluded with just under 1000 bbl of steam injected, less than planned due to a higher-than-expected injection pressure. The unit operated at less than 25% capacity because of the air compressor limitation. Compressor output was only 285 psi, not enough to inject the desired volumes into the reservoir. Test data shows that injection amounted to 150 bpd of 90 to 95% quality steam at 225-psi wellhead pressure. After injection, the well was shut in for 3 days to allow soaking, then put on production. Initial production was 40 bopd at 175 F.

  14. Steam generator tube rupture study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free, Scott Thomas

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

  15. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  16. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  17. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q. (Saratoga Springs, NY); Salamah, Samir A. (Niskayuna, NY); DeStefano, Thomas Daniel (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  18. Design and Performance Aspects of Steam Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -DESIGNING The concept of custom designing packaged steam generators is not new. Those familiar with heat recovery applications know that efficency and gas pressure drop are critical factors from boiler performance viewpoint and efforts should be made... gas pressure drop in a 100,000 lb/h boiler is equivalent to 15-18 kw of additional power or $ 7500 per year electricity bill, not to mention the larger fan size. Due to higher gas flow,the boiler efficency will also be affected. The exit gas...

  19. The Economics of Steam Electric Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ophaug, R. A.; Birget, C. D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economics of combining steam and electric generation for companies requiring both steam and electric services develop a challenge which few engineers and economists can realize. This paper outlines the general approach to this challenge...

  20. Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    be arbitrarily assumed; they depend on the inlet gas temperature and also on gas cleanliness. If the gas is clean,extended surfaces can be used and thus low pinch and approach points can be attained. However if the gas stream is dirty and only bare t...

  1. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion, and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For tertiary oil recovery, a downhole steam generator is designed which provides for efficient counterflow cooling of the combustion chamber walls and preheating of the fuel and water. Pressure-responsive doors are provided for closing and opening the outlet in response to flameout, thereby preventing flooding of the combustion chamber. (DLC)

  2. Experimental study of Morichal heavy oil recovery using combined steam and propane injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goite Marcano, Jose Gregorio

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with steam (for the purpose of increasing steam recovery efficiency) are being evaluated. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the effect of combined steam and propane injection on recovery of heavy oil from the Morichal field, Venezuela...

  3. Experimental study of Morichal heavy oil recovery using combined steam and propane injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goite Marcano, Jose Gregorio

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with steam (for the purpose of increasing steam recovery efficiency) are being evaluated. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the effect of combined steam and propane injection on recovery of heavy oil from the Morichal field, Venezuela...

  4. Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, {open_quote}Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.{close_quote} GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff`s assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness.

  5. analyzing steam generator: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We present ow simulations in the Steam Generator of a pressurized water nuclear reactor using coherence between the zoom and the full domain. Key words: Steam Generator,...

  6. advanced steam generators: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We present ow simulations in the Steam Generator of a pressurized water nuclear reactor using coherence between the zoom and the full domain. Key words: Steam Generator,...

  7. asco steam generators: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We present ow simulations in the Steam Generator of a pressurized water nuclear reactor using coherence between the zoom and the full domain. Key words: Steam Generator,...

  8. Recovery of bitumen from oil sand by steam with chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamazaki, T.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, oil sand bitumen has become the center of attention as a possible oil energy substitute for the future. Until now, the development of oil sand has been performed by surface miing and conventional steam injection, these methods are limited in respect to resource recovery. A more effective method needs to be developed utilizing in situ recovery. In this study, a new attempt is made for the purpose of enhancing the recovery of bitumen from oil sand by adopting the method of injecting high pressure steam and chemicals such as solvents, surfactants, and others.

  9. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, James F. (Bonneville County, ID); Koenig, John F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  10. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  11. Design of Hybrid Steam-In Situ Combustion Bitumen Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Xiaomeng; Gates, Ian D. [University of Calgary, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Canada)], E-mail: ian.gates@ucalgary.ca

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Given enormous capital costs, operating expenses, flue gas emissions, water treatment and handling costs of thermal in situ bitumen recovery processes, improving the overall efficiency by lowering energy requirements, environmental impact, and costs of these production techniques is a priority. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most widely used in situ recovery technique in Athabasca reservoirs. Steam generation is done on surface and consequently, because of heat losses, the energy efficiency of SAGD can never be ideal with respect to the energy delivered to the sandface. An alternative to surface steam generation is in situ combustion (ISC) where heat is generated within the formation through injection of oxygen at a sufficiently high pressure to initiate combustion of bitumen. In this manner, the heat from the combustion reactions can be used directly to mobilize the bitumen. As an alternative, the heat can be used to generate steam within the formation which then is the agent to move heat in the reservoir. In this research, alternative hybrid techniques with simultaneous and sequential steam-oxygen injection processes are examined to maximize the thermal efficiency of the recovery process. These hybrid processes have the advantage that during ISC, steam is generated within the reservoir from injected and formation water and as a product of oxidation. This implies that ex situ steam generation requirements are reduced and if there is in situ storage of combustion gases, that overall gas emissions are reduced. In this research, detailed reservoir simulations are done to examine the dynamics of hybrid processes to enable design of these processes. The results reveal that hybrid processes can lower emitted carbon dioxide-to-oil ratio by about 46%, decrease the consumed natural gas-to-oil ratio by about 73%, reduce the cumulative energy-to-oil ratio by between 40% and 70% compared to conventional SAGD, and drop water consumption per unit oil produced. However, oil recovery is between 25% and 40% below that of SAGD. Design of successful hybrid steam-oxygen processes must take into account the balance between injected steam and amount of injected oxygen and combustion gas products that dilute injected and in situ-generated steam in the depletion chamber by lowering its partial pressure, and thus its saturation temperature which in turn impacts production rates and recovery.

  12. Solar steam generation by heat localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghasemi, Hadi

    Currently, steam generation using solar energy is based on heating bulk liquid to high temperatures. This approach requires either costly high optical concentrations leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated ...

  13. Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Thermoelectrics have unique advantages for...

  14. Generating Steam by Waste Incineration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, D. R.; Darrow, L. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustible waste is a significant source of steam at the new John Deere Tractor Works assembly plant in Waterloo, Iowa. The incinerators, each rated to consume two tons of solid waste per hour, are expected to provide up to 100 percent of the full...

  15. Design and Performance Aspects of Steam Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    generators based on standard, pre-packaged designs. A "standard" boiler has several limitations such as pre-determined furnace dimensions, tube length, surface area, tube spacings etc, which may or may not be the optimum choice for a given steam demand...

  16. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  17. Enhanced Oil Recovery through Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage January 22, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Enhanced Oil Recovery through Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage January 22, 2014 A Comparative Study Of Continuous And Cyclic Steam Injection With Trapping Of Oil Phase Muhammad Adil Javed Summary of Thesis Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) through steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) has become an important in

  18. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  19. COMPUTATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN STEAM GENERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COMPUTATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN STEAM GENERATOR USING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION AND LOCAL ZOOM METHODS Abstract We present ow simulations in the Steam Generator of a pressurized water nuclear reactor using coherence between the zoom and the full domain. Key words: Steam Generator, Zoom, Domain Decomposition

  20. RELIABILITY OF SAMPLING INSPECTION SCHEMES APPLIED TO REPLACEMENT STEAM GENERATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cizelj, Leon

    RELIABILITY OF SAMPLING INSPECTION SCHEMES APPLIED TO REPLACEMENT STEAM GENERATORS Guy Roussel the size of the random sample of tubes to be inspected in replacement steam generators is revisited in this paper. A procedure to estimate the maximum number of defective tubes left in the steam generator after

  1. Steam Generator Group Project. Annual report, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R.A.; Lewis, M.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Steam Generator Group Project (SGGP) is an NRC program joined by additional sponsors. The SGGP utilizes a steam generator removed from service at a nuclear plant (Surry 2) as a vehicle for research on a variety of safety and reliability issues. This report is an annual summary of progress of the program for 1982. Information is presented on the Steam Generator Examination Facility (SGEF), especially designed and constructed for this research. Loading of the generator into the SGEF is then discussed. The report then presents radiological field mapping results and personnel exposure monitoring. This is followed by information on field reduction achieved by channel head decontaminations. The report then presents results of a secondary side examination through shell penetrations placed prior to transport, confirming no change in generator condition due to transport. Decontamination of the channel head is discussed followed by plans for eddy current testing and removal of the plugs placed during service. Results of a preliminary profilometry examination are then provided.

  2. Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

  3. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Steam Generator Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Sarah

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the use of different Artificial Intelligence methods to predict the values of several continuous variables from a Steam Generator. The objective was to determine how the different artificial intelligence methods performed in making predictions on the given dataset. The artificial intelligence methods evaluated were Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems. The types of neural networks investigated were Multi-Layer Perceptions, and Radial Basis Function. Bayesian and committee techniques were applied to these neural networks. Each of the AI methods considered was simulated in Matlab. The results of the simulations showed that all the AI methods were capable of predicting the Steam Generator data reasonably accurately. However, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system out performed the other methods in terms of accuracy and ease of implementation, while still achieving a fast execution time as well as a reasonable training time.

  4. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  5. Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

  6. Numerical Simulation of a Natural Circulation Steam Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinmüller, Ewa B.

    Numerical Simulation of a Natural Circulation Steam Generator W. Linzer \\Lambda , K. Ponweiser circulation steam generator. We focus on a model with a simple geometry consisting of two vertical pipes properties of water and steam. We present a numerical algorithm based on an explicit upwind discretization

  7. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

  8. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, Douglas E. (Delmont, PA); Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  9. Waste heat recovery steam curves with unfired HRSGs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compilation of waste heat recovery steam curves for a sampling of gas turbines ranging in output from around 1 MW to more than 200 MW is presented. The gas turbine output data shown with each set of curves differs from the values given in the Performance Specifications section of the Handbook. That's because the values have been calculated to reflect the effects of a 4 inch inlet and 10 inch outlet pressure drop on power output (lower), heat rate (higher), mass flow (higher), and exhaust temperature (higher).

  10. Co-generation: a new energy system to generate both steam and electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carraway, P.M.; Kloth, T.L.; Bull, A.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discussion is presented of the installation and operation of a co-generation system at Tenneco's Fee ''C'' Lease, whereby hot combustion gas from a turbine fueled by gas or lease crude will be used to generate steam for enhanced recovery, with the same turbine providing the power to generate electricity for sale to a utility. A summary is also given of the history of the project, some of the contractual requirements, the physical layout of the system, component descriptions, environmental considerations, and the composition of the final system.

  11. Steam generator operating experience, update for 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, L.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes operational events and degradation mechanisms affecting pressurized water reactor steam generator integrity. It provides: results of 1989 and 1990 steam generator inspections; highlights prevalent problem areas; improvements that have been made in nondestructive testing methods; preventive measures; repair techniques; and replacement procedures. It describes the equipment of the three (3) major suppliers and discusses recent examinations of 76 plants. Major areas of concern are the steam generator degradation mechanisms that affect tube integrity or cause tube leakage and tube failure. These include; (1) intergranular attack (IGA); (2) intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); (3) primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC); (4) pitting; and (5) vibrational wear and fatigue. Also discussed are plugging, sleeving, heat treatment, peening, chemical cleaning, and steam generator replacements. The current status of regulatory instruments and inspection guidelines for ensuring the steam generator integrity, is discussed with the highlights of steam generator research. New potential safety issues such as circumferential cracking and tube plug cracking are also discussed.

  12. Further experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of Morichal oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson,Mark Anthony

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998-1999, experimental research was conducted by Goite at Texas A&M University into steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela. Goite's results showed that, compared with steam injection alone, steam-propane...

  13. Further experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of Morichal oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson,Mark Anthony

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998-1999, experimental research was conducted by Goite at Texas A&M University into steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela. Goite's results showed that, compared with steam injection alone, steam-propane...

  14. Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Garner, Daniel C. (Murrysville, PA); Wineman, Arthur L. (Greensburg, PA); Robey, Robert M. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

  15. Nuclear steam-generator transplant total rises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smock, R.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several utilities with pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are replacing leaking and corroded steam generators. Over half the PWRs face corrosion problems that will cost $50 million to $100 million per unit to correct. An alternative approach of installing new tube sleeves has only had one application. Corrosion prevention still eludes utilities, whose problems differ. Westinghouse units were the first to experience corrosion problems because they have almost all operated for a decade or more. Some advances in condenser and steam-generator technology should extend the component life of younger units, and some leaking PWR tubes can be plugged. Operating differences may explain why PWRs have operated for over 20 years on submarines using phosphate water chemistry, while the use of de-aerators in the secondary-systems of foreign PWRs may explain their better performance. Among the corrective steps recommended by Stone and Webster are tighter chemistry control, better plant layup practices, revamping secondary-system hardware, condensate polishing, and de-aerators. Research continues to find the long-term preventative. 2 tables. (DCK)

  16. Steam generator operating experience update, 1982-1983. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, L.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a continuation of earlier reports by the staff addressing pressurized water reactor steam generator operating experience. NUREG-0886, Steam Generator Tube Experience, published in February 1982 summarized experience in domestic and foreign plants through December 1981. This report summarizes steam generator operating experience in domestic plants for the years 1982 and 1983. Included are new problems encountered with secondary-side loose parts, sulfur-induced stress-assisted corrosion cracking, and flow-induced vibrational wear in the new preheater design steam generators. The status of Unresolved Safety Issues A3, A4, and A5 is also discussed.

  17. Comments on US LMFBR steam generator base technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, W.R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of steam generators for the LMFBR was recognized from the onset by the AEC, now DOE, as a difficult, challenging, and high-priority task. The highly reactive nature of sodium with water/steam requires that the sodium-water/steam boundaries of LMFBR steam generators possess a degree of leak-tightness reliability not normally attempted on a commercial scale. In addition, the LMFBR steam generator is subjected to high fluid temperatures and severe thermal transients. These requirements place great demand on materials, fabrication processes, and inspection methods; and even greater demands on the designer to provide steam generators that can meet these demanding requirements, be fabricated without unreasonable shop requirements, and tolerate off-normal effects.

  18. Supervision and control prototyping for an engine exhaust gas heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Supervision and control prototyping for an engine exhaust gas heat recovery system based on a steam of a practical supervi- sion and control system for a pilot Rankine steam process for exhaust gas heat recovery Rankine steam process for exhaust gas heat recovery from a spark-ignition (SI) engine, from a prototyping

  19. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  20. Towards model-based control of a steam Rankine process for engine waste heat recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Towards model-based control of a steam Rankine process for engine waste heat recovery Johan Peralez a critical role in enabling good per- formance of Rankine processes for waste heat recovery from prime movers. INTRODUCTION In the last few years, engine waste heat recovery (WHR) systems based on the Rankine thermodynamic

  1. Reliability Improvement Programs in Steam Distribution and Power Generation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petto, S.

    RELIABILITY IIIPROVEfWlT PROGRAMS IN STEAM DISTRIBUTION AND POVER GENERATION SYSTEItS Steve Petto Tech/Serv Corporation Blue Bell, PA Abstract This paper will present alternatives to costly corrective maintenance of the steam trap... In the reliability and efficiency of the system. Recent studies have shownt hat more than 40% of all In stalled steam traps and 20% of certain types of valves need some form of corrective action. The majority of all high backpressure problems In condensate return...

  2. Visbreaking-enhanced thermal recovery method utilizing high temperature steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, W.R.

    1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The displacement efficiency of a steam drive process is improved and steam override reduced by rapidly injecting a predetermined amount of high temperature steam via an injection well into the formation to visbreak a portion of the oil in the formation prior to a steam drive wherein steam is injected into the formation via the injection well to displace oil to a spaced-apart production well through which oil is recovered. The visbroken oil provides a more favorable transition of mobility ratio between the phases in the formation thereby reducing viscous fingering and increasing the displacement efficiency of the steam drive. In addition, after a predetermined amount of high temperature steam has been injected into the formation, the formation may be allowed to undergo a soak period prior to the steam drive. The high temperature steam injection and soaking steps may be sequentially repeated for a plurality of cycles.

  3. Steam generator operating experience: Update for 1984-1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, L.; Stokley, J.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes operational events and degradation mechanisms affecting pressurized water reactor steam generator integrity, provides updated inspection results reported in 1984, 1985, and 1986, and highlights both prevalent problem areas and advances in improved equipment test practices, preventive measures, repair techniques, and replacement procedures. It describes equipment design features of the three major suppliers and discusses 68 plants in detail. Steam generator degradation mechanisms include intergranular stress corrosion cracking, primary water stress corrosion cracking, pitting, intergranular attack, and vibration wear that effects tube integrity and causes leakage. Plugging, sleeving heat treatment, peening, chemical cleaning, and steam generator replacements are described and regulatory instruments and inspection guidelines for nondestructive evaluations and girth weld cracking are discusses. The report concludes that although degradation mechanisms are generally understood, the elimination of unscheduled plant shutdowns and costly repairs resulting from leaking tubes has not been achieved. Highlights of steam generator research and unresolved safety issues are discussed. 21 refs., 8 tabs.

  4. Thermohydraulic analysis of U-tube steam generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Silva, Hugo Cardoso

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent trends in plant safety analysis reveal a need for benchmark analytical representations of the steam generators to aid in the improvement of system codes and of fast codes for operator assistance. A model for such ...

  5. Automated Diagnosis and Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gabe V. Garcia

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is tube degradation. Tube defects are divided into seven categories, one of which is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). Defects of this type usually begin on the outer surface of the tubes and propagate both inward and laterally. In many cases these defects occur at or near the tube support plates. Several different methods exist for the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear steam generator tubes for defect characterization.

  6. Steam generator operating experience, update for 1987--1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, L.; Stokley, J.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes operational events and degradation mechanisms affecting pressurized water reactor steam generator integrity, provides results of 1987 and 1988 steam generator inspections, and highlights both prevalent problem areas and improvements that have been made in nondestructive testing methods, preventive measures, repair techniques, and replacement procedures. It describes the equipment of the three major suppliers and discusses recent examinations of 76 plants. Major areas of concern are the steam generator degradation mechanisms that affect tube integrity or cause tube leakage and tube failure. These include intergranular attack (IGA), intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), pitting, and vibrational wear and fatigue. Also discussed are plugging, sleeving, heat treatment, peening, chemical cleaning, and steam generator replacements, the current status of regulatory instruments and inspection guidelines for ensuring the steam generator integrity, and highlights of steam generator research and unresolved safety issues. The report concludes that cracking, both IGSCC on the tube outside diameter and PWSCC on the tube inside diameter, was the major cause of tube degradation during the 1987--1988 period. 24 refs., 8 tabs.

  7. Waste Heat Recovery Power Generation with WOWGen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero, M.

    applications of heat recovery power generation can be found in Industry (e.g. steel, glass, cement, lime, pulp and paper, refining and petrochemicals), Power Generation (CHP, biomass, biofuel, traditional fuels, gasifiers, diesel engines) and Natural Gas...

  8. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  9. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    steam cycle is based on maximizing heat recovery from the gasifier cooler and HRSG, and utilizing steam generation opportunities in the FT unit.

  10. CAES (conventional compressed-air energy storage) plant with steam generation: Preliminary design and cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakhamkin, M.; Swensen, E.C.; Abitante, P.A. (Energy Storage and Power Consultants, Mountainside, NJ (USA))

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was performed to evaluate the performance and cost characteristics of two alternative CAES-plant concepts which utilize the low-pressure expander's exhaust-gas heat for the generation of steam in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Both concepts result in increased net-power generation relative to a conventional CAES plant with a recuperator. The HRSG-generated steam produces additional power in either a separate steam-turbine bottoming cycle (CAESCC) or by direct injection into and expansion through the CAES-turboexpander train (CAESSI). The HRSG, which is a proven component of combined-cycle and cogeneration plants, replaces the recuperator of a conventional CAES plant, which has demonstrated the potential for engineering and operating related problems and higher costs than were originally estimated. To enhance the credibility of the results, the analyses performed were based on the performance, operational and cost data of the 110-MW CAES plant currently under construction for the Alabama Electric Cooperative (AEC). The results indicate that CAESCC- and CAESSI-plant concepts are attractive alternatives to the conventional CAES plant with recuperator, providing greater power generation, up to 44-MW relative to the AEC CAES plant, with competitive operating and capital costs. 5 refs., 43 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. Modular exhaust gas steam generator with common boiler casing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kidaloski, R.G.; Olinger, H.S.; Bryk, S.A.

    1987-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A modular exhaust gas steam generator is described wherein each module comprises: (a) an open box frame through which hot exhaust gases travel, a portion of the frame being in contact with the gases; (b) casing means fixedly secured to selected perimeter surfaces of the box frame thereby forming an integral part of the box frame for sealably closing the surface of the box frame and for retaining the gases within the box frame; (c) tubing means extending within and nearly the height of the box frame, the tubing means being in contact with the hot gases for generating steam in the steam generator; (d) header means within the box frame and connected to the tubing means for distributing fluid thereto, and; (e) connecting means secured to an upper region of the box frame for top supporting the header and the tubing means; whereby adjacent modules are sealably secured together forming a unitary gas tight enclosure through which exhaust gases travel.

  12. Modeling a Helical-coil Steam Generator in RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan A. Anderson

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Options for the primary heat transport loop heat exchangers for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant are currently being evaluated. A helical-coil steam generator is one heat exchanger design under consideration. Safety is an integral part of the helical-coil steam generator evaluation. Transient analysis plays a key role in evaluation of the steam generators safety. Using RELAP5-3D to model the helical-coil steam generator, a loss of pressure in the primary side of the steam generator is simulated. This report details the development of the steam generator model, the loss of pressure transient, and the response of the steam generator primary and secondary systems to the loss of primary pressure. Back ground on High Temperature Gas-cooled reactors, steam generators, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant is provided to increase the readers understanding of the material presented.

  13. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein feedback preheater means are provided for the fuel and water before entering the combustor assembly. First, combustion gases are conducted from the combustion chamber to locations in proximity to the water and fuel supplies. Secondly, both hot combustion gases and steam are conducted from the borehole back to the water and fuel supply. The water used for conversion to steam is passed in a countercurrent manner through a plurality of annular water flow channels surrounding the combustion chamber. In this manner, the water is preheated, and the combustion chamber is cooled simultaneously, thereby minimizing thermal stresses and deterioration of the walls of the combustion chamber. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet of the combustor assembly. The outlet doors and fluid flow functions may be controlled by a diagnostic/control module. The module is positioned in the water flow channel to maintain a relatively constant, controlled temperature.

  14. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  15. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of an intermediate crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinss, Judicael Christopher

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past few years, research has been conducted at Texas A&M University on steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela, which contains 13.5 ?API gravity oil. Experimental results show that a 5:100 propane...

  16. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of an intermediate crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinss, Judicael Christopher

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past few years, research has been conducted at Texas A&M University on steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela, which contains 13.5 ?API gravity oil. Experimental results show that a 5:100 propane...

  17. Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load Southern Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

  18. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  19. DIRECT STEAM GENERATION USING THE SG4 500m2 PARABOLOIDAL DISH CONCENTRATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    steam turbine power block. As well as DSG, the ANU group is investigating energy conversion options conveyed the steam to our 50 kWe steam turbine; the new dish is oversized for the current engine, so someDIRECT STEAM GENERATION USING THE SG4 500m2 PARABOLOIDAL DISH CONCENTRATOR Greg Burgess 1 , Keith

  20. DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF MONO-TUBE CAVITY RECEIVERS FOR DIRECT STEAM GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for intended deployment in large arrays of dishes, with steam directed to a central large steam turbine powerDYNAMIC SIMULATION OF MONO-TUBE CAVITY RECEIVERS FOR DIRECT STEAM GENERATION Jos Zapata 1 , John dish has been in operation since 2010 with a mono-tube steam cavity receiver, the SG4 system

  1. ExxonMobile Beaumont Chemical Plant Steam Integration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, T.

    ? Conventional boilers ? Gas turbine generators/ heat recovery steam generators ? Waste heat recovery boilers ? Steam is distributed and consumed at multiple locations and at various levels ? Evolution across the site can lead to isolated steam imbalances 4... the chemical plant boundaries ? The Refinery had a need for this valuable energy resource. ? A project was conceived to install piping and control systems to export the excess medium pressure steam to the adjacent Refinery where the steam could be more...

