Sample records for recoverable oil estimated

  1. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs thermally recoverable by steam drive which are equal to or greater than 2500 feet deep and contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range. Data were collected from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

  2. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to compile data on reservoirs that contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range, contain at least ten million barrels of oil currently in place, and are non-carbonate in lithology. The reservoirs within these constraints were then analyzed in light of applicable recovery technology, either steam-drive or in situ combustion, and then ranked hierarchically as candidate reservoirs. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I presents the project background and approach, the screening analysis, ranking criteria, and listing of candidate reservoirs. The economic and environmental aspects of heavy oil recovery are included in appendices to this volume. This study provides an extensive basis for heavy oil development, but should be extended to include carbonate reservoirs and tar sands. It is imperative to look at heavy oil reservoirs and projects on an individual basis; it was discovered that operators, and industrial and government analysts will lump heavy oil reservoirs as poor producers, however, it was found that upon detailed analysis, a large number, so categorized, were producing very well. A study also should be conducted on abandoned reservoirs. To utilize heavy oil, refiners will have to add various unit operations to their processes, such as hydrotreaters and hydrodesulfurizers and will require, in most cases, a lighter blending stock. A big problem in producing heavy oil is that of regulation; specifically, it was found that the regulatory constraints are so fluid and changing that one cannot settle on a favorable recovery and production plan with enough confidence in the regulatory requirements to commit capital to the project.

  3. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs which contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range and are susceptible to recovery by in situ combustion and steam drive. The reservoirs for steam recovery are less than 2500 feet deep to comply with state-of-the-art technology. In cases where one reservoir would be a target for in situ combustion or steam drive, that reservoir is reported in both sections. Data were collectd from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

  4. Estimates of incremental oil recoverable by carbon dioxide flooding and related carbon dioxide supply requirements for flooding major carbonate reservoirs in the Permian, Williston, and other Rocky Mountain basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, J.H.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the work was to build a solid engineering foundation (in) carbonate reservoirs for the purpose of extending the technology base in carbon dioxide miscible flooding. This report presents estimates of incremental oil recovery and related carbon dioxide supply requirements for selected carbonate reservoirs in the Permian, Williston, and Rocky Mountain Basins. The estimates presented here are based on calculations using a volumetric model derived and described in this report. The calculations utilized data developed in previous work. Calculations were made for a total of 279 reservoirs in the Permian, Williston, and several smaller Rocky Mountain Basins. Results show that the carbonate reservoirs of the Permian Basin constitute an order of magnitude larger target for carbon dioxide flooding than do all the carbonate reservoirs of the Williston and Rocky Mountain intermontane basins combined. Review of the calculated data in comparison with information from earlier work indicates that the figures given here are probably optimistic in that incremental oil volumes may be biased toward the high side while carbon dioxide supply requirements may be biased toward the low side. However, the information available would not permit further practical refinement of the calculations. Use of the incremental oil figures given for individual reservoirs as an official estimate is not recommended because of various uncertainties in individual field data. Further study and compilation of data for field projects as they develop appears warranted to better calibrate the calculation procedures and thus to develop more refined estimates of incremental oil potential and carbon dioxide supply requirements. 11 figures, 16 tables.

  5. Recoverable Resource Estimate of Identified Onshore Geopressured Geothermal Energy in Texas and Louisiana (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esposito, A.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are characterized by high temperatures and high pressures with correspondingly large quantities of dissolved methane. Due to these characteristics, the reservoirs provide two sources of energy: chemical energy from the recovered methane, and thermal energy from the recovered fluid at temperatures high enough to operate a binary power plant for electricity production. Formations with the greatest potential for recoverable energy are located in the gulf coastal region of Texas and Louisiana where significantly overpressured and hot formations are abundant. This study estimates the total recoverable onshore geopressured geothermal resource for identified sites in Texas and Louisiana. In this study a geopressured geothermal resource is defined as a brine reservoir with fluid temperature greater than 212 degrees F and a pressure gradient greater than 0.7 psi/ft.

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - accumulated recoverable oil Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University Collection: Physics 3 SPE -120174-PP The Future of California's Oil Supply Summary: Field (Roadifer, 1986). The conclusion is that these undeveloped oil...

  7. Recoverable Resource Estimate of Identified Onshore Geopressured Geothermal Energy in Texas and Louisiana (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: CrystalFG36-08GO18149Speeding accessProposal Title: Community9747Recoverable

  8. Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere e-mail: jean.laherrere@wanadoo.fr sites: http will solve the present problems on welfare, retirement and they would dearly love to see the reserves of oil or oil reserves is a political act. The SEC, to satisfy bankers and shareholders, obliges the oil

  9. Estimating Surface Oil Extent from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill using ASCAT Backscatter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Estimating Surface Oil Extent from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill using ASCAT Backscatter Richard Provo, UT 84602 Abstract--The damping effects of oil on capillary ocean waves alter the backscattered backscatter from the ocean surface uncontaminated by surface oil. Large differences between expected

  10. Estimated Business Interruptions Losses of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargas, Vanessa

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??A generalized framework of Economic Analysis of natural and man-made disasters is applied to the estimation of business interruption losses associated with an oil spill.… (more)

  11. Oil reservoir properties estimation using neural networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toomarian, N.B. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research; Aminzadeh, F. [UNOCAL Corp., Sugarland, TX (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the applicability as well as the accuracy of artificial neural networks for estimating specific parameters that describe reservoir properties based on seismic data. This approach relies on JPL`s adjoint operators general purpose neural network code to determine the best suited architecture. The authors believe that results presented in this work demonstrate that artificial neural networks produce surprisingly accurate estimates of the reservoir parameters.

  12. Please Post to USGS Web Site Per BWs RequestlFw: Flow Rate Group Provides Preliminary Best Estimate Of Oil Flowing from BP Oil Wen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleskes, Joe

    Of Oil Flowing from BP Oil Wen Clarice E Ransom to: Barbara W Wainman, 8. Arlene Compher 05127 Provides Preliminary Best Estimate Of Oil Flowing from BP Oil Well "Tsai, Brian" Estimate Of Oil Flowing from BP Oil Well USGS Director Dr. Marcia McNutt today announced that the National

  13. Some methods of oil and gas reserve estimation in Azerbaijan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abasov, M.T.; Buryakovsky, L.A.; Kondrushkin, Y.M.; Dzhevanshir, R.D.; Bagarov, T.Y. [Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Chilingar, G.V. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article deals with the scientific and practical problems related to estimating oil and gas reserves in terrigenous reservoirs of the Productive Series of middle Pliocene and in Upper Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The deposits in question are spread over onshore Azerbaijan and adjacent offshore areas in the Caspian Sea and are approximately 6.5 km deep. This article presents lithologic, stratigraphic, and petrophysical criteria used for selecting prospects for reserve estimation. Also presented are information on structure of rocks and estimation of their lithologic and physical properties. New methods for the interpretation and application of petrophysical and logging data, as well as statistical estimation of reserves, in complex volcaniclastic reservoir rocks, are also discussed.

  14. Local Frequency Based Estimators for Anomaly Detection in Oil and Gas Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    Local Frequency Based Estimators for Anomaly Detection in Oil and Gas Applications Alexander Singh industrial applications such as the smart grid and oil and gas are continuously monitored. The massive to positively impact the bottom line. In the oil and gas industry, modern oil rigs are outfitted with thousands

  15. Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand CubicinResidualU.S.

  16. Figure 8. Technically Recoverable and Commercially Developable Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 6221,2372003ofDec. 31 705PC's

  17. Figure 8. Technically Recoverable and Commercially Developable...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Alaska North Slope fig8.jpg (38547 bytes) Source: United States Geological Survey, "Economics of Undiscovered Oil in the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge," 1998...

  18. The Models of Estimating Oil Shale Flows and Price

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tauno Tammeoja; Aire Västrik

    The fast economical growth of Estonia in past years has set us several questions on sustainability of oil shale mining in Estonia. For how long do the oil shale resources last? What are the mining expenditures in the areas of different mining conditions and how do they change in future? Thus, in

  19. Libya, Algeria and Egypt: crude oil potential from known deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Ross, T.A.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis is presented of the discovered crude oil resources, reserves, and estimated annual production from known fields of the Republics of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Proved reserves are defined as the remaining producible oil as of a specified date under operating practice in effect at that time and include estimated recoverable oil in undrilled portions of a given structure or structures. Also included in the proved reserve category are the estimated indicated additional volumes of recoverable oil from the entire oil reservoir where fluid injection programs have been started in a portion, or portions, of the reservoir. The indicated additional reserves (probable reserves) reported herein are the volumes of crude oil that might be obtained with the installation of secondary recovery or pressure maintenance operations in reservoirs where none have been previously installed. The sum of cumulative production, proved reserves, and probable reserves is defined as the ultimate oil recovery from known deposits; and resources are defined as the original oil in place (OOIP). An assessment was made of the availability of crude oil under three assumed sustained production rates for each country; an assessment was also made of each country's capability of sustaining production at, or near, the 1980 rates assuming different limiting reserve to production ratios. Also included is an estimate of the potential maximum producing capability from known deposits that might be obtained from known accumulations under certain assumptions, using a simple time series approach. The theoretical maximum oil production capability from known fields at any time is the maximum deliverability rate assuming there are no equipment, investment, market, or political constraints.

  20. An hybrid ensemble based approach for process parameter estimation in offshore oil platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An hybrid ensemble based approach for process parameter estimation in offshore oil platforms Piero in offshore oil platforms. In particular, the difference between the theoretical value of the valve flow on real measurements performed on a number of similar offshore choke valves. 1. Introduction In this paper

  1. A Bootstrap Approach to Computing Uncertainty in Inferred Oil and Gas Reserve Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attanasi, Emil D. [US Geological Survey MS 956 (United States)], E-mail: attanasi@usgs.gov; Coburn, Timothy C. [Abilene Christian University, Department of Management Science (United States)

    2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study develops confidence intervals for estimates of inferred oil and gas reserves based on bootstrap procedures. Inferred reserves are expected additions to proved reserves in previously discovered conventional oil and gas fields. Estimates of inferred reserves accounted for 65% of the total oil and 34% of the total gas assessed in the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Assessment of oil and gas in US onshore and State offshore areas. When the same computational methods used in the 1995 Assessment are applied to more recent data, the 80-year (from 1997 through 2076) inferred reserve estimates for pre-1997 discoveries located in the lower 48 onshore and state offshore areas amounted to a total of 39.7 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 293 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas. The 90% confidence interval about the oil estimate derived from the bootstrap approach is 22.4 BBO to 69.5 BBO. The comparable 90% confidence interval for the inferred gas reserve estimate is 217 TCF to 413 TCF. The 90% confidence interval describes the uncertainty that should be attached to the estimates. It also provides a basis for developing scenarios to explore the implications for energy policy analysis.

  2. Of the estimated 5 million barrels of crude oil released into the Gulf of Mexico from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Of the estimated 5 million barrels of crude oil released into the Gulf of Mexico from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, a fraction washed ashore onto sandy beaches from Louisiana to the Florida panhandle. Researchers at the MagLab compare the detailed molecular analysis of hydrocarbons in oiled sands from

  3. Recoverable Mobile Environments: Design and Trade-o Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaidya, Nitin

    Recoverable Mobile Environments: Design and Trade-o Analysis Dhiraj K. Pradhan P. Krishna Nitin H-053 Abstract The mobile wireless environment poses challenging fault-tolerant data management prob- lems due to mobility of users, and limited bandwidth on the wireless link. Traditional fault- tolerance schemes

  4. A Methodology to Determine both the Technically Recoverable Resource and the Economically Recoverable Resource in an Unconventional Gas Play

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almadani, Husameddin Saleh A.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    generations of engineers and leaders of Saudi Arabia. vii NOMENCLATURE Bcf billion cubic feet CBM coalbed methane CDF cumulative distribution function DOE Department of Energy EIA Energy Information Administration ERR economically....2?Resource Triangle for Natural Gas. (Holditch, 2006) ................................... 4 1.3?Growth of US Technically Recoverable Natural Gas Resources. (EIA, 2010b...

  5. Estimating aboveground biomass in forest and oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo using ALOS PALSAR data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    Estimating aboveground biomass in forest and oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo using September 2011 Keywords: ALOS-PALSAR Land-cover monitoring Aboveground biomass Oil palm Borneo a b s t r a c t Conversion of tropical forests to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia has resulted in large

  6. Estimating attenuation properties of bentonite layer in Cut Bank oil field, Glacier County, Montana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karakurt, Necdet

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    -8 to analyze the formation structure in depth, since seismic signals around the reservoir area were unclear in the 3-D survey. This research attempts to estimate the attenuation properties of the Bentonite layer in the Cut Bank oil field. VSP data is processed...

  7. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  8. Estimated critical conditions for UF{sub 4}-oil systems in fully oil-reflected spherical geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plaster, M.J.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paraffinic oil has been exposed to UF{sub 6} gas in seal exhaust pumps and cascade equipment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The resulting mixture is more nuclearly reactive than mixtures of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and is not bounded by the subcritical mass limits presented in several nuclear criticality safety guides. The purpose of this analysis is to determine several critical parameters; specifically, (1) k{sub {infinity}} and the critical mass for several enrichments and moderation levels and (2) the mass limits for these mixtures. The estimated critical masses for the UF{sub 4}-oil systems are smaller than for the UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O systems. The suggested mass limits for the UF{sub 4}-oil systems are 0.240, 0.280, 0.350, 0.430, and 0.670, and 1.170 kg {sup 235}U for enrichments of 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, and 3 wt.% {sup 235}U respectively.

  9. DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL ESTIMATE: UPDATE JUNE 11, 2010 by Professor Satish Nagarajaiah, Rice University (www.ruf.rice.edu/~nagaraja &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagarajaiah, Satish

    DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL ESTIMATE: UPDATE JUNE 11, 2010 by Professor Satish Nagarajaiah, Rice. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/11/us/11spill.html?hp New Estimates Double Rate of Oil Flowing on Thursday essentially doubled its estimate of how much oil has been spewing from the out-of-control BP well

  10. ERCB updates estimated reserves of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board prepares yearly updates of Alberta reserves of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil. The latest figures are as of the end of 1985. Alberta's crude bitumen reserves are contained in designated deposits with the oil sand areas of Athabasca, Cold Lake, and Peace River. The total initial volume of crude bitumen in-place for the designated deposits at December 31, 1985 was estimated as 266.4 billion cubic meters. Within the potentially mineable areas, the initial mineable volume in-place of crude bitumen was established to be 11.9 billion cubic meters. After allowing for surface facilities (plant sites, tailings ponds, discard dumps), environmental protection corridors along major rivers, isolated mineable areas, and assuming a combined mining/extraction recovery factor of 0.78, the resulting initial established mineable reserve of crude bitumen is estimated to be 5.2 billion cubic meters. Data are presented in three tables.

  11. Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

  12. Drunk On Oil: Russian Foreign Policy 2000-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugato, Thomas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    world’s largest natural gas reserves, about twice that oftotal recoverable reserves. 139 Gas fields are declining asgas. 12 Russia has around 6% to 10% of the world’s known oil reserves.

  13. Table 15. Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystallineForeign ObjectOUR Table 1. Summary statistics for0b.

  14. Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Waste oils offer a tremendous recycling potential. An important, dwindling natural resource of great economic and industrial value, oil products are a cornerstone of our modern industrial society. Petroleum is processed into a wide variety of products: gasoline, fuel oil, diesel oil, synthetic rubber, solvents, pesticides, synthetic fibres, lubricating oil, drugs and many more ' (see Figure 1 1. The boilers of Amercian industries presently consume about 40 % of the used lubricating oils collected. In Ontario, the percentage varies from 20 to 30%. Road oiling is the other major use of collected waste oils. Five to seven million gallons (50-70 % of the waste oil col1ected)is spread on dusty Ontario roads each summer. The practice is both a wasteful use of a dwindling resource and an environmental hazard. The waste oil, with its load of heavy metals, particularly lead, additives including dangerous polynuclear aromatics and PCBs, is carried into the natural environment by runoff and dust to contaminate soils and water courses.2 The largest portion of used oils is never collected, but disappears into sewers, landfill sites and backyards. In Ontario alone, approximately 22 million gallons of potentially recyclable lube oil simply vanish each year. While oil recycling has ad-114 Oil

  15. Verktyg för lönsamhetsberäkningar vid bränslekonvertering av spetslastpannor frĺn olja till pellets; Tool for estimating the profitability of converting a peak-load oil-fired boiler to pellets.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorby, Jonathan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? This report summarizes the development of a calculation program estimating the profitability of converting a peak-load oil-fired boiler to pellets. To convert an oil-fired… (more)

  16. Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

  17. Estimating the effect of future oil prices on petroleum engineering project investment yardsticks.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendjoge, Ashish V

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    did not reflect the true volatility in crude oil prices. The name posted oil price was derived from a sheet that was posted in a producing field. The WTI price data were collected from Energy Information Administration (EIA) website25. EIA... projects; we correlated historical expenses data with oil price. Figs. 3.3 and 3.4 are graphs of the production and drilling costs correlations with oil price. The historical oilfield drilling and production data was taken from EIA website and the Energy...

  18. A study of the material balance techniques for estimating the initial oil in place in an undersaturated water drive reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pato, Sergio Luiz de Moraes

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A STUDY OF THE MATERIAL BALANCE TECHNIQUES FOR ESTIMATING THE INITIAL OIL IN PLACE IN AN UNDERSATURATED WATER DRIVE RESERVOIR A Thesis By SERGIO LUIZ DE MORAES PATO Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial... By SERGIO LUIZ DE MORAES PATO Approved as to style and content by: Chairma of Committee Head of Department Member Member August 1967 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to thank the Petroleo Brasileiro S/A-PETROBRAS for providing the financial...

  19. Devonian oil shale of the eastern United States: a major American energy resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, R.D.; Janka, J.C.; Dennison, J.M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eastern Devonian oil shale resource can yield 400 billion (400 X 10/sup 9/) bbl of synthetic oil, if all surface and near-surface shales were strip or deep mined for above-ground hydroretorting. Experimental work, in equipment capable of processing up to 1 ton/h of shale, has confirmed the technical and economic feasibility of aboveground hydroretorting of oil shales. Work done to date on nearly 500 samples from 12 states indicates that the HYTORT Process can give organic carbon recoveries from 2 to 2.5 times those of conventional retorting of the Devonian shales, so that the HYTORT Process yields 25 to 30 gallons per ton on syncrude at many localities, compared with 10 to 15 gallons per ton using Fischer Assay retort methods. Criteria for inclusion of shale in estimates of recoverable resources for the HYTORT Process are: (1) organic carbon of at least 10% by weight; (2) overburden of less than 200 feet (59 meters); (3) volumetric stripping ratios of less than 2.5 to 1; and (4) stratigraphic thickness of 10 feet (3 meters) or more. Resource estimates include: Kentucky (Ohio, New Albany, and Sunbury shales), 190 billion (190 X 10/sup 9/) barrels (bbl); Ohio (Ohio and Sunbury shales), 140 billion bbl; Tennessee (Chattanooga shale), 44 billion bbl; Indiana (New Albany shale), 40 billion bbl; Michigan (Antrim shale), 5 billion bbl; and Alabama (Chattanooga shale), 4 billion bbl. Recoverable resources have not been identified in West Virginia, Georgia, Oklahoma, Illinois, Arkansas, or Missouri outcrops. Co-production of uranium and metals is a possibility in the areas favorable for syncrude production.

  20. The future of oil and gas in Northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, K.J.; Cole, F.; Howell, D.G.; Magoon, L.B. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The North Slope accounts for about 98 percent of Alaska`s total oil production or about 1.6 MMBOPD (million barrels of oil per day). This makes Alaska the number two oil-producing State, contributing about 25% of the Nation`s daily oil production. Cumulative North Slope production at year-end 1993 was 9.9 BBO (billion barrels of oil). Natural gas from the North Slope is not marketable for lack of a gas transportation system. At year-end 1993, North Slope reserves as calculated by the State of Alaska stood at 6.1 BBO and 26.3 TCFG. By 1988, production from Prudhoe Bay and three other oil fields peaked at 2 MMBOPD; since then production has declined to the current rate of 1.6 MMBOPD in spite of six more oil fields coming into production. Undiscovered, economically recoverable oil resources, as of 1987, were estimated at 0-26 BBO (mean probability, 8 BBO) for the onshore region and adjacent State waters by USGS and 0-5 BBO (mean probability, oil fields and all future oil field development is the continued operation of TAPS (Trans-Alaska Pipeline System). Recent studies by the U.S. Department of Energy have assumed a range of minimum throughput rates to to illustrate the effects of a shutdown of TAPS. Using reserve and production rate numbers from existing fields, a TAPS shutdown is predicted for year-end 2014 assuming minimum rates of 200 MBOPD. In both cases, producible oil would be left in the ground: 1,000 MMBO for the 2008 scenario and 500 MMBO for the 2014 scenario. Because the time between field discovery or decision-to-develop and first production is about 10 years, new or discovered fields may need to be brought into production by 1998 to assure continued operation of the pipeline and maximum oil recovery.