  2. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, Monte K. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  3. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  4. Steam generators two phase flows numerical simulation with liquid and gas momentum equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    . The secondary flow is another loop that links the steam generator and the turbines. Inside the exchangerSteam generators two phase flows numerical simulation with liquid and gas momentum equations M Abstract This work takes place in steam generators flow studies and we consider here steady state three

  5. Investigation of a steam generator tube rupture sequence using VICTORIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, N.E.; Erickson, C.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schaperow, J.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    VICTORIA-92 is a mechanistic computer code for analyzing fission product behavior within the reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe reactor accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radionuclides and nonradioactive materials from the core and transport of these materials within the RCS. The modeling accounts for the chemical and aerosol processes that affect radionuclide behavior. Coupling of detailed chemistry and aerosol packages is a unique feature of VICTORIA; it allows exploration of phenomena involving deposition, revaporization, and re-entrainment that cannot be resolved with other codes. The purpose of this work is to determine the attenuation of fission products in the RCS and on the secondary side of the steam generator in an accident initiated by a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). As a class, bypass sequences have been identified in NUREG-1150 as being risk dominant for the Surry and Sequoyah pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants.

  6. The Enbridge "Steam Saver" Program: Steam Boiler Plant Efficiency-Update to Year End 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, B.; Johnson, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and incentive grants. Stand-alone projects encompass a wide range of projects. Examples include: -conversion of steam heated Air Handling Units from steam to natural gas. -Heat Recovery Projects. -Installation of RO water treatment systems.... These facilities have large Central Heating Plants. Some institutions have installed co- generation, replacing boilers with Heat Recovery Steam Generators. TABLE 2 BOILER POPULATION FOR STEAM PLANTS WITH ANNUAL FUEL CONSUMPTION GREATER THAN 70 MILLION CUBIC...

  7. Selection of materials for sodium fast reactor steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Garnier, S.; Gelineau, O. [AREVA (France); Dalle, F. [Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France); Blat-Yrieix, M.; Augem, J. M. [Electricite de France - EDF (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) is considered in France as the most mature technology of the different Generation IV systems. In the short-term the designing work is focused on the identification of the potential tracks to demonstrate licensing capability, availability, in-service inspection capability and economical performance. In that frame materials selection for the major components, as the steam generator, is a particularly key point managed within a French Research and Development program launched by AREVA, CEA and EDF. The choice of the material for the steam generator is indeed complex because various aspects shall be considered like mechanical and thermal properties at high temperature, interaction with sodium on one side and water and steam on the other side, resistance to wastage, procurement, fabrication, weldability and ability for inspection and in-situ intervention. The following relevant options are evaluated: the modified 9Cr1Mo ferritic-martensitic grade and the Alloy 800 austenitic grade. The objective of this paper is to assess for both candidates their abilities to reach the current SFR needs regarding material design data, from AFCEN RCC-MRx Code in particular, compatibility with environments and manufacturability. (authors)

  8. Generating Electricity with your Steam System: Keys to Long Term Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullock, B.; Downing, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of combined heat and power principals to existing plant steam systems can help produce electricity at more than twice efficiency of grid generated electricity. In this way, steam plant managers can realize substantial savings...

  9. U-Tube Steam Generator experiments: steady state and transients analysis using RELAP5/MOD2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyanasundaram, Mathangi

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model of westinghouse Model Boiler Vo. 2 (%1B-2) test facility steam generator. 2. Perforni sensitivdty studies on the nodalization of the RELAP5 niodel of the steam generator 3. Determine the best model for the steam generator based... on the sensitivity studies. Such a model will be a. representation of a Westinghouse E-tube steam generator. It will be represented by hydrorlynamic volunies, junctions. and flow area. s. 4. Obtain steady state results using RELAP5/MOD2 code for MB-2 steam gen...

  10. Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesse, Thomas

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

  11. Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesse, Thomas

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

  12. Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report and technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007 for the project 'Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy Oil Recovery Techniques', DE-FC26-04NT15526. Critical year 3 activities of this project were not undertaken because of reduced funding to the DOE Oil Program despite timely submission of a continuation package and progress on year 1 and 2 subtasks. A small amount of carried-over funds were used during June-August 2007 to complete some work in the area of foamed-gas mobility control. Completion of Year 3 activities and tasks would have led to a more thorough completion of the project and attainment of project goals. This progress report serves as a summary of activities and accomplishments for years 1 and 2. Experiments, theory development, and numerical modeling were employed to elucidate heavy-oil production mechanisms that provide the technical foundations for producing efficiently the abundant, discovered heavy-oil resources of the U.S. that are not accessible with current technology and recovery techniques. Work fell into two task areas: cold production of heavy oils and thermal recovery. Despite the emerging critical importance of the waterflooding of viscous oil in cold environments, work in this area was never sanctioned under this project. It is envisioned that heavy oil production is impacted by development of an understanding of the reservoir and reservoir fluid conditions leading to so-called foamy oil behavior, i.e, heavy-oil solution gas drive. This understanding should allow primary, cold production of heavy and viscous oils to be optimized. Accordingly, we evaluated the oil-phase chemistry of crude oil samples from Venezuela that give effective production by the heavy-oil solution gas drive mechanism. Laboratory-scale experiments show that recovery correlates with asphaltene contents as well as the so-called acid number (AN) and base number (BN) of the crude oil. A significant number of laboratory-scale tests were made to evaluate the solution gas drive potential of West Sak (AK) viscous oil. The West Sak sample has a low acid number, low asphaltene content, and does not appear foamy under laboratory conditions. Tests show primary recovery of about 22% of the original oil in place under a variety of conditions. The acid number of other Alaskan North Slope samples tests is greater, indicating a greater potential for recovery by heavy-oil solution gas drive. Effective cold production leads to reservoir pressure depletion that eases the implementation of thermal recovery processes. When viewed from a reservoir perspective, thermal recovery is the enhanced recovery method of choice for viscous and heavy oils because of the significant viscosity reduction that accompanies the heating of oil. One significant issue accompanying thermal recovery in cold environments is wellbore heat losses. Initial work on thermal recovery found that a technology base for delivering steam, other hot fluids, and electrical heat through cold subsurface environments, such as permafrost, was in place. No commercially available technologies are available, however. Nevertheless, the enabling technology of superinsulated wells appears to be realized. Thermal subtasks focused on a suite of enhanced recovery options tailored to various reservoir conditions. Generally, electrothermal, conventional steam-based, and thermal gravity drainage enhanced oil recovery techniques appear to be applicable to 'prime' Ugnu reservoir conditions to the extent that reservoir architecture and fluid conditions are modeled faithfully here. The extent of reservoir layering, vertical communication, and subsurface steam distribution are important factors affecting recovery. Distribution of steam throughout reservoir volume is a significant issue facing thermal recovery. Various activities addressed aspects of steam emplacement. Notably, hydraulic fracturing of horizontal steam injection wells and implementation of steam trap control that limits steam entry into hor

  13. Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  14. Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation. In this paper, we apply this modeling principle to a well known case study, the steam boiler problem which has model and to assess the difficulty of such a process in a realistic case study. The steam boiler case

  15. Development and Transient Analysis of a Helical-coil Steam Generator for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Nolan A. Anderson; Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators. The safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator is currently under evaluation as part of the development of NGNP. Transients, such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), are of interest in evaluating the safety of steam generators. In this study, a complete steam generator inlet pipe break (double ended pipe break) LOCA was simulated by an exponential loss of primary side pressure. For this analysis, a model of the helical-coil steam generator was developed using RELAP5-3D, an INL inhouse systems analysis code. The steam generator model behaved normally during the transient simulating the complete steam generator inlet pipe break LOCA. Further analysis is required to comprehensively evaluate the safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator design in the NGNP setting.

  16. Chemical recovery process using break up steam control to prevent smelt explosions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA); Stewart, Albert E. (Eagle Rock, CA)

    1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in a chemical recovery process in which a hot liquid smelt is introduced into a dissolving tank containing a pool of green liquor. The improvement comprises preventing smelt explosions in the dissolving tank by maintaining a first selected superatmospheric pressure in the tank during normal operation of the furnace; sensing the pressure in the tank; and further impinging a high velocity stream of steam upon the stream of smelt whenever the pressure in the tank decreases below a second selected superatmospheric pressure which is lower than said first pressure.

  17. Heat Recovery Design Considerations for Cogeneration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasquinelli, D. M.; Burns, E. D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and integration of the heat recovery section, which includes the steam generation, auxiliary firing, and steam turbine modules, is critical to the overall performance and economics of cogeneration, systems. In gas turbine topping...

  18. Heat Recovery Design Considerations for Cogeneration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasquinelli, D. M.; Burns, E. D.

    The design and integration of the heat recovery section, which includes the steam generation, auxiliary firing, and steam turbine modules, is critical to the overall performance and economics of cogeneration, systems. In gas turbine topping...

  19. Some aspects of materials development for sodium heated steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, P.; Spalaris, C.N.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A development program was undertaken to support the materials selection for steam generator piping and IHX which are to be used in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). Four major topics were reviewed, describing the results obtained as well as the direction of future tests. These topics are: carbon transport in sodium, effect of carbon loss/gain upon materials in the reactor Intermediate Heat Transport System (IHTS), corrosion fatigue and aqueous corrosion. The results support the initial assumptions made in specifying the use of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo as the construction material for the evaporator and superheater and Type 316 piping of the IHT system. Future direction of the experimental programs is to further verify the materials choice and to also obtain information which will be essential during the plant installation, operation and reliability of the components.

  20. Water chemistry of breeder reactor steam generators. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, J.L.; Robles, M.N.; Spalaris, C.N.; Moss, S.A.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water quality requirements will be described for breeder reactor steam generators, as well as specifications for balance of plant protection. Water chemistry details will be discussed for the following power plant conditions: feedwater and recirculation water at above and below 5% plant power, refueling or standby, makeup water, and wet layup. Experimental data will be presented from tests which included a departure from nucleate boiling experiment, the Few Tube Test, with a seven tube evaporator and three tube superheater, and a verification of control and on-line measurement of sodium ion in the ppB range. Sampling and instrumentation requirements to insure adherence to the specified water quality will be described. Evaporator cleaning criteria and data from laboratory testing of chemical cleaning solutions with emphasis on flow, chemical composition, and temperature will be discussed.

  1. Computerized operating cost model for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, T.D.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pending EPA regulations, establishing revised emission levels for industrial boilers are perceived to have an effect on the relative costs of steam production technologies. To aid in the comparison of competitive boiler technologies, the Steam Cost Code was developed which provides levelized steam costs reflecting the effects of a number of key steam cost parameters. The Steam Cost Code is a user interactive FORTRAN program designed to operate on a VAX computer system. The program requires the user to input a number of variables describing the design characteristics, capital costs, and operating conditions for a specific boiler system. Part of the input to the Steam Cost Code is the capital cost of the steam production system. The capital cost is obtained from a program called INDCEPT, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsorship.

  2. GENERATION OF ELECTRIC Hesham E. Shaalan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Warren B.

    exhaust gases are delivered to a heat-recovery steam generator to produce steam that is used to drive.1 Optimum Electric-Power Generating Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Annual Capacity.21 Hydropower Generating Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.23 Largest Units

  3. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

  4. Conceptual design of a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor with in-vessel direct-contact steam generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buongiorno, Jacopo, 1971-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of a lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) cooled fast reactor that eliminates the need for steam generators and coolant pumps was explored. The working steam is generated by direct contact vaporization of water and liquid ...

  5. Conceptual Design of a Lead-Bismuth Cooled Fast Reactor with In-Vessel Direct-Contact Steam Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buongiorno, J.

    The feasibility of a lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) cooled fast reactor that eliminates the need for steam generators and coolant pumps was explored. The working steam is generated by direct contact vaporization of water and liquid ...

  6. Neural Network Based Modeling of a Large Steam Turbine-Generator Rotor Body Parameters from On-Line Disturbance Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neural Network Based Modeling of a Large Steam Turbine-Generator Rotor Body Parameters from On technique to estimate and model rotor- body parameters of a large steam turbine-generator from real time

  7. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, Daniel J. (Export, PA); Schrader, Kenneth J. (Penn Hills, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  8. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  9. The Streaming Potential Generated by Flow of Wet Steam in Capillary Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsden, S.S. Jr.; Tyran, Craig K.

    1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For a constant pressure differential, the flow of wet steam generated electric potentials which increased with time and did not reach equilibrium values. These potentials were found to increase to values greater than 100 volts. The reason for this kind of potential build-up behavior was the presence of tiny flowing water slugs which were interspersed with electrically nonconductive steam vapor slugs. The measured electric potential for wet steam increased with pressure differential, but the relationship was not linear. The increase in potential with pressure drop was attributed both to an increase in fluid flow rate and changes in the wet steam quality.

  10. Reliability of steam generator tubes with axial cracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cizelj, L.; Mavko, B. [Jozef Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia). Reactor Engineering Div.; Vencelj, P. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach for estimating the failure probability of tubes containing through-wall axial cracks has already been proposed by the authors. It is based on probabilistic fracture mechanics and accounts for scatter in tube geometry and material properties, scatter in residual and operational stresses responsible for crack propagation, and characteristics of nondestructive examination and plugging procedures (e.g., detection probability, sizing accuracy, human errors). Results of preliminary tests demonstrated wide applicability of this approach and triggered some improvements. The additions to the model are extensively discussed in this paper. Capabilities are demonstrated by results of analysis of steam generator no. 1 in Slovenian nuclear power plant located in Krsko after the 1992 inspection and plugging campaign. First, the number of cracked tubes and the crack length distribution were estimated using data obtained by the 100% motorized pancake coil inspection. The inspection and plugging activities were simulated in the second step to estimate the efficiency of maintenance in terms of single and multiple-tube rupture probabilities. They were calculated as a function of maximum allowable crack length. The importance of human errors and some limitations of present nondestructive examination techniques were identified. The traditional wall thickness and crack-length-based plugging criteria are compared. The crack-length-based criterion is shown to be more efficient and more safe, especially because of strong suppression effect on probability of multiple-tube rupture. The results are considered to be important for safety and maintenance of existing plants and for further research.

  11. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM); Mulac, Anthony J. (Tijeras, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

  12. COUPLING SUPERCRITICAL AND SUPERHEATED DIRECT STEAM GENERATION WITH THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COUPLING SUPERCRITICAL AND SUPERHEATED DIRECT STEAM GENERATION WITH THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE Joe a suitable turbine available. Overall, energy transport and storage concepts are presented that maximise dishes, in particular, minimisation of molten salt quantities in storage, and maximisation of thermal

  13. Horizontal Steam Generator Thermal-Hydraulics at Various Steady-State Power Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir D. [University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia); Stosic, Zoran V.; Kiera, Michael; Stoll, Uwe [Framatome ANP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional computer simulation and analyses of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics of the WWER 1000 nuclear power plant have been performed for 50% and 75% partial loads, 100% nominal load and 110% over-load. Presented results show water and steam mass flow rate vectors, steam void fraction spatial distribution, recirculation zones, swell level position, water mass inventory on the shell side, and other important thermal-hydraulic parameters. The simulations have been performed with the computer code 3D ANA, based on the 'two-fluid' model approach. Steam-water interface transport processes, as well as tube bundle flow resistance, energy transfer, and steam generation within tube bundles are modelled with {sup c}losure laws{sup .} Applied approach implies non-equilibrium thermal and flow conditions. The model is solved by the control volume procedure, which has been extended in order to take into account the 3D flow of liquid and gas phase. The methodology is validated by comparing numerical and experimental results of real steam generator operational conditions at various power levels of the WWER Novovoronezh, Unit 5. One-dimensional model of the horizontal steam generator has been built with the RELAP 5 standard code on the basis of the multidimensional two-phase flow structure obtained with the 3D ANA code. RELAP 5 and 3D ANA code results are compared, showing acceptable agreement. (authors)

  14. Studies of the steam generator degraded tubes behavior on BRUTUS test loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chedeau, C.; Rassineux, B. [EDF/DER/MTC, Moret Sur Loing (France); Flesch, B. [EDF/EPN/DMAINT, Paris (France)] [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies for the evaluation of steam generator tube bundle cracks in PWR power plants are described. Global tests of crack leak rates and numerical calculations of crack opening area are discussed in some detail. A brief overview of thermohydraulic studies and the development of a mechanical probabilistic design code is also given. The COMPROMIS computer code was used in the studies to quantify the influence of in-service inspections and maintenance work on the risk of a steam generator tube rupture.

  15. A nonlinear dynamic model of a once-through, helical-coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdalla, M.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamic model of a once-through, helical-coil steam generator is presented. The model simulates the advanced liquid metal reactor superheated cycle steam generator with a four-region, moving-boundary, drift-flux model. The model is described by a set of nonlinear differential equations derived from the fundamental equations of conversation of mass, energy, and momentum. Sample results of steady-state and transient calculations are presented.

  16. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    selection of on-site power generation with combined heat andTotal Electricity Generation Figure 13. Small MercantileWeekday Total Electricity Generation (No Storage Adoption

  17. Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, D. R.

    in sellable power output as a result of improved turbine efficiency. The Lyondell facility is a combined cycle power plant where a gas turbine: heat recovery system supplies steam to the steam turbine. Since this steam is a bypropuct of the gas turbine...steam Path Audits on Industrial steam Turbines DOUGLAS R. MITCHELL. ENGINEER. ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits...

  18. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details: Thermoelectric generators, waste heat recovery, automotive exhaust, skutterudites INTRODUCTION In part I

  19. Incentive Cost Recovery Rule for Nuclear Power Generation (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Incentive Cost Recovery Rule for Nuclear Power Generation establishes guidelines for any utility seeking to develop a nuclear power plant in Louisiana. The rule clarifies, as well as...

  20. Response of Soviet-designed VVER-440 steam generator vessel to pressurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, J.M.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactors) pressurized water reactors use horizontal steam generators to transfer energy from the primary to secondary coolant systems (DOE/NE-0084 Revision 2, 1989). Primary coolant flowing from the reactor vessel enters the steam generator through a vertical, circular, manifold header that also serves as the tubesheet distributing coolant to the horizontal tube bundle. Primary coolant exits the tube bundle and steam generator through a second similar vertical manifold header. The header design includes the provision for access by a person to inspect the mainfolds through bolted down closure heads atop each manifold. The internal diameter of each header exceeds that of the connected primary coolant system piping. The postulated failure of a manifold closure head or the manifold itself provides a pathway for primary coolant to enter the secondary system. Steam formation due to flashing of primary coolant inside the steam generator secondary side region can result in pressurization of the steam generator shell to values above the nominal secondary side operating pressure. The present work involves the investigation of the consequences of manifold failure for the case of the VVER-440 reactor system. An analysis has been performed of the loadings upon and the mechanical response of the steam generator shell for the case of a postulated large break in the manifold wall. The objectives were to calculate the maximum pressure attained inside the shell and to predict the shell failure pressure as well as the failure mechanism. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Reliability Improvement Programs in Steam Distribution and Power Generation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atlas, R. D.

    improvements in the reliability and efficiency of the system. Recent studies have shown that more than 40% of all in stalled steam traps and 20% of certain types of valves n~ed ' some form of corrective action. The majority of all high backpressure... problems in condensate return systems are due to poor design criteria in expanding or retrofitting existing return systems. By instituting a maintenance management program,a 95% reliability can be gained with two to four annual maintenance cyc...

  2. Radiological Assessment of Steam Generator Removal and Replacement: Update and Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoenes, G. R.; Mueller, M. A.; McCormack, W. D.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previous analysis of the radiological impact of removing and replacing corroded steam generators has been updated based on experience gained during steam generator repairs at Surry Unit 2. Some estimates of occupational doses involved in the operation have been revised but are not significantly different from the earlier estimates. Estimates of occupational doses and radioactive effluents for new tasks have been added. Health physics concerns that arose at Surry included the number of persons involved in the operation, tne training of workers, the handling of quantitites.of low-level waste, and the application of the ALARA principle. A review of these problem areas may help in the planning of other similar operations. A variety of processes could be used to decontaminate steam generators. Research is needed to assess these techniques and their associated occupational doses and waste volumes. Contaminated steam generators can be stored or disposed of after removal without significant radiological problems. Onsite storage and intact shipment have the least impact. In-placing retubing, an alternative to steam generator removal, results in occupational doses and effluents similar to those from removal, but prior decontamination of the channel head is needed. The retubing option should be assessed further.

  3. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Only Load Electricity Generation By Fuel in the U.S.electricity generation from most sources, except oil, is growing to meet the growing demand and that fossil fuels

  4. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13- Particulate Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Steam or Hot Water Generating Units (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this regulation is to limit emissions of particulate matter from fossil fuel fired and wood-fired steam or hot water generating units.

  5. RELAP5 modeling of the Westinghouse model D4 steam generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, B.; Petelin, S.; Gortnar, O. (Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam generator is one of the most important components of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. Thus, the ability to model and predict the steam generator steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic behavior is a prerequisite for performing safety analyses of PWR systems. A RELAP5 model of the Westinghouse D4 steam generator with a 70/30 split feedwater system has been developed, and it is tested by simulating five secondary-side-initiated transients. This study of primary-to-secondary heat transfer and the secondary coolant vaporization process has enabled the primary coolant cooldown to be maximized, as required for performing a conservative steamline break analysis. These tests were realized using the RELAP5/MOD2.36.05 and RELAP5/MOD3.5M5 computer codes.

  6. Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

  7. Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

  8. Failure Pressure Estimates of Steam Generator Tubes Containing Wear-type Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon-Suk Chang; Jong-Min Kim; Nam-Su Huh; Young-Jin Kim [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Seong Sik Hwang; Joung-Soo Kim [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is commonly requested that steam generator tubes with defects exceeding 40% of wall thickness in depth should be plugged to sustain all postulated loads with appropriate margin. The critical defect dimensions have been determined based on the concept of plastic instability. This criterion, however, is known to be too conservative for some locations and types of defects. In this context, the accurate failure estimation for steam generator tubes with a defect draws increasing attention. Although several guidelines have been developed and are used for assessing the integrity of defected tubes, most of these guidelines are related to stress corrosion cracking or wall-thinning phenomena. As some of steam generator tubes are also failed due to fretting and so on, alternative failure estimation schemes for relevant defects are required. In this paper, three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses are carried out under internal pressure condition to simulate the failure behavior of steam generator tubes with different defect configurations; elliptical wastage type, wear scar type and rectangular wastage type defects. Maximum pressures based on material strengths are obtained from more than a hundred FE results to predict the failure of the steam generator tube. After investigating the effect of key parameters such as wastage depth, wastage length and wrap angle, simplified failure estimation equations are proposed in relation to the equivalent stress at the deepest point in wastage region. Comparison of failure pressures predicted according to the proposed estimation scheme with some corresponding burst test data shows good agreement, which provides a confidence in the use of the proposed equations to assess the integrity of steam generator tubes with wear-type defects. (authors)

  9. Heat Recovery from Coal Gasifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, H.; Lou, S. C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with heat recovery from pressurized entrained and fixed bed coal gasifiers for steam generation. High temperature waste heat, from slagging entrained flow coal gasifier, can be recovered effectively in a series of radiant...

  10. advanced heat recovery: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling,000 tons (Standby) (average) Heat Recovery 13.5 MW 5.6MW 1 MW...

  11. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  12. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  13. Next Generation Engineered Materials for Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Arrell

    2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce the effect of global warming on our climate, the levels of CO{sub 2} emissions should be reduced. One way to do this is to increase the efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels. This will in turn reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions for a given power output. Using US practice for efficiency calculations, then a move from a typical US plant running at 37% efficiency to a 760 C /38.5 MPa (1400 F/5580 psi) plant running at 48% efficiency would reduce CO2 emissions by 170kg/MW.hr or 25%. This report presents a literature review and roadmap for the materials development required to produce a 760 C (1400 F) / 38.5MPa (5580 psi) steam turbine without use of cooling steam to reduce the material temperature. The report reviews the materials solutions available for operation in components exposed to temperatures in the range of 600 to 760 C, i.e. above the current range of operating conditions for today's turbines. A roadmap of the timescale and approximate cost for carrying out the required development is also included. The nano-structured austenitic alloy CF8C+ was investigated during the program, and the mechanical behavior of this alloy is presented and discussed as an illustration of the potential benefits available from nano-control of the material structure.