  1. DRAFT: Mass Balance Team, part of Flow Rate Technical Group, Completes Estimate of Oil Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleskes, Joe

    with the reservoir will also be addressed by integration with the MMS team and by incorporation of some degree) The Department of Energy (DOE) was asked to conduct a nodal analysis to estimate flow rates from reservoir to release points. This effort will rely on input from a research team coordinated by the Minerals Management

  2. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies would result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  3. Process for removing copper in a recoverable form from solid scrap metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Alan D. (Albany, OR); Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing copper in a recoverable form from a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix is disclosed. The process begins by placing a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix into a reactor vessel. The atmosphere within the reactor vessel is purged with an inert gas or oxidizing while the reactor vessel is heated in the area of the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix to raise the temperature within the reactor vessel to a selected elevated temperature. Air is introduced into the reactor vessel and thereafter hydrogen chloride is introduced into the reactor vessel to obtain a desired air-hydrogen chloride mix. The air-hydrogen chloride mix is operable to form an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere which provides a protective oxide coating on the surface of the solid ferrous scrap metal in the mix and simultaneously oxidizes/chloridizes the copper in the mix to convert the copper to a copper monochloride gas for transport away from the solid ferrous scrap metal. After the copper is completely removed from the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix, the flows of air and hydrogen chloride are stopped and the copper monochloride gas is collected for conversion to a recoverable copper species.

  4. International Energy Module

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    assumptions regarding technically recoverable oil resources. Inputs to these resource estimates include the USGS World Petroleum Assessment of 2000 and oil reserves...

  5. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    City of Long Beach; David K.Davies and Associates; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California

    1999-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California. This is realized through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It is hoped that the successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) II-A has been relatively insufficient because of several producability problems which are common in SBC reservoir; inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves.

  6. Estimate of the Geothermal Energy Resource in the Major Sedimentary Basins in the United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esposito, A.; Porro, C.; Augustine, C.; Roberts, B.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties such as depth to basement and formation thickness are well known. The availability of this data reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin. This study estimates the magnitude of recoverable geothermal energy from 15 major known U.S. sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by (Muffler, 1979). A qualitative recovery factor was determined for each basin based on data on flow volume, hydrothermal recharge, and vertical and horizontal permeability. Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient information was gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data were insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission databases. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size, temperature distribution, and a probable quantitative recovery factor.

  7. Maps of crude oil futures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, C.D.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Crude Oil Futures presentation shows their concept of the quantity of oil possibly present (the combination of conventional demonstrated reserves plus undiscovered recoverable resources) within the areas outlined. The Crude Oil Futures is not as an exploration map but as a perspective on the distribution of world oil. The occurrence of oil is, after all, a function of particular geologic factors that are not everywhere present. Furthermore, large amounts of oil can occur only where the several necessary independent variables (geologic factors) combine optimally. In the Western Hemisphere, similar minimal crude oil futures are shown for North America and South America. This similarity is a reflection not of similar geology but rather of the fact that most of the oil has already been produced from North America, whereas South America as a whole (except for Venezuela) possesses a geology less likely to produce oil. In Europe, Africa, and Asia, four regions are dominant: the Middle East, Libya, North Sea, and west Siberia. Paleogeography and source rock distribution were keys to this distribution - the Middle East and Libya reflecting the Tethyan association, and the North Sea and west Siberia benefitting from the Late Jurassic marine transgression into geographic environments where ocean circulation was restricted by tectonic events.

  8. Assessing the Effect of Timing of Availability for Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Largest Oil and Gas Pools in the Alberta Basin: Description of Data and Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Bachu, Stefan

    2007-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide capture from large stationary sources and storage in geological media is a technologically-feasible mitigation measure for the reduction of anthropogenic emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere in response to climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) can be sequestered underground in oil and gas reservoirs, in deep saline aquifers, in uneconomic coal beds and in salt caverns. The Alberta Basin provides a very large capacity for CO2 storage in oil and gas reservoirs, along with significant capacity in deep saline formations and possible unmineable coal beds. Regional assessments of potential geological CO2 storage capacity have largely focused so far on estimating the total capacity that might be available within each type of reservoir. While deep saline formations are effectively able to accept CO2 immediately, the storage potential of other classes of candidate storage reservoirs, primarily oil and gas fields, is not fully available at present time. Capacity estimates to date have largely overlooked rates of depletion in these types of storage reservoirs and typically report the total estimated storage capacity that will be available upon depletion. However, CO2 storage will not (and cannot economically) begin until the recoverable oil and gas have been produced via traditional means. This report describes a reevaluation of the CO2 storage capacity and an assessment of the timing of availability of the oil and gas pools in the Alberta Basin with very large storage capacity (>5 MtCO2 each) that are being looked at as likely targets for early implementation of CO2 storage in the region. Over 36,000 non-commingled (i.e., single) oil and gas pools were examined with effective CO2 storage capacities being individually estimated. For each pool, the life expectancy was estimated based on a combination of production decline analysis constrained by the remaining recoverable reserves and an assessment of economic viability, yielding an estimated depletion date, or year that it will be available for CO2 storage. The modeling framework and assumptions used to assess the impact of the timing of CO2 storage resource availability on the region’s deployment of CCS technologies is also described. The purpose of this report is to describe the data and methodology for examining the carbon dioxide (CO2) storage capacity resource of a major hydrocarbon province incorporating estimated depletion dates for its oil and gas fields with the largest CO2 storage capacity. This allows the development of a projected timeline for CO2 storage availability across the basin and enables a more realistic examination of potential oil and gas field CO2 storage utilization by the region’s large CO2 point sources. The Alberta Basin of western Canada was selected for this initial examination as a representative mature basin, and the development of capacity and depletion date estimates for the 227 largest oil and gas pools (with a total storage capacity of 4.7 GtCO2) is described, along with the impact on source-reservoir pairing and resulting CO2 transport and storage economics. The analysis indicates that timing of storage resource availability has a significant impact on the mix of storage reservoirs selected for utilization at a given time, and further confirms the value that all available reservoir types offer, providing important insights regarding CO2 storage implementation to this and other major oil and gas basins throughout North America and the rest of the world. For CCS technologies to deploy successfully and offer a meaningful contribution to climate change mitigation, CO2 storage reservoirs must be available not only where needed (preferably co-located with or near large concentrations of CO2 sources or emissions centers) but also when needed. The timing of CO2 storage resource availability is therefore an important factor to consider when assessing the real opportunities for CCS deployment in a given region.

  9. Review of Emerging Resources: U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To gain a better understanding of the potential U.S. domestic shale gas and shale oil resources, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned INTEK, Inc. to develop an assessment of onshore lower 48 states technically recoverable shale gas and shale oil resources. This paper briefly describes the scope, methodology, and key results of the report and discusses the key assumptions that underlie the results.

  10. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  11. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields...

  12. Sensitivity of seismic reflections to variations in anisotropy in the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Fang, geophysicist.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is estimated to have significant amount of technically recoverable oil and gas. The objective of… (more)

  13. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2001-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The successful application of these technologies will result in expanding their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, to other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs.

  14. Analytical Estimation of CO2 Storage Capacity in Depleted Oil and Gas Reservoirs Based on Thermodynamic State Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valbuena Olivares, Ernesto

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulation has been used, as common practice, to estimate the CO2 storage capacity of depleted reservoirs. However, this method is time consuming, expensive and requires detailed input data. This investigation proposes an analytical method...

  15. SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

  16. Oil shale program plan, FY 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oil shale program is directed to the development of advanced technologies for extracting shale oil from the large domestic resources. The overall goal is to foster development of an economically competitive and environmentally acceptable oil shale industry. A series of technology development steps must be taken by DOE, other government agencies and other governments and/or industry to achieve this goal. They include basic and applied R and D, proof-of-concept activities, first-of-a-kind field tests and associated commercial-scale activity. Activities associated with the oil shale program are designed to: Expand the technically recoverable resource base, increase recovery efficiency, reduce capital and operating costs and/or enhance environmental acceptability. In support of the overall program goal, oil shale research has two major technical goals: (1) Technology Base Development. To produce an engineering and scientific information base for industry use in designing and developing oil shale processes with reduced costs and enhanced environmental acceptability and to foster the development of novel oil shale processes and, (2) Environmental Mitigation. To develop a comprehensive data base on pollutant generation and the steps required to mitigate the impacts in a cost-effective manner. This report discusses the above goals. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. [Estimation of the cost of beneficiating Alabama shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the work performed during the program quarter from September 1, 1992 though November 30, 1992. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is the prime contractor for the program extension to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting II system technology. Four institutions are working with IGT as subcontractors. Task achievements are discussed for the following active tasks of the program: Subtask 3.7 innovative reactor concept testing; Subtask 3.9 catalytic hydroretorting; Subtask 3.10 autocatalysis in hydroretorting; Subtask 3.11 shale oil upgrading and evaluation; Subtask 4.1.3 stirred ball mill grinding; Subtask 4.1.5 alternative technology evaluation; Subtask 4.1.6 ultrafine size separation; Subtask 4.2.1 column flotation tests; Subtask 4.4 integrated grinding and flotation; Subtask 4.7 economic analysis; Subtask 6.2.2 wastewater treatability; Subtask 6.2.3 waste management facility conceptual design; and Subtask 8 project management and reporting.

  18. Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Worldwide supplies of conventional oil will soon reach a peak production rate and begin an irreversible long-term decline. Options to augment liquid fuel supplies in the United States have once again begun to focus on oil shale as long-term source of reliable, affordable, and secure oil. The United States government has long recognized the strategic potential of the nation’s vast oil shale resources to support national security. President Taft in 1912 established an Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves and charged that office with ensuring oil for naval military operations. This office continues to oversee the United States strategic interest in oil shale. America’s 2 trillion barrel oil shale resource is recognized as having the same production potential as Canada’s tar sands. Tar sand production, initiated in the 1960s, has increased steadily to more than 1 million per barrels/day and is moving toward a near-term goal of 2.5 million barrels per day by 2017. This amount of oil is equivalent to the volume of oil currently imported by the United States from Middle East countries. Tar sands production has enabled Canada to add 174 billion barrels to its recoverable oil reserves, making Canada’s proved reserves second only to those of Saudi Arabia.

  19. By Daniel L. Edelstein Mine production of recoverable copper in the United States United States retained its position as both the largest producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , copper availability remained tight and average annual smelter and an electrolytic refinery in Michigan1 COPPER By Daniel L. Edelstein Mine production of recoverable copper in the United States United-high level of 1.85 and consumer of refined copper, accounting for 19% and 22%, million metric tons

  20. OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fields (in-situ Combustion Approach; M. V. Kök; G. Guner; S. Bagci?

    Seyitömer, Himmeto?lu and Hat?lda? oil shale deposits. The results demonstrate that these oil shales are

  1. An Application of Sequence Stratigraphy in Modelling Oil Yield Distribution: The Stuart Oil Shale Deposit, Queensland, Australia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, Graham John

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The Stuart Oil Shale Deposit is a major oil shale resource located near Gladstone on the central Queensland coast. It contains an estimated 3.0 billion… (more)

  2. Estimates of future regional heavy oil production at three production rates--background information for assessing effects in the US refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications from a project considering the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degree} to 20{degree} API gravity inclusive) production being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The report includes projections of future heavy oil production at three production levels: 900,000; 500,000; and 300,000 BOPD above the current 1992 heavy oil production level of 750,000 BOPD. These free market scenario projections include time frames and locations. Production projections through a second scenario were developed to examine which heavy oil areas would be developed if significant changes in the US petroleum industry occurred. The production data helps to define the possible constraints (impact) of increased heavy oil production on the US refining industry (the subject of a future report). Constraints include a low oil price and low rate of return. Heavy oil has high production, transportation, and refining cost per barrel as compared to light oil. The resource is known, but the right mix of technology and investment is required to bring about significant expansion of heavy oil production in the US.

  3. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a novel alkaline-steam well completion technique for the containment of the unconsolidated formation sands and control of fluid entry and injection profiles. (5) Installation of a 2100 ft, 14 inch insulated, steam line beneath a harbor channel to supply steam to an island location. (6) Testing and proposed application of thermal recovery technologies to increase oil production and reserves: (a) Performing pilot tests of cyclic steam injection and production on new horizontal wells. (b) Performing pilot tests of hot water-alternating-steam (WAS) drive in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Perform a pilot steamflood with the four horizontal injectors and producers using a pseudo steam-assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process. (8) Advanced reservoir management, through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring and evaluation.

  4. Canadian Oil Sands: Canada's Energy Advantage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    crude oil production, global energy demand, the estimated reserves and resources at Syncrude, views that the world will need oil for decades to come, the expectations regarding oil sands productive capacityCanadian Oil Sands: Canada's Energy Advantage 0 #12;Forward looking information 1 In the interest

  5. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and income on energy and oil demand. Energy Journal, 23(1):scenario, with demand and conventional oil endowment set toPrice elasticity of demand for crude oil: estimates for 23

  6. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arjun B. Chhetri; Martin S. Tango; Suzanne M. Budge; K. Chris Watts

    Abstract: Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L.) are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1 % free FA, 84.43 % triglycerides, 4.88 % sterol and 1.59 % others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14 % free FA, approximately 5 % higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85 % unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80 % unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97 % conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil.

  7. Peak Oil and REMI PI+: State Fiscal Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    , nation, and states) · Shale oil not included ­ Shale oil reserve estimates 2.0 Trillion bbls in USPeak Oil and REMI PI+: State Fiscal Implications Jim Peach Arrowhead Center Prosper Project is peak oil? · Why peak oil (and gas) matters ­ (In energy and non-energy states) ­ National Real GDP

  8. Recoverable Robust Knapsacks: ?-Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    width capacity to be partitioned among the users in the area covered by the antenna. ..... instances were generated for 51 antennas with 15 to 221 traffic nodes ( ...

  9. Table 17. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing U.S. Mines by Mine Production Range and Mine Type,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystallineForeign ObjectOUR Table 1. Summary statisticsRecoverable Coal

  10. Weathering and the Fallout Plume of Heavy Oil from Strong Petroleum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    , transportation, and use of heavier oils (1). One concern stemming from increased offshore oil activityWeathering and the Fallout Plume of Heavy Oil from Strong Petroleum Seeps Near Coal Oil Point, CA C://pubs.acs.org/est. The Coal Oil Point (COP) seeps offshore Goleta, CA, are estimated to release 20-25 tons of oil daily

  11. Canadian Oil Sands: Canada An Emerging Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    of the oil sands over the next 25 years. The use of the term "reserves" in the global context is really, royalty and regulatory regimes and the accuracy of the estimates of Canadian Oil Sands' reserves volumes1 Canadian Oil Sands: Canada ­ An Emerging Energy Superpower 0 University of Alberta February 8

  12. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  13. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  14. FOREST FIRES AND OIL FIELDS AS PERCOLATION PHENOMENA.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, W.J.

    size distribution model for estimating oil reserves and for use in forest management under the `natural estimates of oil reserves, and be of use for ecosystem based forest management under the `naturalFOREST FIRES AND OIL FIELDS AS PERCOLATION PHENOMENA. William J. Reed #3; JUNE, 1999. Abstract

  15. Mexico’s Deteriorating Oil Outlook: Implications and Energy Options for the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No. 8: David Shields, Mexico’s Deteriorating Oil Outlook:years. Estimating oil reserves in Mexico has long been aof as yet unproven oil reserves in Mexico’s part of the

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - abandoned in-situ oil Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...33 10. In-situ shale-oil resources of some world oil-shale deposits... in 33 countries are estimated at 409 billion tons of in-situ shale oil,...

  17. Dobson Butte field, Williston basin, Stark County, North Dakota: nontypical oil production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, W.J.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dobson Butte field (T139N, R96W), Stark County, North Dakota, was discovered in 1982 following a detailed seismic program. Production is primarily from a structural trap in the Interlake Formation of Silurian age. Three oil wells are presently producing from a dolomite reservoir at about 11,000 ft in depth. Primary recoverable reserves of these three producing wells is calculated to be about 2 million bbl of oil. Additional reserves will come from further development of the Interlake reservoir as well as from the deeper Red River (Ordovician) Formation. The Dobson Butte field is a nontypical oil field within the Williston basin as to its high pour point oil (90/sup 0/F), high production water cuts (85-95%), lack of good oil shows in samples, unpredictable noncontinuous oil-producing reservoirs throughout the entire 600-ft Interlake Formation, difficulty in log interpretations, and difficulty in determining the source bed. The interpretation of these nontypical characteristics of Interlake oil production in the Dobson Butte field compared to other Interlake oil production within the Williston basin will have a profound effect upon future Interlake exploration.

  18. A Method for Estimating Undiscovered Geothermal Resources in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    was estimated using digital maps of geothermal wells, temperature gradient holes, oil wells, water wells, and depth to the water table. The resulting resource estimate does...

  19. Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

  20. ORNL/TM-2003/259 RUNNING OUT OF AND INTO OIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/TM-2003/259 RUNNING OUT OF AND INTO OIL: ANALYZING GLOBAL OIL DEPLETION AND TRANSITION THROUGH Government or any agency thereof. #12;#12;ORNL/TM-2003/259 RUNNING OUT OF AND INTO OIL: ANALYZING GLOBAL OIL ...................................................................................................................1 2. WORLD OIL RESOURCE ESTIMATES

  1. Figure 6. Projected Production for the Low Development Rate of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Low Development Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the Alaska North Slope fig6.jpg (41132...

  2. Figure 7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the Alaska North Slope fig7.jpg (43335 bytes) Source...

  3. Evaluation and Prediction of Unconventional Gas Resources in Underexplored Basins Worldwide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Kun

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    triangle concept, which implies that all natural resources, including oil and gas, are distributed log-normally. In this work, I describe a methodology to estimate values of technically recoverable resources (TRR) for unconventional gas reservoirs...

  4. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  5. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and

  6. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management, Class III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott; Phillips, Chris; Nguyen, John; Moos, Dan; Tagbor, Kwasi

    2001-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs, transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  7. Management of Oil Windfalls in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Historical Experience And; Stephen Everhart; Robert Duval-hernandez

    this paper to estimate oil windfalls follows Bevan et al (1992). The exercise is done using national accounts statistics, employing the national income identity, R I C NO O Y + + = + = (1) where total production (Y) can be divided in oil (O) and non-oil (NO) production, that equals the gross domestic expenditure (GDE), formed by consumption (C) and investment (I), plus the resource balance (R)

  8. Estimation of resources and reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the economics of resource and reserve estimation. Current concern about energy problems has focused attention on how we measure available energy resources. One reads that we have an eight-year oil ...

  9. Table 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prices," source for backcast estimates prior to January 1983. 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices 36 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996...

  10. Table 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prices," source for backcast estimates prior to January 1983. 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices 36 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997...

  11. CRUDE OIL PRICE SHOCKS AND GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Jordan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This study uses ordinary least squares estimation to test multivariate models in order to find out whether or not crude oil price shocks are contractionary… (more)

  12. Applying Bayesian Forecasting to Predict New Customers' Heating Oil Demand.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakauchi, Tsuginosuke

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis presents a new forecasting technique that estimates energy demand by applying a Bayesian approach to forecasting. We introduce our Bayesian Heating Oil Forecaster… (more)

  13. Bioconversion of Heavy oil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinbakk, Sandra

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??70 % of world?s oil reservoirs consist of heavy oil, and as the supply of conventional oil decreases, researchers are searching for new technologies to… (more)

  14. 5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    5 World Oil Trends Chapter 1 WORLD OIL TRENDS INTRODUCTION In considering the outlook for California's petroleum supplies, it is important to give attention to expecta- tions of what the world oil market. Will world oil demand increase and, if so, by how much? How will world oil prices be affected

  15. Numerical simulations of the Macondo well blowout reveal strong control of oil flow by reservoir permeability and exsolution of gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for estimates of the oil and gas flow rate from the Macondoteam and carried out oil and gas flow simulations using theoil-gas system. The flow of oil and gas was simulated using

  16. The oil and gas potential of the South Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jusufzade, K.B.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For 150 years, the oil fountains of Baku have fueled the imaginations of oilmen around the world. The phrase {open_quotes}another Baku{close_quotes} often has been used to describe major new discoveries. The production of oil and gas from onshore Azerbaijan and from the shallower waters of the Caspian Sea offers tantalizing evidence for the hydrocarbon yet to be discovered. Today, the Azeri, Guneshli, and Chirag oil fields, with over four billion barrels of recoverable reserves, have refocused the attention of the petroleum industry on Baku. The rapid subsidence of the South Caspian Basin and accumulation of over 20 kilometers of Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments have resulted in that rare combination of conditions ideal for the generation and entrapment of numerous giant oil and gas accumulations. Working with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data, SOCAR geologists, geophysicists, and geochemists have identified numerous structural and stratigraphic prospects which have yet to be tested by drilling. In the South Caspian Basin, undrilled prospects remain in relatively shallow water, 200-300 meters. As these shallow-water prospects are exhausted, exploration will shift farther offshore into deeper water, 300-1000 meters. The deepwater region of the South Caspian is unquestionably prospective. Exploration and development of oil and gas fields in water depths in excess of 300 meters will require the joint efforts of international companies and the Azerbaijan petroleum enterprises. In the near future, water depth and drilling depth will not be limiting factors in the exploration of the Caspian Sea. Much work remains to be done; and much oil and gas remain to be found.

  17. War curbs oil exports by Iran and Iraq

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A discussion of the effects of the war between Iran and Iraq on oil exports from the area covers damage (extent unknown) to the Abadan, Iran, and Basra, Iraq, oil refineries, to the Iraqi petrochemical complex under construction at Basra, to oil export terminals at Kharg Island and Mina-al-Bakr, and to other oil facilities; war-caused reductions in oil production, refining, shipping, and export, estimated at 2.05-3.35 million bbl/day; the possible effects of the war on OPEC's decisions concerning oil production and pricing; the significance of the Strait of Hormuz for the export of oil by several countries in addition to the belligerents; the U.S. and non-Communist oil stocks which might enable the world to avoid an oil shortage if the war is ended in the near future; and the long-term effects of the war on Iran's and Iraq's oil industries.

  18. 2012 PRELIMINARY REPORT OF CALIFORNIA OIL AND GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012 PRELIMINARY REPORT OF CALIFORNIA OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION STATISTICS Issued April 2013 OF OIL, GAS, AND GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES Figures in this report are estimates based on ten months of production data. Final figures will be published in the 2012 Annual Report of the State Oil and Gas

  19. 2010 PRELIMINARY REPORT OF CALIFORNIA OIL AND GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 PRELIMINARY REPORT OF CALIFORNIA OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION STATISTICS Issued August 2011 DIVISION OF OIL, GAS, AND GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES Figures in this report are estimates based on ten months of production data. Final figures will be published in the 2010 Annual Report of the State Oil and Gas

  20. Hydrotreating of oil from eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scinta, J.; Garner, J.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale provides one of the major fossil energy reserves for the United States. The quantity of reserves in oil shale is less than the quantity in coal, but is much greater (by at least an order of magnitude) than the quantity of crude oil reserves. With so much oil potentially available from oil shale, efforts have been made to develop techniques for its utilization. In these efforts, hydrotreating has proved to be an acceptable technique for upgrading raw shale oil to make usuable products. The present work demonstrated the use of the hydrotreating technique for upgrading an oil from Indiana New Albany oil shale.

  1. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 012139 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing nuclear reactors in the United States. With the added variable electricity production to enable renewables, additional nuclear capacity would be required. (authors)

  2. Petroleum resources of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of the total recoverable crude oil from Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Thailand (Thailand is not currently an exporter of petroleum but is included because of its proximity to the South China Sea and its high petroleum potential). Also included is an analysis of potential future rates at which these resources could enter into world markets. However, this analysis does not take into account the possible supply of recoverable resources from nonconventional deposits such as tar sands and oil shale.

  3. Jordan ships oil shale to China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jordan and China have signed an agreement to develop oil shale processing technology that could lead to a 200 ton/day oil shale plant in Jordan. China will process 1200 tons of Jordanian oil shale at its Fu Shun refinery. If tests are successful, China could build the demonstration plant in Jordan's Lajjun region, where the oil shale resource is estimated at 1.3 billion tons. China plans to send a team to Jordan to conduct a plant design study. A Lajjun oil shale complex could produce as much as 50,000 b/d of shale oil. An earlier 500 ton shipment of shale is said to have yielded promising results.

  4. Near Shore Submerged Oil Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, submerged oil refers to near shore oil which has picked up sediments You Should Know About Submerged Oil 1. Submerged oil is relatively uncommon: DWH oil is a light crude

  5. Development of a description method for the Yowlumne Unit "A" reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, James Walter

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Identification From Wireline Logs And Core Data. . . . . . . . 24 Shale Volume Determination. . . . . . 32 Water Saturations . . . . . . 35 Results from Log Analysis. Page 36 OIL IN PLACE ESTIMATES . . . . 46 Contouring Methods. . . 46 Discussion... of Mapping-Contouring System (MCS). . . . 46 Volumetric Integration of Zones. . . 48 Discussion of the Original Oil in Place Estimates . . . 86 Estimates of Recoverable Reserves from Current Operations . . . . . 89 ALLOCATION OF WATER INJECTION...

  6. Oil spill response resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muthukrishnan, Shankar

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. TABLE OF CONTENTS . . Vn INTRODUCTION. . Oil Pollution Act. Oil Spill Response Equipment . . OB JECTIVES . 12 LITERATURE REVIEW. United States Contingency Plan. . Response Resources Definition of Clean in Context to an Oil Spill. Oil... this fitle. Title IV expands federal authority in managing oil spill clean up operations and amends the provisions for oil spill clean up under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. It also called for Oil spill plans for vessels and facilities starting...

  7. State of heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    California is unique in the United States because it has the largest heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees}API gravity) resource, estimated to be in excess of 40 billion barrels. Of the current 941,543 barrels/day of oil produced in California (14% of the U.S. total), 70% or 625,312 barrels/day is heavy oil. Heavy oil constituted only 20% of California`s oil production in the early 1940s, but development of thermal oil production technology in the 1960s allowed the heavy industry to grow and prosper to the point where by the mid-1980s, heavy oil constituted 70% of the state`s oil production. Similar to the rest of the United States, light oil production in the Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Region, and San Joaquin Valley peaked and then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Unlike other states, California developed a heavy oil industry that replaced declining light oil production and increased the states total oil production, despite low heavy oil prices, stringent environmental regulations and long and costly delays in developing known oil resources. California`s deep conversion refineries process the nation`s highest sulfur, lowest API gravity crude to make the cleanest transportation fuels available. More efficient vehicles burning cleaner reformulated fuels have significantly reduced the level of ozone precursors (the main contributor to California`s air pollution) and have improved air quality over the last 20 years. In a state where major oil companies dominate, the infrastructure is highly dependent on the 60% of ANS production being refined in California, and California`s own oil production. When this oil is combined with the small volume of imported crude, a local surplus of marketed oil exists that inhibits exploitation of California`s heavy oil resources. As ANS production declines, or if the export restrictions on ANS sales are lifted, a window of opportunity develops for increased heavy oil production.

  8. New Demand for Old Food: the U.S. Demand for Olive Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo Xiong; William Matthews; Daniel Sumner

    U.S. consumption of olive oil has tripled over the past twenty years, but nearly all olive oil continues to be imported. Estimation of demand parameters using monthly import data reveals that demand for non-virgin oil is income inelastic, but virgin oils have income elasticities above one. Moreover, demand for oils differentiated by origin and quality is price-elastic. These olive oils are highly substitutable with each other but not with other vegetable oils. News about the health and culinary benefits of olive oil and the spread of Mediterranean diet contribute significantly to the rising demand in the United States.

  9. PREDICTIVE MODELS. Enhanced Oil Recovery Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, R.M. [DOE Bartlesville Energy Technology Technology Center, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    PREDICTIVE MODELS is a collection of five models - CFPM, CO2PM, ICPM, PFPM, and SFPM - used in the 1982-1984 National Petroleum Council study of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Each pertains to a specific EOR process designed to squeeze additional oil from aging or spent oil fields. The processes are: 1 chemical flooding, where soap-like surfactants are injected into the reservoir to wash out the oil; 2 carbon dioxide miscible flooding, where carbon dioxide mixes with the lighter hydrocarbons making the oil easier to displace; 3 in-situ combustion, which uses the heat from burning some of the underground oil to thin the product; 4 polymer flooding, where thick, cohesive material is pumped into a reservoir to push the oil through the underground rock; and 5 steamflood, where pressurized steam is injected underground to thin the oil. CFPM, the Chemical Flood Predictive Model, models micellar (surfactant)-polymer floods in reservoirs, which have been previously waterflooded to residual oil saturation. Thus, only true tertiary floods are considered. An option allows a rough estimate of oil recovery by caustic or caustic-polymer processes. CO2PM, the Carbon Dioxide miscible flooding Predictive Model, is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO2 injection or water-alternating gas processes. ICPM, the In-situ Combustion Predictive Model, computes the recovery and profitability of an in-situ combustion project from generalized performance predictive algorithms. PFPM, the Polymer Flood Predictive Model, is switch-selectable for either polymer or waterflooding, and an option allows the calculation of the incremental oil recovery and economics of polymer relative to waterflooding. SFPM, the Steamflood Predictive Model, is applicable to the steam drive process, but not to cyclic steam injection (steam soak) processes.

  10. Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  11. Cost of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Tishchishyna, N.I.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  12. Knowledge-based Scienti c Discovery in Geological Databases Cen Li and Gautam Biswas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is be- coming crucial in oil exploration and production. It is common knowledge in the oil industry/geological data from production wells and exploration sites, and then organizing them into large databases. Can estimates of oil and gas reserves ?" In qualitative terms, good recoverable reserves have high hydrocarbon

  13. Crude Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOilCompanyexcluding taxes)Countries0 0 0 0 0

  14. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    business of having some oil in inventory, which is referredKnowledge of all the oil going into inventory today for salebe empty, because inventories of oil are essential for the

  15. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

  16. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

  17. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait,day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.and the peak in U.S. oil production account for the broad

  18. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton Junedirectly. Understanding Crude Oil Prices* James D. Hamilton

  19. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crudein predicting quarterly real oil price change. variable real

  20. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq KuwaitEIA Table 1.2, “OPEC Crude Oil Production (Excluding Lease2008, from EIA, “Crude Oil Production. ” Figure 16. U.S.

  1. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

  2. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline,” NBER Working Paper.2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),

  3. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capability to secure oil transport security. Additionally,international oil agreements: 1) ensuring energy security;security, and many argue that as the second-largest consumer of oil

  4. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China made an Iranian oil investment valued at $70 billion.across Iran, China’s oil investment may exceed $100 billionthese involving investment in oil and gas, really undermine

  5. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007”. comparison, Mexico used 6.6— Chinese oil consumption17. Oil production from the North Sea, Mexico’s Cantarell,Mexico, Italy, France, Canada, US, and UK. Figure 10. Historical Chinese oil

  6. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by this point, China’s demand Oil Demand vs. Domestic Supplycurrent pace of growth in oil demand as staying consistentand predictions of oil supply and demand affected foreign

  7. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.in the supply or demand for oil itself could be regarded as

  8. Aggregation and transport kinetics of crude oil and sediment in estuarine waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterling, Michael Conroy, Jr.

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling the transport and fate of spilled crude oil is important for estimating short and long-term toxicity effects in coastal ecosystems. This research project investigates the partitioning of hydrocarbons from a surface crude oil slick...

  9. Staking claims to China's borderland : oil, ores and statebuilding in Xinjiang Province, 1893-1964

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinzley, Judd Creighton; Kinzley, Judd Creighton

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China’s oil and natural gas reserves and “they were not tos total and natural gas reserves estimated at one quarter ofreserves in 1935; that same year, another team investigated the oil and gas

  10. An extension of Pedersen's viscosity model for saturated black oil systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adejuwon, Adeyemi

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a modification of Pedersen's corresponding states compositional viscosity model for black oil systems when no compositional data are available. This new model provides better estimates for oil viscosity than previously existing...

  11. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Performance Evaluation - First Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zirker, L.R.; Francfort, J.E.

    2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the initial activities to evaluate the performance of the oil bypass filter technology being tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass systems from the puraDYN Corporation. Each bus averages about 60,000 miles a year. The evaluation includes an oil analysis regime to monitor the presence of necessary additives in the oil and to detect undesirable contaminants. Very preliminary economic analysis suggests that the oil bypass system can reduce life-cycle costs. As the evaluation continues and oil avoidance costs are quantified, it is estimated that the bypass system economics may prove increasingly favorable, given the anticipated savings in operational costs and in reduced use of oil and waste oil avoidance.

  12. Oil Bypass Filter Technology Performance Evaluation - January 2003 Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurence R. Zirker; James E. Francfort

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the initial activities to evaluate the performance of the oil bypass filter technology being tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass systems from the puraDYN Corporation. Each bus averages about 60,000 miles a year. The evaluation includes an oil analysis regime to monitor the presence of necessary additives in the oil and to detect undesirable contaminants. Very preliminary economic analysis suggests that the oil bypass system can reduce life-cycle costs. As the evaluation continues and oil avoidance costs are quantified, it is estimated that the bypass system economics may prove increasingly favorable, given the anticipated savings in operational costs and in reduced use of oil and waste oil avoidance.

  13. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007”. comparison, Mexico used 6.6— Chinese oil consumption17. Oil production from the North Sea, Mexico’s Cantarell,

  14. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  15. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  16. Fish exposed to BP oil spill 'swim slower' Study finds the speed of mahi-mahi exposed to BP's Gulf of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosell, Martin

    of Mexico oil spill has fallen 37pc The 87-day-long spill dumped an estimated 4.9m barrels of oil of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Researchers said they used oil concentrations similar to those measuredFish exposed to BP oil spill 'swim slower' Study finds the speed of mahi-mahi exposed to BP's Gulf

  17. Estimating Methods

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the project's scope, the purpose of the estimate, and the availability of estimating resources, the estimator can choose one or a combination of techniques when estimating an activity or project. Estimating methods, estimating indirect and direct costs, and other estimating considerations are discussed in this chapter.

  18. The Bayou Choctaw Oil Shipment Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, S.J.; Ballard, S.; Barker, G.T.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early October of 1993, an oil shipment of about 1 million barrels was made from the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility to St. James Terminal. During the shipment, oil temperatures and soil temperatures along the pipeline were recorded. The field data were used to make estimations of soil thermal properties, thermal conductivity and specific heat. These data were also used to validate and calibrate a heat transfer code, OILPIP, which has been used to calculate pipeline cooling of oil during a drawdown.

  19. Assessment of Alaska's North Slope Oil Field Capacity to Sequester CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umekwe, Pascal, E-mail: wpascals@gmail.com [Baker Hughes (United States)] [Baker Hughes (United States); Mongrain, Joanna, E-mail: Joanna.Mongrain@shell.com [Shell International Exploration and Production Co (United States)] [Shell International Exploration and Production Co (United States); Ahmadi, Mohabbat, E-mail: mahmadi@alaska.edu [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Petroleum Engineering Department (United States)] [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Petroleum Engineering Department (United States); Hanks, Catherine, E-mail: chanks@gi.alaska.edu [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute (United States)] [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute (United States)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The capacity of 21 major fields containing more than 95% of the North Slope of Alaska's oil were investigated for CO{sub 2} storage by injecting CO{sub 2} as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agent. These fields meet the criteria for the application of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}-EOR methods and contain about 40 billion barrels of oil after primary and secondary recovery. Volumetric calculations from this study indicate that these fields have a static storage capacity of 3 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2}, assuming 100% oil recovery, re-pressurizing the fields to pre-fracturing pressure and applying a 50% capacity reduction to compensate for heterogeneity and for water invasion from the underlying aquifer. A ranking produced from this study, mainly controlled by field size and fracture gradient, identifies Prudhoe, Kuparuk, and West Sak as possessing the largest storage capacities under a 20% safety factor on pressures applied during storage to avoid over-pressurization, fracturing, and gas leakage. Simulation studies were conducted using CO{sub 2} Prophet to determine the amount of oil technically recoverable and CO{sub 2} gas storage possible during this process. Fields were categorized as miscible, partially miscible, and immiscible based on the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with their oil. Seven sample fields were selected across these categories for simulation studies comparing pure CO{sub 2} and water-alternating-gas injection. Results showed that the top two fields in each category for recovery and CO{sub 2} storage were Alpine and Point McIntyre (miscible), Prudhoe and Kuparuk (partially miscible), and West Sak and Lisburne (immiscible). The study concludes that 5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} can be stored while recovering 14.2 billion barrels of the remaining oil.

  20. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  1. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  2. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption would be reduced and incentives for production increased whenever the price of crude oil

  3. Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Spillane

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

  4. PREDICTIVE MODELS. Enhanced Oil Recovery Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, R.M. [DOE Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    PREDICTIVE MODELS is a collection of five models - CFPM, CO2PM, ICPM, PFPM, and SFPM - used in the 1982-1984 National Petroleum Council study of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Each pertains to a specific EOR process designed to squeeze additional oil from aging or spent oil fields. The processes are: 1 chemical flooding; 2 carbon dioxide miscible flooding; 3 in-situ combustion; 4 polymer flooding; and 5 steamflood. CFPM, the Chemical Flood Predictive Model, models micellar (surfactant)-polymer floods in reservoirs, which have been previously waterflooded to residual oil saturation. Thus, only true tertiary floods are considered. An option allows a rough estimate of oil recovery by caustic or caustic-polymer processes. CO2PM, the Carbon Dioxide miscible flooding Predictive Model, is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO2 injection or water-alternating gas processes. ICPM, the In-situ Combustion Predictive Model, computes the recovery and profitability of an in-situ combustion project from generalized performance predictive algorithms. PFPM, the Polymer Flood Predictive Model, is switch-selectable for either polymer or waterflooding, and an option allows the calculation of the incremental oil recovery and economics of polymer relative to waterflooding. SFPM, the Steamflood Predictive Model, is applicable to the steam drive process, but not to cyclic steam injection (steam soak) processes. The IBM PC/AT version includes a plotting capability to produces a graphic picture of the predictive model results.

  5. Oil Flow Rale Problem Behler, David D 0 McNutt, Marcia K 05/23/201001 :04 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleskes, Joe

    Oil Flow Rale Problem t Behler, David D 0 McNutt, Marcia K 05/23/201001 :04 PM Marcia - just some thoughts on the oil flow rate problem. Over the past few weeks, it's become apparent that the oil flow rate it's best to frame a range of estimated oil flow rates and refine the range over time as the tools

  6. A New Market for an Old Food: the U.S. Demand for Olive Oil , Daniel Sumner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    A New Market for an Old Food: the U.S. Demand for Olive Oil Bo Xiong , Daniel Sumner , William olive oil continues to be imported. Estimation of a demand system using monthly import data reveals that the income elasticity for virgin oils sourced from EU is above one, but demand for non-virgin oils is income

  7. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  8. Heavy oil production from Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S.M.; Olsen, D.K. [NIPER/BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Thomas, C.P. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    North Slope of Alaska has an estimated 40 billion barrels of heavy oil and bitumen in the shallow formations of West Sak and Ugnu. Recovering this resource economically is a technical challenge for two reasons: (1) the geophysical environment is unique, and (2) the expected recovery is a low percentage of the oil in place. The optimum advanced recovery process is still undetermined. Thermal methods would be applicable if the risks of thawing the permafrost can be minimized and the enormous heat losses reduced. Use of enriched natural gas is a probable recovery process for West Sak. Nearby Prudhoe Bay field is using its huge natural gas resources for pressure maintenance and enriched gas improved oil recovery (IOR). Use of carbon dioxide is unlikely because of dynamic miscibility problems. Major concerns for any IOR include close well spacing and its impact on the environment, asphaltene precipitation, sand production, and fines migration, in addition to other more common production problems. Studies have indicated that recovering West Sak and Lower Ugnu heavy oil is technically feasible, but its development has not been economically viable so far. Remoteness from markets and harsh Arctic climate increase production costs relative to California heavy oil or Central/South American heavy crude delivered to the U.S. Gulf Coast. A positive change in any of the key economic factors could provide the impetus for future development. Cooperation between the federal government, state of Alaska, and industry on taxation, leasing, and permitting, and an aggressive support for development of technology to improve economics is needed for these heavy oil resources to be developed.

  9. Property description and fact-finding report for NPR-3 Natrona County, Wyoming. Addendum to 22 August 1996 study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Natrona County, Wyoming. The report that follows is the Phase I fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America owns 100 percent of the mineral rights and surface rights in 9,321-acre NPR-3. This property comprises the Teapot Dome oil field and related production, processing and other facilities. Discovered in 1914, this field has 632 wells producing 1,807 barrels of oil per day. Production revenues are about $9.5 million per year. Remaining recoverable reserves are approximately 1.3 million barrels of oil. Significant plugging and abandonment (P&A) and environmental liabilities are present.

  10. Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence: 2005 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    For thirty years, dependence on oil has been a significant problem for the United States. Oil dependence is not simply a matter of how much oil we import. It is a syndrome, a combination of the vulnerability of the U.S. economy to higher oil prices and oil price shocks and a concentration of world oil supplies in a small group of oil producing states that are willing and able to use their market power to influence world oil prices. Although there are vitally important political and military dimensions to the oil dependence problem, this report focuses on its direct economic costs. These costs are the transfer of wealth from the United States to oil producing countries, the loss of economic potential due to oil prices elevated above competitive market levels, and disruption costs caused by sudden and large oil price movements. Several enhancements have been made to methods used in past studies to estimate these costs, and estimates of key parameters have been updated based on the most recent literature. It is estimated that oil dependence has cost the U.S. economy $3.6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars) since 1970, with the bulk of the losses occurring between 1979 and 1986. However, if oil prices in 2005 average $35-$45/bbl, as recently predicted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, oil dependence costs in 2005 will be in the range of $150-$250 billion. Costs are relatively evenly divided between the three components. A sensitivity analysis reflecting uncertainty about all the key parameters required to estimate oil dependence costs suggests that a reasonable range of uncertainty for the total costs of U.S. oil dependence over the past 30 years is $2-$6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars). Reckoned in terms of present value using a discount rate of 4.5%, the costs of U.S. oil dependence since 1970 are $8 trillion, with a reasonable range of uncertainty of $5 to $13 trillion.