  14. Reactance simulation for the defects in steam generator tube with outside ferrite sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, Kwon-sang; Kima, Yong-il [Division of Metrology for Quality Life, KRISS, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Derac [Department of Physics, Hannam University, Daejeon, 336-840 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Duck-gun [Nuclear Material Technique Development Team, KAERI, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae-kap [Division of Physical Metrology, KRISS, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic sludge is partly produced around the tube sheet outside a steam generator due to stress and heat. The sludge with magnetite is one of the important factors affecting eddy current signals. It causes trouble for the safety of the steam generator tubes and is difficult to detect by conventional eddy current methods. A new type of probe is needed to detect the signals for the magnetic sludge. We designed a new U-type yoke which has two kinds of coils--a magnetizing coil and the other a detecting coil--and we simulated the signal induced by the ferromagnetic sludge in the Inconel 600 tube.

  15. Exergy Analysis of the Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery and Evaluation with New Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodaei, H.; Taheri, R.; Arghandeh, R.

    oil refinery, Exergy Analysis, Steam Network, Retrofit, Optimization 1. INTRODUCTION Refinery steam network is considered as a unit that consumes energy greatly. The main objective of the network is to produce the steam, which is required...) Using heat recovery steam generating systems and gas turbines instead of old boilers and so on. Figure 1 shows the opportunities of optimization in steam networks. in this paper, we complete the lost works such as optimization and estimation...

  16. Operational control and maintenance integrity of typical and atypical coil tube steam generating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beardwood, E.S.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coil tube steam generators are low water volume to boiler horsepower (bhp) rating, rapid steaming units which occupy substantially less space per boiler horsepower than equivalent conventional tire tube and water tube boilers. These units can be retrofitted into existing steam systems with relative ease and are more efficient than the generators they replace. During the early 1970's they became a popular choice for steam generation in commercial, institutional and light to medium industrial applications. Although these boiler designs do not require skilled or certified operators, an appreciation for a number of the operational conditions that result in lower unscheduled maintenance, increased reliability and availability cycles would be beneficial to facility owners, managers, and operators. Conditions which afford lower operating and maintenance costs will be discussed from a practical point of view. An overview of boiler design and operation is also included. Pitfalls are provided for operational and idle conditions. Water treatment application, as well as steam system operations not conducive to maintaining long term system integrity; with resolutions, will be addressed.

  17. Simulation of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) processes in stochastically generated permeable media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waggoner, J.R.; Castillo, J.L.; Lake, L.W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes involve injecting an agent, such as steam or CO{sub 2}, that is much more mobile than the resident oil. Other EOR processes attempt to improve sweep efficiency by adding polymer or surfactant to the injected water to create a favorable mobility ratio. This study examines the effect of statistically generated heterogeneity on miscible displacements at unfavorable and favorable mobility ratios. The principal goal is to delineate the effects of fingering, dispersion and channeling on volumetric sweep efficiency. Two-dimensional heterogeneous permeability fields are generated with variability (heterogeneity) and spatial correlation as characterizing parameters. Four levels of correlation and three of variability make up a 12 element matrix. At each element of the matrix, a miscible displacement simulation at unit mobility ratio shows the effect of the heterogeneity, and simulations at mobility ratios of 10 and 0.5 show the effect of viscous force differences combined with heterogeneity. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity generated by distributed energy resources (DER) located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumer requirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid. Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associated with transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricity delivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities to purchase energy when attractive. On-site thermal power generation is typically less efficient than central station generation, but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and utilizing combined heat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scale on-site generation to displace fuel purchases, then DER can become attractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts, the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressed using a mixed-integer linear programme, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, and information (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies, DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selecting the units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. In this paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion of the option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep an inventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lower costs even further by reducing off-peak generation and relying on storage. This and other effects of storages are demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in San Francisco, California, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacity of heat storage is calculated.

  19. Evaluation and Reliability Enhancement for ET Data of VVER Steam Generator Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadenko, Ihor; Sakhno, Nadiya; Yermolenko, Ruslan; Anderson, Michael T.; Taylor, Tom T.

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, there are three remote automated eddy current inspection systems supplied in Ukraine under international cooperation agreements for examination of steam generators, collectors and steam generator tubing. Since 1966 the field experience in using eddy current testing (ET) for in-service inspection of VVER designed steam generators in Ukraine has shown several advantages over the previous inspection methodology which was an air bubble leakage technique. However, the field experience in using eddy current inspection technology has also shown that inspections are not always reliable. Some nuclear power plants have experienced unplanned shutdowns due to leaks in steam generator tubes, some of which were tested by ET prior to the leak. Therefore, eddy current inspection has shown significant improvement over previous testing techniques, field experience also shows the necessity to improve the ET inspection reliability as applied at Ukraine nuclear power plants. This paper presents the status of efforts by the Ukraine Nondestructive Certification and Training Facility (NDEF) Eddy Current laboratory to improve eddy current inspection in Ukraine.

  20. Case History of Reapplication of a 2500 KW Steam Turbine/Gear Drive Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, S.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that extracts landfill gas and converts it to diesel fuel, naphtha and a high grade of wax. The plant requires a steam turbine generator set to produce electrical power for its base load operation. This paper covers the history of how the turbine, gear...

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

  2. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2006-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity produced by distributed energy resources (DER)located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumerrequirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid.Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associatedwith transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricitydelivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities topurchase energy when attractive. On-site, single-cycle thermal powergeneration is typically less efficient than central station generation,but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and by utilizing combinedheat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scaleon-site thermal generation to displace fuel purchases, DER can becomeattractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts,the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressedusing a mixed-integer linear program, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, andinformation (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies,DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selectingthe units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. Inthis paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion ofthe option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep aninventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lowercosts even further by reducing lucrative peak-shaving generation whilerelying on storage to meet heat loads. This and other effects of storageare demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in SanFrancisco, California, USA, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacityof heat storage is calculated.

  3. A top-injection bottom-production cyclic steam stimulation method for enhanced heavy oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matus, Eric Robert

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method to enhance oil production during cyclic steam injection has been developed. In the Top-Injection and Bottom-Production (TINBOP) method, the well contains two strings separated by two packers (a dual and a ...

  4. Experimental Study of Steam Surfactant Flood for Enhancing Heavy Oil Recovery After Waterflooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunnatov, Dinmukhamed

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    /W) emulsions can also form under certain conditions with the addition of surfactants and/or alkali mixtures. 10 CHAPTER III EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE 3.1. Apparatus The experimental equipment for steam surfactant injection used for this work...

  5. Experimental Study of Steam Surfactant Flood for Enhancing Heavy Oil Recovery After Waterflooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunnatov, Dinmukhamed

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam injection with added surface active chemicals is one of general EOR processes aimed to recover residual oil after primary production processes. It has been demonstrated that, after waterflooding, an oil swept area ...

  6. RECOVERY ACT CASE STUDY CHP and district energy serve Texas A&M's 5,200-acre campus, which includes 750 buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. Congressman Chet Edwards Texas A&M's CHP system includes a gas turbine generator, heat recovery steam generator, and steam turbine generator. Photo courtesy of Texas A&M University 3 Riley, Jim, "Combined Heat, 2010. Brush Generator 34 MW RO Water Dresser Rand Steam Turbine Ideal Generator 11 MW 12.47 kV EIT HRSG

  7. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorman, William G. (Ballston Spa, NY); Carberg, William George (Ballston Spa, NY); Jones, Charles Michael (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  8. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which bums the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  9. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which burns the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  10. A top-injection bottom-production cyclic steam stimulation method for enhanced heavy oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matus, Eric Robert

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method to enhance oil production during cyclic steam injection has been developed. In the Top-Injection and Bottom-Production (TINBOP) method, the well contains two strings separated by two packers (a dual and a single packer): the short...

  11. Failure probability of axially cracked steam generator tubes; A probabilistic fracture mechanics model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, B.; Cizelj, L. (Jozef Stefan Inst., Reactor Engineering Div., P.O. Box 100, 61111 Ljubljana, Slovenia (YU))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a model for estimating the failure probability of axially cracked steam generator tubes is proposed. The model compares observed crack length distribution with critical crack length distribution by means of probabilistic fracture mechanics. The observed crack length is influenced by measured data, measurement reliability, sizing accuracy, and predicted crack growth rate. The critical crack length is defined by a deterministic mechanical model. All cracks are conservatively assumed to extend through the tube wall. The effect of the plugging limit is studied along with the number of cracked tubes to perform risk-based lifetime optimization of steam generators. A numerical example presented considers hypothetical accidental operating conditions during a feedwater line break.

  12. Eddy Current Signature Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects Using A Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabe V. Garcia

    2005-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is degradation of their tubes. Although seven primary defect categories exist, one of the principal causes of tube failure is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). This type of defect usually begins on the secondary side surface of the tubes and propagates both inwards and laterally. In many cases this defect is found at or near the tube support plates.

  13. Steam generator tube integrity program: Annual report, August 1995--September 1996. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diercks, D.R.; Bakhtiari, S.; Kasza, K.E.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on the Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program from the inception of the program in August 1995 through September 1996. The program is divided into five tasks: (1) assessment of inspection reliability, (2) research on ISI (inservice-inspection) technology, (3) research on degradation modes and integrity, (4) tube removals from steam generators, and (5) program management. Under Task 1, progress is reported on the preparation of facilities and evaluation of nondestructive evaluation techniques for inspecting a mock-up steam generator for round-robin testing, the development of better ways to correlate failure pressure and leak rate with eddy current (EC) signals, the inspection of sleeved tubes, workshop and training activities, and the evaluation of emerging NDE technology. Results are reported in Task 2 on closed-form solutions and finite-element electromagnetic modeling of EC probe responses for various probe designs and flaw characteristics. In Task 3, facilities are being designed and built for the production of cracked tubes under aggressive and near-prototypical conditions and for the testing of flawed and unflawed tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe-accident conditions. Crack behavior and stability are also being modeled to provide guidance for test facility design, develop an improved understanding of the expected rupture behavior of tubes with circumferential cracks, and predict the behavior of flawed and unflawed tubes under severe accident conditions. Task 4 is concerned with the acquisition of tubes and tube sections from retired steam generators for use in the other research tasks. Progress on the acquisition of tubes from the Salem and McGuire 1 nuclear plants is reported.

  14. Method and apparatus for improved recovery of oil and bitumen using dual completion cyclic steam stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beattie, C.I.; Korol, J.R.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for increasing hydrocarbon production from a hydrocarbon reservoir comprising: (a) setting a thermal packer in a casing within a well, said thermal packer being set between a first set of perforations and a second set of perforations which is located closer to the surface of the earth than the first set of perforations, such that said thermal packer hydraulically isolates the first set of perforations from the second set of perforations within the casing; (b) injecting steam into the second set of perforations; (c) discontinuing the injection of steam into the second set of perforations; (d) producing hydrocarbons from the first set of perforations; and (e) venting an area in the well adjacent to the first set of perforations during the time that hydrocarbons are being produced.

  15. SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recommendations to increase steam system effic iency. Steam System Opportunities ]n nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a O.4-year payback. 75...

  16. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). 3) The Project will annually produce 365,292 MWh?s of clean energy. 4) By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO{sub 2} equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 28.3 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  17. Exhaust Heat Recovery for Rural Alaskan Diesel Generators | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandardGenerationEducational OpportunitiesEngineRecovery:Energy

  18. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part I: Numerical Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part I: Numerical Modeling (TEG) designed for automotive waste heat recovery systems. This model is capable of computing bismuth telluride are considered for thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for conversion of waste heat from

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES OF HEAT EXCHANGER AND STEAM GENERATOR ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.K. Wright; L.J. Carroll; C.J. Cabet; T. Lillo; J.K. Benz; J.A. Simpson; A. Chapman; R.N. Wright

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant project is considering Alloy 800H and Alloy 617 for steam generator and intermediate heat exchangers. It is envisioned that a steam generator would operate with reactor outlet temperatures from 750 to 800 C, while an intermediate heat exchanger for primary to secondary helium would operate up to an outlet temperature of 950 C. Although both alloys are of interest due in part to their technical maturity, a number of specific properties require further characterization for design of nuclear components. Strain rate sensitivity of both alloys has been characterized and is found to be significant above 600 C. Both alloys also exhibit dynamic strain aging, characterized by serrated flow, over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. High temperature tensile testing of Alloy 617 has been conducted over a range of temperatures. Dynamic strain aging is a concern for these materials since it is observed to result in reduced ductility for many solid solution alloys. Creep, fatigue, and creep-fatigue properties of Alloy 617 have been measured as well, with the goal of determining the influence of the temperature, strain rate and atmosphere on the creep fatigue life of Alloy 617. Elevated temperature properties and implications for codification of the alloys will be described.

  20. Experimental and analytical modeling studies of steam injection with hydrocarbon additives to enhance recovery of San Ardo heavy oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simangunsong, Roly

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to better understand production mechanisms of heavy oil under steam injection with propane and petroleum distillate as steam additives. The studies have been conducted ...

  1. Risk assessment of severe accident-induced steam generator tube rupture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the basis, results, and related risk implications of an analysis performed by an ad hoc working group of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the containment bypass potential attributable to steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) induced by severe accident conditions. The SGTR Severe Accident Working Group, comprised of staff members from the NRC`s Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) and Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), undertook the analysis beginning in December 1995 to support a proposed steam generator integrity rule. The work drew upon previous risk and thermal-hydraulic analyses of core damage sequences, with a focus on the Surry plant as a representative example. This analysis yielded new results, however, derived by predicting thermal-hydraulic conditions of selected severe accident scenarios using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, flawed tube failure modeling, and tube failure probability estimates. These results, in terms of containment bypass probability, form the basis for the findings presented in this report. The representative calculation using Surry plant data indicates that some existing plants could be vulnerable to containment bypass resulting from tube failure during severe accidents. To specifically identify the population of plants that may pose a significant bypass risk would require more definitive analysis considering uncertainties in some assumptions and plant- and design-specific variables. 46 refs., 62 figs., 37 tabs.

  2. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Shell Losses - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End-User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Shell Losses-Section: Shell Losses] Banner: DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Efficiency

  3. Direct Refrigeration from Heat Recovery Using 2-Stage Absorption Chillers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hufford, P. E.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the cost of some fossil fuels has moderated, the importance of energy conservation by heat recovery has not diminished. The application of waste heat generated steam to produce chilled water is not new. However, there is a newly developed...

  4. Case History of Reapplication of a 2500 KW Steam Turbine/Gear Drive Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, S.

    standard 5M2) on sizing inlets and exhaust sizes for steam turbines, and using basic thermodynamics to calculate approximate steam flow, we were able to determine the minimum flange sizes of the turbine. The next step involved determining..., and using basic thermodynamics to calculate approximate steam flow, we were able to determine the minimum flange sizes of the turbine. The next step involved determining the optimum number of stages for the steam turbine. By using a standard calculation (1...

  5. ESTIMATION OF OUTLET MASS FLOW FOR A MONO-TUBE CAVITY RECEIVER FOR DIRECT STEAM GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contains recent developments on a dynamic heat transfer model for a mono-tube steam cavity boiler, which

  6. Predictions and measurements of isothermal airflow in a model once-through steam generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, H R; Promey, G J; Rush, G C

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Once-Through Steam Generators (OTSGs) are used in the Nuclear Steam Supply Systems marketed by The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W). To analytically predict the three-dimensional, steady-state thermohydraulic conditions in the OTSG, B and W has developed a proprietary code THEDA-1 and is working in cooperation with EPRI to develop an improved version, THEDA-2. Confident application of THEDA requires experimental verification to demonstrate that the code can accurately describe the thermohydraulic conditions in geometries characteristic of the OTSG. The first step in the THEDA verification process is the subject of this report. A full-scale, partial-section model of two OTSG spans was constructed and tested using isothermal air as the working fluid. Model local velocities and pressure profiles were measured and compared to THEDA prediction for five model configurations. Over 3000 velocity measurements were taken and the results were compared to THEDA predictions. Agreement between measured and predicted velocity data was generally better than +-12.5%.

  7. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

  8. A Review of Some Degradation Mechanisms in CANDU Steam Generator Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogundele, G.; Clark, M.; Goszczynski, G.; Lloyd, A. [Kinectrics, Inc., 800 Kipling Avenue Toronto, Ontario M8Z 6C4 (Canada); Pagan, S. [Ontario Power Generation, 700 University Avenue Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1X6 (Canada); Sedman, K. [Bruce Power, P.O. Box 3000 177 Tie Rd., R.R. 2, Tiverton, Ontario N0G 2T0 (Canada); King, P. [Babcock and Wilcox (Canada)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) went into operation in July 1971. Today, there are several units in operation at the Pickering, Bruce, and Darlington sites in Ontario, Canada. The steam generator tubing materials were manufactured from Monel 400, Inconel 600, and Incoloy 800 for the Pickering, Bruce, and Darlington respectively and are subjected to different operating conditions. This paper presents a review of some of the various types of degradation mechanisms that have been observed on these tubing materials over the operating period of the respective plants. The results presented are based on the metallurgical examination of removed tubes. The mechanisms that have been observed include pitting, stress corrosion cracking, intergranular attack, fretting, and erosion corrosion. The nature of the flaws and causative factors (if known) are discussed. (authors)

  9. Development and analysis of a linearly segmented CPC collector for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, J.A.A.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study involves the design, analysis and construction of a modular, non-imaging, trough, concentrating solar collector for generation of process steam in a tropical climate. The most innovative feature of this concentrator is that the mirror surface consists of long and narrow planar segments placed inside sealed low-cost glass tubes. The absorber is a cylindrical fin inside an evacuated glass tube. As an extension of the same study, the optical efficiency of the segmented concentrator has been simulated by means of a Monte-Carlo Ray-Tracing program. Laser Ray-Tracing techniques were also used to evaluate the possibilities of this new concept. A preliminary evaluation of the experimental concentrator was done using a relatively simple method that combines results from two experimental measurements: overall heat loss coefficient and optical efficiency. A transient behaviour test was used to measure the overall heat loss coefficient throughout a wide range of temperatures.

  10. Steam generator tube integrity program. Semiannual report, August 1995--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diercks, D.R.; Bakhtiari, S.; Chopra, O.K. [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on the Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program from the inception of that program in August 1995 through March 1996. The program is divided into five tasks, namely (1) Assessment of Inspection Reliability, (2) Research on ISI (in-service-inspection) Technology, (3) Research on Degradation Modes and Integrity, (4) Development of Methodology and Technical Requirements for Current and Emerging Regulatory Issues, and (5) Program Management. Under Task 1, progress is reported on the preparation of and evaluation of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for inspecting a mock-up steam generator for round-robin testing, the development of better ways to correlate burst pressure and leak rate with eddy current (EC) signals, the inspection of sleeved tubes, workshop and training activities, and the evaluation of emerging NDE technology. Under Task 2, results are reported on closed-form solutions and finite element electromagnetic modeling of EC probe response for various probe designs and flaw characteristics. Under Task 3, facilities are being designed and built for the production of cracked tubes under aggressive and near-prototypical conditions and for the testing of flawed and unflawed tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions. In addition, crack behavior and stability are being modeled to provide guidance on test facility design, to develop an improved understanding of the expected rupture behavior of tubes with circumferential cracks, and to predict the behavior of flawed and unflawed tubes under severe accident conditions. Task 4 is concerned with the cracking and failure of tubes that have been repaired by sleeving, and with a review of literature on this subject.

  11. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  12. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  13. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  14. Experimental and analytical modeling studies of steam injection with hydrocarbon additives to enhance recovery of San Ardo heavy oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simangunsong, Roly

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    thanks also go to my good friend, Zuher Syihab, who, possibly without realizing it, taught me that learning is more than just a grade. This research was conducted under the Ramey Laboratory Research Program (2004) and the Crisman Institute...-Garnica (2004)16 performed distillation experiments on synthetic oil, showing that propane effectively reduces the boiling point of hydrocarbons. Thus, yields are higher with steam-propane, followed by that of pure steam injection, and lowest under dry...

  15. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, D.E.; Mulac, A.J.

    1980-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

  16. Neutron measurements of the fuel remaining in the TMI II once-through steam generators (OTSG'S)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Abel, K.H.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polypropylene tubes containing a string of 18 copper rods were inserted into the lower head region and each J-leg of the two once-through steam generators (OTSG) of the unit two reactor at Three Mile Island. The object was to measure the neutron flux present in those regions and estimate the amount of residual fuel remaining in each OTSG. The neutron flux from any residual fuel induces a radioisotope, /sup 64/Cu, in the copper coupons. The /sup 64/Cu activity is detected by coincidence counting the two 511-keV gamma rays produced by the annihilation of the positron emitted in the decay of /sup 64/Cu. The copper coupons were placed between two 6-inch diameter, 6-inch long NaI(Tl) crystals and the electronics produced a coincidence count whenever the two gamma rays were uniquely detected. The net coincidence count is proportional to the amount of /sup 64/Cu activity in the coupon. This document discusses calculation methods, statistical methods, and results of this research. 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Structural Integrity Assessment of Steam Generator Tubes Using a New EPRI Statistical Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesus Miranda, Carlos Alexandre de; Mattar Neto, Miguel [IPEN-CNEN/SP, inst. pesquisas energeticas nucleares, 05499 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental step in tube plugging management of a Steam Generator (SG), in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), is the tube structural integrity evaluation. The degradation of SG tubes may be considered one of the most serious problems found in PWRs operation, mainly when the tube material is the Inconel 600. The first repair criterion was based on the degradation mode where a uniform tube wall thickness corrosion thinning occurred. Thus, a requirement of a maximum depth of 40% of the tube wall thickness was imposed for any type of tube damage. A new approach considers different defects arising from different degradation modes, which comes from the in-service inspections (NDE) and how to consider the involved uncertainties. It is based on experimental results, using statistics to consider the involved uncertainties, to assess structural limits of PWR SG tubes. In any case, the obtained results, critical defect dimensions, are within the regulatory limits. In this paper this new approach will be discussed and it will be applied to two cases (two defects) using typical data of SG tubes of one Westinghouse NPP. The obtained results are compared with 'historical' approaches and some comments are addressed from the results and their comparison. (authors)

  18. ASCO steam generators operating experience. Safety criteria for defect management and effectiveness of preventive measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toribio, E.L. [Associacion Nuclear Asco AIE, Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ASCO NPP is a two W-PWR 930 Mwe Units. Each Unit is provided with three Westinghouse Model D3 steam generators which are of preheater type and Inconel 600 MA as tube material. The Secondary side was designed and erected with copper alloys. Unit I: 81.072 EFPH, and Unit II: 69.720 EFPH. The results of the Eddy Currents Inspections performed during the first refueling outage showed Denting at tube support plates and PWSCC at roll transition zone in Unit I and Denting in Unit II. Later inspections showed other types of damages, such as: (1) ODSCC at tube support plates intersections. (2) Circumferential cracks OD and ID at roll transition zone. (3) Wear at antivibration bars and preheater baffles level. Consequently, in order to limit the plugging rate, A.N. ASCO decided to license new plugging criteria in addition to the 40% depth criterion included in Technical Specification. The new licensing criteria and surveillance requirements, varying with tube zone, are explained in the paper.

  19. Continuous-wave radar to detect defects within heat exchangers and steam generator tubes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassersharif, Bahram (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Caffey, Thurlow Washburn Howell; Jedlicka, Russell P. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Garcia, Gabe V. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The experimental program resulted in a completed product development schedule and the design of an experimental apparatus for studying handling of the probe and data acquisition. These tests were completed as far as the prototypical probe performance allowed. The prototype probe design did not have sufficient sensitivity to detect a defect signal using the defined radar technique and did not allow successful completion of all of the project milestones. The best results from the prototype probe could not detect a tube defect using the radar principle. Though a more precision probe may be possible, the cost of design and construction was beyond the scope of the project. This report describes the probe development and the status of the design at the termination of the project.

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Steam Generator and Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Wright

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Todays high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for application in heat exchangers and core internals for the NGNP. The primary candidates are Inconel 617, Haynes 230, Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR. Based on the technical maturity, availability in required product forms, experience base, and high temperature mechanical properties all of the vendor pre-conceptual design studies have specified Alloy 617 as the material of choice for heat exchangers. Also a draft code case for Alloy 617 was developed previously. Although action was suspended before the code case was accepted by ASME, this draft code case provides a significant head start for achieving codification of the material. Similarly, Alloy 800H is the material of choice for control rod sleeves. In addition to the above listed considerations, Alloy 800H is already listed in the nuclear section of the ASME Code; although the maximum use temperature and time need to be increased.