  11. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philp; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  12. AN ENGINE OIL LIFE ALGORITHM.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bommareddi, Anveshan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??An oil-life algorithm to calculate the remaining percentage of oil life is presented as a means to determine the right time to change the oil… (more)

  13. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is described below. Data Crude oil production data is fromproductivity measure is crude oil production per worker, andwhich is measured as crude oil production per worker, is

  14. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Venezuelan Oil Industry Total Wells Drilled and InvestmentWells Drilled and Investment in the Venezuelan Oil Industryopenness of the oil sector to foreign investment contributes

  15. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Venezuela with Mexico, another major oil pro- ducing countryOil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . .

  16. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . .2.6: Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico 350 Productivity

  17. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at which unconventional oil production can be expanded, and the rate of growth of reserves and enhanced recovery. Analysis based on data produced by Campbell indicates that the peak of non-Middle East production will occur before 2010. For total world conventional oil production, the results indicate a peak somewhere between 2020 and 2050. Key determinants of the peak in world oil production are the rate at which the Middle East region expands its output and the minimum reserves-to-production ratios producers will tolerate. Once world conventional oil production peaks, first oil sands and heavy oil from Canada, Venezuela and Russia, and later some other source such as shale oil from the United States must expand if total world oil consumption is to continue to increase. Alternative sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal or natural gas are also possible resources but not considered in this analysis nor is the possibility of transition to a hydrogen economy. These limitations were adopted to simplify the transition analysis. Inspection of the paths of conventional oil production indicates that even if world oil production does not peak before 2020, output of conventional oil is likely to increase at a substantially slower rate after that date. The implication is that there will have to be increased production of unconventional oil after that date if world petroleum consumption is to grow.

  18. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  19. Bitumen and heavy-oil resources of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crysdale, B.L.; Schenk, C.J.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bitumen and heavy-oil deposits represent a significant hydrocarbon resource in the US. Bitumen deposits (10/sup 0/ API) are located in sandstone reservoirs at or near the surface along the margins of sedimentary basins. Heavy oils (10/sup 0/-20/sup 0/ API) are found predominantly in geologically young (Tertiary age and younger) shallow sandstone reservoirs and along the margins of sedimentary basins. Bitumen and heavy oil have high viscosities (10,000 cp for bitumen, 100-10,000 cp for heavy oil) and cannot be recovered by conventional recovery methods. Bitumen deposits have been evaluated in 17 states. The total bitumen resource for the conterminous US is estimated to be 57 billion bbl. Utah contains the largest resource, estimated to be 29 billion bbl, followed by California with 9 billion bbl, Alabama with 6 billion, Texas with 5 billion, and Kentucky with 3 billion. Heavy-oil deposits have been evaluated in 16 states, but most heavy oil is in California, Texas, and Arkansas. Total heavy oil in place for the conterminous US is estimated to be approximately 45 billion bbl; greater than 80% of this amount is in California. The giant Kuparuk deposit on the North Slope of Alaska contains a heavy oil-bitumen resource estimated as high as 40 billion bbl.

  20. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  1. Libyan oil industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddams, F.C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three aspects of the growth and progress of Libya's oil industry since the first crude oil discovery in 1961 are: (1) relations between the Libyan government and the concessionary oil companies; (2) the impact of Libyan oil and events in Libya on the petroleum markets of Europe and the world; and (3) the response of the Libyan economy to the development of its oil industry. The historical review begins with Libya's becoming a sovereign nation in 1951 and traces its subsequent development into a position as a leading world oil producer. 54 references, 10 figures, 55 tables.

  2. Essays on oil price shocks and financial markets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jiayue

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is composed of three chapters, which can be read independently. The first chapter investigates how oil price volatility affects the investment decisions for a panel of Japanese firms. The model is estimated ...

  3. The value of United States oil and gas reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of this research is to estimate a time series, starting in 1979, for the value of in-ground oil reserves and natural gas reserves in the United States. Relatively good statistics exist for the physical quantities. ...

  4. 155The Great Gulf Oil Catastrophe of 2010 NASA's Terra satellite flew over the Deepwater Horizon rig's oil spill in the Gulf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rig's oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on Saturday, May 1 and captured the above natural-color image of Mexico. NOAA's estimated release rate of oil spilling into the Gulf is 200,000 gallons per day since/meter 2 ? B) kg/meter 2 ? Problem 4 ­ The density of crude oil is about D=850 kg/m 3 . From your estimate

  5. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule1, and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description...

  6. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule, and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description of...

  7. REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appanna, Vasu

    , the majority of applied microbiologi- cal methods of enhanced oil recovery also dete- riorates oil and appearsREVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived products: a review Natalia A. Yemashova January 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil

  8. Re: AVIRIS oil volumes, preliminary ~ Victor F Labson 0 Marcia K McNutt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleskes, Joe

    History: Marcia, Re: AVIRIS oil volumes, preliminary ~ t Victor F Labson 0 Marcia K McNutt Cc of the amount afthe sea-surface oil covered by AVIRIS on May 17 from 10% to 15% which would change your estimate based on numbers from the Coast Guard and Incident Command. The a mount of oil burned up t o May 17

  9. Business Cycle Effects on Metal and Oil Prices: Understanding the Price Retreat of 2008-9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Business Cycle Effects on Metal and Oil Prices: Understanding the Price Retreat of 2008 of macroeconomic business cycles on six metals traded on the London Metal Exchange and oil prices. Reduced GDP oil prices (as a proxy for energy inputs in metals production) are derived. The estimated trend

  10. OIL AND FISHERIES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO Ashley McCrea-Strub*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Daniel

    473 OIL AND FISHERIES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO Ashley McCrea-Strub* and Daniel Pauly** I. INTRODUCTION known oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem (LME).1 Characterized by an extensive originated in the Gulf of Mexico.3 Estimates of the quantity of oil, natural gas and associated methane

  11. Iraq: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that no reliable information on Iraqi E and P operations and only a few reports on oil field facilities damage have been available since last August. Most of what is known originated from the Middle East Economic Survey (MEES), the authoritative newsletter covering the Middle East. According to MEES reports in major northern oil fields (Kirkuk, Bai Hasan and Jambur) is put at 800,000 bpd. The northern fields and the pipeline system through Turkey to the Mediterranean Sea that serves as an export outlet for the area apparently were not damaged much by coalition air strikes or subsequent fighting by the Kurds. Last May production was estimated at 250,000 bpd, presumably from northern fields. If and when U.N. sanctions are lifted, Iraq should be able to export promptly through the Turkish line.

  12. Using Oils As Pesticides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott; Metz, Bradley

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum and plant-derived spray oils show increasing potential for use as part of Integrated Pest Management systems for control of soft-bodied pests on fruit trees, shade trees, woody ornamentals and household plants. Sources of oils, preparing...

  13. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    Metals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics, exploration and development including drilling for petroleum and geothermal resources, discoveries of ore

  14. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an alternative investment strategy to buying oil today andinvestments necessary to catch up. This was the view o?ered by oilinvestment strategy. date t) in order to purchase a quantity Q barrels of oil

  15. Gas and Oil (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...

  16. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    21, 2008. Ying, Wang. “ China, Venezuela firms to co-developApril 21, “China and Venezuela sign oil agreements. ” Chinaaccessed April 21, “Venezuela and China sign oil deal. ” BBC

  17. Oil Sands Feedstocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NCUT National Centre for Upgrading Technology 'a Canada-Alberta alliance for bitumen and heavy oil research' Oil Sands Feedstocks C Fairbridge, Z Ring, Y Briker, D Hager National...

  18. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Whillhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmed; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  19. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  20. Table 17. Estimated natural gas plant liquids and dry natural gas content of total wet natural gas proved reserves, 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystallineForeign ObjectOUR Table 1. Summary statisticsRecoverableEstimated

  1. Evaluation of electromagnetic stimulation of Texas heavy oil reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doublet, Louis Edward

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - Iil Z LLI ) I- O LI III ) D- Z 00 + 0 CI z 0 I- U CI 0 K 0. CI D VERTICAL HEAT LOSS tt44 OVERBURDEN FLUID FLOW CONVECTION CONDUCTION P= Pe T=Te VERTICAL HEAT LOSS ~ ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE Fig. 2 ? Schematic View of EMH Process 12... The ProPerties that affected the heated oil production rate the most were initial oil viscosity, formation ~ility, drainage radius, p~e drop, and ~ture. The heated oil prcduction rate estimation equation was applied to 80 Texas heavy oil ~irs to de...

  2. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  3. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

  4. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing an 2400 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  5. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  6. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  7. Manufacture of refrigeration oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesluk, R.P.; Platte, H.J.; Sequeira, A.J.

    1981-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Lubricating oils suitable for use in refrigeration equipment in admixture with fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants are produced by solvent extraction of naphthenic lubricating oil base stocks, cooling the resulting extract mixture, optionally with the addition of a solvent modifier, to form a secondary raffinate and a secondary extract, and recovering a dewaxed oil fraction of lowered pour point from the secondary raffinate as a refrigeration oil product. The process of the invention obviates the need for a separate dewaxing operation, such as dewaxing with urea, as conventionally employed for the production of refrigeration oils.

  8. Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

  9. Investigation and development of alternative methods for shale oil processing and analysis. Final technical report, October 1979--April 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R.A.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale, a carbonaceous rock which occurs abundantly in the earth`s crust, has been investigated for many years as an alternate source of fuel oil. The insoluble organic matter contained in such shales is termed {open_quotes}Kerogen{close_quotes} from the Greek meaning oil or oil forming. The kerogen in oil shale breaks down into oil-like products when subjected to conditions simulating destructive distillation. These products have been the subject of extensive investigations by several researchers and many of the constituents of shale oil have been identified. (1) Forsman (2) estimates that the kerogen content of the earth is roughly 3 {times} 10{sup 15} tons as compared to total coal reserves of about 5 {times} 10{sup 12}. Although the current cost per barrel estimate for commercial production of shale oil is higher than that of fossil oil, as our oil reserves continue to dwindle, shale oil technology will become more and more important. When oil shale is heated, kerogen is said to undergo chemical transformation to usable oil in two steps (3): Kerogen (in oil shale) 300-500{degrees}C bitumen. Crude shale oil and other products. The crude shale oil so obtained differs from fossil oil in that: (1) kerogen is thought to have been produced from the aging of plant matter over many years; (2) shale oil has a higher nitrogen content than fossil oil; (3) non-hydrocarbons are present to a much greater extent in shale oil; and (4) the hydrocarbons in shale oil are much more unsaturated than those in fossil oil (petroleum).

  10. The Role of Inventories and Speculative Trading in the Global Market for Crude Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz Kilian; Dan Murphy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a structural model of the global market for crude oil that for the first time explicitly allows for shocks to the speculative demand for oil as well as shocks to the flow demand and flow supply. The forward-looking element of the real price of oil is identified with the help of data on oil inventories. The model estimates rule out explanations of the 2003-08 oil price surge based on unexpectedly diminishing oil supplies and based on speculative trading. Instead, we find that this surge was caused by fluctuations in the flow demand for oil driven by the global business cycle. There is evidence, however, that speculative demand shifts played an important role during earlier oil price shock episodes including 1979, 1986, and 1990. We also show that, even after accounting for the role of inventories in smoothing oil consumption, our estimate of the short-run price elasticity of oil demand is much higher than traditional estimates from dynamic models that do not account for price endogeneity. We conclude that additional regulation of oil markets would not have prevented the 2003-08 oil price surge.

  11. Carcinogenicity Studies of Estonian Oil Shale Soots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vosamae

    determine the carcinogenicity of Estonian oil shale soot as well as the soot from oil shale fuel oil. All

  12. Shale oil from the LLNL pilot retort: Metal ions as markers for water and dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coburn, T.T.; Duewer, T.I.; King, K.J.; Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal ion found primarily in one of the three phases (oil, water, or dust) can serve as a marker for that phase. Emulsified water contains most of the magnesium detected in a shale oil. Extraction with saturated salt solution removes most of that Mg. The Mg content of retort water and the percentage of water in the oil (by ASTM D-4006) provides a good estimate of an oil`s Mg content. Mineral matter elements with poorly water soluble carbonates (or oxides) at pH 8 (calcium, for example) serve as markers for dust. When the water is separated from the main and light oil fractions before adding the heavy fraction containing dust, a much drier oil can be obtained. However, when done in this way, a powder containing Ca and Si remains in the oil; it cannot be completely removed even by filtering through a 0.24-{mu} frit. Iron, and certain other transition metal ions, is quite oil soluble. Extraction with dilute nitric acid to remove basic amines reduces the Fe content of shale oil. Unlike carboxylate- complexed metal ions in crude oils, the iron in shale oil does not extract efficiently into an aqueous EDTA solution (pH 5.9). Distillation of shale oil leaves most of the iron and other metals behind in the vacuum residum. Shale oil corrodes the hottest condenser`s steel interior; this is the chief source of iron in the oil.

  13. Soviet Union oil sector outlook grows bleaker still

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the outlook for the U.S.S.R's oil sector which grows increasingly bleak and with it prospects for the Soviet economy. Plunging Soviet oil production and exports have analysts revising near term oil price outlooks, referring to the Soviet oil sector's self-destructing and Soviet oil production in a freefall. County NatWest, Washington, citing likely drops in Soviet oil production and exports (OGJ, Aug. 5, p. 16), has jumped its projected second half spot price for West Texas intermediate crude by about $2 to $22-23/bbl. Smith Barney, New York, forecasts WTI postings at $24-25/bbl this winter, largely because of seasonally strong world oil demand and the continued collapse in Soviet oil production. It estimates the call on oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries at more than 25 million b/d in first quarter 1992. That would be the highest level of demand for OPEC oil since 1980, Smith Barney noted.

  14. A parametric study of factors affecting oil recovery efficiency from carbon dioxide injection using a compositional reservoir model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Gregory Allen.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors Affecting Oil Recovery Estimating Oil Recovery From Carbon Dioxide Flooding 15 33 CHAPTER III ? FIELD CASE ANALYSIS 38 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 Background Laboratory Analysis Reservoir Analysis Estimates of Injection Recovery and Project... to estimate the recovery of oil from continuous injection of carbon dioxide. Finally, the results of the sensitivity analysis were compared to published laboratory and theoretical models and documented field results to test the correlation model. CHAPTER...

  15. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  16. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins cover most of the depositional basins in the Midwest and Eastern United States. These basins produce sweet, paraffinic light oil and are considered minor heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity or 100 to 100,000 cP viscosity) producers. Heavy oil occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Paleozoic Age along the perimeters of the basins in the same sediments where light oil occurs. The oil is heavy because escape of light ends, water washing of the oil, and biodegradation of the oil have occurred over million of years. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins` heavy oil fields have produced some 450,000 bbl of heavy oil of an estimated 14,000,000 bbl originally in place. The basins have been long-term, major light-oil-producing areas and are served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and with few exceptions limited volumes of sour or heavy crude oils. Since the light oil is principally paraffinic, it commands a higher price than the asphaltic heavy crude oils of California. The heavy oil that is refined in the Midwest and Eastern US is imported and refined at select refineries. Imports of crude of all grades accounts for 37 to >95% of the oil refined in these areas. Because of the nature of the resource, the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois and Michigan basins are not expected to become major heavy oil producing areas. The crude oil collection system will continue to degrade as light oil production declines. The demand for crude oil will increase pipeline and tanker transport of imported crude to select large refineries to meet the areas` liquid fuels needs.

  17. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins cover most of the depositional basins in the Midwest and Eastern United States. These basins produce sweet, paraffinic light oil and are considered minor heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity or 100 to 100,000 cP viscosity) producers. Heavy oil occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Paleozoic Age along the perimeters of the basins in the same sediments where light oil occurs. The oil is heavy because escape of light ends, water washing of the oil, and biodegradation of the oil have occurred over million of years. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins' heavy oil fields have produced some 450,000 bbl of heavy oil of an estimated 14,000,000 bbl originally in place. The basins have been long-term, major light-oil-producing areas and are served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and with few exceptions limited volumes of sour or heavy crude oils. Since the light oil is principally paraffinic, it commands a higher price than the asphaltic heavy crude oils of California. The heavy oil that is refined in the Midwest and Eastern US is imported and refined at select refineries. Imports of crude of all grades accounts for 37 to >95% of the oil refined in these areas. Because of the nature of the resource, the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois and Michigan basins are not expected to become major heavy oil producing areas. The crude oil collection system will continue to degrade as light oil production declines. The demand for crude oil will increase pipeline and tanker transport of imported crude to select large refineries to meet the areas' liquid fuels needs.

  18. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors.

  19. Cost Estimator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate in this position will serve as a senior cost and schedule estimator who is responsible for preparing life-cycle cost and schedule estimates and analyses associated with the...

  20. World Oil: Market or Mayhem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world oil market is regarded by many as a puzzle. Why are oil prices so volatile? What is OPEC and what does OPEC do? Where are oil prices headed in the long run? Is “peak oil” a genuine concern? Why did oil prices ...

  1. Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramierz, W.F.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the research project was to investigate the feasibility of the chemically assisted in situ retort method for recovering shale oil from Colorado oil shale. The chemically assisted in situ procedure uses hydrogen chloride (HCl), steam (H{sub 2}O), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at moderate pressure to recovery shale oil from Colorado oil shale at temperatures substantially lower than those required for the thermal decomposition of kerogen. The process had been previously examined under static, reaction-equilibrium conditions, and had been shown to achieve significant shale oil recoveries from powdered oil shale. The purpose of this research project was to determine if these results were applicable to a dynamic experiment, and achieve penetration into and recovery of shale oil from solid oil shale. Much was learned about how to perform these experiments. Corrosion, chemical stability, and temperature stability problems were discovered and overcome. Engineering and design problems were discovered and overcome. High recovery (90% of estimated Fischer Assay) was observed in one experiment. Significant recovery (30% of estimated Fischer Assay) was also observed in another experiment. Minor amounts of freed organics were observed in two more experiments. Penetration and breakthrough of solid cores was observed in six experiments.

  2. Oil and Gas (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...

  3. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reserves. In the data, crude oil reserve addi- tions consistForce and Proven Reserves in the Venezuelan Oil Industry .such as crude oil production, proved reserves, new reserves,

  4. Oil and Gas Production (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A State Oil and Gas Council regulates and oversees oil and gas production in Missouri, and conducts a biennial review of relevant rules and regulations. The waste of oil and gas is prohibited. This...

  5. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  6. Oil Dependence: The Value of R{ampersand}D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past quarter century the United States` dependence on oil has cost its economy on the order of $5 trillion. Oil dependence is defined as economically significant consumption of oil, given price inelastic demand in the short and long run and given the ability of the OPEC cartel to use market power to influence oil prices. Although oil prices have been lower and more stable over the past decade, OPEC still holds the majority of the world`s conventional oil resources according to the best available estimates. OPEC`s share of the world oil market is likely to grow significantly in the future,restoring much if not all of their former market power. Other than market share, the key determinants of OPEC`s market power are the long and short run price elasticities of world oil demand and supply. These elasticities depend critically on the technologies of oil supply and demand, especially the technology of energy use in transportation. Research and development can change these elasticities in fundamental ways, and given the nature of the problem,the government has an important role to play in supporting such research.

  7. HumanWildlife Interactions 8(2):284290, Fall 2014 Oil and gas impacts on Wyoming's sage-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Human­Wildlife Interactions 8(2):284­290, Fall 2014 Oil and gas impacts on Wyoming's sage- grouse: Historical impacts from oil and gas development to greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) habitat been extrapolated to estimate future oil and gas impacts in the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2010

  8. Marathon Oil Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Marine oil shale from the Shenglihe oil shale section in the Qiangtang basin, northern Tibet, China, was dated by the Re-Os technique using Carius Tube digestion, Os distillation, Re extraction by acetone and ICP-MS measure-ment. An isochron was obtained giving an age of 101±24 Ma with an initial

  9. Synthetic aircraft turbine oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, R.

    1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprising a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a polyhydroxy anthraquinone, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester and a dialkyldisulfide.

  10. Chinaâs Oil Diplomacy with Russia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Jiun-chuan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??In Chinaâs view, it is necessary to get crude oil and oil pipeline. Under Russia and China strategic partnership, China tries to obtain âlong term… (more)

  11. OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Qian; J. Wang; S. Li

    In this paper history, current status and forecast of Chinese oil shale indus-try, as well as the characteristics of some typical Chinese oil shales are given.