  1. Evaluation of anticipatory signal to steam generator pressure control program for 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahari, S.; Hajela, S.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Nabhikiya Urja Bhavan, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai, PIN-400094 (India)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is horizontal channel type reactor with partial boiling at channel outlet. Due to boiling, it has a large volume of vapor present in the primary loops. It has two primary loops connected with the help of pressurizer surge line. The pressurizer has a large capacity and is partly filled by liquid and partly by vapor. Large vapor volume improves compressibility of the system. During turbine trip or load rejection, pressure builds up in Steam Generator (SG). This leads to pressurization of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). To control pressurization of SG and PHTS, around 70% of the steam generated in SG is dumped into the condenser by opening Condenser Steam Dump Valves (CSDVs) and rest of the steam is released to the atmosphere by opening Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs) immediately after sensing the event. This is accomplished by adding anticipatory signal to the output of SG pressure controller. Anticipatory signal is proportional to the thermal power of reactor and the proportionality constant is set so that SG pressure controller's output jacks up to ASDV opening range when operating at 100% FP. To simulate this behavior for 700 MWe IPHWR, Primary and secondary heat transport system is modeled. SG pressure control and other process control program have also been modeled to capture overall plant dynamics. Analysis has been carried out with 3-D neutron kinetics coupled thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA.T to evaluate the effect of the anticipatory signal on PHT pressure and over all plant dynamics during turbine trip in 700 MWe IPHWR. This paper brings out the results of the analysis with and without considering anticipatory signal in SG pressure control program during turbine trip. (authors)

  2. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Condensate recovery o Fuel unit cost o Total fuel consumption o Steam production Slide 6 Boiler o PRV steam flows o o Steam consumers Turbine efficiencies Electrical unit cost o o CondensateDOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Conclusion Module 1 June 28

  3. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Efficiency Definition - 1 8/30/2010 Steam End-User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module will be discussed. [Slide Visual Contents of Module Sections] Banner: DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training

  4. DOE's BestPractices Steam End-User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End-User Training Steam End User Training Steam Generation Module Stack Losses 1 June 28, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Stack Losses loss is almost always the largest boiler loss. [Slide Visual ­ Stack Loss Title Page] Steam

  5. Effect of steam generator configuration in a loss of the RHR during mid-loop operation at PKL facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villanueva, J. F.; Carlos, S.; Martorell, S.; Sanchez, F. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The loss of the residual heat removal system in mid-loop conditions may occur with a non-negligible contribution to the plant risk, so the analysis of the accidental sequences and the actions to mitigate the accident are of great interest in shutdown conditions. In order to plan the appropriate measures to mitigate the accident is necessary to understand the thermal-hydraulic processes following the loss of the residual heat removal system during shutdown. Thus, transients of this kind have been simulated using best-estimate codes in different integral test facilities and compared with experimental data obtained in different facilities. In PKL (Primaerkreislauf-Versuchsanlage, primary coolant loop test facility) test facility different series of experiments have been undertaken to analyze the plant response in shutdown. In this context, the E3 and F2 series consist of analyzing the loss of the residual heat removal system with a reduced inventory in the primary system. In particular, the experiments were developed to investigate the influence of the steam generators secondary side configuration on the plant response, what involves the consideration of different number of steam generators filled with water and ready for activation, on the heat transfer mechanisms inside the steam generators U-tubes. This work presents the results of such experiments calculated using, RELAP5/Mod 3.3. (authors)

  6. Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary E. Rochau and Thurlow W.H. Caffey, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0740; Bahram Nassersharif and Gabe V. Garcia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001; Russell P. Jedlicka, Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK B204 Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003. A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The technique is 100% volumetric, and may find smaller defects, more rapidly, and less expensively than present methods. The project described in this report was a joint development effort between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) funded by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the project was to research, design, and develop a new concept utilizing a continuous wave radar to detect defects inside metallic tubes and in particular nuclear plant steam generator tubing. The project was divided into four parallel tracks: computational modeling, experimental prototyping, thermo-mechanical design, and signal detection and analysis.

  7. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery and chemical plant steam systems are complex and the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense. The incremental cost for generating a 1,000 lb./hr. of steam is typically $45,000 - $60,000/year. Most plants have...

  8. Why Condensing Steam Turbines are More Efficient than Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, K. E.

    statement. however, is relevant to value. GAS TURBINE CYCLE Figure :> shows the enthalpy analysis for a gas turbine cycle employing a heat recovery unit for steam generation. Air enters the compressor where it's boosted to about 190 psi and mixed... of preheaters. boilers and superheaters. [n this example. three levels of steam are produced. Exhaust gases vent up the stack. :1 l.:l MMBtu/hr of electricity is produced. with 70.4"'0 of the heat going to the heat recovery unit. Notice that 22...

  9. Gain-scheduled nonlinear control of u-tube steam generators at low powers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Sunil Kumar

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure, Pa. GW* avera. e recirculation flow rate, k /s. Disturbance Descri tion Hot-leg temperature, 'F. Primary mass flow rate, kg/s. Steam flow rate, kg/s. Feedwater temperature, 'F. Primary pressure. Pa. * Steam Dome-Downcomer ~ Geometrically.../LTR Compensstors. . . . . . . . . 5 cj 60 62 66 70 75 LINEAR COMPENSATOR DESIGN AND GAIN-SCHEDULING . . 76 V. 1 Introduction 76 CHAPTER Pa. ge V. 2 Design of the LQG/LTR Compensators for the UTSG V. 3 Analysis of the Linear Compensators . . V. 4 Gain...

  10. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyama, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Wadasaki-cho 1-Chome, Hyogo-ku, Kobe (Japan); Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 16-5, Konan 2-Chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  11. Nodalization study of the Westinghouse Model E steam generator secondary side

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Robert Orval

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on overall nuclear reactor systems and/or individual components of these systems~. RETRAN-02 is an industry standard code which can Steam Outlet and Rcw Rosirlator Upper Desk Fy I Upon Nomw lamps Level CanneaUan Doanaom?Semi Salrl atmo Acems OPi&np...

  12. Improving the Capacity or Output of a Steam Turbine Generator at XYZ Power Plant in Illinois

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amoo-Otoo, John Kweku

    2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Competition has been a prime mover in the energy industry and there is the drive to increase performance of steam turbine-driven equipment. Availability of a unit is also critical to the operation of a plant and has also provided the fundamental...

  13. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650C to 800C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650C to 760C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  14. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a New Technology for Extraction of Insoluble Impurities from Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators with Purge Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bud'ko, I. O. [JSC NIITsE 'Tsentrenergo' (Russian Federation)] [JSC NIITsE 'Tsentrenergo' (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. G. [Rostov Nuclear Power Plant (Russian Federation)] [Rostov Nuclear Power Plant (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental technology for the removal of insoluble impurities from a horizontal steam generator with purge water during planned shutdowns of the power generating unit is improved through a more representative determination of the concentration of impurities in the purge water ahead of the water cleanup facility and a more precise effective time for the duration of the purge process. Tests with the improved technique at power generating unit No. 1 of the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant show that the efficiency with which insoluble impurities are removed from the steam generator volume was more than two orders of magnitude greater than under the standard regulations.

  15. Steam System Optimization: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

    /hr is imported from an outside power plant and 170,000 lbslhr is internally generated as waste heat recovery. The steam system analysis identified energy savings worth of $2,400,000 per year. The optimization measures were in two categories: ? no cost / low... cost that can be done through better maintenance and improvement of operating conditions. ? major improvement that requires a significant amount of investment, that includes the modification of process and major equipment. Though the findings...

  16. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 Area Asbestos Removal, U-Ancillary Demolition, 200 West Transfer Building Footings

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A weekly update of the Recovery Act at work. Demolition of U-Ancillary that was contaminated with uranium and asbestos as well as removing asbestos from the Steam Generation Plant in the 200 East Area.

  17. Recovery Act Weekly Video: 200 Area Asbestos Removal, U-Ancillary Demolition, 200 West Transfer Building Footings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A weekly update of the Recovery Act at work. Demolition of U-Ancillary that was contaminated with uranium and asbestos as well as removing asbestos from the Steam Generation Plant in the 200 East Area.

  18. 3rd Int'l Workshop on Micro & Nano Tech. for Power Generation & Energy Conv. (PowerMEMS'03), Makuhari, Japan, 4-5 Dec. 2003. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF A MEMS STEAM TURBINE POWER PLANT-ON-A-CHIP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frechette, Luc G.

    ), Makuhari, Japan, 4-5 Dec. 2003. 1 PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF A MEMS STEAM TURBINE POWER PLANT-ON-A-CHIP Luc G. The microfabricated device consists of a steam turbine that drives an integrated micropump and generator. Two, mechanical, then electrical energy. The concept developed herein consists of a microfabricated steam turbine

  19. Estimates of health risks associated with radionuclide emissions from fossil-fueled steam-electric generating plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the Title III, Section 112 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment, Congress directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform a study of the hazards to public resulting from pollutants emitted by electric utility system generating units. Radionuclides are among the groups of pollutants listed in the amendment. This report updates previously published data and estimates with more recently available information regarding the radionuclide contents of fossil fuels, associated emissions by steam-electric power plants, and potential health effects to exposed population groups.

  20. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery Through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Resrvoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creties Jenkins; Doug Sprinkel; Milind Deo; Ray Wydrinski; Robert Swain

    1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This project reactivates ARCO?s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  1. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.; Forster, C.; Jenkins, C.; Schamel, S.; Sprinkel, D.; and Swain, R.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project reactivates ARCO's idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming was used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project completed in December 1996. During the demonstration phase begun in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery is testing the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having simular producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially t o other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  2. Cogeneration Waste Heat Recovery at a Coke Calcining Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, R. L.

    and performance summary at the plant design point is shown in Figure 1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT The plant has three steam generation units. Each boiler is a natural circulation, single pressure level waste heat recovery boiler. Two of the boilers..." per ANSI/ASME PTC 4 4-1981, Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generator' All units tested above their design value. The turbine generator set was tested using station instrumentation to verify it was performin at its design point. The overall plant...

  3. Review of Dissimilar Metal Welding for the NGNP Helical-Coil Steam Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John N. DuPont

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently funding research and development of a new high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) that is capable of providing high temperature process heat for industry. The steam generator of the HTGR will consist of an evaporator economizer section in the lower portion and a finishing superheater section in the upper portion. Alloy 800H is expected to be used for the superheater section, and 2.25Cr 1Mo steel is expected to be used for the evaporator economizer section. Dissimilar metal welds (DMW) will be needed to join these two materials. It is well known that failure of DMWs can occur well below the expected creep life of either base metal and well below the design life of the plant. The failure time depends on a wide range of factors related to service conditions, welding parameters, and alloys involved in the DMW. The overall objective of this report is to review factors associated with premature failure of DMWs operating at elevated temperatures and identify methods for extending the life of the 2.25Cr 1Mo steel to alloy 800H welds required in the new HTGR. Information is provided on a variety of topics pertinent to DMW failures, including microstructural evolution, failure mechanisms, creep rupture properties, aging behavior, remaining life estimation techniques, effect of environment on creep rupture properties, best practices, and research in progress to improve DMW performance. The microstructure of DMWs in the as welded condition consists of a sharp chemical concentration gradient across the fusion line that separates the ferritic and austenitic alloys. Upon cooling from the weld thermal cycle, a band of martensite forms within this concentration gradient due to high hardenability and the relatively rapid cooling rates associated with welding. Upon aging, during post weld heat treatment (PWHT), and/or during high temperature service, C diffuses down the chemical potential gradient from the ferritic 2.25Cr 1Mo steel toward the austenitic alloy. This can lead to formation of a soft C denuded zone near the interface on the ferritic steel, and nucleation and growth of carbides on the austenitic side that are associated with very high hardness. These large differences in microstructure and hardness occur over very short distances across the fusion line (~ 50 100 ?m). A band of carbides also forms along the fusion line in the ferritic side of the joint. The difference in hardness across the fusion line increases with increasing aging time due to nucleation and growth of the interfacial carbides. Premature failure of DMWs is generally attributed to several primary factors, including: the sharp change in microstructure and mechanical properties across the fusion line, the large difference in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the ferritic and austenitic alloys, formation of interfacial carbides that lead to creep cavity formation, and preferential oxidation of the ferritic steel near the fusion line. In general, the large gradient in mechanical properties and CTE serve to significantly concentrate the stress along the fusion where a creep susceptible microstructure has evolved during aging. Presence of an oxide notch can concentrate the stress even further. Details of the failure mechanism and the relative importance of each factor varies.

  4. Influence of steam generator plugging and break size on large-break loss-of-collant accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stritar, A.; Mavko, B. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (El Salvador)

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) is the design-basis accident in the Krsko pressurized-water reactor, the only power reactor in Slovenia. Because numbers of steam generator tubes are plugged as the steam generator ages, and this directly influences the primary system behavior during an LBLOCA, this accident was re-examined assuming various proportions of blocked tube from 0 to 22%. The size of the break was changes from 25 to 45% of the initial cold-leg cross section. The analysis was made with RELAP4/MOD6 as the main code in the conservative mode rather than as the best-estimate code. The methodology separately considers the blowdown phase, the refill phase, and the reflood phase. It was found that the peak clad temperature rises as plugging increases up to about 10% plugging and tends to be constant or even decrease as the plugging increases beyond this point. It was also found that results are strongly dependent on the methodology used. 17 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R. [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators.

  6. On the Corrosion adequacy of the 2 1/4 CR-1Mo steel for LMFBR steam generation system service. Critical literature survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zima, G.E.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this review is on the long-term serviceability of 2 1/4-1 Mo steel under the waterside environmental conditions presented in the steam generator of an LMFBR commercial scale plant. The basic question related to material behavior is to what extent the water side physico-chemical environment will affect the favorable performance of a given material under operating experience. In present light water reactors, the steam generator corrosion problems in part are attributable to complex interactions between the localized secondary environment and the mechanical design of the components (i.e., tube/tube support crevice, tube/tubesheet crevice, flow pattern, etc.) in the steam generating system.

  7. Steam generation in line-focus solar collectors: a comparative assessment of thermal performance, operating stability, and cost issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The engineering and system benefits of using direct steam (in situ) generation in line-focus collectors are assessed. The major emphasis of the analysis is a detailed thermal performance comparison of in situ systems (which utilize unfired boilers). The analysis model developed for this study is discussed in detail. An analysis of potential flow stability problems is also provided along with a cursory cost analysis and an assessment of freeze protection, safety, and control issues. Results indicated a significant thermal performance advantage over the more conventional oil and flash systems and the flow stability does not appear to be a significant problem. In particular, at steam temperatures of 220/sup 0/C (430/sup 0/F) under the chosen set of assumptions, annual delivered energy predictions indicate that the in situ system can deliver 15% more energy than an oil system and 12% more energy than a flash system, with all of the systems using the same collector field. Further, the in situ system may result in a 10% capital cost reduction. Other advantages include improvement in simpler control when compared with flash systems, and fluid handling and safety enhancement when compared with oil systems.

  8. Life Estimation of PWR Steam Generator U-Tubes Subjected to Foreign Object-Induced Fretting Wear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Jhung, Myung Jo; Kim, Woong Sik; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an approach to the remaining life prediction of steam generator (SG) U-tubes, which are intact initially, subjected to fretting-wear degradation due to the interaction between a vibrating tube and a foreign object in operating nuclear power plants. The operating SG shell-side flow field conditions are obtained from a three-dimensional SG flow calculation using the ATHOS3 code. Modal analyses are performed for the finite element models of U-tubes to get the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape, and participation factor. The wear rate of a U-tube caused by a foreign object is calculated using the Archard formula, and the remaining life of the tube is predicted. Also discussed in this study are the effects of the tube modal characteristics, external flow velocity, and tube internal pressure on the estimated results of the remaining life of the tube.

  9. The effect of the number of condensed phases modeled on aerosol behavior during an induced steam generator tube rupture sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schaperow, J.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VICTORIA is a mechanistic computer code designed to analyze fission product behavior within a nuclear reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from the reactor core and transport and deposition of these materials within the RCS. A recently completed independent peer review of VICTORIA, while confirming the overall adequacy of the code, recommended a number of modeling improvements. One of these recommendations, to model three rather than a single condensed phase, is the focus of the work reported here. The recommendation has been implemented as an option so that either a single or three condensed phases can be treated. Both options have been employed in the study of fission product behavior during an induced steam generator tube rupture sequence. Differences in deposition patterns and mechanisms predicted using these two options are discussed.

  10. Sweeney LUBRICATION OF STEAM, GAS AND WATER TURBINES IN POWER GENERATION- A CHEVRONTEXACO EXPERIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter James Sweeney

    On 9 October 2001 two US oil companies Chevron and Texaco merged. Their long-term joint venture operation, known as Caltex (formed in 1936 and operating in East and Southern Africa, Middle East, Asia and Australasia), was incorporated into the one global energy company. This global enterprise will be highly competitive across all energy sectors, as the new company brings together a wealth of talents, shared values and a strong commitment to developing vital energy resources around the globe. Worldwide, ChevronTexaco is the third largest publicly traded company in terms of oil and gas reserves, with some 11.8 billion barrels of oil and gas equivalent. It is the fourth largest producer, with daily production of 2.7 million barrels. The company also has 22 refineries and more than 21,000 branded service stations worldwide. This paper will review the fundamentals of lubrication as they apply to the components of turbines. It will then look at three turbine types, steam, gas and water, to address the different needs of lubricating oils and the appropriate specifications for each. The significance of oil testing both for product development and in-service oil monitoring will be reviewed, together with the supporting field experience of ChevronTexaco. The environmental emissions controls on turbines and any impact on the lubricants will be discussed. Finally, the trends in specifications for lubricating oils to address the modern turbines designs will be reviewed. Key Words: geothermal, lubrication, turbines, in-service testing 1.

  11. Why Condensing Steam Turbines are More Efficient than Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, K. E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with gas in a combustion chamber. The gas burns and the hot combustion gases are expanded through a turbine. generating electricity. The gases exit at about 1000oF. slightly above atmospheric pressure. They enter a heat recovery unit. which is a series... statement. however, is relevant to value. GAS TURBINE CYCLE Figure :> shows the enthalpy analysis for a gas turbine cycle employing a heat recovery unit for steam generation. Air enters the compressor where it's boosted to about 190 psi and mixed...

  12. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  13. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal processing methods using wavelet transforms and image processing techniques for isolating flaw types. (6) Development and implementation of a new nonlinear and non-stationary signal processing method, called the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), for flaw detection and location. This is a more robust and adaptive approach compared to the wavelet transform. (7) Implementation of a moving-window technique in the time domain for detecting and quantifying flaw types in tubular structures. A window zooming technique was also developed for flaw location in tubes. (8) Theoretical study of elastic wave propagation (longitudinal and shear waves) in metallic flat plates and tubing with and without flaws. (9) Simulation of the Lamb wave propagation using the finite-element code ABAQUS. This enabled the verification of the experimental results. The research tasks included both analytical research and experimental studies. The experimental results helped to enhance the robustness of fault monitoring methods and to provide a systematic verification of the analytical results. The results of this research were disseminated in scientific meetings. A journal manuscript was submitted for publication. The new findings of this research have potential applications in aerospace and civil structures. The report contains a complete bibliography that was developed during the course of the project.

  14. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers, Volumes 1, 2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Hines, J. Wesley; Lu, Baofu; Huang, Xuedong; Penha, Rosani, L.; Perillo, Sergio, R.; Zhao, Ke

    2005-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001 ???????????????????????????????? September 2004. ???????????????????????????????· Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. ???????????????????????????????· Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. ???????????????????????????????· Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. ???????????????????????????????· Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. ???????????????????????????????· Development of advanced signal processing methods using wavelet transforms and image processing techniques for isolating flaw types. ???????????????????????????????· Development and implementation of a new nonlinear and non-stationary signal processing method, called the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), for flaw detection and location. This is a more robust and adaptive approach compared to the wavelet transform

  15. Public Service Commission Authorization to Utilize an Alternative Method of Cost Recovery for Certain Base Load Generation (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Senate Bill 2793 authorizes the Public Service Commission (PSC) to utilize an alternative cost recovery for certain base load generation. The PSC is authorized to include in an electric...

  16. Predicting the adsorption of second generation biofuels by polymeric resins with applications for in situ product recovery (ISPR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, David R.

    The application of hydrophobic polymeric resins as solid-phase adsorbent materials for the recovery and purification of prospective second generation biofuel compounds, including ethanol, iso-propanol, n-propanol, iso-butanol, ...

  17. Project DEEP STEAM: third meeting of the technical advisory panel, Bakersfield, CA, March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, R. L.; Johnson, D. R.; Donaldson, A. B.; Mulac, A. J.; Krueger, D. A.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The third meeting of the technical advisory panel for the Deep Steam project was held in March 1980 in Bakersfield, California. The following seven papers were presented: Materials Studies; Insulation/Packer Simulation Test; Enhanced Recovery Packer; High Pressure Downhole Steam Generator; Lower Pressure Downhole Steam Generator; Physical Simulations; and Field Testing. The panel made many recommendations, some of which are: shell calcium silicate insulation should be included in the injection string modification program; for metal packer, consider age hardening alloys, testing with thermal cycling, intentionally flawed casing, and operational temperatures effect on differential expansion, plus long term tests under temperature and corrosive environment; for minimum stress packer, consider testing environment carefully as some elastomers are especially susceptible to oil, oxygen, and combustion gases; for downhole steam generator, quality of water required with new low pressure combustion design needs to be investigated; in field testing, materials coupons, for corrosion monitoring, should be an integral part of field test operations.

  18. Improved Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Performance with Solvent as Steam Additive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weiqiang

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is used widely as a thermal recovery technique in Canada to produce a very viscous bitumen formation. The main research objectives of this simulation and experimental study are to investigate oil recovery...

  19. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  20. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Blowdown Losses 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Blowdown Losses 1 June 28, 2010 Steam End User Training Steam Generation Module Steam EndUser Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Blowdown affect on boiler efficiency. [Slide Visual ­Blowdown Losses Title Page] Steam Generation Efficiency

  1. Determination of Nickel Species in Stack Emissions from Eight Residual Oil-Fired Utility Steam-Generating Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F Huggins; K Galbreath; K Eylands; L Van Loon; J Olson; E Zillioux; S Ward; P Lynch; P Chu

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    XAFS spectroscopy has been used to determine the Ni species in particulate matter collected on quartz thimble filters in the stacks of eight residual (No. 6 fuel) oil-burning electric utility steam-generating units. Proper speciation of nickel in emitted particulate matter is necessary to correctly anticipate potential health risks. Analysis of the spectroscopic data using least-squares linear combination methods and a newly developed method specific for small quantities of Ni sulfide compounds in such emissions show that potentially carcinogenic Ni sulfide compounds are absent within the detection limits of the method ({le}3% of the total Ni) in the particulate matter samples investigated. In addition to the major nickel sulfate phase (NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O), lesser amounts of (Ni,Mg)O and/or NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were also identified in most emission samples. On the basis of the results from these emission characterization studies, the appropriateness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's assumption that the Ni compound mixture emitted from residual oil-fired power plants is 50% as carcinogenic as nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) should be re-evaluated.

  2. Alternate Materials for Recovery Boiler Superheater Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ever escalating demands for increased efficiency of all types of boilers would most sensibly be realized by an increase in the steam parameters of temperature and pressure. However, materials and corrosion limitations in the steam generating components, particularly the superheater tubes, present major obstacles to boiler designers in achieving systems that can operate under the more severe conditions. This paper will address the issues associated with superheater tube selection for many types of boilers; particularly chemical recovery boilers, but also addressing the similarities in issues for biomass and coal fired boilers. It will also review our recent study of materials for recovery boiler superheaters. Additional, more extensive studies, both laboratory and field, are needed to gain a better understanding of the variables that affect superheater tube corrosion and to better determine the best means to control this corrosion to ultimately permit operation of recovery boilers at higher temperatures and pressures.

  3. Steam Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, W.

    between the water level and the steam in a boiler, some water vapor will always tend to pass through the system with the steam. Hence, a continuing problem. If steam does carry water vapor past the separators it will tend to coalesce as a liquid...

  4. Thermal recovery of oil and bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, R.M. (Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book is organized into the following chapters: Introduction to Thermal Recovery; Conduction of Heat Within Solids; Convective Heating within Reservoirs; Steamfloodings; The Displacement of Heavy Oil; Cyclic Steam Simulation; Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage; Steam Recovery Equipment and Facilities; and In Situ Combustion.

  5. Steelmaker Matches Recovery Act Funds to Save Energy & Reduce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and installed with DOE Recovery Act Funding. Blast Furnace Gas Recovery Boiler Provides Steam and Power at Steel Mill More Documents & Publications Capturing Waste Gas: Saves...