  12. Peak oil: diverging discursive pipelines.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doctor, Jeff

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Peak oil is the claimed moment in time when global oil production reaches its maximum rate and henceforth forever declines. It is highly controversial as… (more)

  13. Petroleum Oil | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Petroleum Oil Petroleum Oil The production of energy feedstock and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass and agricultural...

  14. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  15. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . OilEllner, ”Organized Labor in Venezuela 1958-1991: Behavior

  16. Increasing heavy oil reservers in the Wilmington oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies, technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)], Casteel, J. [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

    1997-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation.

  17. Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The freezing point of US Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large n-alkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how the n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30, and 32 ppM in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

  18. Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The freezing point of U.S. Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large nalkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how th n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30 and 32 ppm in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

  19. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Chemical flood predictive model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, R.M.; Munoz, J.D.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chemical Flood Predictive Model (CFPM) was developed by Scientific Software-Intercomp for the US Department of Energy and was used in the National Petroleum Council's (NPC) 1984 survey of US enhanced oil recovery potential (NPC, 1984). The CFPM models micellar (surfactant)-polymer (MP) floods in reservoirs which have been previously waterflooded to residual oil saturation. Thus, only true tertiary floods are considered. An option is available in the model which allows a rough estimate of oil recovery by caustic (alkaline) or caustic-polymer processes. This ''caustic'' option, added for the NPC survey, is not modeled as a separate process. Rather, the caustic and caustic-polymer oil recoveries are computed simply as 15% and 40%, respectively, of the MP oil recovery. In the CFPM, an oil rate versus time function for a single pattern is computed and the results are passed to the economic routines. To estimate multi-pattern project behavior, a pattern development schedule must be specified. After-tax cash flow is computed by combining revenues with capital costs for drilling, conversion and upgrading of wells, chemical handling costs, fixed and variable operating costs, injectant costs, depreciation, royalties, severance, state, federal, and windfall profit taxes, cost and price inflation rates, and the discount rate. A lumped parameter uncertainty routine is used to estimate risk, and allows for variation in computed project performance within an 80% confidence interval. The CFPM uses theory and the results of numerical simulation to predict MP oil recovery in five-spot patterns. Oil-bank and surfactant breakthrough and project life are determined from fractional flow theory. A Koval-type factor, based on the Dykstra-Parsons (1950) coefficient, is used to account for the effects of reservoir heterogeneity on surfactant and oil bank velocities. 18 refs., 17 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM APPROACH FOR PLAY PORTFOLIOS TO IMPROVE OIL PRODUCTION IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly Seyler; John Grube

    2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil and gas have been commercially produced in Illinois for over 100 years. Existing commercial production is from more than fifty-two named pay horizons in Paleozoic rocks ranging in age from Middle Ordovician to Pennsylvanian. Over 3.2 billion barrels of oil have been produced. Recent calculations indicate that remaining mobile resources in the Illinois Basin may be on the order of several billion barrels. Thus, large quantities of oil, potentially recoverable using current technology, remain in Illinois oil fields despite a century of development. Many opportunities for increased production may have been missed due to complex development histories, multiple stacked pays, and commingled production which makes thorough exploitation of pays and the application of secondary or improved/enhanced recovery strategies difficult. Access to data, and the techniques required to evaluate and manage large amounts of diverse data are major barriers to increased production of critical reserves in the Illinois Basin. These constraints are being alleviated by the development of a database access system using a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach for evaluation and identification of underdeveloped pays. The Illinois State Geological Survey has developed a methodology that is being used by industry to identify underdeveloped areas (UDAs) in and around petroleum reservoirs in Illinois using a GIS approach. This project utilizes a statewide oil and gas Oracle{reg_sign} database to develop a series of Oil and Gas Base Maps with well location symbols that are color-coded by producing horizon. Producing horizons are displayed as layers and can be selected as separate or combined layers that can be turned on and off. Map views can be customized to serve individual needs and page size maps can be printed. A core analysis database with over 168,000 entries has been compiled and assimilated into the ISGS Enterprise Oracle database. Maps of wells with core data have been generated. Data from over 1,700 Illinois waterflood units and waterflood areas have been entered into an Access{reg_sign} database. The waterflood area data has also been assimilated into the ISGS Oracle database for mapping and dissemination on the ArcIMS website. Formation depths for the Beech Creek Limestone, Ste. Genevieve Limestone and New Albany Shale in all of the oil producing region of Illinois have been calculated and entered into a digital database. Digital contoured structure maps have been constructed, edited and added to the ILoil website as map layers. This technology/methodology addresses the long-standing constraints related to information access and data management in Illinois by significantly simplifying the laborious process that industry presently must use to identify underdeveloped pay zones in Illinois.

  1. Selected Abstracts & Bibliography of International Oil Spill Research, through 1998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research & Development Program Electronic Bibliography

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kuwait, Middle East, oil and gas fields, oil refinery, oil waste, oil well,Equipment Kuwait Oil Co. 1991. Mideast well fire, oil spillKuwait, Persian Gulf, Saudia Arabia, Oil spill, cleanup, oil spills, crude, oil spill incidents, oil spills-pipeline, warfare, oil skimmers, oil wells,

  2. Economic appraisal of oil potential of Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.H.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An economic appraisal was made of the potential of more than 80 producing fields in the Williston basin of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. The major oil producing formations investigated were in the Mississippian, Devonian, Silurian and Ordovician. Data for the study came from field production and drilling statistics. An extrapolated oil production decline curve for a theoretical average producing well first was made for each field. The value of the total extrapolated amount of producible oil for the average well was then calculated, discounted for royalty, taxes, etc., and divided by the estimated cost for a completed producing well. This gave an estimate of the return per dollar invested. No considerations were given for exploration and land acquisition costs. The estimated return per dollar values, after posting on Williston basin geologic maps, show relative economic comparisons of producing formations and where within the basin the best economic returns can be expected.

  3. Flow Rate Estimates Qs and As Q: What is the Flow Rate Technical Group?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleskes, Joe

    to the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico be stepped up as a result of the new flow rate estimates released their initial estimate. · The first approach analyzed how much oil is on the surface of the Gulf of Mexico using,000 and 270,000 barrels of oil are on the surface of the Gulf of Mexico and that a similar amount had already

  4. New, improved equation solves for volatile oil, condensate reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, M.P. (Petroleum Recovery Research Inst., Austin, TX (United States))

    1994-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A new generalized material-balance equation (GMBE) can be applied to the full range of reservoir fluids, including volatile oil and gas condensate. The GMBE replaces the nearly 60-year-old conventional material-balance equation (CMBE). Material balance methods are routinely used by petroleum engineers to estimate reserves. The so-called straight-line methods are the most common. Two of the most popular are: P/z-plot for estimating gas reserves in a dry-gas reservoir; and Havlena and Odeh method for estimating original oil-in-place (N) and original gas-in-place (G) in a black-oil reservoir. A major shortcoming of these and other straight-line methods is that none apply to the full range of reservoir fluids and very few, if any, deal satisfactorily with volatile oil and rich gas condensate. Also, the limits of the methods are not well defined. As drilling goes deeper and more volatile oil and gas-condensate reservoirs are discovered, there is a growing need for a general straight-line method to estimate N and G. For the GMBE, no restrictions are placed on the initial fluid compositions.

  5. Imbibition assisted oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pashayev, Orkhan H.

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    analyzed in detail to investigate oil recovery during spontaneous imbibition with different types of boundary conditions. The results of these studies have been upscaled to the field dimensions. The validity of the new definition of characteristic length...

  6. Oil Market Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

  7. Production of Shale Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loper, R. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intensive pre-project feasibility and engineering studies begun in 1979 have produced an outline plan for development of a major project for production of shale oil from private lands in the Piceance Basin in western Colorado. This outline plan...

  8. Oil shale research in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianqiu, W.; Jialin, Q. (Beijing Graduate School, Petroleum Univ., Beijing (CN))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been continued efforts and new emergence in oil shale research in Chine since 1980. In this paper, the studies carried out in universities, academic, research and industrial laboratories in recent years are summarized. The research areas cover the chemical structure of kerogen; thermal behavior of oil shale; drying, pyrolysis and combustion of oil shale; shale oil upgrading; chemical utilization of oil shale; retorting waste water treatment and economic assessment.

  9. Primary oil-shale resources of the Green River Formation in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trudell, L.G.; Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Mason, G.M.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resources of potential oil in place in the Green River Formation are measured and estimated for the primary oil-shale resource area east of the Green River in Utah's Uinta Basin. The area evaluated (Ts 7-14 S, Rs 19-25 E) includes most of, and certainly the best of Utah's oil-shale resource. For resource evaluation the principal oil-shale section is divided into ten stratigraphic units which are equivalent to units previously evaluated in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. Detailed evaluation of individual oil-shale units sampled by cores, plus estimates by extrapolation into uncored areas indicate a total resource of 214 billion barrels of shale oil in place in the eastern Uinta Basin.

  10. Biocatalysis in Oil Refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Ramirez-Corredores, M. M. [BP Global Fuels Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biocatalysis in Oil Refining focuses on petroleum refining bioprocesses, establishing a connection between science and technology. The micro organisms and biomolecules examined for biocatalytic purposes for oil refining processes are thoroughly detailed. Terminology used by biologists, chemists and engineers is brought into a common language, aiding the understanding of complex biological-chemical-engineering issues. Problems to be addressed by the future R&D activities and by new technologies are described and summarized in the last chapter.

  11. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  12. Optimising the Use of Spent Oil Shale.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FOSTER, HELEN,JANE

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and high quality, and could… (more)

  13. Oil Prices and Long-Run Risk.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    READY, ROBERT

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??I show that relative levels of aggregate consumption and personal oil consumption provide anexcellent proxy for oil prices, and that high oil prices predict low… (more)

  14. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pride, S.R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic wavesbe expected to enhance oil production. INTRODUCTION The hopethe reservoir can cause oil production to increase. Quite

  15. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pride, S.R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that in a declining oil reservoir, seismic waves sent acrosswells. Because oil reservoirs are often at kilometers orproximity to the oil reservoir. Our analysis suggests there

  16. Oil shale mining studies and analyses of some potential unconventional uses for oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, H.E.; Clayson, R.L.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineering studies and literature review performed under this contract have resulted in improved understanding of oil shale mining costs, spent shale disposal costs, and potential unconventional uses for oil shale. Topics discussed include: costs of conventional mining of oil shale; a mining scenario in which a minimal-scale mine, consistent with a niche market industry, was incorporated into a mine design; a discussion on the benefits of mine opening on an accelerated schedule and quantified through discounted cash flow return on investment (DCFROI) modelling; an estimate of the costs of disposal of spent shale underground and on the surface; tabulation of potential increases in resource recovery in conjunction with underground spent shale disposal; the potential uses of oil shale as a sulfur absorbent in electric power generation; the possible use of spent shale as a soil stabilizer for road bases, quantified and evaluated for potential economic impact upon representative oil shale projects; and the feasibility of co-production of electricity and the effect of project-owned and utility-owned power generation facilities were evaluated. 24 refs., 5 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. The Economics of CO2 Transport by Pipeline and Storage in Saline Aquifers and Oil Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Economics of CO2 Transport by Pipeline and Storage in Saline Aquifers and Oil Reservoirs Sean T Description Date 0 Original document 1/29/2008 1 Estimate for carbon content of crude oil was incorrect (see p an invaluable summer at the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin working with Sue

  18. Cooperative Control of Autonomous Surface Vehicles for Oil Skimming and Cleanup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    ) a skimming operation with two vessels in the gulf of Mexico. Abstract-- Oil skimmers towed by two vehicles. I. INTRODUCTION On April 20, 2010 the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico wellhead was capped (July 15, 2010), it is estimated that approximately 104 m3 of crude oil was released

  19. Reservoir oil bubblepoint pressures revisited; solution gasoil ratios and surface gas specific gravities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ValkĂł, Peter

    Reservoir oil bubblepoint pressures revisited; solution gas­oil ratios and surface gas specific, for bubblepoint pressure and other fluid properties, require use of stock-tank gas rate and specific gravity in estimating stock-tank vent gas rate and quality for compliance purposes. D 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All

  20. Population enumeration and the effects of oil and gas development on dune-dwelling lizards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smolensky, Nicole Limunga

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    abundances of dune-dwelling lizards among sites that varied in oil and gas development. I conducted distance line transects and compared those density estimates to densities obtained from total removal plots. I quantified the amount of oil and gas development...

  1. Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

  2. that precise estimation of production can be done within 30 d by sampling for eggs; this goal seems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    motivating factors for conducting this research. Production and transport of crude oil appeared to havethat precise estimation of production can be done within 30 d by sampling for eggs; this goal seems- Alaskan oil pipeline and planned outer conti- nental shelf oil and gas lease sales were the principal

  3. Technological Change, Depletion and the U.S. Petroleum Industry: A New Approach to Measurement and Estimation***

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and crude oil reserve additions, respectively, are estimated. These functions enable us to isolate. The impact of technological change on finding costs for U.S. crude oil reserves has been more modest. This paper also looks at finding costs for crude oil. The material on stationarity and cointegration analysis

  4. The Value of Assessing Uncertainty in Oil and Gas Portfolio Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hdadou, Houda

    2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been shown in the literature that the oil and gas industry deals with a substantial number of biases that impact project evaluation and portfolio performance. Previous studies concluded that properly estimating uncertainties...

  5. Oil and natural gas reserve prices, 1982-2002 : implications for depletion and investment cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A time series is estimated of in-ground prices - as distinct from wellhead prices ? of US oil and natural gas reserves for the period 1982-2002, using market purchase and sale transaction information. The prices are a ...

  6. Recoverable Robust Knapsacks: the Discrete Scenario Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kutschka

    Admission control problems have been studied extensively in the past. ... In case of slight deviations the customer still expects the promised quality of service. ... The objective is to select a subset X of these items such that the total profit of X is.

  7. The recoverable robust tail assignment problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 2011 the on-time performance of the airline industry of Australia ... robustness into the aircraft routing problem is via key performance indicators, ...

  8. Periodic Comet Recoverers James V. Scotti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scotti, Jim

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.10 Tom Gehrels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.11 James B. Gibson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.19 Stephen M. Larson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.20 Robert H. Mc

  9. Monotonicity of quantum relative entropy and recoverability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Berta; Marius Lemm; Mark M. Wilde

    2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The relative entropy is a principal measure of distinguishability in quantum information theory, with its most important property being that it is non-increasing under noisy quantum operations. Here, we establish a remainder term for this inequality that quantifies how well one can recover from a loss of information by employing a rotated Petz recovery map. The main approach for proving this refinement is to combine the methods of [Fawzi and Renner, arXiv:1410.0664] with the notion of a relative typical subspace from [Bjelakovic and Siegmund-Schultze, arXiv:quant-ph/0307170]. It remains an open question if the same bound holds for the Petz recovery map (and not merely for a rotated Petz recovery map). A well known result states that the monotonicity of relative entropy under quantum operations is equivalent to any of the following inequalities: strong subadditivity of entropy, concavity of conditional entropy, joint convexity of relative entropy, and monotonicity of relative entropy under partial trace. We show that this equivalence holds true for refinements of all these inequalities in terms of the Petz recovery map. So either all of these refinements are true or all are false.

  10. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  11. Williston basin oil exploration: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.H.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Past: In 1951, modern oil exploration came to the Williston basin with the discovery of Paleozoic oil on the large Nesson anticline. This was quickly followed by similar discoveries on Cedar Creek and Poplar anticlines. To the north, the Canadians, lacking large structures, concentrated on Paleozoic stratigraphic traps and were highly successful. US explorationists quickly followed, finding similar traps on the basin's northeastern flank and center. The 1960s saw multiple Devonian salt dissolution structures produce on the western flank. To the northwest, shallow Mississippian and deeper Ordovician pays were found on small structural closures. These later were combined with pays in the Devonian and Silurian to give multiple pay potential. In the basin center large buried structures, visible only to seismic, were located. The 1970s revealed an Ordovician subcrop trap on the southeast flank. Centrally, a Jurassic astrobleme with Mississippian oil caused a flurry of leasing and deep drilling. The 1982 collapse of oil prices essentially halted exploration. 1987 saw a revival when horizontal drilling for the Mississippian Bakken fractured shale promised viable economics. Present: Today, emphasis is on Bakken horizontal drilling in the deeper portion of the basin. Next in importance is shallow drilling such as on the northeastern flank. Future: An estimated on billion barrels of new oil awaits discovery in the Williston basin. Additional exploration in already established production trends will find some of this oil. Most of this oil, however, will almost certainly be found by following up the numerous geological leads hinted at by past drilling.

  12. Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only".

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only". Maintain a written log to document all amounts and types of oil added to the container. No solvents, oil contaminated with solvents, PCBs, non-petroleum based oils, or any other

  13. Spot-Oiling Johnsongrass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Fred C.; Norris, M. J.; Rea, H. E.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSIO-N SERVICE G. G. Gibson, Director, College Station, Texas [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] I the bast I ir used the low I . .. 1 the fol or mort , needed SPOT-OILING JOHNSONGRASS H. E. Rea, M. J. Norris..., and Fred C. Elliott* Texas A. & M. College System ~HNSONGRASS CAN BE killed to the i ground by the application of 1 / 3 teaspoonful of a herbicidal oil to the crown of each stem. Eradication of established Johnsongrass can be obtained in a single...

  14. Oil | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »Exchange VisitorsforDepartment ofNo FearOfficeOil Oil For the

  15. Statistical Methods for Estimating the Minimum Thickness Along a Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    along the pipeline can be used to estimate corrosion levels. The traditional parametric model method for this problem is to estimate parameters of a specified corrosion distribution and then to use these parameters companies use pipelines to transfer oil, gas and other materials from one place to another. Manufactures

  16. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Randy Cortright, Founder & Chief Technology Officer, Virent

  17. Enhanced Oil Recovery of Viscous Oil by Injection of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Made with Used Engine Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Xuebing

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    was proposed for emulsion generation because of several key advantages: more favorable viscosity that results in better emulsion injectivity, soot particles within the oil that readily promote stable emulsions, almost no cost of the oil itself and relatively...

  18. Oil and Gas Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oil and Gas section of the Tennessee Code, found in Title 60, covers all regulations, licenses, permits, and laws related to the production of natural gas. The laws create the Oil and Gas...

  19. Oil and Gas Conservation (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Parts 1 and 2 of this chapter contain a broad range of regulations pertaining to oil and gas conservation, including requirements for the regulation of oil and gas exploration and extraction by the...

  20. Process for the production of refrigerator oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunihiro, T.; Tsuchiya, K.

    1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a high quality refrigerator oil from an oil fraction boiling at a temperature within boiling point of lubricating oil by contacting said oil fraction with a solvent to extract undesirable components thereby lowering % C..cap alpha.. of said oil fraction, hydrogenating said solvent extracted fraction under the specific conditions, and then contacting said hydrogenated oil with a solid absorbant to remove impurities; said oil fraction being obtained from a low grade naphthenic crude oil.

  1. Nineteenth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of maturation on hydrocarbon recoveries from Canadian oil shale deposits; Dust and pressure generated during commercial oil shale mine blasting: Part II; The petrosix project in Brazil - An update; Pathway of some trace elements during fluidized-bed combustion of Israeli Oil Shale; and Decommissioning of the U.S. Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility.

  2. Analysis Patterns for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Zhen; Guangzhen Shao

    We present analysis patterns to describe the structure of oil refineries. The Refinery Produc tion Unit Pattern describes the structure of units and unit groups. The Oil Storage Pattern describes the structure of tanks and tank groups. The Oil Delivery Pattern describes the structure of stations for import and export of oil. The Production Process Pattern describes the productionprocess. The audience for this paper includes analysts, designers, and programmers who are involved in developing Refinery Information Systems.

  3. Oil and Gas Air Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  4. Modal parameters for a flat plate supported by an oil film.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jauhola, A. G. (Andrew G.); Kinzel, E. C. (Edward C.); Reding, D. (Derek); Hunter, N. F. (Norman F.)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the resonant frequencies, Mode shapes, and damping values for a square plate suppcirted by an oil film. Such a study is motivated by interesl: in oil-supported slip tables used for vibration testing. Rtssonant frequencies and percent critical damping were measured for four cases: plate freely suspended; plate with free end conditions and suppoited by an oil film; plate fixed at several locations; and plate fixed at several locations while supported by an oil film. Analytical estimates of the modal properties and modal propertie!j derived from measured data are compared and discrepancies discussed.

  5. OIL ANALYSIS LAB TRIVECTOR ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL ANALYSIS LAB TRIVECTOR ANALYSIS This test method is a good routine test for the overall condition of the oil, the cleanliness, and can indicate the presence of wear metals that could be coming of magnetic metal particles within the oil. This may represent metals being worn from components (i

  6. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Exploiting heavy oil reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    North Sea investment potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Beneath the waves in 3D Aberdeen.hamptonassociates.com pRINTED BY nB GroUP Paper sourced from sustainable forests CONTENTS 3/5 does the north Sea still industry partnership drives research into sensor systems 11 Beneath the waves in 3d 12/13 does

  8. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. (BHP Petroleum, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  9. World Oil Transit Chokepoints

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

  10. Naphthenic lube oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettinger Jr., W. P.; Beck, H. W.; Rozman, G. J.; Turrill, F. H.