  6. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD3.1 with the LSTF SB-SG-06 experiment simulating a steam generator tube rupture transient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seul, K.W.; Bang, Y.S.; Lee, S.; Kim, H.J. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the present work is to identify the predictability of RELAP5/MOD3.1 regarding thermal-hydraulic behavior during a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). To evaluate the computed results, LSTF SB-SG-06 test data simulating the SGTR that occurred at the Mihama Unit 2 in 1991 are used. Also, some sensitivity studies of the code change in RELAP5, the break simulation model, and the break valve discharge coefficient are performed. The calculation results indicate that the RELAP5/MOD3.1 code predicted well the sequence of events and the major phenomena during the transient, such as the asymmetric loop behavior, reactor coolant system (RCS) cooldown and heat transfer by natural circulation, the primary and secondary system depressurization by the pressurizer auxiliary spray and the steam dump using the intact loop steam generator (SG) relief valve, and so on. However, there are some differences from the experimental data in the number of the relief valve cycling in the affected SG, and the flow regime of the hot leg with the pressurizer, and the break flow rates. Finally, the calculation also indicates that the coolant in the core could remain in a subcooled state as a result of the heat transfer caused by the natural circulation flow even if the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) turned off and that the affected SG could be properly isolated to minimize the radiological release after the SGTR.

  7. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation (MW) Gas turbine Steam turbine Total Naphtha DieselPower generation (MW) CERT-1 Gas turbine Steam turbine Total Naphtha DieselPower generation (MW) Gas turbine CERT-2 CERT-2B Steam turbine Total Naphtha Diesel

  8. Power Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, F.

    , will be the use of the ASTM Theoretical Steam Rate Tables. In addition, the author's experience regarding the minimum size for power recovery units that are economic in a Culf Coast plant will be presented. INTROD\\Jr.'rION When surveying an operation... will be discussed in detail. Each term in the equation will be considered in English units. Secondly, the use of Mollier diagrams to estimate the enthalphy change between the initial and final conditions will be considered. The last method, specific to steam...

  9. Modeling of reciprocating internal combustion engines for power generation and heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a power generation and heat recovery model for reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICEs). The purpose of the proposed model is to provide realistic estimates of performance/efficiency maps for both electrical power output and useful thermal output for various capacities of engines for use in a preliminary CHP design/simulation process. The proposed model will serve as an alternative to constant engine efficiencies or empirical efficiency curves commonly used in the current literature for simulations of CHP systems. The engine performance/efficiency calculation algorithm has been coded to a publicly distributed FORTRAN Dynamic Link Library (DLL), and a user friendly tool has been developed using Visual Basic programming. Simulation results using the proposed model are validated against manufacturers technical data.

  10. Steam Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, K. C.

    . But he uses it to drive a steam turbine which in turn drives a pump. The turbine expands the steam to a lower pressure where it is then condensed and the condensate returned to the boiler house. Let's find out what the steam is worth to this user. His... while the 15 psig condensing turbine is a good candidate to be replaced with an electric motor. But, whatever the case is, the cost of the steam has nothing to do with its value. The point of the above is that this paper is about COST...

  11. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a steam driven power system by steam mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA); Prichard, Andrew W. (Richland, WA); Reid, Bruce D. (Pasco, WA); Burritt, James (Virginia Beach, VA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a steam driven power plant wherein addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant results in a surprising increase in plant performance. For Example, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler may be installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  12. NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    include steam turbine generators, steam turbine mechanical drives, process steam, process heat exchangers and reactors, district energy systems, and thermal desalination processes....

  13. Steam Pressure Reduction Opportunities and Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, J.; Griffin, B.; Wright, A. L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - use, and recovery. In addition to reduced energy losses, fuel consumption can be reduced, boiler efficiency can be improved, and process energy needs can be met with a reduced steam flow rate. Changes in system parameters can vary with the design... steam trap to discharge the required flow of condensate, resulting in water- logging of steam-heated equipment (e.g., dryers, water heaters, reactors). For example, consider a makeup air unit that operates at the main system pressure...

  14. Assessment of compliance for the Chalk Point steam electric generating station with mixing-zone criteria in COMAR 10. 50. 01. 13E(1). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PEPCO submitted documents that contained field data and model simulations to support their contention that the Chalk Point steam electric-generating station (SES) at full-power operations was in compliance with the thermal mixing-zone specifications. Those documents were reviewed by four experts on estuarine circulation and waste-heat dispersion. Available data show that the thermal plume at full power contacts 62-96 hectares of bottom. The allowed value, 5% of the ebb tidal excursion, is 33 to 49 hectares, so the plume exceeds the value allowed by the specification.

  15. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Bullock

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and ? Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  16. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Ramesh

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley

  17. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Bourdon Steam Plant Operator Vincent Massara Steam Plant Operator Cliff Lescenski Steam Plant Operator Robert Tedesco Steam Plant Operator James Bradley Equipment Maintenance Robert Earle Equipment

  18. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  19. Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bockwinkel, R. G.; French, S. A.

    , it's important to select and install the correct type and size steam trap for each application. This means a corruninnent must be made to training those who select, install, test and maintain steam traps on a. daily Scott A. French Application... generated. This paper will review each of these topics and then explore some of the new services, products, practices and technology available to help you maintain or improve the efficiency of your steam system. COSTLY STEAM LEAKS ENERGY RESOURCES...

  20. Nonlinear inverse problem for a model of ion-exchange filter: numerical recovery of parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) and pressure (15 MPa) of hot steam [2]. Some units are made of cheap corrosion and heat-resistant steel which1 Nonlinear inverse problem for a model of ion-exchange filter: numerical recovery of parameters]. Power-generating units of TPP operate under severe corrosive conditions: high temperature (515 - 530C

  1. HTGR-process steam/cogeneration and HTGR-steam cycle program. Semiannual report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in the design of an 1170-MW(t) High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Nuclear Steam Supply (NSS) is described. This NSS can integrate favorably into present petrochemical and primary metal process industries, heavy oil recovery operations, and future shale oil recovery and synfuel processes. The economics appear especially attractive in comparison with alternative coal-fired steam generation. Cost estimates for central station power-generating 2240- and 3360-MW(t) HTGR-Steam Cycle (HTGR-SC) plants are updated. The 2240-MW(t) HTGR-SC is treated to a probabilistic risk evaluation. Compared with the earlier 3000-MW(t) design, the results predict a slightly increased risk of core heatup, owing to the result of eliminating the capability of the boiler feed pump to operate at atmospheric backpressure. The differences in risk, however, are within the calculational uncertainties. Preliminary results of the ranking of safety enhancement features for the 1170-MW(t) HTGR indicate that the following modifications offer the most promise: (1) capability for main loop rundown, (2) natural circulation core auxiliary cooling, and (3) PCRV blowdown capability through the helium purification system to minimize activity release during some core heatups.

  2. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset field, San Jaoquin Basin, California. Annual report, June 13, 1995--June 13, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.; Jenkins, C.; Sprinkel, D.; Swain, R.; Wydrinski, R.; Schamel, S.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project reactivates ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conducts a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. Cyclic steaming is being used to reestablish baseline production within the reservoir characterization phase of the project. During the demonstration phase scheduled to begin in January 1997, a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery will be initiated to test the incremental value of this method as an alternative to cyclic steaming. Other economically marginal Class III reservoirs having similar producibility problems will benefit from insight gained in this project. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to optimal commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) to convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program.

  3. The New Generation of Uranium In Situ Recovery Facilities: Design Improvements Should Reduce Radiological Impacts Relative to First Generation Uranium Solution Mining Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium In Situ Leaching / In Situ Recovery (ISL / ISR - also referred to as 'solution mining'), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and are expected to make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size solution mining production facilities have operated in the US since the mid 1970's. However, current designs are expected to result in less radiological wastes and emissions relative to these 'first' generation plants (which were designed, constructed and operated through the 1980's). These early designs typically used alkaline leach chemistries in situ including use of ammonium carbonate which resulted in groundwater restoration challenges, open to air recovery vessels and high temperature calcining systems for final product drying vs the 'zero emissions' vacuum dryers as typically used today. Improved containment, automation and instrumentation control and use of vacuum dryers in the design of current generation plants are expected to reduce production of secondary waste byproduct material, reduce Radon emissions and reduce potential for employee exposure to uranium concentrate aerosols at the back end of the milling process. In Situ Recovery in the U.S. typically involves the circulation of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing (gaseous oxygen e.g) and complexing agents (carbon dioxide, e.g) into an ore body, solubilizing the uranium in situ, and then pumping the solutions to the surface where they are fed to a processing plant ( mill). Processing involves ion exchange and may also include precipitation, drying or calcining and packaging operations depending on facility specifics. This paper presents an overview of the ISR process and the health physics monitoring programs developed at a number of commercial scale ISL / ISR Uranium recovery and production facilities as a result of the radiological character of these processes. Although many radiological aspects of the process are similar to that of conventional mills, conventional-type tailings as such are not generated. However, liquid and solid byproduct materials may be generated and impounded. The quantity and radiological character of these by products are related to facility specifics. Some special monitoring considerations are presented which are required due to the manner in which radon gas is evolved in the process and the unique aspects of controlling solution flow patterns underground. The radiological character of these processes are described using empirical data collected from many operating facilities. Additionally, the major aspects of the health physics and radiation protection programs that were developed at these first generation facilities are discussed and contrasted to circumstances of the current generation and state of the art of uranium ISR technologies and facilities. In summary: This paper has presented an overview of in situ Uranium recovery processes and associated major radiological aspects and monitoring considerations. Admittedly, the purpose was to present an overview of those special health physics considerations dictated by the in situ Uranium recovery technology, to point out similarities and differences to conventional mill programs and to contrast these alkaline leach facilities to modern day ISR designs. As evidenced by the large number of ISR projects currently under development in the U.S. and worldwide, non conventional Uranium recovery techniques

  4. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, Charles R. (Scotia, NY); Gibson, Michael A. (Houston, TX); Knudsen, Christian W. (Houston, TX)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  5. Environmental Assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies across the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), for the proposed granting of DOE permission of offloading activities to support the movement Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies (SGSAs) across the Savannah River Site (SRS). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact. On the basis of the floodplain/wetlands assessment in the EA, DOE has determined that there is no practicable alternative to the proposed activities and that the proposed action has been designed to minimize potential harm to or within the floodplain of the SRS boat ramp. No wetlands on SRS would be affected by the proposed action.

  6. RELAP5-3D Modeling of Heat Transfer Components (Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Helical-Coil Steam Generator) for NGNP Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. A. Anderson; P. Sabharwall

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant project is aimed at the research and development of a helium-cooled high-temperature gas reactor that could generate both electricity and process heat for the production of hydrogen. The heat from the high-temperature primary loop must be transferred via an intermediate heat exchanger to a secondary loop. Using RELAP5-3D, a model was developed for two of the heat exchanger options a printed-circuit heat exchanger and a helical-coil steam generator. The RELAP5-3D models were used to simulate an exponential decrease in pressure over a 20 second period. The results of this loss of coolant analysis indicate that heat is initially transferred from the primary loop to the secondary loop, but after the decrease in pressure in the primary loop the heat is transferred from the secondary loop to the primary loop. A high-temperature gas reactor model should be developed and connected to the heat transfer component to simulate other transients.

  7. Renewable Energy 32 (2007) 12431257 Methane generation in landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dioxide. In his 2003 review of energy recovery from landfill gas, Willumsen [2,3] reported that as of 2001 followed by Germany and United Kingdom (Table 1). The capacity of most landfill gas-fuelled generators, close to Los Angeles California; the biogas is combusted in a steam boiler that powers a 50-MW turbine

  8. Evaluation on double-wall-tube residual stress distribution of sodium-heated steam generator by neutron diffraction and numerical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisohara, N. [Advanced Nuclear System Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Suzuki, H.; Akita, K. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Kasahara, N. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A double-wall-tube is nominated for the steam generator heat transfer tube of future sodium fast reactors (SFRs) in Japan, to decrease the possibility of sodium/water reaction. The double-wall-tube consists of an inner tube and an outer tube, and they are mechanically contacted to keep the heat transfer of the interface between the inner and outer tubes by their residual stress. During long term SG operation, the contact stress at the interface gradually falls down due to stress relaxation. This phenomenon might increase the thermal resistance of the interface and degrade the tube heat transfer performance. The contact stress relaxation can be predicted by numerical analysis, and the analysis requires the data of the initial residual stress distributions in the tubes. However, unclear initial residual stress distributions prevent precious relaxation evaluation. In order to resolve this issue, a neutron diffraction method was employed to reveal the tri-axial (radius, hoop and longitudinal) initial residual stress distributions in the double-wall-tube. Strain gauges also were used to evaluate the contact stress. The measurement results were analyzed using a JAEA's structural computer code to determine the initial residual stress distributions. Based on the stress distributions, the structural computer code has predicted the transition of the relaxation and the decrease of the contact stress. The radial and longitudinal temperature distributions in the tubes were input to the structural analysis model. Since the radial thermal expansion difference between the inner (colder) and outer (hotter) tube reduces the contact stress and the tube inside steam pressure contributes to increasing it, the analytical model also took these effects into consideration. It has been conduced that the inner and outer tubes are contacted with sufficient stresses during the plant life time, and that effective heat transfer degradation dose not occur in the double-wall-tube SG. (authors)

  9. Regenerative Heater Optimization for Steam Turbo-Generation Cycles of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants with a Comparison of Two Concepts for the Westinghouse International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, W.C.

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this study is to discuss some of the many factors involved in the development of the design and layout of a steam turbo-generation unit as part of a modular Generation IV nuclear power plant. Of the many factors involved in the design and layout, this research will cover feed water system layout and optimization issues. The research is arranged in hopes that it can be generalized to any Generation IV system which uses a steam powered turbo-generation unit. The research is done using the ORCENT-II heat balance codes and the Salisbury methodology to be reviewed herein. The Salisbury methodology is used on an original cycle design by Famiani for the Westinghouse IRIS and the effects due to parameter variation are studied. The vital parameters of the Salisbury methodology are the incremental heater surface capital cost (S) in $/ft{sup 2}, the value of incremental power (I) in $/kW, and the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) in Btu/ft{sup 2}-degrees Fahrenheit-hr. Each is varied in order to determine the effects on the cycles overall heat rate, output, as well as, the heater surface areas. The effects of each are shown. Then the methodology is then used to compare the optimized original Famiani design consisting of seven regenerative feedwater heaters with an optimized new cycle concept, INRC8, containing four regenerative heaters. The results are shown. It can be seen that a trade between the complexity of the seven stage regenerative Famiani cycle and the simplicity of the INRC8 cycle can be made. It is desired that this methodology can be used to show the ability to evaluate modularity through the value of size a complexity of the system as well as the performance. It also shows the effectiveness of the Salisbury methodology in the optimization of regenerative cycles for such an evaluation.

  10. Split stream boilers for high-temperature/high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, I.G. [Rice (I.G.), Spring, TX (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and development work on high-temperature and high-pressure (up to 1,500 F TIT and 4,500 psia) topping steam turbines and associated steam generators for steam power plants as well as combined cycle plants is being carried forward by DOE, EPRI, and independent companies. Aeroderivative gas turbines and heavy-duty gas turbines both will require exhaust gas supplementary firing to achieve high throttle temperatures. This paper presents an analysis and examples of a split stream boiler arrangement for high-temperature and high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles. A portion of the gas turbine exhaust flow is run in parallel with a conventional heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This side stream is supplementary fired opposed to the current practice of full exhaust flow firing. Chemical fuel gas recuperation can be incorporated in the side stream as an option. A significant combined cycle efficiency gain of 2 to 4 percentage points can be realized using this split stream approach. Calculations and graphs show how the DOE goal of 60 percent combined cycle efficiency burning natural gas fuel can be exceeded. The boiler concept is equally applicable to the integrated coal gas fuel combined cycle (IGCC).

  11. A study of steam injection in fractured media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dindoruk, M.D.S.; Aziz, K.; Brigham, W.; Castanier, L.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam injection is the most widely used thermal recovery technique for unfractured reservoirs containing heavy oil. There have been numerous studies on theoretical and experimental aspects of steam injection for such systems. Fractured reservoirs contain a large fraction of the world supply of oil, and field tests indicate that steam injection is feasible for such reservoirs. Unfortunately there has been little laboratory work done on steam injection in such systems. The experimental system in this work was designed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transfer of fluids and heat between matrix rocks and fractures under steam injection.

  12. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators...

  13. Recovery of strontium activity from a strontium-82/rubidium-82 generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sosnowski, Kenneth M. (Freehold Township, NJ)

    1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Strontium-82 is recovered from spent strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators to provide a source of strontium-82 for additional strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators. The process involves stripping of the strontium-82 from used strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators followed by purification of the strontium-82 material to remove additional metal contaminants to desired levels.

  14. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Terry

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance Supervisor (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Martin Bower Steam Plant Operator Richard Redfield Steam Plant Operator SU Steam Station/Chilled Water Plant Bohdan Sawa Steam Plant Operator Robert

  15. Power conversion unit studies for the next generation nuclear plant coupled to a high-temperature steam electrolysis facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barner, Robert Buckner

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold: 1) efficient low cost...

  16. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  17. CFD study of natural convection mixing in a steam generator mock-up: Comparison between full geometry and porous media approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehbi, A.; Badreddine, H. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5234 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In CFD simulations of flow mixing in a steam generator (SG) during natural circulation, one is faced with the problem of representing the thousands of SG U-tubes. Typically simplifications are made to render the problem computationally tractable. In particular, one or a number of tubes are lumped in one volume which is treated as a single porous medium. This approach dramatically reduces the computational size of the problem and hence simulation time. In this work, we endeavor to investigate the adequacy of this approach by performing two separate simulations of flow in a mock-up with 262 U-tubes, i.e. one in which the porous media model is used for the tube bundle, and another in which the full geometry is represented. In both simulations, the Reynolds Stress (RMS) model of turbulence is used. We show that in steady state conditions, the porous media treatment yields results which are comparable to those of the full geometry representation (temperature distribution, recirculation ratio, hot plume spread, etc). Hence, the porous media approach can be extended with a good degree of confidence to the full scale SG. (authors)

  18. Steam and Condensate Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency and profit. Some important factors to consider in steam and condensate systems are: 1) Proper steam pressure 2) Adequate sized steam lines 3) Adequate sized condensate return lines 4) Utilization of flash steam 5) Properly sized... ! can cause system inefficiency. i Adequate sized steam lines assure the process will be furnished with sufficiertt i quantities of steam at the proper pressure. Adequate sized condensate return lines are essential to overall efficiency. lhese...

  19. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R. A.

    flanges, control valves, steam turbines, manways, sections of piping, heads on vessels, etc. are uninsulated. If steam is in demand at the steam pressure level of the uninsulated piping and equipment, then the piping and equipment should be insulated... been developed, it is an excellent tool to identify the steam sources. Areas to first look for possible waste are steam turbines and steam let down stations. 161 ESL-IE-98-04-26 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology...

  20. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    opportunities. Often flanges, control valves, steam turbines, man ways, sections of piping, heads on vessels, etc. are bare and can significantly increase the steam demand. An insulation survey should be conducted of the steam, condensate... is being let down. Some projects are independent of the steam balance, such as eliminating high-pressure (HP) steam leaks, insulating HP steam piping, optimizing the boiler operation, and improving the performance of condensing turbines...

  1. Power conversion unit studies for the next generation nuclear plant coupled to a high-temperature steam electrolysis facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barner, Robert Buckner

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    -cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR), Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), Supercritical-water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) and the Very-high-temperature Reactor (VHTR). An international effort to develop these new... and the hydrogen production plant4,5. Davis et al. investigated the possibility of helium and molten salts in the IHTL2. The thermal efficiency of the power conversion unit is paramount to the success of this next generation technology. Current light water...

  2. Experimental investigation of caustic steam injection for heavy oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhavan, Rajiv

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study has been conducted to compare the effect of steam injection and caustic steam injection in improving the recovery of San Ardo and Duri heavy oils. A 67 cm long x 7.4 cm O.D (outer diameter), steel ...

  3. Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    2001-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.

  4. Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for electricity). The site generates steam for its process operation from 3 gas fired boilers at 525-psig pressure. The steam is consumed at 5 process areas; Acid, Basics, Crystals, Derivatives & Hydrogen plants. All of the process areas recover condensate inside...

  5. Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, D. R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits include the ability to identify areas of performance degradation during a turbine outage. Repair priorities can then be set...

  6. TRAVELING WAVES IN A FINITE CONDENSATION RATE MODEL FOR STEAM INJECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    TRAVELING WAVES IN A FINITE CONDENSATION RATE MODEL FOR STEAM INJECTION J. BRUINING AND C.J. VAN DUIJN Abstract. Steam drive recovery of oil is an economical way of producing oil even in times of low oil prices and is used world wide. This paper focuses on the one-dimensional setting, where steam

  7. Best Management Practice #8: Boiler and Steam Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  8. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment Maximizing electrical efficiency Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill Maximizing equipment uptime Minimizing water consumption Minimizing post-combustion emissions The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWhs of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  9. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data... that live steam loss is the heaviest contributor to the annual operating cost of any steam trap and that maintenance frequency and repair cost are also more important than a trap's first cost. INTRODUCTION Steam traps used on distribution line drip...

  10. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    years. The availability of this equipment in a packaged system form makes it feasible to replace pressure reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity...

  11. Steam System Optimization : A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.; Calogero, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the required levels for different consumers. ABC Plant utilizes steam in two ways: ? indirect use, returning the condensate after process heating, hot water generation and comfort heating. ? direct use in XXX moisturizers, XXX steamers, XXX water tanks...

  12. Steam condensate leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Midlock, E.B.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a multi-program research and development center owned by the United States Department of Energy and operated by the University of Chicago. The majority of the buildings on site use steam for heating and other purposes. Steam is generated from liquid water at the site`s central boiler house and distributed around the site by means of large pipes both above and below the ground. Steam comes into each building where it is converted to liquid condensate, giving off heat which can be used by the building. The condensate is then pumped back to the boiler house where it will be reheated to steam again. The process is continual but is not perfectly efficient. A substantial amount of condensate is being lost somewhere on site. The lost condensate has both economic and environmental significance. To compensate for lost condensate, makeup water must be added to the returned condensate at the boiler house. The water cost itself will become significant in the future when ANL begins purchasing Lake Michigan water. In addition to the water cost, there is also the cost of chemically treating the water to remove impurities, and there is the cost of energy required to heat the water, as it enters the boiler house 1000 F colder than the condensate return. It has been estimated that only approximately 60% of ANL`s steam is being returned as condensate, thus 40% is being wasted. This is quite costly to ANL and will become significantly more costly in the future when ANL begins purchasing water from Lake Michigan. This study locates where condensate loss is occurring and shows how much money would be saved by repairing the areas of loss. Shortly after completion of the study, one of the major areas of loss was repaired. This paper discusses the basis for the study, the areas where losses are occurring, the potential savings of repairing the losses, and a hypothesis as to where the unaccounted for loss is occurring.

  13. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on feedwater economizers for waste heat recovery provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Evaluating Packaged Steam Generator Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    the "nominal" values. 3.Furnace dimensions such as width,height and length have to be reviewed on a case to case basis due to different excess air levels and FGR rates. The flame shape will vary and hence a "standard" boiler will have problems... such as flame impingment on the furnace walls if the furnace dimensions are not reviewed by the burner supplier. Table 1 shows a simple study done comparing the effect of excess air and FGR on a given boiler of capcity 100,000 Iblh. Due to the increased gas...

  15. 1. Introduction The efficiency of steam turbines can be improved by in-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    1. Introduction The efficiency of steam turbines can be improved by in- creasing the maximum-efficiency power plant. 2. Turbines, Steam, Efficiency and Power Plant A power plant has a steam generator which the operating pressure is below about 22 MPa, in which case the steam is separated and passed on to the turbine

  16. Thermoelectric generators incorporating phase-change materials for waste heat recovery from engine exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meisner, Gregory P; Yang, Jihui

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric devices, intended for placement in the exhaust of a hydrocarbon fuelled combustion device and particularly suited for use in the exhaust gas stream of an internal combustion engine propelling a vehicle, are described. Exhaust gas passing through the device is in thermal communication with one side of a thermoelectric module while the other side of the thermoelectric module is in thermal communication with a lower temperature environment. The heat extracted from the exhaust gasses is converted to electrical energy by the thermoelectric module. The performance of the generator is enhanced by thermally coupling the hot and cold junctions of the thermoelectric modules to phase-change materials which transform at a temperature compatible with the preferred operating temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. In a second embodiment, a plurality of thermoelectric modules, each with a preferred operating temperature and each with a uniquely-matched phase-change material may be used to compensate for the progressive lowering of the exhaust gas temperature as it traverses the length of the exhaust pipe.

  17. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  18. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  19. A simulation study of steam and steam-propane injection using a novel smart horizontal producer to enhance oil production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoval Munoz, Jorge Eduardo

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , under steam injection, oil recovery is significantly higher with the novel vertical-smart horizontal well system (45.5-58.7% OOIP at 150-300 BPDCWE) compared to the vertical well system (33.6-32.2% OOIP at 150-300 BPDCWE). Second, oil recovery increases...

  20. Technology Adoption and Regulatory Regimes: Gas Turbines Electricity Generators from 1980 to 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishii, Jun

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unit despite the lower turbine cost for the MS7001FA stems from the additional cost of heat recovery steam

  1. Conversion of a black liquor recovery boiler to wood firing: A case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eleniewski, M.A. [Detroit Stoker Company, Monroe, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1983 a large integrated pulp and paper mill in southeastern United States retired an older chemical recovery boiler when it was replaced by a newer and larger unit as part of a mill expansion. At that time the mill was generating steam and power using wood waste, natural gas and black liquor, a common fuel mix for pulp mills. The retirement of the recovery boiler presented an opportunity for the mill and corporate engineering to evaluate various mixes of fuels for the mill.

  2. Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

  3. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  4. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  5. Development, construction, and use of pneumometric tubes for measurement of steam flow in the steam lines of PVG-1000 at NPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbunov, Yu. S.; Ageev, A. G.; Vasil'eva, R. V.; Korol'kov, B. M. [FGUP 'Elektrogorsk Scientific-Research Center for NPP Safety' (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for the direct measurement of steam flow in steam lines after a steam generator, which utilizes a special design of pneumometric tubes and a computing unit that accounts for variation in steam pressure, has been developed to improve the quality of water-level regulation in the steam generators of VVER-1000 power-generating units in the stationary and transitional modes. The advantage of the pneumometric tubes consists in their structural simplicity, high erosion resistance, and absence of irrevocable losses during measurement of steam flow. A similar measurement system is used at foreign NPP. The measurement system in question has been placed in experimental service at the No. 3 unit of the Balakovo NPP, and has demonstrated its worthiness. This measurement system can also be used to determine steam flow in the steam lines of NPP units with VVER-1000 and VVER-440 reactors, and PBMK-1000 power-generating units.

  6. SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G.

    tool to facilitate the process. SteamMaster is based on an Excel spreadsheet with a Visual Basic interface to simplify system modeling and analysis. SteamMaster has many features and capabilities, including energy and cost savings calculations for five...

  7. Steam Trap Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

    problemA of water hammer and high back pressure. ? Exorbitantly hi~h percentage of cold trapA. ? External steam leaks within the steam trap stations, bypasA valves and/or strainer blowdown valvefl open, blowin~ steam. ! I ? Dirt nssociated... Trapping 2 Trap Installed Backwards 1 Misapplication of Technology 1 Strainer Blowdown Connections Capped 285 (*b) Test Tee Connections Capped 11 Trap Inlet Connected to Steam Line Strainer Blowdown Connection 3 Water Logged Coils (Vacuum Present) 7...

  8. HP Steam Trap Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEAM MONITORING HP Steam Trap Monitoring HP Steam Trap Monitoring ? 12-18 months payback! ? 3-5% permanent reduction in consumption ? LEED Pt.? Innovation in Operations EB O&M ? Saved clients over $1,000,000 Annual consumption... Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real-time monitoring for high-pressure critical traps (>15 PSIG) ? Average total system cost $25K - $50K ? Web-Based or Modbus/BMS Integration Basic Installation Wireless Signal Transmitter Receiver Repeater...

  9. Crude Distillation Unit Heat Recovery Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, P.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to 426?F. There is no preheat of tower bottoms. All heat beyond the prefractionator comes from fired furnaces. But there is steam generation at 25 pounds pressure from hot oil and an approved project to generate ISO-pound steam from flue gas. Pipe Still... Sinks Sources Difference Disposition Sinks 110 (110) (213) Furnace Duty 400/690 430/720 255 152 (103) l50-Pound Steam Production 365/400 395/430 25 44 19 50-Pound Steam Production 300/365 330/395 47 80 33 29 25-Pound Steam...

  10. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite TE modules were...

  11. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. (TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg[sub evap] to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  12. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. [TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg{sub evap} to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  13. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    ELECTRICAL COST REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used... to replace pressure reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity for $0.01 to $.02 per kWh (based on current costs of gas and oil); system cost is between...

  14. EA-1769: Battleground Energy Recovery Project, Harris County, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide $1.94 million in cost-shared funding to the Houston Advanced Research Center for the Battleground Energy Recovery Project, which would produce 8 megawatts of electricity from high pressure steam generated by capturing heat that is currently lost at the Clean Harbors Deer Park facility. The proposed project was selected by the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to advance research and demonstration of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies.

  15. Steam System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R. A.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been developed, it is an excellent tool to identify the steam sources. Areas to first look for possible waste are steam turbines and steam let down stations. 161 ESL-IE-98-04-26 Proceedings from the Twentieth National Industrial Energy Technology... Conference, Houston, TX, April 22-23, 1998 The easiest solution to eliminating excess steam is to shut down steam turbines that exhaust into the header and start up the motor driven spare equipment. Often times this step will be enough to eliminate...

  16. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  17. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  18. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  19. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 C).

  20. September 2010 American Recovery and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    September 2010 i American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance U.S. Naval by applying GSHP systems. The current HVAC system for the building is a conventional Air Handling Unit (AHU) system with chiller. The heating and the DHW are provided by district steam. The building is close

  1. From Basic Control to Optimized Systems-Applying Digital Control Systems to Steam Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hockenbury, W. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation examines the application of Distributed Digital Controls in order to review the application of this recent control technology towards Steam Boilers in a step-by-step manner. The main purpose of a steam generating boiler...

  2. Reactivation of an idle lease to increase heavy oil recovery through application of conventional steam drive technology in a low dip slope and basin reservoir in the Midway-Sunset field, San Joaquin basin, California. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, S.

    1996-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will reactivate ARCO`s idle Pru Fee lease in the Midway-Sunset field, California and conduct a continuous steamflood enhanced oil recovery demonstration aided by an integration of modern reservoir characterization and simulation methods. The objectives of the project are: (1) to return the shut-in portion of the reservoir to commercial production; (2) to accurately describe the reservoir and recovery process; and (3) convey the details of this activity to the domestic petroleum industry, especially to other producers in California, through an aggressive technology transfer program. The producibility problems initially thought to be responsible for the low recovery in the Pru Fee property are: (a) the shallow dip of the bedding; (b) complex reservoir structure, (c) thinning pay zone; and (d) the presence of bottom water. The project is using tight integration of reservoir characterization and simulation modeling to evaluate the magnitude of and alternative solutions to these problems. Two main activities were brought to completion during the first quarter of 1996: (1) lithologic and petrophysical description of the core taken form the new well Pru 101 near the center of the demonstration site and (2) development of a stratigraphic model for the Pru Fee project area. In addition, the first phase of baseline cyclic steaming of the Pru Fee demonstration site was continued with production tests and formation temperature monitoring.

  3. POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Valves and Pi~ing STEAM TURBINE COMPONENT OUTAGE CAUSESthe gases exiting from the turbine generate steam todrive a steam turbine, giving rise to the term "com- on

  4. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  5. POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generate steam to drive a steam turbine, giving rise to theValves and Pi~ing STEAM TURBINE COMPONENT OUTAGE CAUSESbasically of a steam-driven turbine, an electric generator

  6. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  7. Design and installation of a condensate recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Grimethorpe Experimental Facility was designed to use steam from the Grimethorpe Power Station to drive the turbo-compressor during start-up. During this period, it was intended that steam produced in the Facility Steam/Water Circuit would be vented to atmosphere and the required condensate make-up would be supplied from storage tanks. The Condensate Recovery System (CRS) and its interconnection with the Facility is shown. The resulting changes of the thermodynamic conditions of the steam are shown. The system is capable of receiving the full output of the Steam/Water Circuit at design conditions of 440/sup 0/C, 30.3 bar abs.

  8. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    ," PREDICTING STEAM TURBINE PERFORMANCE James T. Harriz, EIT Waterland, Viar & Associates, Inc. Wilmington, Delaware ABSTRACT Tracking the performance of extraction, back pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part... energy) and test data are presented. Techniques for deriving efficiency curves from each source are described. These techniques can be applied directly to any steam turbine reliability study effort. INTRODUCTION As the cost of energy resources...

  9. Steam System Data Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam System Data Management What Does It Include Safety In Motion Wal?Tech?Valve,?Inc. 251?438?2203 The Real Genius Behind Technology Is People ESL-IE-13-05-35 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New... ? Fabrication Training (Six Year Training) ? Welding Certifications ?Retired From Chevron After 25 Years ? Established A Steam System Program ? Planner For Routine Maintenance Work ? Planner For Steam System Improvements ? Wal-Tech Valve, Inc. ? Purchased...

  10. Steam reforming analyzed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

  11. Downhole steam injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  12. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittals Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  13. Chemical filtration for steam purity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovalcik, F.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few industrial process systems are as vulnerable to corrosion as the steam generating loop of an electric power plant. Impurities inevitably migrate into the steam cycle, and must be removed to prevent turbine blade corrosion. It is critical to understand the behavior of the condensate polishing resins used to remove the impurities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) participated in investigations involving ion chromatography which identified chloride as a problem in studies of regeneration and polishing procedures. A modified regeneration procedure consists of ammonium sulfate treatment of the resin before and after ammonia recirculation, followed by a dilute ammonia rinse. A joint study with Southern California Edison also simulated condenser leaks to find the effect of cooling water intrusion.

  14. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  15. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike

    2002-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is not just to commercially produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production volumes and costs.

  16. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low-Dip Slope and Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, S.

    2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is not just to produce oil from the Pru Fee property, but rather to test which operational strategies best optimize total oil recovery at economically acceptable rates of production and production costs.

  17. Economics of high performance steam systems (HPSS) cogeneration: A handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook aims to farther industry's knowledge of HPSS and their potential benefits. It is also intended to provide industrial end-users with a basis for judging the merits of HPSS under various site-specific conditions by outlining the economics of HPSS and conventional cogeneration systems compared to boilers under representative sets of industrial process conditions. Electric utility companies have experimented with steam pressures in the range of 5,000 psig and temperatures up to 1,200[degrees]F, but generally have remained with more conservative throttle conditions of 2,400 psig, 1,000[degrees]F to improve reliability. Most industrial applications have used steam throttle conditions below 900 psig and 900[degrees]F. Yet thermodynamic analysis shows that in a steam turbine generator, the amount of electricity generated per pound of steam increases as the inlet steam temperature and pressure are increased. Furthermore, the incremental electricity that is generated by raising the steam temperature and pressure is produced in a highly efficient manner. Efforts in this direction explain why, recently, some industrial projects have been built with steam turbine inlet turbine conditions of 1,500 psig and above. The HPSS concept goes one step further: It is based on a high-temperature steam generator capable of producing 1,500[degrees]F superheated steam and a high-speed steam turbine-generator. By utilizing the HPSS system as a topping'' system, high-pressure steam can be expanded from 1,500[degrees]F to the traditional temperatures used by industry.

  18. Economics of high performance steam systems (HPSS) cogeneration: A handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook aims to farther industry`s knowledge of HPSS and their potential benefits. It is also intended to provide industrial end-users with a basis for judging the merits of HPSS under various site-specific conditions by outlining the economics of HPSS and conventional cogeneration systems compared to boilers under representative sets of industrial process conditions. Electric utility companies have experimented with steam pressures in the range of 5,000 psig and temperatures up to 1,200{degrees}F, but generally have remained with more conservative throttle conditions of 2,400 psig, 1,000{degrees}F to improve reliability. Most industrial applications have used steam throttle conditions below 900 psig and 900{degrees}F. Yet thermodynamic analysis shows that in a steam turbine generator, the amount of electricity generated per pound of steam increases as the inlet steam temperature and pressure are increased. Furthermore, the incremental electricity that is generated by raising the steam temperature and pressure is produced in a highly efficient manner. Efforts in this direction explain why, recently, some industrial projects have been built with steam turbine inlet turbine conditions of 1,500 psig and above. The HPSS concept goes one step further: It is based on a high-temperature steam generator capable of producing 1,500{degrees}F superheated steam and a high-speed steam turbine-generator. By utilizing the HPSS system as a ``topping`` system, high-pressure steam can be expanded from 1,500{degrees}F to the traditional temperatures used by industry.

  19. power generAtion College of Rural and Community Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartman, Chris

    to Power Generation: Maintenance.......4 PGEN F104--Gas and Steam Turbines; Co-Generation and Combined

  20. Hydrogen Generation for Refineries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single Cycle Shown for ATB SteamCarbon 3 * ATB reforming * Steamcarbon 3 * Syngas generated during reforming * 70% H 2 * 20% CO * Syngas composition agrees with...

  1. Simulation of the Bishop Steam Foam Pilot by T.W. Patzek and N.A. h4yhiil, Shell Development Co.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    ,.. SEW SPE 18786 Simulation of the Bishop Steam Foam Pilot by T.W. Patzek and N.A. h4yhiil, Shell a simple model of steam foam transport and apply it to the Shell Kern River Bishop pilot. The only an incremental 5.5 percent OOIP recovery due to steam foam and additional 3 percent OOIP due to infill wells

  2. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  3. Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

  4. A Steam Quality Comparison between Nanoshell-Mediated Solar Heating and Conventional Electrical Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GP-B-13 A Steam Quality Comparison between Nanoshell-Mediated Solar Heating in the Halas Group has led to the development of a novel, solar- based steam generation method using broadband. This a dramatic and highly non-equilibrium process. As such, investigating the properties of this steam

  5. A Case Study of Steam System Evaluation in a Petroleum Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Iordanova, N.

    fired boilers as well from Furnace and Kiln waste heat. Steam is also supplied from the CHP waste heat boilers. Steam generation averages 1,500,000 lbs/hr and does not change significantly between winter and summer since steam needs for process and power...

  6. From the hills to the mountain. [Oil recovery in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, J.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oil reserves at Elk Hills field, California, are listed as amounting to 835 million bbl. There is 12 times that amount lying in shallow sands in the San Joaquin Valley, although the oil is much heavier and requires more refining before use. Improved recovery techniques have enabled higher rates of recovery for heavy oil than in the past. Some of these techniques are described, including bottom-hole heating, steam injection, and oil mining. Bottom-hole heating alone raised recovery rates for heavy oil to 25%, and steam injection raised rates to 50%. It is predicted that oil mining may be able to accomplish 100% recovery of the heavy oil.

  7. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  8. Reactivation of an Idle Lease to Increase Heavy Oil Recovery through Application of Conventional Steam Drive Technology in a Low Dip Slope and Basin Reservoir in the Midway-Sunset Field, San Jaoquin Basin, California, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schamel, Steven; Deo, Milind; Deets, Mike; Olsen, Keven

    2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    During the initial phase of the project a multifaceted feasibility study was carried out to examine whether the pilot project could be justified technically and economically at this site. This study included: (1) Recompletion of 9 shut-in wells and drilling of a additional producer and a new temperature observation well. A core was taken from the reservoir interval in the new producer, Pru-101. The wells were produced by conventional cyclic steaming over a period of 15 months to establish a production baseline for the site, (2) Characterization of the stratigraphy and petrophysical properties of the Monarch Sand reservoir using existing well logs and analyses on samples in the core taken from Pru-101. The resulting data were used to develop a geostatistical model of the reservoir at the Pru Fee property and a specific reservoir simulator for the pilot test site on the property, and (3) Use of the reservoir simulator to test various steamflood and cyclic steaming production options leading to design of a production strategy for the pilot steamflood based on a four pattern, 9-spot array covering 8 ac near the center of the 40 ac Pru Fee property. The array chosen required drilling additional producers and injectors to supplement the existing wells recompleted in the initial phase of the project.

  9. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; N. M. Yanar

    2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials Performance in USC Steam: (1) pressure effects on steam oxidation - unique capability coming on-line; (2) hydrogen evolution - hydrogen permeability apparatus to determine where hydrogen goes during steam oxidation; and (3) NETL materials development - steam oxidation resource for NETL developed materials.

  10. Environmental assessment of a proposed steam flood of the Shallow Oil Zone, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy proposes to develop a limited enhanced oil recovery project in the Shallow Oil Zone at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) Elk Hills. The project would employ steam forced into the oil-bearing formation through injector wells, and would involve two phases. The initiation of the second phase would be dependent on the economic success of the first phase. The total project would require the drilling of 22 new wells in a 45-acre area supporting seven existing production wells. It would also require construction of various surface facilities including a tank setting (gas-oil separation system), steam generators, and a water treatment plant. Adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed steam flood project would include the effects on vegetation, wildlife and land-use resulting from the total reconfiguration of the topography within the project bondaries. Other adverse impacts include the emission of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and particulates from steam generators, vehicles and associated surface facilities. Minor adverse impacts include localized noise and dust during constuction, and reduction of visual quality. 48 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Predicting Steam Turbine Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harriz, J. T.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking the performance of extraction, back-pressure and condensing steam turbines is a crucial part of minimising energy and maintenance costs for large process industries. A thorough understanding of key equipment performance characteristics...

  12. The Economics of Back-Pressure Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Choroszylow, E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, back-pressure steam turbines have become the focal point in many cogeneration applications. This is a result of the savings in operating costs associated with the generation of electrical or mechanical power coincident with the economical...

  13. area steam line: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitchell, D. R. 4 Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems Renewable Energy Websites Summary: the focus of the solar collector, and then...

  14. The Economics of Back-Pressure Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Choroszylow, E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, back-pressure steam turbines have become the focal point in many cogeneration applications. This is a result of the savings in operating costs associated with the generation of electrical or mechanical power coincident with the economical...

  15. Industrial Heat Recovery with Organic Rankine Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hnat, J. G.; Patten, J. S.; Cutting, J. C.; Bartone, L. M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to examine a specific application of the use of an ORC heat recovery system and compare it to a stear), Rankine cycle heat recovery system. The particular application ~ssumed is heat recovery from diesel engine exhaust gas at a temPErature of 700F. Figure...,vaporized and superheated ina flue gas heat recovery su bsystem. he super heated fluid is expanded through a turbine for power p oduction, condensed in a water cooled condenser and return d to the vaporizer via feed pu mps. In the steam cycle, a port n of the Figure 1...

  16. Steam System Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchanan, M. G.; Sneary, M. L.

    energy into the air. You might say that many of us are increasing the relative humidity of our respective cities. Before a conventional pump package can handle steam condensate, that fluid must be cooled to somewhere below 180 0 ? This cooling... are increasing the relative humidity of our respective cities. Before a conventional pump package can handle steam condensate, that fluid must be cooled to somewhere below 180 0 . This cooling is accomplished by venting the receiver to the atmosphere...

  17. The probable source of certain spurious frequencies found in the output of a variable speed generating system using slip recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlin, P.W.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of US Department of Energy-sponsored research on wind energy, a Mod-O wind turbine was used to drive a variable-speed, wound-rotor, induction generator. Energy resulting from the slip frequency voltage in the generator rotor was rectified to dc, inverted back to utility frequency ac, and injected into the power line. Spurious changing frequencies displayed in the generator output by a spectrum analyzer are caused by ripple on the dc link. No resonances of any of these moving frequencies were seen in spite of the presence of a bank of power factor correcting capacitors. 5 figs.

  18. Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide Alternate Text Narratives and Graphic.............................................................................................................................6 Modules Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST)........................................................................................8 Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT

  19. "Greening" Industrial Steam Generation via On-demand Steam Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, J. P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both recent economic and environmental conditions in the U.S. have converged to bring about unprecedented attention to energy efficiency and sustainability in the country's industrial sector. Historically, energy costs in ...

  20. "Greening" Industrial Steam Generation via On-demand Steam Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, J. P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impact have not kept pace with other industrialized nations. The U.S. is confronted with looming tipping points with respect to energy supply and GHG emissions that represent very tangible constraints on future economic growth and quality of life. A...

  1. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution Losses Module 1 June 29, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Distribution System Losses Module Slide 1 pressure. #12;DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution

  2. Steam System Improvement: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

    of 50 psig flash steam, which will otherwise be supplied through the PRV. The net annual saving will be about $15,300. 8. Compressor Cooling Air Recovery to Supply Hot Air to the Hood of Paper Machine #5 The paper mill operates two instrument air... compressors. The capacity of each compressor is 14,500 cfm. The compressors are air-cooled, and the cooling air is ejected into the atmosphere. The heat contained in the compressor cooling air can be categorized as waste heat, because it has a temperature...

  3. Steam System Improvements at a Manufacturing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compher, J.; Morcom, B.

    BWX Technologies, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) is a manufacturing company with a steam system consisting of two Babcock & Wilcox boilers and approximately 350 steam traps. The steam system is used to produce and distribute steam for space...

  4. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Reduction in Unit Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gombos, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects...

  6. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N

  7. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby Machine Tool Lab Children's Center Rogers N S Estabrooke Memorial Gym Stevens

  8. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  9. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  10. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Gym Lot Corbett Lot Greenhouse Patch Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam

  11. Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Andrew

    2 2A 2A Belgrade Lot Steam Plant Lot Alfond Lot Satellite Lot North Gym Lot Corbett Lot Dunn Lot Oceanographic Operations 1 2 8 5 3 4 7 6 AMC Chadbourne Merrill Aubert Hannibal Hamlin Steam Plant Crosby

  12. Steam Condensation Induced Waterhammer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirsner, W.

    ,200 foot steam line to begin wanning it up. He'd been energizing the G-line for 3 weeks now at the end ofthe asbestos worker's shift and had never had the system warm up this quickly. It usually took from 30 to 45 minutes. When the handwheel spun... at Fort Wainwright, Alaska, the G and H Lines ran underground in narrow utilidors 2 filled with pipe. Originally, the contractor had tried to abate the steam main with the lines energized. This proved to be near impossible for the workers. Utilidor...

  13. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  14. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  15. The Economics of Steam Vs. Electric Pipe Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, R. E.

    : ? Steam tracer ? Valves I ? Strainer ? Traps ? O1eck valves I I The heat generated by steam tracing d Ipends on the design capacity of the tracer. The racer is usually 3/8 or 112 inch copper or sta nless pipe or tUbing. Because it is not practic 1... its capacity requir ments before its heat output can be calculated. Valves, which are rated for steam s rvice used, need to be installed so that trap and strainers can be isolated for maintenance. Strainers should be provided with bl wdown...

  16. Steam Plant, 6% Irrigation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Pei

    Steam Plant, 6% School of Medicine, 17% Irrigation, 3% Hospital, 22% Athletics, 2% Housing, 5 Rainwater Cisterns Reducing the number of once through cooling systems in labs Expediting the connection for Irrigation ~15 million gallons Percent of Water Used for Irrigation that is Non-Potable ~10-15% Number

  17. ORNL provided a feasibility evaluation of EPA's plans to route purchased steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    engines, microturbines, steam turbines, fuel cells CHP waste-heat-activated technologies -- generation3/23/09 ORNL provided a feasibility evaluation of EPA's plans to route purchased steam to produce projects. The team's expertise covers: CHP power generation technologies -- turbines, internal combustion

  18. ORNL provided a feasibility evaluation of EPA's plans to route purchased steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    engines, microturbines, steam turbines, fuel cells CHP waste-heat-activated technologies -- generation3/20/09 ORNL provided a feasibility evaluation of EPA's plans to route purchased steam to produce projects. The team's expertise covers: CHP power generation technologies -- turbines, internal combustion

  19. How to Put the Dollar Value on Waste Heat Recovery in the Process Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campagne, W. V. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste heat recovery projects should be evaluated on their actual fuel savings and not on Btu recovery. By equating waste heat recovery with potential steam savings, the fuel (or dollar) values of the waste heat as function of its temperature can...

  20. How to Put the Dollar Value on Waste Heat Recovery in the Process Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campagne, W. V. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste heat recovery projects should be evaluated on their actual fuel savings and not on Btu recovery. By equating waste heat recovery with potential steam savings, the fuel (or dollar) values of the waste heat as function of its temperature can...

  1. Turbine Steam Path Audits for Improved Performance and Profitability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babson, P. E.