    1985-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for increasing the volume of lubricating oil base stocks recovered from a crude oil. A fraction having an atmospheric boiling range of about 675/sup 0/ to 1100/sup 0/ F. is recovered by vacuum distillation. This fraction is treated with furfural to extract a hydrocarbon mixture containing at least 50 volume % aromatic hydrocarbons. The raffinate is a lubricating oil base stock very high in paraffinic hydrocarbons and low in naphthenic hydrocarbons. The fraction extracted by the furfural contains at least about 50 volume % aromatic hydrocarbons and less than about 10 volume % paraffinic hydrocarbons. The mixture is hydrotreated to hydrogenate a substantial portion of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The hydrotreated product then is catalytically dewaxed. After removal of low boiling components, the finished lubricating oil base stock has a viscosity of at least about 200 SUS at 100/sup 0/ F., a pour point of less than 20/sup 0/ F. and contains at least 50 volume % of naphthenic hydrocarbons, a maximum of about 40 volume % aromatic hydrocarbons, and a maximum of about 10 volume % paraffinic hydrocarbons.

  11. Oil and Global Adjustment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brad Setser

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current account surplus of the world’s major oil exporting economies – defined as the IMF’s fuel-exporting emerging economies plus Norway – increased from $110b to about $500b between 2002 and 2006. 2 In 2006, the current account surplus of the Gulf

  12. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

    2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  13. Quantifying the Uncertainty in Estimates of World Conventional Oil Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tien, Chih-Ming

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    judgments have been used to provide useful information in forecasting, decision-making, and assessing risks, and its application 15 15 fields are quite diverse, including aerospace, medicine, the nuclear industry, veterinary science, agriculture...

  14. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Division requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory to help design and conduct an up-to-date assessment of the Program. The evaluation includes five separate studies; the fuel oil study is the subject of this paper. The primary goal of the fuel-oil study was to provide a region-wide estimate of the space-heating fuel oil saved by the Program in the Northeast during the 1991 and 1992 program years. Other goals include assessing the cost effectiveness of the Program within the fuel-oil submarket, and identifying factors which caused fuel-oil savings to vary. This paper reports only the highlights from the fuel-oil study`s final report.

  15. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  16. Oil consumption, pollutant emission, oil proce volatility and economic activities in selected Asian Developing Economies.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??It is now well established in the literature that oil consumption, oil price shocks, and oil price volatility may impact the economic activities negatively. Studies… (more)

  17. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bution of the impacts of oil production and consumption. Theof harmful effects from oil production and use. A criticaland procedural impacts of oil production and consumption

  18. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  19. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Technical progress report, April--June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, W.J.

    1993-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Thousands of horizontal wells are being drilled each year in the U.S.A. and around the world. Horizontal wells have increased oil and gas production rates 3 to 8 times those of vertical wells in many areas and have converted non-economic oil reserves to economic reserves. However, the use of horizontal technology in various formation types and applications has not always yielded anticipated success. The primary objective of this project is to examine factors affecting technical and economic success of horizontal well applications. The project`s goals will be accomplished through six tasks designed to evaluate the technical and economic success of horizontal drilling, highlight current limitations, and outline technical needs to overcome these limitations. Data describing operators` experiences throughout the domestic oil and gas industry will be gathered and organized. Canadian horizontal technology will also be documented with an emphasis on lessons the US industry can learn from Canada`s experience. MEI databases containing detailed horizontal case histories will also be used. All these data will be categorized and analyzed to assess the status of horizontal well technology and estimate the impact of horizontal wells on present and future domestic oil recovery and reserves.

  20. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  2. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicod, M.A.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the 6 countries covered by this paper, valid petroleum rights at the end of 1981 amounted to 2,024,414 km/sup 2/ or 7% more than at the end of 1980. As far as the rightholding situation is concerned, the main event was the abandonment by Esso of all its rights in Libya. Information on exploration activity remains scarce, but it is estimated that seismic activity increased by 35%. Large air-magnetometry surveys were carried out in Sudan and Egypt. Exploration drilling activity continued to increase, with 169 wells completed versus 115 in 1980. This effort led to 67 oil and gas discoveries, a success rate of about 40% compared with 35% in 1980. All these discoveries were made in established producing provinces. Highly successful results were obtained in the Gulf of Suez with 1 gas and 19 oil discoveries compared with 4 discoveries in 1980. Good success was also obtained by ONAREP, the new Moroccan state company, with 5 gas discoveries out of 11 wells spudded during the year. Chevron continued to find oil in the interior basins of Sudan, and expects commercial production in 1984 from the Unity field, which has reserves estimated at 400 million bbl of oil. Oil production markedly decreased by about 23%, with an average of 2,820,000 BOPD in 1981. Oil output decreased in all the North African countries except Egypt, where it increased 8%. Utilized natural gas production can be estimated at about 2300 MMCFGD. Sonatrach published official figures for gross gas production in 1981 which amounted to 4420 MMCFGD, of which about 2000 MMCFGD were collected and utilized.

  3. Shale oil recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  4. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  5. Oil Price Volatility

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReservesYear Jan Feb0

  6. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (MillionExpectedChangesAdministration Cost and

  7. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  8. Using simple models to describe oil production from unconventional reservoirs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Dong Hee

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Shale oil (tight oil) is oil trapped in low permeability shale or sandstone. Shale oil is a resource with great potential as it is heavily… (more)

  9. Analytical solutions to estimate the floating free product thickness and efficiency of recovery operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingam, Rajasekhar

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solutions to estimate the recovery of oil from an established oil lens by a two pump recovery system. The solutions will be obtained by applying the Laplace and Double integral transformations to averaged linear partial differential equations governing... MODEL DEVELOPMENT 2. 1 Physical Problem 2. 2 Assumptions 2. 3 Mathematical Formulations 2. 4 Derivation of Oil Phase Equation 2. 5 Derivation of Water Phase Equation 7 8 12 13 24 III UNCOUPLED SOLUTIONS 30 3. 1 Introduction 3. 2 Case 1...

  10. Unconventional oil market assessment: ex situ oil shale.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis focused on exploring the economic limitations for the development of western oil shale. The analysis was developed by scaling a known process and… (more)

  11. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    cubic feet) -- No change 104 Crude oil (billion barrels) -- No change 20 Kerogen (oil shale) Technically recoverable resource -- No change No change 2040 production (thousand...

  12. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Technical progress report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, W.J.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project is to examine factors affecting technical and economic success of horizontal well applications. The project`s goals will be accomplished through five tasks designed to evaluate the technical and economic success of horizontal drilling, highlight current limitations, and outline technical needs to overcome these limitations. Data describing operators` experiences throughout the domestic oil and gas industry will be gathered and organized. MEI databases containing detailed horizontal case histories will also be used. All these data will be categorized and analyzed to assess the status of horizontal well technology and estimate the impact of horizontal wells on present and future domestic oil recovery and reserves. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented.

  13. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  14. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  15. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  16. BP Oil Spill November 10, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lega, Joceline

    BP Oil Spill Qiyam Tung November 10, 2011 1 Introduction Figure 1: BP Oil spill (source: http://thefoxisblack.com/2010/05/02/the-bp-oil-spill-in-the-gulf-of-mexico/) Last year, there was a major oil spill caused major techniques to minimize the threat once it happened. What kind of damage would an oil spill like this cause

  17. The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

  18. Carbo-metallic oil conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, G.D.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method for catalytically cracking reduced crude oil feeds comprising Conradson carbon in the presence of a premised catalyst temperature of about 760/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/F). The cracking is carried out to form hydrocarbon products comprising gasoline, which method comprises maintaining the functions of oil feed, Conradson carbon, hydrogen in deposited carbonaceous material, and water addition to the oil feed to be converted in accordance with the relationship of operating parameters for a catalyst to oil ratio in the range of about 4.5 to 7.5.

  19. Oil and macroeconomy in China.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This paper uses two different approaches to investigate the relationship between the oil price shock and the macroeconomy in China. The first approach is the… (more)

  20. Oil and Gas Exploration (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to activities conducted for the purpose of obtaining geological, geophysical, or geochemical information about oil or gas including seismic activities but excluding...

  1. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  2. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  3. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  4. ESTIMATING POTENTIAL RESERVE GROWTH OF KNOWN (DISCOVERED) FIELDS: A COMPONENT OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    reserve- growth function) derived from the average of the oil reserve-growth function and the gas reserve for world potential reserve growth of oil (exclusive of the U.S.), with uncertainty expressed in the formChapter RG ESTIMATING POTENTIAL RESERVE GROWTH OF KNOWN (DISCOVERED) FIELDS: A COMPONENT

  5. Bioremediation of a Process Waste Lagoon at a Southern Polish Oil Refinery -DoE's First Demonstration Project in Poland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    Bioremediation of a Process Waste Lagoon at a Southern Polish Oil Refinery - DoE's First by the Czechowice Oil Refinery, located in southern Poland, has produced an estimated 120 thousand tons of acidic company thereby eliminating the contaminants while providing the refinery an additional revenue source

  6. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), Teapot Dome Field, Wyoming: Case history of the in situ combustion pilot operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.; Williams, C.R.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) is a federally owned oil field that has been in operation since 1922 and has produced more than 15 million barrels of oil since full production began in 1976. The Shannon sandstone is the shallowest and most productive of nine producing formations at NPR-3. Since only 5% of the Shannon`s estimated 144 million bbl of original oil in place (OOIP) was estimated to be recoverable by primary means, studies were undertaken in 1978 to determine the most suitable enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method which would merit a pilot test and could ultimately lead to a fieldwide application.

  7. Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharecha, P A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peaking of global oil production may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 amount and climate change, depending upon choices made for subsequent energy sources. We suggest that, if estimates of oil and gas reserves by the Energy Information Administration are realistic, it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding approximately 450 ppm, provided that future exploitation of the huge reservoirs of coal and unconventional fossil fuels incorporates carbon capture and sequestration. Existing coal-fired power plants, without sequestration, must be phased out before mid-century to achieve this limit on atmospheric CO2. We also suggest that it is important to "stretch" oil reserves via energy efficiency, thus avoiding the need to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is probably needed to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  8. European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil) Dec 15, 2006 Doug Bradley President Climate Change Solutions National Team Leader- IEA Bioenergy Task 40- Bio-trade 402 Third Avenue ·Ottawa, Ontario ·Canada K. Market Determining Factors 5. EU Country Perspectives 6. Potential European Markets 6.1. Pulp Mill Lime

  9. Oil burner nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Donald G. (Rockville Center, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil burner nozzle for use with liquid fuels and solid-containing liquid fuels. The nozzle comprises a fuel-carrying pipe, a barrel concentrically disposed about the pipe, and an outer sleeve retaining member for the barrel. An atomizing vapor passes along an axial passageway in the barrel, through a bore in the barrel and then along the outer surface of the front portion of the barrel. The atomizing vapor is directed by the outer sleeve across the path of the fuel as it emerges from the barrel. The fuel is atomized and may then be ignited.

  10. Residential heating oil price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A B CAdministrationheating oil price

  11. Residential heating oil price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A B CAdministrationheating oil

  12. fuel_oil.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:short version)ec 1827 TableB (11-19-10)Fuel Oil

  13. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOilCompanyexcluding taxes)Countries0 0 0 0

  14. Crude Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOilCompanyexcluding taxes)Countries08,909

  15. Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on CokersA2. ForJanuary 2013 (Thousand

  16. Oil resources: the key to prosperity or to poverty? : Influence of oil price shocks on spending of oil revenues.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selivanova, Olga

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Abundant natural resources, in particular oil, play an important role in the economics of many countries. The oil price shocks that have been happening continuously… (more)

  17. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.and Biological Treatment of Shale Oil Retort Water, DraftPA (1979). H. H. Peters, Shale Oil Waste Water Recovery by

  18. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature, type of shale and oil content of shale iscontent of the shale, and shale oil content of the rock cantemperatures. Lean and Rich Shale Oil shales vary in their

  19. Membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Lan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude vegetable oils contain various minor substances like phospholipids, coloring pigments, and free fatty acids (FFA) that may affect quality of the oil. Reduction of energy costs and waste disposal are major concerns for many oil refiners who...

  20. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component Materials," LBL-

  1. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedings

  2. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Componentin In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80, Paper No.6-10, 1981 CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A.

  3. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is in intimate contact with oil and shale during In in-situin contact with the oil and shale. These methods and othersWaters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,

  4. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedingsin the Treatment of Oil Shale Retort Waters," in Proceedings

  5. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component

  6. Crude oil and crude oil derivatives transactions by oil and gas producers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, He

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This study attempts to resolve two important issues. First, it investigates the diversification benefit of crude oil for equities. Second, it examines whether or not… (more)

  7. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program: Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Seventh Quarterly Report April - June 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordan Fielding

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation quarterly report (April–June 2004) details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight INEEL four-cycle diesel engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes and six INEEL Chevrolet Tahoes with gasoline engines are equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the puraDYN Corporation. The bypass filters are reported to have engine oil filtering capability of <1 micron and a built-in additive package to facilitate extended oil-drain intervals. This quarter, the eight diesel engine buses traveled 85,632 miles. As of the end of June 2004, the eight buses have accumulated 498,814 miles since the beginning of the test and 473,192 miles without an oil change. This represents an avoidance of 39 oil changes, which equates to 1,374 quarts (343 gallons) of new oil not consumed and, furthermore, 1,374 quarts of waste oil not generated. One bus had its oil changed due to the degraded quality of the engine oil. Also this quarter, the six Tahoe test vehicles traveled 48,193 miles; to date, the six Tahoes have accumulated 109,708 total test miles. The oil for all six of the Tahoes was changed this quarter due to low Total Base Numbers (TBN). The oil used initially in the Tahoe testing was recycled oil; the recycled oil has been replaced with Castrol virgin oil, and the testing was restarted. However, the six Tahoe’s did travel a total of 98,266 miles on the initial engine oil. This represents an avoidance of 26 oil changes, which equates to 130 quarts (32.5 gallons) of new oil not consumed and, consequently, 130 quarts of waste oil not generated. Based on the number of oil changes avoided by the test buses and Tahoes to date, the potential engine oil savings if an oil bypass filter system were used was estimated for the INEEL, DOE complex and all Federal fleets of on-road vehicles. The estimated potential annual engine oil savings for the three fleets are: INEEL – 3,400 gallons, all DOE fleets – 32,000 gallons, and all Federal fleet – 1.7 million gallons.

  8. www.fightbac.o anola oil is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ca co Th Ca "Canola" c which is Addition Ca he Ca in Th ca Ca m C know? anola oil is ooking oils. he average anola oil is comes fro s another nal Inform anola oil is eart healthy anola oil is n the world. he part of th anola meal anola oil ca many crop va ano the lowest . canola see a good sou m

  9. Oil droplet behavior at a pore entrance in the presence of crossflow: Implications for microfiltration of oil-water dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darvishzadeh, Tohid; Priezjev, Nikolai V

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of an oil droplet pinned at the entrance of a micropore and subject to clossflow-induced shear is investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure required to force the droplet into the pore is in excellent agreement with a theoretical prediction based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing shear rate, the critical pressure of permeation increases, and at sufficiently high shear rates the oil droplet breaks up into two segments. The results of numerical simulations indicate that droplet breakup at the pore entrance is facilitated at lower surface tension, higher oil-to-water viscosity ratio and larger droplet size but is insensitive to the value of the contact angle. Using simple force and torque balance arguments, an estimate for the increase in critical pressure due to crossflow and the breakup capillary number is obtained and validated for different viscosity ratios, surface tension coefficien...

  10. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotariu,, G. J.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We recognize that the rate of development, the magnitude of development, and the technology mix that will actually take place remain uncertain. Although we emphasize that other energy and mineral resources besides oil shale may be developed, the conclusions reached in this study reflect only those impacts that would be felt from the oil shale scenario. Socioeconomic impacts in the region reflect the uneven growth rate implied by the scenario and will be affected by the timing of industry developments, the length and magnitude of the construction phase of development, and the shift in employment profiles predicted in the scenario. The facilities in the southern portion of the oil shale region, those along the Colorado River and Parachute Creek, show a peak in the construction work force in the mid-1980s, whereas those f acil it i es in the Piceance Creek Bas into the north show a construction peak in the late 1980s. Together, the facilities will require a large construction work force throughout the decade, with a total of 4800 construction workers required in 1985. Construction at the northern sites and second phase construction in the south will require 6000 workers in 1988. By 1990, the operation work force will increase to 7950. Two important characteristics of oil shale development emerge from the work force estimates: (1) peak-year construction work forces will be 90-120% the size of the permanent operating work force; and (2) the yearly changes in total work force requirements will be large, as much as 900 in one year at one facility. To estimate population impacts on individual communities, we devised a population distribution method that is described in Sec. IV. Variables associated with the projection of population impacts are discussed and methodologies of previous assessments are compared. Scenario-induced population impacts estimated by the Los Alamos method are compared to projections of a model employed by the Colorado West Area Council of Governments. Oil shale development in the early decade, as defined by the scenario, will produce growth primarily

  11. Process oil manufacturing process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corman, B.G.; Korbach, P.F.; Webber, K.M.

    1989-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for producing a naphthenic process oil having reduced sulfur, nitrogen and polynuclear aromatics contents from a naphthenic feed containing same and having an atmospheric boiling range of about 650/sup 0/ to about 1200/sup 0/F. comprising: A. passing the feed into a first hydrotreating stage having a hydrotreating catalyst therein, the stage maintained at a temperature of about 600/sup 0/ to about 750/sup 0/F. and at a hydrogen partial pressure of about 400 to about 1500 psig, to convert at least a portion of the sulfur to hydrogen sulfide and the nitrogen to ammonia; B. passing the hydrotreated feed from the first hydrotreating stage in an intermediate stripping stage wherein hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, or both is removed; C. passing the hydrotreated feed from the intermediate stage into a second hydrotreating stage having therein a hydrotreating catalyst selected from the group consisting of nickel-molybdenum, cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-tungsten and mixtures thereof, the second hydrotreating stage maintained at a temperature lower than that of the first hydrotreating stage and at a hydrogen partial pressure ranging between about 400 and about 1,500 psig; D. monitoring the polynuclear aromatics content, the degree of saturation, or both of the product exiting the second hydrotreating stage; and, E. adjusting the temperature in the second hydrotreating stage to keep the polynuclear aromatics content, the degree of saturation, or both below a limit suitable for process oil.

  12. Oil market in international and Norwegian perspectives.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singsaas, Julia Nazyrova

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Crude oil is the most important energy source in global perspective. About 35 percent of the world’s primary energy consumption is supplied by oil, followed… (more)

  13. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

    1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  14. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othman, Jamal, E-mail: jortman@ukm.my; Jafari, Yaghoob, E-mail: yaghoob.jafari@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Management (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  17. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  18. e n e r g y Unconventional Oil Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuck In A Rock; A Hard Place; M. Engemann; Michael T. Owyang

    Highly variable oil prices and increasing world demand for oil have led producers to look for alternative sources of transportation fuel. Two popular alternatives are oil sands (aka tar sands) and oil shale. However, obtaining usable oil from oil sands or oil shale is more capital-intensive and more expensive than obtaining oil from conventional reserves. At what price of oil do these alternatives become cost-effective? Oil Sands Oil sands are a mixture of sand, water, clay and heavy, viscous oil called bitumen. The largest known deposits of oil sands are in Alberta, Canada, and the Orinoco Oil

  19. The Politics of Mexico’s Oil Monopoly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizar, Richard

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005), p. 59. Table 5: Oil production in barrels per daynot have much impact in oil production. In fact, oil exportscurrent oil reserves and oil production? 2) For how long can

  20. Separation of oil-soluble sulfonates from sulfonated oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ul'yanenko, V.I.; Yur'eva, N.P.; Sergeev, V.P.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors aimed at developing a method for the complete recovery, from oil solutions, of oil-water-soluble sulfonates meeting the specifications, along with oils at least 99% pure, suitable for further processing. As the starting material the authors used an experimental batch of sulfonated and neutralized distillate lube stocks produced by selective solvent treatment. In determining the optimal extraction parameters, the authors investigated the influence of the solvent to original feed (S:F) weight ratio and the influence of the isopropyl alcohol (IPA) concentration on the composition of the sulfonates and oils recovered at 60/sup 0/C with a settling time of 2 h. The optimal conditions for two-stage extraction were found through a study of the influence of temperature and settling time on the compositions of the sulfonates and oils with S:F = 1.2:1 and with an IPA concentration of 40%. The process technology for two-stage recovery of oils and sulfonates from oil solutions was worked out in a pilot unit.