    TURBINE STEAM PATH AUDITS FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AND PROFITABILITY PAUL E. BABSON, DIRECTOR, BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT, ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT This paper describes the use and value of conducting steam path audits... in turbines. Critical measurements and observations made during overhaul identify and quantify the effects of component degradations upon turbine performance as compared to design conditions. The information generated permits performance oriented repair...

  2. Task 1Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (AUSC) steam turbine is high enough (760C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre . A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

  3. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  4. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Kobsa, Irvin R. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  5. Steam Trap Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equipment Collecting leg, same size as equip ment connection but not less than Install a Yarway Process Trap below be drained. Install a Provide vacuum strainer with a blow down valve. Use and Yarway Aldrain valves full ported stop valves, (gate... and Corrosion Problems Like any critical control device the steam trap should be protected from dirt and scale if optimum operation and adequate service life are to be attained. Strainers should be equipped with blowdown valves to provide an effective...

  6. Experimental investigation of caustic steam injection for heavy oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhavan, Rajiv

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview Heavy oil is a part of the unconventional petroleum reserve. Heavy oil does not flow very easily and is classified as heavy because of its high specific gravity. With increasing demand for oil and with depleting... and success of the sodium carbonate and sodium silicate floods respectively. (5) Attainment of very low interfacial tension does not ensure improved oil recovery but a minimum value is necessary for a successful steam alkaline flood. Tiab, Okoye...

  7. Supplement Analysis for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory -- Recovery and Storage of Strontium-90 Fueled Radioisotope Thermal Electric Generators at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This Supplement Analysis (SA) has been prepared to determine if the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS) (DOE/EIS-0238) adequately addresses the environmental effects of recovery and storage for disposal of six strontium-90 (Sr-90) fueled radioisotope thermal electric generators (RTGs) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area (TA)-54, Area G, or if the SWEIS needs to be supplemented. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) proposed to recover and store six Sr-90 RTGs from the commercial sector as part of its Offsite-Source Recovery Project (OSRP). The OSRP focuses on the proactive recovery and storage of unwanted radioactive sealed sources exceeding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits for Class C low-level waste (also known as Greater than Class C waste, or GTCC). In response to the events of September 11, 2001, NRC conducted a risk-based evaluation of potential vulnerabilities to terrorist threats involving NRC-licensed nuclear facilities and materials. NRC's evaluation concluded that possession of unwanted radioactive sealed sources with no disposal outlet presents a potential vulnerability (NRC 2002). In a November 25, 2003 letter to the manager of the NNSA's Los Alamos Site Office, the NRC Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response identified recovery of several Sr-90 RTGs as the highest priority and requested that DOE take whatever actions necessary to recovery these sources as soon as possible. This SA specifically compares key impact assessment parameters of this proposal to the offsite source recovery program evaluated in the SWEIS and a subsequent SA that evaluated a change to the approach of a portion of the recovery program. It also provides an explanation of any differences between the Proposed Action and activities described in the previous SWEIS and SA analyses.

  8. Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been great advances in boiler control technology as older pneumatic and analog electronic control systems have given way to digital, computer-based distributed control systems. These systems are more reliable and can extend boiler life. Modem... Several software tools are now available for individual steam technologies, such as steam traps, insulation, and boiler controls. The Partnership should investigate linking these software tools together and incorporating other steam "modules" (i...

  9. Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-169 Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam- Water Relative Permeability Peter A. O by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative

  10. FLASH predictions of the MB-2 steam line break tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, F.W.; Coffield, R.D.; Johnson, E.G.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    If a main steam line from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator were to rupture, the effect would be a depressurization of the secondary side and a consequential overcooling transient on the primary side. Analyses must accurately predict the effects of the rapid cooldown of the reactor vessel coolant on positive nuclear-kinetic reactivity feedback to the core plus thermal shock to the reactor vessel and other primary system components. Many early studies of the steam line break (SLB) transient made extremely conservative assumptions to maximize the primary to secondary heat transfer which in turn maximized the reactor vessel cooldown rate. Among the more significant of these assumptions was that flow from the break was pure steam and that the tube bundle remained covered until the secondary mass inventory was significantly reduced. The Model F commercial PWR steam generator testing performed in the Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) facility located at the Westinghouse Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida provided data to better qualify the actual variation in these key parameters. A conclusion of this analysis is that the MB-2 steam line break data base is accurate and of sufficient detail to provide a valuable basis for making comparisons relative to code predictions. Results obtained using the FLASH transient safety analysis code were found to be in excellent agreement with the data.

  11. Alloys for advanced steam turbines--Oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. Current research on the oxidation of candidate materials for advanced steam turbines is presented with a focus on a methodology for estimating chromium evaporation rates from protective chromia scales. The high velocities and pressures of advanced steam turbines lead to evaporation predictions as high as 5 10-8 kg m-2s-1 of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.077 mm per year of solid Cr loss.

  12. Steam generator with integral downdraft dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochmuth, F.W.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On June 30, 1989, a financial assistance award was granted by the United State Department of Energy, the purpose of which was to study and evaluate the technical aspect, the economic viability, and commercial possibilities of a new furnace design for burning high moisture cellulose type fuels. The new design is an invention by F.W. Hochmuth, P.Eng. and has received United States Patents Nos. 4,480, 557 and 4,502,397. It was conceived as a method to improve the general operation and efficiency of waste wood burning boilers, to avoid the use of stabilizing fuels such as oil or gas, and to reduce objectionable stack emissions. A further objective was to obtain such benefits at relatively low cost by integrating all new material requirements within the furnace itself thereby avoiding the need for costly external equipment. The proposed integral down-draft dryer avoids the use of external dryer systems that are very expensive, have high power consumption, and require a large amount of maintenance. This document provides the details of this invention.

  13. Steelcase's Closed-Loop Energy Recovery System Results in $250,000 Savings Annually

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wege, P. M.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steelcase Inc. put a closed-loop energy recovery system into operation in August, 1980, with the installation of a $1.1 million waste incinerator. The system provides steam for process applications in the company's main complex. Processable waste...

  14. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Charles T. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  15. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  16. Steam System Improvement: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

    . For industries, this will result in the reduction of production cost. In industry where steam is utilized, the steam production and distribution system consumes a significant portion of energy. Therefore, optimization of steam system is among the biggest energy...

  17. Experimental studies of steam and steam-propane injection using a novel smart horizontal producer to enhance oil production in the San Ardo field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivero Diaz, Jose Antonio

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    is the use of propane as a steam additive with the purpose of increasing recovery and accelerating oil production. The second process involves the use of a novel production configuration that makes use of a vertical injector and a smart horizontal producer...

  18. Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High-Power High-efficiency Waste Heat Recovery for Electricity Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-dimension, high-ZT BiTe and Pb-based nanocomposites produced with a low-cost scalable process were used for development and testing of TE module prototypes, and demonstration of a waste heat recovery system

  19. Steam System Survey Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideosSpringoutAPBF-DEC NOxBestPractices SteamOffice of1/263

  20. Faces of the Recovery Act: Sun Catalytix

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dan Nocera talks about Sun Catalytix, the next generation of solar energy, and ARPA-E funding through the Recovery Act.

  1. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    imaging as well as next-generation oxygen-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy Microfluidics manipulation and manufacturing. Learn more detail about Recovery Act Instruments...

  2. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct...

  3. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...

  4. Steam vacuum cleaning. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The baseline technology currently used for washing debris is a high-pressure water cleaning (HPWC) system. The system used at the FEMP is the Hotsy{reg_sign} Model 550B HPWC. Although the HPWC technology has functioned satisfactorily, improvements are being sought in areas related to reduced liquid waste volume, increased productivity, increased washing effectiveness, and decreased airborne contamination. An innovative technology that offers potential improvements in these areas is a steam vacuum cleaning (SVC) system that integrates high-pressure steam cleaning with a vacuum recovery sub-system that simultaneously collects dislodged contaminants thereby reducing airborne contamination. The SVC system selected for demonstration at the FEMP was the Kelly{trademark} Decontamination System shown. This report provides comparative performance and cost analyses between the Hotsy HPWC system and the Kelly Decontamination System. Both technologies were demonstrated at the FEMP site located at Fernald, Ohio from July 29, 1996 through August 15, 1996. The demonstrations were conducted at the FEMP Plant 1 as part of the LSTD project sponsored by the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the US DOE`s Office of Science and Technology.

  5. Analysis of Steam Heating of a Two-Layer TBP/N-Paraffin/Nitric Acid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, J.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hassan, N.M.; Rudisill, T.S.; Askew, N.M.

    1998-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an analysis of steam heating of a two-layer tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin-nitric acid mixture.The purpose of this study is to determine if the degree of mixing provided by the steam jet or by bubbles generated by the TBP/nitric acid reaction is sufficient to prevent a runaway reaction.

  6. Steam Oxidation of Fossil Power Plant Materials: Collaborative Research to Enable Advanced Steam Power Cycles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    A. T. Fry; I. G Wright; N. J Simms; B. McGhee; G. R. Holcomb

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Research into improved materials systems and associated manufacturing and reliability issues is a major part of initiatives to produce cleaner and cheaper energy systems in the UK and the USA. Under the auspices of a Memorandum of Understanding on Energy R&D, a work programme concerned with steam oxidation has been conducted. The focus was on the generation of definitive information regarding the oxidation behaviour in steam of current and developmental ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickelbased alloys required to enable advanced steam power cycles. The results were intended to provide a basis for quantifying the rate of metal loss expected under advanced steam cycle conditions, as well as understanding of the evolution of oxide scale morphologies with time and temperature to identify features that could influence scale exfoliation characteristics. This understanding and acquired data were used to develop and validate models of oxide growth and loss by exfoliation. This paper provides an overview of the activity and highlights a selection of the results coming from the programme.

  7. Recovery Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recovery Act and Energy Department programs were designed to stimulate the economy while creating new power sources, conserving resources and aligning the nation to once again lead the global energy economy.

  8. Improving heat capture for power generation in coal gasification plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botros, Barbara Brenda

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving the steam cycle design to maximize power generation is demonstrated using pinch analysis targeting techniques. Previous work models the steam pressure level in composite curves based on its saturation temperature ...

  9. Co-Generation at a Practical Plant Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feuell, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Steam Turbine: A basic description of how a steam turbine converts available heat into mechanical energy to define the formulae used for the cost comparisons in the subsequent examples. Co-Generation: Comparison between condensing cycle...

  10. Co-Generation at a Practical Plant Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feuell, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Steam Turbine: A basic description of how a steam turbine converts available heat into mechanical energy to define the formulae used for the cost comparisons in the subsequent examples. Co-Generation: Comparison between condensing cycle...

  11. Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the 2011 Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, Louisiana, May 17-19, 2011 13. Is there never enough time or resource to periodically blow down strainers / drip pockets? 14. Is there a ?one size fits all? approach towards steam trap... selection; using the same model for all drip and tracer applications? 15. Does the site remove strainer screens from steam traps to prevent blockage? 16. Is at least the same amount of steam produced today as 4 years ago? 17. In the past 3 years, has...

  12. Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  13. Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Discusses progress...

  14. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery...

  15. Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery applications Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery applications Model...

  16. Energy Savings By Recovery of Condensate From Steam Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, W. S.; Zhi, C. S.

    eva cuation valve. With such combined bleed valve 'is normally not necessary. However, if the production is not to be stopped at any moment, a bypass valve is necessary for maintenance of the bleed valve. 5. Determination of Condensate Pipe...

  17. Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyun, T.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization IETC 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana Tope Iyun ExxonMobil Chemical Company May 22, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-32 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20... were generated by or on behalf of ExxonMobil Chemical Company. Legal Disclosures 2014 ExxonMobil. To the extent the user is entitled to disclose and distribute this document, the user may forward, distribute, and/or photocopy this copyrighted...

  18. The value of steam turbine upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, K.; Olear, D.; [General Physics Corp. (United States)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

  19. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12; Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12; UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  20. Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

  1. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Welcome Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Welcome Module Slide 1 Steam End User Training Welcome to the Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program BestPractices Steam End-User Training. The Department of Energy

  2. Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.

    The Alliance to Save Energy, a national nonprofit organization based in Washington DC, and the U.S. Department of Energy are working with energy efficiency suppliers to promote the comprehensive upgrade of industrial steam systems. Like EPA's Green...

  3. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

    1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  4. Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandler, T.

    & challenges in steam cracking ? Energy efficiency improvements Overview Baytown Olefins Plant Page 3 Baytown Complex ?One of world?s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes ?~3,400 acres along Houston Ship... wall temperatures Furnace tube hydrocarbon + steam 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1 2 time C o k e l a y e r Page 8 Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Efficiency ? Overall energy efficiency of furnace depends on ? Run length or % of time...

  5. EA-1741: Seattle Steam Company Combined Heat and Power at Post Street in Downtown Seattle, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide an American Recovery Act and Reinvestment Act of 2009 financial assistance grant to Seattle Steam Company to facilitate the installation of a combined heat and power plant in downtown Seattle, Washington. NOTE: This Project has been cancelled.

  6. Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Barufet, Maria

    2002-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibrium diagrams, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

  7. Transport and Phase Equilibria Properties for Steam Flooding of Heavy Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Barrufet, Maria

    2001-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research included experimental determination and rigorous modeling and computation of phase equilibria, volumetric, and transport properties of hydrocarbon/CO2/water mixtures at pressures and temperatures typical of steam injection processes for thermal recovery of heavy oils.

  8. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkina, N. V. [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Zheleznyak, I. V. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation); Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G., E-mail: orlikvg@mail.ru [JSC 'NPO TsKTI' (Russian Federation); Shishkin, V. I. [Leningradskaya AES branch of JSC 'Kontsern Rosenergoatom' (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  9. Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and...

  10. Task 1: Steam Oxidation,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. G. Wright and G. R. Holcomb

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Need to improve efficiency, decrease emissions (esp. CO2) associated with the continued use of coal for power generation

  11. Development of Technologies on Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (12) Evaluations of Spatial Distributions of Flow and Heat Transfer in Steam Injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yutaka Abe; Yujiro Kawamoto [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Chikako Iwaki [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Tadashi Narabayashi [Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo (Japan); Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Next-generation nuclear reactor systems have been under development aiming at simplified system and improvement of safety and credibility. One of the innovative technologies is the supersonic steam injector, which has been investigated as one of the most important component of the next-generation nuclear reactor. The steam injector has functions of a passive pump without large motor or turbo-machinery and a high efficiency heat exchanger. The performances of the supersonic steam injector as a pump and a heat exchanger are dependent on direct contact condensation phenomena between a supersonic steam and a sub-cooled water jet. In previous studies of the steam injector, there are studies about the operating characteristics of steam injector and about the direct contact condensation between static water pool and steam in atmosphere. However, there is a little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under the great shear stress. In order to examine the heat transfer and flow behavior in supersonic steam injector, it is necessary to measure the spatial temperature distribution and velocity in detail. The present study, visible transparent supersonic steam injector is used to obtain the axial pressure distributions in the supersonic steam injector, as well as high speed visual observation of water jet and steam interface. The experiments are conducted with and without non-condensable gas. The experimental results of the interfacial flow behavior between steam and water jet are obtained. It is experimentally clarified that an entrainment exists on the water jet surface. It is also clarified that discharge pressure is depended on the steam supply pressure, the inlet water flow rate, the throat diameter and non-condensable flow rate. Finally a heat flux is estimated about 19 MW/m{sup 2} without non-condensable gas condition in steam. (authors)

  12. Optimizing Steam and Condensate Systems: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Grillo, R.; Bockwinkel, R. G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . This site has two sections of process units with tank farms located in between them. The refinery uses its own process off-gases and purchases additional natural gas to fire its Boilers and process heaters. Steam is also generated from the exhaust gases...

  13. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: The potential for energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Consonni, Stefano [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milan (Italy); LEAP - Laboratorio Energia Ambiente Piacenza, Via Bixio 27, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Vigano, Federico, E-mail: federico.vigano@polimi.it [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milan (Italy); LEAP -Laboratorio Energia Ambiente Piacenza, Via Bixio 27, 29100 Piacenza (Italy)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > The amount of waste available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW). > Its energy potential is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). > Increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery. > Variations in the composition of the waste fed to WtE plants affect only marginally their performances. > A large WtE plant with a treatment capacity some times higher than a small plant achieves electric efficiency appreciably higher. - Abstract: This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on 'Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)'. An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental outcome. Given the well-known dependence of the efficiency of steam power plants with their power output, the efficiency of energy recovery crucially depends on the size of the IWMS served by the WtE plant. A fivefold increase of the amount of gross waste handled in the IWMS (from 150,000 to 750,000 tons per year of gross waste) allows increasing the electric efficiencies of the WtE plant by about 6-7 percentage points (from 21-23% to 28.5% circa).

  14. Recovery Act: State Assistance for Recovery Act Related Electricity...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Information Center Recovery Act Recovery Act: State Assistance for Recovery Act Related Electricity Policies Recovery Act: State Assistance for Recovery Act Related...

  15. Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R. [US DOE, Albany, OR (United States)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  16. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energys goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  17. Computer Optimization of Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, C. H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As fuel costs continued to rise sharply during the 1970' s, the staff at Exxon's Benicia Refinery realized there was a growing economic incentive to optimize the production of high pressure steam. A significant percentage of the Refinery's total...

  18. Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

  19. Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

    The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

  20. Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34...

  1. Steam System Forecasting and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mongrue, D. M.; Wittke, D. O.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    '. This and the complex and integrated nature of the plants energy balance makes steam system forecasting and management essential for optimum use of the plant's energy. This paper discusses the method used by Union carbide to accomplish effective forecasting...

  2. Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Susan Nicole

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    of the surge line and steam generator tubes. Currently no satisfactory mechanistic ooding models exist yet, so current safety analysis codes employ empirical correlations to predict ooding. With their default ooding models, the SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP...

  3. Turbine Drive Gas Generator for Zero Emission Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, Stephen E.; Anderson, Roger E.

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Vision 21 Program seeks technology development that can reduce energy costs, reduce or eliminate atmospheric pollutants from power plants, provide choices of alternative fuels, and increase the efficiency of generating systems. Clean Energy Systems is developing a gas generator to replace the traditional boiler in steam driven power systems. The gas generator offers the prospects of lower electrical costs, pollution free plant operations, choices of alternative fuels, and eventual net plant efficiencies in excess of 60% with sequestration of carbon dioxide. The technology underlying the gas generator has been developed in the aerospace industry over the past 30 years and is mature in aerospace applications, but it is as yet unused in the power industry. This project modifies and repackages aerospace gas generator technology for power generation applications. The purposes of this project are: (1) design a 10 MW gas generator and ancillary hardware, (2) fabricate the gas generator and supporting equipment, (3) test the gas generator using methane as fuel, (4) submit a final report describing the project and test results. The principal test objectives are: (1) define start-up, shut down and post shutdown control sequences for safe, efficient operation; (2) demonstrate the production of turbine drive gas comprising steam and carbon dioxide in the temperature range 1500 F to 3000 F, at a nominal pressure of 1500 psia; (3) measure and verify the constituents of the drive gas; and (4) examine the critical hardware components for indications of life limitations. The 21 month program is in its 13th month. Design work is completed and fabrication is in process. The gas generator igniter is a torch igniter with sparkplug, which is currently under-going hot fire testing. Fabrication of the injector and body of the gas generator is expected to be completed by year-end, and testing of the full gas generator will begin in early 2002. Several months of testing are anticipated. When demonstrated, this gas generator will be the prototype for use in demonstration power plants planned to be built in Antioch, California and in southern California during 2002. In these plants the gas generator will demonstrate durability and its operational RAM characteristics. In 2003, it is expected that the gas generator will be employed in new operating plants primarily in clean air non-attainment areas, and in possible locations to provide large quantities of high quality carbon dioxide for use in enhanced oil recovery or coal bed methane recovery. Coupled with an emission free coal gasification system, the CES gas generator would enable the operation of high efficiency, non-polluting coal-fueled power plants.

  4. Method for cutting steam heat losses during cyclic steam injection of wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondouin, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy Oil is abundant in California. It is a very viscous fluid, which must be thinned in order to flow from wells at economical rates. The best method of oil viscosity reduction is by cyclic steam injection into the oil-containing rock formations. Making steam in conventional generators fueled with Natural Gas is, however, a costly process. The main objective of this Project is to reduce the cost of the required steam, per Barrel of Oil produced. This is made possible by a combination of Patented new technologies with several known methods. The best known method for increasing the production rate from oil wells is to use horizontal drainholes, which provide a much greater flow area from the oil zone into the well. A recent statistic based on 344 horizontal wells in 21 Canadian Oil fields containing Heavy Oil shows that these are, on the average six times more prolific than vertical wells. The cost of horizontal wells, however, is generally two to three times that of a vertical well, in the same field, so our second goal is to reduce the net cost of horizontal wells by connecting two of them to the same vertical casing, well head and pumping system. With such a well configuration, it is possible to get two horizontal wells for the price of about one and a half times the price of a single vertical well.

  5. Fluidized Bed Steam Reformed (FBSR) Mineral Waste Forms: Characterization and Durability Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Lorier, Troy H.; Pareizs, John M.; Marra, James C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC, 29803 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a mineralizing technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of wastes that are high in organics, nitrates-nitrites, halides, and/or sulfates. These wastes include the decontaminated High Level Waste (HLW) supernates referred to as low activity waste (LAW) at Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the United States and waste streams that may be generated by the advanced nuclear fuel cycle flowsheets that are being considered by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. The organics are pyrolyzed into CO{sub 2} and steam in the absence of air. The FBSR mineral waste form is a granular but can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals (sodalite, nosean, and nepheline) with cage and ring structures that sequester radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. Iron bearing spinel minerals are also formed and these phases stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Dissolution rates ({eta}) and activation energies of dissolution are parameters needed for Performance Assessments (PA) to be completed on the FBSR mineral waste form. These parameters are defined in this study by Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) testing. The dissolution rate ({eta}) and the activation energies for dissolution calculated in this study agree with the available rate and activation energy data for natural single crystal nepheline. (authors)

  6. Demonstration of Energy Efficient Steam Reforming in Microchannels for Automotive Fuel Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whyatt, Greg A.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Geeting, John GH; Davis, James M.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, energy efficient microchannel steam reforming system has been demonstrated. The unit generates sufficient reformate to provide H2 to a 10 kWe PEM fuel cell (when coupled with a water-gas shift and CO cleanup reactors). The overall volume of the reactor is 4.9 liters while that of the supporting network of heat exchangers is 1.7 liters . Use of a microchannel configuration in the steam reforming reactor produces rapid heat and mass transport which enables fast kinetics for the highly endothermic reaction. Heat is provided to the reactor by a combustion gas flowing in interleaved microchannels in cross flow with the reaction channels. A network of microchannel heat exchangers allows recovery of heat in the reformate product and combustion exhaust streams for use in vaporizing water and fuel, preheating reactants to reactor temperature and preheating combustion air. The microchannel architecture enables very compact and highly effective heat exchangers to be constructed. As a result of the heat exchange network, the system exhaust temperatures are typically ~50?C for the combustion gas and ~130?C for the reformate product while the reactor is operated at 750?C. While reforming isooctane at a rate sufficient to supply a 13.7 kWe fuel cell the system achieved 98.6% conversion with an estimated overall system efficiency after integration with WGS and PEM fuel cell of 44% (electrical output / LHV fuel). The efficiency estimate assumes integration with a WGS reactor (90% conversion CO to CO2 with 100% selectivity) and a PEM fuel cell (64% power conversion effectiveness with 85% H2 utilization for an overall 54% efficiency) and does not include parasitic losses for compression of combustion air. Acknowledgement The work described here was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technology as part of the OTT Fuel Cells Program.

  7. Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Sohn, Myoung S.; Suh, Kune Y. [PHILOSOPHIA, Inc., Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

  8. Thermal processes for heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, A.K.; Sarathi, P.S.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This status report summarizes the project BE11B (Thermal Processes for Heavy Oil Recovery) research activities conducted in FY93 and completes milestone 7 of this project. A major portion of project research during FY93 was concentrated on modeling and reservoir studies to determine the applicability of steam injection oil recovery techniques in Texas Gulf Coast heavy oil reservoirs. In addition, an in-depth evaluation of a steamflood predictive model developed by Mobil Exploration and Production Co. (Mobil E&P) was performed. Details of these two studies are presented. A topical report (NIPER-675) assessing the NIPER Thermal EOR Research Program over the past 10 years was also written during this fiscal year and delivered to DOE. Results of the Gulf Coast heavy oil reservoir simulation studies indicated that though these reservoirs can be successfully steamflooded and could recover more than 50% of oil-in-place, steamflooding may not be economical at current heavy oil prices. Assessment of Mobil E&P`s steamflood predictive model capabilities indicate that the model in its present form gives reasonably good predictions of California steam projects, but fails to predict adequately the performance of non-California steam projects.