  1. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  2. Fluidized-bed retorting of Colorado oil shale: Topical report. [None

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albulescu, P.; Mazzella, G.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.

  3. unknown title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    The need for used oil conservation, recycling, and ultimate nonpolluting disposal has been a matter of increasing concern since the early 1960s. The oil embargo of 1974, the energy crisis which emerged in 1979, and as much as a tenfold increase in the price of imported crude oil have even more strongly emphasized the need for oil conservation and recycling. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that the U.S. annually generates approximately 1.O billion gallons of recoverable used oil (Table I). * Approximately 70 million gallons are rerefined as lubricating oils. An estimated 60 million gallons are reprocessed for use as metalworking oils and other industrial oils and an estimated 150 million gallons are sprayed on roads and for other uses. Approximately 500 million gallons are used as fuel, usually mixed with virgin residual and distillate fuels.

  4. Research on oil recovery mechanisms in heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E., Castanier, Louis M.

    2000-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties, (2) in-situ combustion, (3) additives to improve mobility control, (4) reservoir definition, and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx.

  5. No Oil: The coming Utopia/Dystopia and Communal Possibilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Timothy

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    supplies of conventional oil, and exploitable supplies of alternative forms of oil and related hydrocarbons, including tar sands and oil shale. Because new supplies of conventional oil are declining steadily, there is quite a lot of activity in the oil... to exploit the huge deposits of oil sands in Canada. Oil sands and oil shale look good because they contain vast amounts of oil. The problem is that of turning the reserves, locked into other geological formations, into useful oil. According to current...

  6. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  7. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  8. Oil field management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  9. International Oil and Gas Board International Oil and Gas Board...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil and Gas Board Address Place Zip Website Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Abu Dhabi http www abudhabi ae egovPoolPortal WAR appmanager...

  10. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  11. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  12. OIL & GAS HISTORY 1 History in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL & GAS HISTORY 1 History in California 4 Superior figures refer to references at the end of the essay. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION California oil was always a valued commodity. When the Spanish explorers landed in California in the 1500s, they found Indians gathering asphaltum (very thick oil) from natural

  13. THE RIMINI PROTOCOL Oil Depletion Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    Soaring oil prices have drawn attention to the issue of the relative supply and demand for crude oil1 THE RIMINI PROTOCOL an Oil Depletion Protocol ~ Heading Off Economic Chaos and Political Conflict During the Second Half of the Age of Oil As proposed at the 2003 Pio Manzu Conference

  14. EMPLOYEE BENEFIT SERVICE Signature Service Oil Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    UNM Staff EMPLOYEE BENEFIT SERVICE Jiffy Lube Signature Service Oil Change Fast - No Appointment We change your oil with up to 5 quarts of major brand motor oil We install a new oil fi We visually inspect. ASE training programs · Jiffy Lube uses top quality products that meet or exceed vehicle warranty

  15. Cheaper oil extraction Taking a closer look

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solvent for commercial-scale enhanced oil recovery to increase the amount of crude oil that canCONTENTS Cheaper oil extraction Taking a closer look at the eye Computational Science takes inside for more details #12;Greener, cheaper oil extraction Geographical and geological concerns

  16. Liens for Oil and Gas Operations (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section contains regulations concerning lien allowances made to operators of oil and gas operations.

  17. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  18. Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development Unconventional Fuels Conference University of Utah May 17, 2011 #12;#12;Domestic Oil Shale Resources Primary oil shale resources in the U.S. are in the Green River Formation in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. 72 % of this oil shale resource is on Federal

  19. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  20. 1 What is Oil ? General information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    such as shale oil or synthetic crude oil from tar sands (see Table 4.1). A whole range of petroleum products69 1 What is Oil ? General information Petroleum is a complex mixture of liquid hydrocarbons in sedimentary rock. Coming from the Latin petra, meaning rock, and oleum, meaning oil, the word "petroleum

  1. Research on Oil Recovery Mechanisms in Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis M. Castanier; William E. Brigham

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to increase recovery of heavy oils. Towards that goal studies are being conducted in how to assess the influence of temperature and pressure on the absolute and relative permeability to oil and water and on capillary pressure; to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the in site combustion process; to develop and understand mechanisms of surfactants on for the reduction of gravity override and channeling of steam; and to improve techniques of formation evaluation.

  2. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenyu

    Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production Zhenyu (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material offshore and the oil industry expects this share to grow continuously in the future. In last decade, oil

  3. Oil and Gas CDT Development of a SUNTANS Baroclinic Model for 3D Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Development of a SUNTANS Baroclinic Model for 3D Oil Pollution Tracking Heriot) Key Words Oil Spill, HF Radar, Trajectory Forecasting, Hydrodynamic Modelling, Oil Chemistry Overview In an oil spill emergency, an operational system must forecast ocean and weather conditions in addition

  4. 2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Abstract Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop among oils of common origin and manufacture. The importance of the emulsifier used with the oil of these products. Introduction Petroleum oils have been in use as crop protectants for over a hundred years

  5. OilEd: a Reason-able Ontology Editor for the Semantic Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Robert

    the full power of an expressive web ontology language (OIL). OilEd uses reasoning to support ontology been merged under the name DAML+OIL, although there are some differences between the approaches usedOilEd: a Reason-able Ontology Editor for the Semantic Web Sean Bechhofer, Ian Horrocks, Carole

  6. OIL IN THE OPEN WATER Oil in the open water may a ect the health of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL IN THE OPEN WATER Oil in the open water may a ect the health of microscopic plants and animals. Far beneath the surface, corals and other deepwater communities might also be a ected. OIL AND HUMAN AND SEDIMENTS · Water quality surveys · Transect surveys to detect submerged oil · Oil plume modeling · Sediment

  7. Energy Policy 34 (2006) 515531 Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    price shocks and economic downturns. Over the next 30 years oil demand is expected to grow by 60Energy Policy 34 (2006) 515­531 Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from an optimist of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range

  8. Urethane coatings rehabilitate large crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kresic, W. [Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. (IPL) provides a vital transportation link for moving liquid petroleum resources from oil-producing areas of western Canada to refining centers and markets in eastern canada and the midwestern US. Together with Lakehead Pipe Line Co., Inc., the pipeline system consists of about 7,600 miles of pipe. Approximately 1.6 million bpd of crude oil and liquid hydrocarbons are transported by the system. Along with high-resolution inspection data, an in-house engineering critical assessment process based on Battelle`s NG-18 surface flaw equation was developed to identify corrosion anomalies needing structural reinforcement sleeve repairs. A majority of ht non-critical anomalies remained unearthed and were exposed to possible future growth which could become critical. Several rehabilitation methods were considered including on-going sleeve repair, selective pipe replacement, and coating reconditioning. Economics and logistics of sleeving programs and selective pipe replacement were well known at IPL. However, aspects of replacing a coating system over a relatively long length of pipe were not completely known. Preliminary cost estimates favored replacement of the coating over a massive sleeving program or pipe replacement. To gain further insight, IPL began a two-year pilot program to research long length coating replacement feasibility. Two sections of Line 3 ultimately were rehabilitated in this manner. This paper reviews the project.

  9. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  10. A naphthenic jet fuel produced from an Australian marine oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, L.C.; Muradian, A. (CSR Ltd., Sydney (Australia)); Fookes, C.J.R.; Atkins, A.R. (CSIRO Div. of Energy Chemistry, Sutherland (Australia)); Batts, B.D. (Macquarie Univ., North Ryde (Australia))

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CSR Limited holds title to an Authority to Prospect covering the Cretaceous Julia Creek oil shale deposit, located in Queensland, Australia, approximately 600 km inland from the eastern seaboard. The shale is of marine origin, having been deposited as an anaerobic sediment in a restricted epicontinental sea. Algae are the predominant source of organic matter. Resources are estimated at 20 billion barrels of oil, approximately half in shale deposits suitable for open cut mining. Typical oil shale analyses are given. Average oil yields are 70 liters per ton. The oil has several deleterious characteristics which necessitate its upgrading at higher severity than is conventional at existing refineries. Heteroatom levels are in total significantly higher than values for petroleum crudes and the aromaticity and metal content of the oil add to its complexity and unusual nature. Two processing routes have been proposed for this oil - either the production of a syncrude by hydrostabilization of the whole oil, or alternatively, upgrading separate fractions to marketable fuels. Pilot plant studies were carried out to simulate refinery processes options. During these investigations, they were successful in the first Australian production of shale-derived jet and diesel synfuels which met all specifications. In this paper, they present details of the jet fuel production and describe its unusual naphthenic character.

  11. Oil shale: The environmental challenges III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, K.K.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

  12. Figure 4. World Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. World Oil Prices" " (2007 dollars per barrel)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,2029,2030...

  13. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comberiati, Joseph R. (Morgantown, WV); Locke, Charles D. (Morgantown, WV); Kamath, Krishna I. (Chicago, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  14. Oil and Gas Conservation (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section establishes the state's interest in encouraging the development, production, and utilization of natural gas and oil resources in a manner which will prevent waste and lead to the...

  15. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  16. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  17. Enhanced oil recovery in Rumania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carcoana, A.N.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the application of the fire-floods to a broad range of Romanian oil reservoirs and crude properties and reviews the field tests of polymer flooding, surfactant flooding and alkaline flooding. A commercial scale project with cyclic steam injection is presented and also the use of the domestic CO/sub 2/ sources to enhanced oil recovery. The results and the difficulties encountered are briefly discussed and also the potential of EOR methods in Romania are presented. 17 refs.

  18. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2)). Projected production estimates of U.S. crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects U.S. domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted drilling expenditures and average drilling costs to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  19. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric P., E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.uk

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  20. Heavy Oil Upgrading from Electron Beam (E-Beam) Irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Daegil

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    -heavy oil, and oil shale. Tremendous amounts of heavy oil resources are available in the world. Fig. 1.1 shows the total world oil reserves, and indicates that heavy oil, extra heavy oil, and bitumen make up about 70% of the world?s total oil resources...

  1. Enhanced oil recovery in Rumania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carcoana, A.N.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The wide oil field experience of the Romanian oil men in producing hydrocarbon reservoirs is based on an old tradition, but only after 1945 reservoir engineering studies were started in Romania. Beginning with 1950 conventional recovery methods expanded continually. During the last 10 years, however, the crude oil, as energy resource, has become of tremendous importance. The need for increasing the ultimate oil recovery has been felt in Romania as everywhere else. To attain this goal EOR methods were and are tested and expanded on a commercial scale. The paper describes the application of the fire-floods to a broad range of Romanian oil reservoirs and crude properties and reviews the field tests of polymer flooding, surfactant flooding and alkaline flooding. A commercial scale project with cyclic steam injection is presented and also the use of the domestic CO/sub 2/ sources to enhance oil recovery. The results and the diffuculties encountered are briefly discussed and also the potential of EOR methods in Romania are presented.

  2. Oil transportation in the global landscape : the Murmansk Oil Terminal and Pipeline proposal evaluated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Ankur, 1976-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil and transportation have been commingled since the first oil reserves were discovered. The importance of energy, namely oil, and the transportation of that energy from the producers to the consumers is persistently ...

  3. Oil Mist Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  4. Oil and gas resources of the Fergana basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan). Advance summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA), in cooperation with the US Geological Survey (USGS), has assessed 13 major petroleum producing regions outside of the United States. This series of assessments has been performed under EIA`s Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). The basic approach used in these assessments was to combine historical drilling, discovery, and production data with EIA reserve estimates and USGS undiscovered resource estimates. Field-level data for discovered oil were used for these previous assessments. In FESAP, supply projections through depletion were typically formulated for the country or major producing region. Until now, EIA has not prepared an assessment of oil and gas provinces in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Before breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Fergana basin was selected for a trial assessment of its discovered and undiscovered oil and gas. The object was to see if enough data could be collected and estimated to perform reasonable field-level estimates of oil and gas in this basin. If so, then assessments of other basins in the FSU could be considered. The objective was met and assessments of other basins can be considered. Collected data for this assessment cover discoveries through 1987. Compared to most other oil and gas provinces in the FSU, the Fergana basin is relatively small in geographic size, and in number and size of most of its oil and gas fields. However, with recent emphasis given to the central graben as a result of the relatively large Mingbulak field, the basin`s oil and gas potential has significantly increased. At least 7 additional fields to the 53 fields analyzed are known and are assumed to have been discovered after 1987.

  5. Clay-Oil Droplet Suspensions in Electric Field.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjerstad, Knut Brřndbo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Silicone oil droplets containing synthetic smectite clay submerged in another immiscible organic oil have been studied by observing clay particle movement, oil circulation and… (more)

  6. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waged for control of oil reserves. A brutal war wracked theguarantee rights to the oil reserves, offer an opportunitygles over control of oil reserves, but it also encompasses

  7. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Oil Reserve Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve - Guidelines for Release The Energy Policy and Conservation...

  8. Drunk On Oil: Russian Foreign Policy 2000-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugato, Thomas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Julia. “ World Stocks Sag as Oil Price Surges. ” The NewCollapse: Grain and Oil,” On the Issues, Am. Enterpriseet. al. , “Unrelenting Oil Addiction,” Russ. in Global

  9. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Alaskan North Slope oil production facilities. Title:Profiling Despite oil production from several major16) was isolated from oil-production water and has optimal

  10. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Regular conventional oil production to 2100 and resource10% of total US oil production in 2004, almost entirelysteam-induced heavy oil production in Cali- fornia [30].

  11. The effect of biofuel on the international oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    producer sur- plus from oil production and fuel consumption,to reduction in crude oil production. The competitive modelsurplus from oil consumption and production. Our baseline

  12. Oil and Natural Gas Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Oil and Natural Gas Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (February 2014) Oil and Natural Gas Subsector Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (February 2014) The Oil...

  13. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    response to high oil prices and geopolitical threats tofor the e?ect of the oil price through the price elasticityprojections, corresponding oil price series are extracted

  14. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY of carbon value and enhanced oil recovery The potential forCO 2 injection for enhanced oil recovery may differ from the

  15. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Front in Cabinda, 47 Security: oil operations, 182 –83,Like an Oil Company: Space, Security and Global Capital inarms deals and private security than oil exploitation (HRW

  16. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading PNNL report-out at the CTAB webinar on Bio-Oil Upgrading. ctabwebinarbiooilsupgrading.pdf More...

  17. Growing Energy - How Biofuels Can Help End America's Oil Dependence...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Growing Energy - How Biofuels Can Help End America's Oil Dependence Growing Energy - How Biofuels Can Help End America's Oil Dependence America's oil dependence threatens our...

  18. Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Naval Reserves Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities Oil Shale and Other Unconventional Fuels Activities The Fossil Energy program in oil shale focuses on...

  19. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    anaerobic thermophilic oil reservoir and well communities.been detected in hot oil reservoirs and production fluids (other thermophilic oil reservoirs and wells suggests that

  20. An MBendi Profile: World: Oil And Gas Industry -Peak Oil: an Outlook on Crude Oil Depletion -C.J.Campbell -Revised February 2002 Search for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An MBendi Profile: World: Oil And Gas Industry - Peak Oil: an Outlook on Crude Oil Depletion - C - Contact Us - Newsletter Register subscribe to our FREE newsletter World: Oil And Gas Industry - Peak Oil the subsequent decline. q Gas, which is less depleted than oil, will likely peak around 2020. q Capacity limits

  1. Crude oil prices and petroleum inventories : remedies for a broken oil price forecasting model.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimstad, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The empirical relationship between crude oil prices and petroleum inventories has been exploited in a number of short-term oil price forecasting models. Some of the… (more)

  2. Future North Sea oil production and its implications for Swedish oil supply regarding the transport sector.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sällh, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? Historically, it has been negative to be dependent on only one resource, in the current situation this resource represents oil. The oil dependence is… (more)

  3. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  4. Oil shale retorting method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    York, E.D.

    1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

  5. Oil Price Shocks: Causes and Consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz Kilian; Key Words

    Research on oil markets conducted during the last decade has challenged long-held beliefs about the causes and consequences of oil price shocks. As the empirical and theoretical models used by economists have evolved, so has our understanding of the determinants of oil price shocks and of the interaction between oil markets and the global economy. Some of the key insights are that the real price of oil is endogenous with respect to economic fundamentals, and that oil price shocks do not occur ceteris paribus. This makes it necessary to explicitly account for the demand and supply shocks underlying oil price shocks when studying their transmission to the domestic economy. Disentangling cause and effect in the relationship between oil prices and the economy requires structural models of the global economy including oil and other commodity markets.

  6. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  7. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: CO/sub 2/ miscible flood predictive model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, R.M.; Munoz, J.D.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CO/sub 2/ Miscible Flood Predictive Model (CO2PM) was developed by Scientific Software-Intercomp for the US Department of Energy and was used in the National Petroleum Council's (NPC) 1984 survey of US enhanced oil recovery potential (NPC, 1984). The CO2PM is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO/sub 2/ injection or water-alternating-gas (WAG) processes. In the CO2PM, an oil rate versus time function for a single pattern is computed, the results of which are passed to the economic calculations. To estimate multi-pattern project behavior a pattern development schedule is required. After-tax cash flow is computed by combining revenues with costs for drilling, conversion and well workovers, CO/sub 2/ compression and recycle, fixed and variable operating costs, water treating and disposal costs, depreciation, royalties, severance, state, federal and windfall profit taxes, cost and price inflation rates, and the discount rate. A lumped parameter uncertainty model is used to estimate risk, allowing for variation in computed project performance within an 80% confidence interval. The CO2PM is a three-dimensional (layered, five-spot), two-phase (aqueous and oleic), three component (oil, water, and CO/sub 2/) model. It computes oil and CO/sub 2/ breakthrough and recovery from fractional theory modified for the effects of viscous fingering, areal sweep, vertical heterogeneity and gravity segregation. 23 refs., 19 figs., 57 tabs.

  8. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, M.R. [Simmons and Co. International, Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry`s practice of maintaining crude stocks at ``Just in time`` inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers` information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996.

  9. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  10. Oil history, potential converge in Azerbaijan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narimanov, A.A. [State Oil Co. of Azerbaijan, Baku (Azerbaijan); Palaz, I. [Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Azerbaijan, the oldest known oil producing region in the world, still holds great potential for new discoveries and increased production. A multi-billion dollar production sharing agreement was recently signed with a consortium of primarily western oil companies to develop three oil fields in the Caspian Sea. Soon, Azerbaijan will offer new exploration acreage both offshore and onshore. This paper describes the history of oil production in Azerbaijan, offshore developments, tectonics, stratigraphy, petroleum traps, mud volcanoes, and short summaries of several oil producing areas. Current production is about 9 million tons/yr of oil and 7 billion cu m/yr of natural gas.

  11. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  12. (D. Merriam, U of Kansas, ed) Predicting the Peak in World Oil Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfred J. Cavallo

    recently predicted that world oil production could continue to increase for more than three decades, based on the recent US Geological Survey (USGS) evaluation of world oil resources and a simple, transparent model. However, it can be shown that this model is not consistent with actual oil production records in many different regions, particularly that of the US, from which it was derived. A more careful application of the EIA model, using the same resource estimates, indicates that at best non-OPEC oil production can increase for less than two decades, and should begin to decline at the latest sometime between 2015 and 2020. OPEC will at this point completely control the world oil market and will need to meet increased demand as well as compensate for declining production of non-OPEC producers. OPEC could control the market even sooner than this, given its much larger share of proven oil reserves, probable difficulties in transforming non-OPEC undiscovered reserves into proven reserves, and the converging interests of all oil producers as reserves are depleted. This has significant implications for the world economy and for US national security.

  13. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States); McNutt, B. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines (RFG) are estimated. Both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components are included. The effects on energy and crude oil use of using various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis illustrates that production of RFG requires more total energy than that of conventional gasoline but uses less crude oil. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than RFG with MTBE or ETBE. A specific proposal by the EPA designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over that for the base RFG with MTBE.

  14. Hydrogenated soy ethyl ester (HySEE) from ethanol and waste vegetable oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel is gaining recognition in the United States as a renewable fuel which may be used as an alternative to diesel fuel without any modifications to the engine. Currently the cost of this fuel is the factor that limits its use. One way to reduce the cost of biodiesel is to use a less expensive form of vegetable oil such as waste oil from a processing plant. These operations use mainly hydrogenated soybean oil, some tallow and some Canola as their frying oils. It is estimated that there are several million pounds of waste vegetable oil from these operations. Additional waste frying oil is available from smaller processors, off-grade oil seeds and restaurants. This paper reports on developing a process to produce the first 945 liters (250 gallons) of HySEE using recipes developed at the University of Idaho; fuel characterization tests on the HySEE according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552; short term injector coking tests and performance tests in a turbocharged, DI, CI engine; and a 300 hour screening test in a single cylinder, IDI, CI engine.

  15. A reexamination of the crude oil price-unemployment relationship in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uri, N.D. [Economic Research Service, Washington, DC (United States). Natural Resources and Environment Div.; Boyd, R. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Dept. of Economics

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study begins by asking whether fluctuations in the price of crude oil have affected employment and the rate of unemployment in the US. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between the rate of unemployment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impact of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in unemployment is exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in unemployment and the volatility of the price of crude oil and the percentage change in gross national product is examined.