  9. Humidification Steam vs. Water-Spray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gidwani, B. N.; Weston, R. F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently the HVAC systems which require winter humidification at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) utilize an economizer cycle with steam as the source for humidification. Due to the continuously increasing cost of producing steam, a feasibility...

  10. Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    This paper examines several cost-effective steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed central steam boiler plant replacement project at a very large semiconductor manufacturing...

  11. Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the plant and introduce the history of efficiency improvements for compressors and steam turbines in the Petrochemical Industry. Since heat balance configurations affect the plant's steam consumption, the authors will explain several cases of heat balance...

  12. Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the plant and introduce the history of efficiency improvements for compressors and steam turbines in the Petrochemical Industry. Since heat balance configurations affect the plant's steam consumption, the authors will explain several cases of heat balance...

  13. Training: Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Steam Systems Training: Steam Systems April 16, 2014 - 6:31pm Addthis Learn about the diverse training sessions offered. The courses are taught by highly qualified instructors who...

  14. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Navigational Tutorial - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Navigational Tutorial Module Slide 1 Introduction Hello, and welcome to the Steam End User Training. I would like to take a few minutes to show you how to navigate through

  15. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Introduction Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Introduction Module Slide 1 - Introduction Title Page Hello, and welcome to the Steam System End User training. In this training, we will investigate how to assess, evaluate

  16. Identifying Steam Opportunity "Impact" Inputs for the Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrell, G.; Jendrucko, R.; Wright, A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. DOE BestPractices Steam "Steam System Assessment Tool" (SSAT) is a powerful tool for quantifying potential steam improvement opportunities in steam systems. However, all assessment tools are only as good as the validity of the modeling...

  17. Optimisation of Fuel Usage and Steam Availability in the Power and Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    the medium pressure manifold (nominally operated at 14 bar), through a steam turbine that can be usedOptimisation of Fuel Usage and Steam Availability in the Power and Steam Plant of a Paper Mill KEYWORDS: Model Predictive Control, Improved Efficiency, Optimisation, Power and Steam Supply System

  18. An Energy Signature Scheme for Steam Trap Assessment and Flow Rate Estimation Using Pipe-Induced Acoustic Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Lake, Joe E [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Congress has passed legislation dictating that all government agencies establish a plan and process for improving energy efficiencies at their sites. In response to this legislation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently conducted a pilot study to explore the deployment of a wireless sensor system for a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework within the steam distribution system within the ORNL campus. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by observing the state measurements of acoustic sensors mounted on the steam pipes/traps/valves. In this paper, we describe a spectral-based energy signature scheme that interprets acoustic vibration sensor data to estimate steam flow rates and assess steam traps health status. Experimental results show that the energy signature scheme has the potential to identify different steam trap health status and it has sufficient sensitivity to estimate steam flow rate. Moreover, results indicate a nearly quadratic relationship over the test region between the overall energy signature factor and flow rate in the pipe. The analysis based on estimated steam flow and steam trap status helps generate alerts that enable operators and maintenance personnel to take remedial action. The goal is to achieve significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam pipes/traps/valves.

  19. Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's NuclearSpurringSteam Systems Steam Systems Many

  20. ProSteam- A Structured Approach to Steam System Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eastwood, A.

    and of any operational constraints. It can also be used to determine the true cost of improvement projects, relating any changes in steam demand back to purchased utilities (fuel, power, and make-up water) at the site boundary. Example projects could include...

  1. Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

  2. STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM Laboratory. iv #12;ABSTRACT Steam-water relative permeability curves are required for mathematical models of two-phase geothermal reservoirs. In this study, drainage steam- water relative permeabilities were

  3. Steam Sterilization Cycles for Lab Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Steam Sterilization Cycles for Lab Applications Presented by Gary Butler STERIS Life Sciences August 2009 #12;Early Steam Sterilizers Koch Upright Sterilizer · First Pressurized Sterilizer · First OPERATING END (NO PRINTER) PRIMARY OPERATING END WITH PRINTER SAFETY VALVE CHAMBER PRESSURE GAUGE Steam

  4. Project DEEP STEAM: fourth meeting of the technical advisory panel, Albuquerque, NM, November 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, R.L.; Donaldson, A.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Hart, C.M.; Johnson, D.R.; Mulac, A.J.; Wayland, J.R.; Weirick, L.J.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fourth Project DEEP STEAM Technical Advisory Panel Meeting was held on 5 and 6 November 1980 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to review the status of project DEEP STEAM. This Proceedings, following the order of the meeting, is divided into five main sections: the injection string modification program, the downhole steam generator program, supporting activities, field testing, and the Advisory Panel recommendations and discussion. Each of the 17 presentations is summarized, and a final Discussion section has been added, when needed, for inclusion of comments and replies related to specific presentations. Finally, the Advisory Panel recommendations and the ensuing discussion are summarized in the closing section.

  5. Geismar TDI Plant Steam Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baily, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inlet isolation valve o Outlet isolation valve o Built-in strainer o Upstream blow down o Downstream blow down (or test port) o 2-bolt connection for K port steam trap ? Valves on V2 stations are bellows sealed valves ? high integrity seal...

  6. Faces of the Recovery Act: Sun Catalytix

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nocera, Dave

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    BOSTON- At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dan Nocera talks about Sun Catalytix, the next generation of solar energy, and ARPA-E funding through the Recovery Act. To learn about more ARPA-E projects through the Recovery Act: http://arpa-e.energy.gov/FundedProjects.aspx

  7. Fixed Bed Counter Current Gasification of Mesquite and Juniper Biomass Using Air-steam as Oxidizer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wei 1981-

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    contains high percentage of Nitrogen, the heating value of the gasification gas is very low. The oxygen-blow gasification produce a syngas with medium heating value and steam blow gasification lead to the production of a syngas with an acceptable HHV... schematic flow diagram of an integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plan. Coal, heavy petroleum residues, or biomass is gasified in the gasifier using air or steam media to generate syngas under high temperature and pressure. The syngas was first...

  8. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA); Wessel, Richard A. (Babcock & Wilcox Company, Barberton, OH)

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  9. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Barb, Kevin Joseph (Halfmoon, NY); Li, Ming Cheng (Cincinnati, OH); Hyde, Susan Marie (Schenectady, NY); Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY); Wesorick, Ronald Richard (Albany, NY); Glynn, Christopher Charles (Hamilton, OH); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Cincinnati, OH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  10. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  11. Environmental survey - tar sands in situ processing research program (Vernal, Uintah County, Utah). [Reverse-forward combustion; steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Q.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research will be done on the reverse-forward combustion and steam injection for the in-situ recovery of oil from tar sands. This environmental survey will serve as a guideline for the consideration of environmental consequences of such research. It covers the construction phase, operational phase, description of the environment, potential impacts and mitigations, coordination, and alternatives. (DLC)

  12. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three aspects of vapor-liquid flow in porous media were addressed: (i) Extension of a previous vapor-liquid model for solution gas-drive to a water liquid-water vapor (steam) system in a pore network; (ii) Visualization of steam injection in Hele-Shaw cells and glass micromodels; and (iii) Macroscopic description of concurrent vapor-liquid flow in porous media. Significant progress was made in the study of reservoir heterogeneity and its effects on flow processes. The authors have considered three general areas: (i) The representation of naturally fractured systems; (ii) The large-scale averaging (derivation of pseudo-functions) for displacement in macroscopically heterogeneous systems; and (iii) The study of parallel flow, typically encountered in long and narrow reservoirs. The third area of research in this report involves chemical additives for the improvement of recovery efficiencies. The authors have been studying the following three aspects: (i) Caustic additives at elevated temperatures; (ii) Foam generation; and (iii) Non-Newtonian flow in porous media. The study of caustic injection at elevated temperatures, specifically the silica dissolution and caustic consumption, has been terminated. A technical report will summarize the results obtained. Here, the authors address the remaining aspects (ii) and (iii). 107 refs., 87 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Design manual for high temperature hot water and steam systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cofield, R.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author presents aspects of high temperature hot water and steam generating systems. It covers all the calculations that must be made for sizing and then selecting the equipment that will make up an energy system. The author provides essential information on loan analysis, types of fuel, storage requirements, handling facilities, waste disposal, HVAC needs, and back-up systems. Also included are the calculations needed for determining the size of compressors, air pollution devices, fans, filters, and other supplementary equipment.

  14. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk,

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 C).

  15. RECOVERY ACT: TAPOCO PROJECT: CHEOAH UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Paul; 740, 293 Highway; Baden, NC 28009

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

  16. Recovery Act State Memos South Dakota

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    solar-wind generates savings for S.D. city ... 6 Clean energy tax credits and grants: 1 For total Recovery Act jobs numbers in South Dakota go to...

  17. Steam in Distribution and Use: Steam Quality Redefined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deacon, W. T.

    in the system at regular intervals. 2) Control valves should be protected by a strainer which is free from condensate accumulation. Heat Transfer potential. 1) Use steam at the lowest possible pressure to take advantage of low pressure latent heat...) A special situation exists ahead of valves that are protected by a strainer. The strainer body is a low point and accumulates condensate naturally, reducing the effective area of the strainer screen. (See Figure 4.) KI!?: Fig. 4. Automatic...

  18. Reliability Evaluation of Electric Power Generation Systems with Solar Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samadi, Saeed

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional power generators are fueled by natural gas, steam, or water flow. These generators can respond to fluctuating load by varying the fuel input that is done by a valve control. Renewable power generators such as wind or solar, however...

  19. Design and fabrication of an internal condensation loop for effectiveness and robustness testing of nanostructured superhydrophobic steam condenser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saranadhi, Dhananjai (Dhananjai V.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rankine cycle is at the heart of steam-electric power stations, which are responsible for generating about 90% of the world's electricity. Improving the efficiency of the cycle thus of great importance, and the greatest ...

  20. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  1. Managing the Steam Trap Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atlas, R. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    item? .However, some converts to the gospel of enlighten ed steam trap management expect to achieve the following benefits: A 95% trap performance level which is a better than 30% improvement over the industry norm. Plus, we have found a well... trained. This may six surveys per year with a guaf'8nteed performance level involve two days of training per man including of better than 9596. This program usually has the best cash classroom and field instruction plus periodic flow, and faster...

  2. Prospects for the recovery of uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, F.R.; Driscoll, M.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer program entitled URPE (Uranium Recovery Performance and Economics) has been developed to simulate the engineering performance and provide an economic analysis of a plant recovering uranium from seawater. The conceptual system design used as the focal point for the more general analysis consists of a floating oil-rig type of platform single-point moored in an open ocean current, using either high-volume-low-head axial pumps or the velocity head of the ambient ocean current to force seawater through a mass transfer medium (hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) coated onto particle beds or stacked tubes). Uranium is recovered from the seawater by an adsorption process, and later eluted from the adsober by an ammonium carbonate solution. A multiproduct cogenerating plant on board the platform burns coal to raise steam for electricity generation, desalination, and process heat requirements. Scrubbed stack gas from the plant is processed to recover carbon dioxide for chemical make-up needs. The equilibrium isotherm and the diffusion constant for the uranyl-HTO system, which are needed for bed performance calculations, have been calculated based on the data reported in the literature. In addition, a technique for calculating the rate constant of a fixed-bed adsoorbing system has been developed for use with Thomas' solution for predicting fixed-bed performance.

  3. Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesperance, Ann M.

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    On March 19, 2008, policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and Public Health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about restoration and recovery through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems.

  4. Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luong, David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam Turbine . . . . . .and A. Ghaffari. Steam Turbine Model. SimulationTurbine Blade Damage from Wet Steam (Source: PTG Advisers,

  5. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

    2002-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill.

  6. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approach for Generating Renewable Energy with SimultaneousCombining Recovery of Renewable Energy with Geologic Storage

  7. DOE BestPractices Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE BestPractices Steam End User Training Guide Alternate Text Narratives and Graphic Descriptions June 29, 2010 #12;DOE BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Table ............................................................................................................................................................................201 #12;DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Welcome Module 1 June 28, 2010 Steam End

  8. Optical steam quality measurement system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Partin, Judy K.

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical measurement system is presented that offers precision on-line monitoring of the quality of steam. Multiple wavelengths of radiant energy are passed through the steam from an emitter to a detector. By comparing the amount of radiant energy absorbed by the flow of steam for each wavelength, a highly accurate measurement of the steam quality can be determined on a continuous basis in real-time. In an embodiment of the present invention, the emitter, comprises three separate radiant energy sources for transmitting specific wavelengths of radiant energy through the steam. In a further embodiment, the wavelengths of radiant energy are combined into a single beam of radiant energy for transmission through the steam using time or wavelength division multiplexing. In yet a further embodiment, the single beam of radiant energy is transmitted using specialized optical elements.

  9. NON-STATIONARY TEMPERATURE STRESSES IN THE INDUSTRIAL STEAM TURBINE ROTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zvonimir Guzovi?; Kreimir Kova?i?; Tihomir Mihali?

    The usage of industrial steam turbines in different industrial branches (chemistry, petrochemistry, refineries, sugar and ethanol plants, etc.) for a generator drive for electricity generation or a mechanical drive for compressors, blowers and pumps, is characterized by the need for high flexibility of operation. High flexibility includes numerous start-ups, shut-downs and power changes during the useful life. Changes in power and steam mass flow lead to changes of the working fluid state in the single turbine stages, and thus their aerodynamic and thermodynamic characteristics. During these transient working regimes in steam turbine rotors, large space and time-dependent temperature gradients appear, which can result in high non-stationary temperature stresses, i.e. increased local stress concentrations, what has a negative impact on the useful life of the rotor. In the worst case they can cause fracture of the turbine rotor. Today, for the determination of thermal stressed state of the steam turbine parts the user softwares based on numerical methods are used. In this paper the results of numerical modelling and calculations of non-stationary temperature fields and related stresses in the rotor of industrial steam turbine of 35 MW power during transient operating regime (a cold startup) will be presented. The results of the calculations serve for estimation of the transient regime impact on the stresses of the rotor, as well as on its entire useful life. Key words: industrial steam turbine, transient regimes, temperature stresses, numerical modelling 1.

  10. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

  11. Steam Challenge: Developing A New DOE Program to Help Industry be Steam Smart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.; Hart, F.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    traps, insulation, and boiler controls. The Partnership should investigate linking these software tools together and incorporating other steam "modules" (i.e., water treatment, boiler tune-up, common steam applications) in order to estimate...

  12. Identifying Steam Opportunity "Impact" Inputs for the Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrell, G.; Jendrucko, R.; Wright, A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IDENTIFYING STEAM OPPORTUNITY "IMPACT" INPUTS FOR THE STEAM SYSTEM ASSESSMENT TOOL (SSAT) Dr. Greg Harrell, University of Tennessee/Knoxville Dr. Richard Jendrucko, University of Tennessee/Knoxville Dr. Anthony Wright, Oak Ridge National...

  13. The Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT): Estimating Steam System Energy, Cost, and Emission Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, A.; Bealing, C.; Eastwood, A.; Tainsh, R.; Hahn, G.; Harrell, G.

    The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Industrial Technology Program BestPractices Steam effort is developing a number of software tools to assist industrial energy users to improve the efficiency of their steam system. A major new Best...

  14. Conversion of Steel Mill's Surface Waste into Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Generation for PEMFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    . The currently pursued modes of hydrogen generation include autothermal and/ or steam reforming of fossil fuels metal-steam reforming (MSR, 3M+4H2OM3O4+4H2). From the standpoint of favorable thermodynamics friendly method of generating high purity hydrogen is by the reaction of certain metals with steam, called

  15. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Sixth amendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T.B. (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)); Rivas, O. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Sixth Amendment and Extension of Annex 4, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 44 through 49. Tasks are: DOE-SUPRI-laboratory research on steam foam, CAT-SCAN, and in-situ combustion; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field projects on steam foam; DOE-NIPER-laboratory research and field projects light oil steam flooding; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field studies on wellbore heat losses; DOE-LLNL-laboratory research and field projects on electromagnetic induction tomography; INTEVEP-laoboratory research on mechanistic studies.

  16. Steam System Improvements at a Manufacturing Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compher, J.; Morcom, B.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for more detailed information on boiler control upgrades were initiated. While reviewing steam trap options, NNFD was contacted by Dibert Valve & Fitting Company, which was marketing a new steam trap system that allowed easier testing and repair..., a detailed workscope for the boiler control upgrades, and a quote was obtained. After review by maintenance management and mechanics, orders for both the boiler control package and the steam trap system's components were placed. BOILER CONTROLS...

  17. The Future of Steam: A Preliminary Discussion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.; Harrell, G.; Moore, J.; French, S.

    alternatives to steam turbines. Gas turbines, microturbines, and fuel cells are emerging technologies to watch in lhis regard. Greater acceptance of the CHP concept is in part related to concerns with reliability in power supply. Deregulation... monitored steam operations will give the system operator better diagnostic capabilities Periodic measures of fuel consumption, emissions content, and steam deliveries per volume of product are a few examples of operational metrics. The collection...

  18. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  19. Steam reforming utilizing high activity catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, H. J.

    1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    High activity, sulfur tolerant steam reforming catalysts are described comprising rhodium or nickel supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. The catalysts have improved activity over conventionally used catalysts in the presence of sulfur containing hydrocarbon fuel (such as No. 2 fuel oil) in a steam reforming environment. The material has particular utility in autothermal, tubular, cyclic and adiabatic steam reforming processes.

  20. Optimized Control Of Steam Heating Coils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Mir Muddassir

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling. II. Flooding of coils with condensate and its subsequent freezing when outside air temperature falls below 32?F. III. Increased maintenance cost due to water hammer, corrosion of coils in the presence of non-condensable gases and leaking steam... monotonically as the steam pressure increases, a higher steam pressure may lead to overheating of the air and result in simultaneous heating and cooling. In addition to energy waste due to simultaneous heating and cooling, an improper operating strategy can...

  1. World launch! Hot-Steam Aerostat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Info HeiDAS UH World launch! Hot-Steam Aerostat #12;"If you intend to view the land, if you plan Verne: "Fife weeks on a balloon". HeiDAS stands for Hei?DampfAeroStat (Hot-Steam AeroStat) and it refers to the first operable balloon ever that became buoyant by means of superheated steam. The performance of Hei

  2. Biennial Assessment of the Fifth Power Plan Gas Turbine Power Plant Planning Assumptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -cycle units include a heat recovery steam generator on the exhaust to recover otherwise wasted energy. Steam from the heat recovery steam generator powers an additional steam turbine, providing extra electric to about 50 percent. In addition, the steam generator of combined-cycle units can be fitted with fuel

  3. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

  4. Use and recovery of ammonia in power plant cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflug, H.D.; Bettenworth, H.J.; Syring, H.A. [Preussen Elektra AG, Hanover (Germany)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents some practical and theoretical aspects of the use of ammonia in power plant water/steam cycles. The plants considered are fully automated units with once-through boilers, which operate under complex conditions and are subject to frequent starts and load changes. The boilers are chemically conditioned with combined oxygen ammonia treatment and the condensate polishing plant is only operated during start-up, in the event of a condenser leak or to remove excess ammonia. The paper also covers the recovery of ammonia from the condensate polishing plant waste regenerants and reuse for conditioning the feedwater. In particular, the paper deals with the following points: theoretical analysis of the chemical equilibrium of ammonia and carbon dioxide in water, including calculation of the concentrations from the parameters normally measured, such as conductivities and pH; equipment for monitoring and controlling the amount of ammonia fed to the water/steam cycle, including the optimum positioning of the sampling and feed-points, the parameters suitable for feed control and their temperature dependence; the partial pressure and distribution coefficient of ammonia; the consumption and losses of ammonia through the water/steam cycle during operation; the recovery of ammonia from condensate polishing plant waste regenerants by steam stripping. The paper should be of interest to both planning engineers and plant operators.

  5. Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial steam cookers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  6. Pre-In-Plant Training Webinar (Steam)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This pre-In-Plant training webinar for the Better Plants Program covers how to find energy savings in steam systems.

  7. Achieve Steam System Excellence - Steam Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISO 50001 Energy ManagementPatriciaUCNIAchieve Steam System

  8. Achieve Steam System Excellence - Steam Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated aging of roofingDepartmentAchieve Steam System

  9. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  10. Mass and Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - 1 - MASS AND HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM SALAH MAHMOUD HINDAWI DIRECTOR HINDAWI FOR ENGINEERING SERVICES & CONTRACTING NEW DAMIETTA , EGYPT ABSTRACT : In the last few years heat recovery was under spot . and in air conditioning fields... ) as a heat recovery . and I use the water as a mass recovery . The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines . THE BENEFIT OF THIS SYSTEM ARE : 1) Using the heat energy from...

  11. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam EndUser Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam EndUser Training Resource Utilization End User Training Resource Utilization Analysis Module 1 June 28, 2010 #12; DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Slide 3 Fuel Selection 1 Fuel purchases typically dominate the operating cost

  12. Steam catalysis in CaO carbonation under low steam partial pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, S.J.; Xiao, Y.H. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    CaO was widely used to capture CO{sub 2} in direct hydrogen production process, where steam always existed simultaneously. The effect of steam on CaO carbonation performance under low steam partial pressure was investigated using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The experimental results revealed that steam improved CaO carbonation performance significantly no matter whether Ca(OH){sub 2} was produced or not. At 823 K and 0.5 MPa of steam partial pressure, effect of steam on CaO carbonation performance could not be attributed mainly to production of Ca(OH){sub 2} because the hydration rate of CaO was very slow. The main reason was steam catalysis in CaO carbonation. Enhancement of steam on CaO carbonation performance without Ca(OH){sub 2} production could not be attributed to improvement of steam on the physical property, but to catalytic effect of steam. Effects of CaO precursors, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, steam partial pressure, and temperature with steam addition on CaO carbonation performance were also investigated.

  13. Integration and operation of post-combustion capture system on coal-fired power generation: load following and peak power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brasington, Robert David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants with post combustion capture and sequestration (CCS) systems have a variety of challenges to integrate the steam generation, air quality control, cooling water systems and steam turbine with the ...

  14. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  15. Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fong, Theodore E.

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

  16. POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of electric generating plants usefully begins with anmatters, a plant's position within the generating networkthe plant may be divided into a steam generating system and

  17. Research on Oil Recovery Mechanisms in Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis M. Castanier; William E. Brigham

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to increase recovery of heavy oils. Towards that goal studies are being conducted in how to assess the influence of temperature and pressure on the absolute and relative permeability to oil and water and on capillary pressure; to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the in site combustion process; to develop and understand mechanisms of surfactants on for the reduction of gravity override and channeling of steam; and to improve techniques of formation evaluation.

  18. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yorstos, Yanis C.

    2002-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The emphasis of this work was on investigating the mechanisms and factors that control the recovery of heavy oil with the objective to improve recovery efficiencies. For this purpose the interaction of flow transport and reaction at various scales from the pore network to the field scales were studied. Particular mechanisms to be investigated included the onset of gas flow in foamy oil production and in in-situ steam drive, gravity drainage in steam processes, the development of sustained combustion fronts and the propagation of foams in porous media. Analytical, computational and experimental methods were utilized to advance the state of the art in heavy oil recovery. Successful completion of this research was expected to lead to improvements in the Recovery efficiency of various heavy oil processes.

  19. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a nuclear power electrical generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance a of nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs.

  20. Application of solar energy for the generation and supply of industrial-process low-to intermediate-pressure steam ranging from 300/sup 0/F-550/sup 0/F (high-temperature steam). Final report, September 30, 1978-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matteo, M.; Kull, J.; Luddy, W.; Youngblood, S.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed design was developed for a solar industrial process heat system to be installed at the ERGON, Inc. Bulk Oil Storage Terminal in Mobile, Alabama. The 1874 m/sup 2/ (20160 ft/sup 2/) solar energy collector field will generate industrial process heat at temperatures ranging from 150 to 290/sup 0/C (300 to 550/sup 0/F). The heat will be used to reduce the viscosity of stored No. 6 fuel oil, making it easier to pump from storage to transport tankers. Heat transfer oil is circulated in a closed system, absorbing heat in the collector field and delivering it through immersed heat exchangers to the stored fuel oil. The solar energy system will provide approximately 44 percent of the process heat required.