  16. The impact of crude-oil price volatility on agricultural employment in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uri, N.D. [Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focuses on the impact of fluctuations in the price of crude oil on agricultural employment in the United States. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between agricultural employment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impacts of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in agricultural employment are exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in agricultural employment and the volatility of the price of crude oil, the percentage changes in expected net farm income, realized technological innovation, and the wage rate is examined.

  17. Oil shale technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

  18. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  19. CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persoff, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas compressorThis process produces shale oil, a low BTU gas, and char,Oil Shale Process" in Oil Shale and Tar Sands, J. W. Smith

  20. The Politics of Mexico’s Oil Monopoly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizar, Richard

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based on the current oil reserves and oil production? 2) Forto either increase its oil reserves or decrease its oilthe world in terms of oil reserves by having 16,041 million

  1. Pipeline Flow Behavior of Water-In-Oil Emulsions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omer, Ali

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions consist of water droplets dispersed in continuous oil phase. They are encountered at various stages of oil production. The oil produced from… (more)

  2. Cursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Volatility*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    a country's political conditions affect oil production within its borders. We show production, with very democratic regimes exhibiting less volatility in their oil production than more of oil production volatility. Our finding has implications both for understanding world oil markets

  3. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Weimer, D.L. (1984) Oil prices shock, market response,OPEC behavior and world oil prices (pp. 175-185) London:many decades. Recent high oil prices have caused oil-holding

  4. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production The production of crude oil can generally beNorth Slope crude, Q it is the oil production per perioddiscoveries, production, costs, and prices of crude oil. ”

  5. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    threatening to onshore oil investments in Cabinda. It usedto a $2.2 billion oil and gas investment in Block 14. Oil,the full burden of capital investment, oil corporations also

  6. The effect of biofuel on the international oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fig. 1, where aggregate demand for oil is denoted D + D ? ,oil-exporting and oil-importing countries’ demand functionsinelastic global demand for crude oil, the elasticity of the

  7. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine2007, Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a MarineTides and the emission of oil and gas from an abandoned oil

  8. Low pour crude oil compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motz, K.L.; Latham, R.A.; Statz, R.J.

    1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes and improvement in the process of transporting waxy crude oils through a pipeline. It comprises: incorporating into the crude oil an effective pour point depressant amount of an additive comprising a polymer selected from the group consisting of copolymers of ethylene and acrylonitrile, and terpolymers of ethylene, acrylonitrile and a third monomer selected from the group consisting of vinyl acetate, carbon monoxide, alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, alkyl vinyl ethers, vinyl chloride, vinyl fluoride, acrylic acid, and methacrylic acid, wherein the amount of third monomer in the terpolymer ranges from about 0.1 to about 10.0 percent by weight.

  9. Residential heating oil price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheating oil priceheating oil price

  10. Residential heating oil price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheating oil priceheating oil price9,

  11. Residential heating oil price increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheating oil priceheating oil

  12. Residential heating oil prices decline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A Bheating oil priceheatingheating oil

  13. Industrial Utilization of Coal-Oil Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, J. E.; Hawkins, G. T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-oil mixtures (COM) are receiving increasing interest as economical alternatives to residual fuel oil and natural gas used in heavy industrial and utility applications. Four basic approaches are currently employed in the manufacture of COM...

  14. Completion of Oil Wells May 4, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudge, John

    Completion of Oil Wells John Rudge May 4, 2003 1 Introduction After the initial drilling of an oil the small gap, lubrication theory can be used to study the flow. Non-dimensionalise all lengths on the gap

  15. An experimental investigation into oil mist lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kannan, Krishna

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil mist lubrication offers many advantages over sump lubrication. Unfortunately, mist lubrication generates sub-micrometer sized aerosol particles (fines) that escape from the oil mist lubrication system. These particles are an environmental hazard...

  16. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  17. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryant, Rebecca S. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  18. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  19. Oil, Gas, and Mining Leases (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section contains rules on oil, gas, and mining leases, and grants authority to the State of Nebraska and local governments to issue leases for oil and gas mining and exploration on their lands.

  20. Oil and Gas Conservation (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Minerals and Mining Program oversees the regulation of oil and gas exploration, recovery, and reclamation activities in South Dakota. Permits are required for drilling of oil or gas wells, and...

  1. Regulation of Oil and Gas Resources (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the public policy of the state to conserve and control the natural resources of oil and gas, and their products; to prevent waste of oil and gas; to provide for the protection and adjustment...

  2. Interstate Oil and Gas Conservation Compact (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation authorizes the State to join the Interstate Compact for the Conservation of Oil and Gas. The Compact is an agreement that has been entered into by 30 oil- and gas-producing states,...

  3. Oil and Gas on Public Lands (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The School Land Board may choose to lease lands for the production of oil and natural gas, on the condition that oil and gas resources are leased together and separate from other minerals. Lands...

  4. Conservation of Oil and Gas (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation prohibits the production, storage, or transportation of oil or gas in a manner, in an amount, or under conditions that constitute waste. Actions which may lead to the waste of oil...

  5. Interstate Oil and Gas Conservation Compact (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation authorizes the State to join the Interstate Compact for the Conservation of Oil and Gas. The Compact is an agreement that has been entered into by 30 oil- and gas-producing states,...

  6. Virginia Gas and Oil Act (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas and Oil Act addresses the exploration, development, and production of oil and gas resources in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It contains provisions pertaining to wells and well spacing,...

  7. The effect of biofuel on the international oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to reduction in crude oil production. The competitive modelbarrel of crude oil is allocated to gasoline production. The

  8. The effect of biofuel on the international oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    world consumption of crude oil, consumption grew from 2005mark). Although consumption of crude oil in the Middle East,

  9. Measurement of Oil and Gas Emissions from a Marine Seep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Boles, J R; Luyendyk, B P

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with offshore oil production, Geology, 27(11), 1047-1050,Coal Oil Point, California, Marine and Petroleum Geology 22(

  10. POLYVINYLCHLORIDE WASTE WITH OIL SHALE ASH TO CAPTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Oja; A. Elenurm; I. Rohtla; E. Tearo; E. Tali

    alkaline oil shale ash. Solid heat carrier (Galoter process)-type oil shale retorting units, where the

  11. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  12. BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    BP Oil Spill and Air Chemistry Crude oil contains various hydrocarbons NOAA and CIRES here at CU went to the oil spill in an aircraft that was equipped with instruments to measure the air quality. 1/3 of the oil dissolved into the water column (methane completely, benzene and ethane almost completely) Showed

  13. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS); Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Olson, Ronald B. (Kansas City, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO)

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in as liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic.

  14. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, H.M.; Bohnert, G.W.; Olson, R.B.; Hand, T.E.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in a liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic. 3 figs.

  15. Canadian oil market review shows growing influence of heavy oil and bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Canadian oil demand and consumption, crude oil received at refineries, oil well productivity including shut-in production, and exports and imports are discussed. Both light and heavy oil, natural gas, and bitumen are included in the seasonally-adjusted data presented.

  16. Tea Oil Camellia: a New Edible Oil Crop for the United States John M. Ruter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radcliffe, David

    1 Tea Oil Camellia: a New Edible Oil Crop for the United States© John M. Ruter The University@uga.edu INTRODUCTION Camellia oleifera has been cultivated in China as a source of edible oil. oleifera as a commercial oil seed crop for the southeast (Ruter, 2002). Considerable research is being

  17. Interactive coastal oil spill transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thalasila, Nanda K.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 6 fuel oils, diesel or No. 2 fuel oils, and light petroleum products such as kerosenes or gasolines. Crude oils of different ge- ologic and geographic sources vary widely in composition. Thousands of individual compounds, mostly hydrocarbons... Composition (by Weight) of Various Petroleum Substances, (adapted from Moore, Dwyer, and Katz 1972) 16 IV Comparison of Solubilities for Various Petroleum Substances, (adapted from Moore, Dwyer, and Katz 1972) 17 V Biodegradation Rates of Crude Oils...

  18. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-page fact sheet discussing the pitfalls of using straight vegetable oil (SVO) as a transportation fuel.

  19. FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION UNIT FOR OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Hammad; Y. Zurigat; S. Khzai; Z. Hammad; O. Mubydeem

    combustion performance using oil shale as fuel in direct burning process. It is a steel column of 18 cm

  20. Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining Permitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    " or "Gas" does not include any gaseous or liquid substance processed from coal, oil shale, or tar sands

  1. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  2. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils When you do use fats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils When you do use fats and oils, choose those with less Oil Use this chart to help you choose products with less saturated fat. Look for the to findLessOfteneOftenChooseMor Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil Corn Oil Olive Oil Soybean Oil Margarine (tub) Peanut

  3. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 1: Success of horizontal well technology, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume I of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA. and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA. and 88 in Canada. Operators responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  4. THE IMPACT OF SUBSIDY MECHANISMS ON BIOMASS AND OIL SHALE BASED ELECTRICITY COST PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Latőšov; A. Volkova; A. Siirde

    This paper provides electricity cost price estimates for biomass-based CHP plants and oil shale power plants to be constructed before 2013 and 2015 that can serve as references for more detailed case-specific studies. Calcula-tion results give electricity costs prices under different CO2 quota

  5. UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Well Test Interpretation in Unconventional (Tight and Shale) Gas Reservoirs Host institution: Heriot-watt University) are carried out in such low permeability formations the results are often inconclusive and/or the estimates

  6. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Walton; D. McCune; D.W. Green; G.P. Willhite; L. Watney; M. Michnick; R. Reynolds

    1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to study waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone. The major tasks undertaken are reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database; volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance; reservoir modeling; identification of operational problems; identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors; and identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process.

  7. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Walton; D. McCune; D.W. Green; G.P. Willhite; L. Watney; R. Reynolds; m. Michnick

    1998-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to study waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone. The major tasks undertaken are reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database; volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance; reservoir modeling; identification of operational problems; identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors; and identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process.

  8. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Walton; D. McCune; D.W. Green; G.P. Willhite; L. Watney; M. Cichnick; R. Reynolds

    1998-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to study waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone. The major tasks undertaken are reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database; volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance; reservoir modeling; identification of operational problems; identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors; and identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process.

  9. The Differential Effects of Oil Demand and Supply Shocks on the Global Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cashin, Paul; Mohaddes, Kamiar; Raissi, Maziar; Raissi, Mehdi

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ a set of sign restrictions on the generalized impulse responses of a Global VAR model, estimated for 38 countries/regions over the period 1979Q2.2011Q2, to discriminate between supply-driven and demand-driven oil-price shocks and to study...

  10. Carcinogenicity Studies of Estonian Oil Shale Soots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vosamae

    Several series of chronic experiments in white mice and white rats were carried out in order to determine the carcinogenicity of Estonian oil shale soot as well as the soot from oil shale fuel oil. All the investigated samples of soot showed a relatively low (from 14 to 1200 ppm) benzo

  11. IMPROVING SANDSTONE MATRIX STIMULATION OF OIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    IMPROVING SANDSTONE MATRIX STIMULATION OF OIL WELLS BY GAS PRECONDITIONING M. A. Aggour, M. Al, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia ABSTRACT Experience has shown that for sandstone formations, oil wells respond to matrix acidizing in a different manner as compared to gas wells. For oil wells, the improvement

  12. IXTOC OIL SPILL ASSESSMENT FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    IXTOC OIL SPILL ASSESSMENT FINAL REPORT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Prepared for : Bureau of Land Management in input of tar/oil to the Texas Gulf Coast (Geyer ;, 1981) have less of an obvious ecological impact, if any . The Brittany coast of France has been affected for several years by the acute oil input from

  13. OIL in a Nutshell I. Horrocksb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Harmelen, Frank

    OIL in a Nutshell D. Fensela I. Horrocksb F. van Harmelena,c S. Deckerd M. Erdmann e M. Kleina a VU) and is available at http://www.ontoknowledge.org/oil. Why we need a joint standard for describing ontologies. In this paper, we sketch a proposal for such a standard. It is called OIL, the Ontology Interchange Language

  14. Oil Price and the Dollar Virginie Coudert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Oil Price and the Dollar Virginie Coudert , Val´erie Mignon , Alexis Penot§ 6th April 2005 Abstract The aim of this paper is to test whether a stable long-term relationship exists between oil prices and causality study between the two variables. Our results indicate that causality runs from oil prices

  15. A Systems Approach to Managing Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dorp, Johan René

    A Systems Approach to Managing Oil Transportation Risk in Prince William Sound Jason R. W. Merrick Received April 21, 2000; revised June 12, 2000; accepted June 26, 2000MANAGING OIL TRANSPORTATION RISK about the safety of oil transportation in the Prince William Sound, Alaska. As a result, a large number

  16. Enhanced oil recovery using hydrogen peroxide injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, J.T. Jr.; Moss, J.T.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NOVATEC received an US Patent on a novel method to recovery viscous oil by hydrogen peroxide injection. The process appears to offer several significant improvements over existing thermal methods of oil recovery. Tejas joined NOVATEC to test the process in the laboratory and to develop oil field applications and procedures.

  17. Fish Oil Industry in South America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish Oil Industry in South America UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE FISHERIES, H. E. Crowther, Director Fish Oil Industry in South America By -J. R. SANCHEZ TORRES Chief, "Fish Oils, " M. E. Stansby, editor, Avi Publishing Company, Westport, Connecticut, 1967. Circular 282

  18. What's Driving Oil Prices? James L. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    Issues in Energy Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas November 2, 2006 The Price of OPEC Oil ($/bbl) $0 $20 $40;8 DIFFERENCES AMONG OPEC MEMBERS Proved Oil Crude Oil Reserves to GDP Reserves Production Production Ratio Member $ per capita bbl per capita bbl per capita years Algeria 3,113 373 15 25 Indonesia 1,290 20 2 11

  19. Oil Trading Simon Basey / November 28, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    . A hurricane develops in the Gulf of Mexico and threatens to shut in crude production. d. New data indicatesOil Trading Simon Basey / November 28, 2013 #12;2 What does IST do? Imports crude oil and other Markets BP's equity crude oil, NGLs and natural gas Generates entrepreneurial trading income Manages BP

  20. Politics of oil and revolution in Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakhash, S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elements of continuity and change in Iran's post-revolution oil strategy, the domestic forces that helped to shape oil policy, the regional repercussions of the Iranian revolution, and the manner in which the Iranian authorities have reacted to changes in the oil market over the past three and half years are examined.

  1. Oil shale technology and evironmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scinta, J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale processes are a combination of mining, retorting, and upgrading facilities. This work outlines the processing steps and some design considerations required in an oil shale facility. A brief overview of above ground and in situ retorts is presented; 6 retorts are described. The development aspects which the oil shale industry is addressing to protect the environment are presented.

  2. Australian developments in oil shale processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, G.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study gives some background on Australian oil shale deposits, briefly records some history of oil shale processing in the country and looks at the current status of the various proposals being considered to produce syncrudes from Australian oil shales. 5 refs.

  3. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

  4. Feasibility evaluation of downhole oil/water separator (DOWS) technology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Langhus, B. G.; Belieu, S.; Environmental Assessment; CH2M Hill; Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission

    1999-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest volume waste stream associated with oil and gas production is produced water. A survey conducted by the American Petroleum Institute estimated that 20.9 billion barrels of produced water were disposed of in 1985 (Wakim 1987). Of this total, 91% was disposed of through disposal wells or was injected for enhanced oil recovery projects. Treatment and disposal of produced water represents a significant cost for operators. A relatively new technology, downhole oil/water separators (DOWS), has been developed to reduce the cost of handling produced water. DOWS separate oil and gas from produced water at the bottom of the well and reinject some of the produced water into another formation or another horizon within the same formation, while the oil and gas are pumped to the surface. Since much of the produced water is not pumped to the surface, treated, and pumped from the surface back into a deep formation, the cost of handling produced water is greatly reduced. When DOWS are used, additional oil may be recovered as well. In cases where surface processing or disposal capacity is a limiting factor for further production within a field, the use of DOWS to dispose of some of the produced water can allow additional production within that field. Simultaneous injection using DOWS minimizes the opportunity for contamination of underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) through leaks in tubing and casing during the injection process. This report uses the acronym 'DOWS' although the technology may also be referred to as DHOWS or as dual injection and lifting systems (DIALS). Simultaneous injection using DOWS has the potential to profoundly influence the domestic oil industry. The technology has been shown to work in limited oil field applications in the United States and Canada. Several technical papers describing DOWS have been presented at oil and gas industry conferences, but for the most part, the information on the DOWS technology has not been widely transferred to operators, particularly to small or medium-sized independent U.S. companies. One of the missions of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) is to assess the feasibility of promising oil and gas technologies that offer improved operating performance, reduced operating costs, or greater environmental protection. To further this mission, the NPTO provided funding to a partnership of three organizations a DOE national laboratory (Argonne National Laboratory), a private-sector consulting firm (CH2M-Hill), and a state government agency (Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission) to assess the feasibility of DOWS. The purpose of this report is to provide general information to the industry on DOWS by describing the existing uses of simultaneous injection, summarizing the regulatory implications of simultaneous injection, and assessing the potential future uses of the technology. Chapter 2 provides a more detailed description of the two major types of DOWS. Chapter 3 summarizes the existing U.S. and Canadian installations of DOWS equipment, to the extent that operators have been willing to share their data. Data are provided on the location and geology of existing installations, production information before and after installation of the DOWS, and costs. Chapter 4 provides an overview of DOWS-specific regulatory requirements imposed by some state agencies and discusses the regulatory implications of handling produced water downhole, rather than pumping it to the surface and reinjecting it. Findings and conclusions are presented in Chapter 5 and a list of the references cited in the report is provided in Chapter 6. Appendix A presents detailed data on DOWS installations. This report presents the findings of Phase 1 of the simultaneous injection project, the feasibility assessment. Another activity of the Phase 1 investigation is to design a study plan for Phase 2 of the project, field pilot studies. The Phase 2 study plan is being developed separately and is not included in this report.

  5. Types of Cost Estimates

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The chapter describes the estimates required on government-managed projects for both general construction and environmental management.

  6. Exogenous Oil Supply Shocks: How Big Are They and How Much Do They Matter for the U.S. Economy?” forthcoming: Review of Economics and Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz Kilian

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Since the oil crises of the 1970s there has been strong interest in the question of how oil production shortfalls caused by wars and other exogenous political events in OPEC countries affect oil prices, U.S. real GDP growth and U.S. CPI inflation. This study focuses on the modern OPEC period since 1973. The results differ from the conventional wisdom along a number of dimensions. First, it is shown that under reasonable assumptions the timing, magnitude and even the sign of exogenous oil supply shocks may differ greatly from current state-of-the-art estimates. Second, the common view that the case for the exogeneity of at least the major oil price shocks is strong is supported by the data for the 1980/81 and 1990/91 oil price shocks, but not for other oil price shocks. Notably, statistical measures of the net oil price increase relative to the recent past do not represent the exogenous component of oil prices. In fact, only a small fraction of the observed oil price increases during crisis periods can be attributed to exogenous oil production disruptions. Third, compared to previous indirect estimates of the effects of exogenous supply disruptions on real GDP growth that treated major oil price increases as exogenous, the direct estimates obtained in this paper suggest a sharp drop after five quarters rather than an immediate and sustained reduction in economic growth for a year. They also suggest a spike in CPI inflation three quarters after the exogenous oil supply shock rather than a sustained increase in inflation, as is sometimes conjectured. Finally, the results of this paper put into perspective the importance of exogenous oil production shortfalls in the Middle East. It is shown that exogenous oil supply shocks made remarkably little difference overall for the evolution of U.S. real GDP growth and CPI inflation since the 1970s, although they did matter for some historical episodes. Key Words: Oil shock; war; counterfactual; oil supply; exogeneity; weak instruments. JEL: E32, C32.

  7. Prediction of oil gravity prior to drill-stem testing in Monterey Formation Reservoirs, offshore California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baskin, D.K. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)); Jones, R.W. (Chevron Oil Field Research Company, Encinitas, CA (United States))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses empirical geochemical correlations used to predict API oil gravities prior to drill-stem testing in Monterey Formation reservoirs, offshore southern California. The primary objective was to eliminate expensive well testing by identifying intervals that contain low-gravity, nonproducible oil (usually <14[degrees] API). However, the correlations proved very successful in accurately predicting (within 4[degrees]API) oil gravities that range from 5 to 35[degrees] API throughout the offshore Santa Barbara and Santa Maria areas. The primary data are weight-percent sulfur and Rock-Eval pyrolysis of bitumen chemically extracted from reservoir rock samples. In general, reservoirs that contain higher gravity, producible oil have bitumen organic sulfur contents of less than 5 wt. %, Rock-Eval bitumen, and Rock-Eval bitumen S[sub 1]/S[sub 2] ratios greater than 1.0. These data are usually supplemented with Rock-Eval pyrolysis of the reservoir rock, where whole-rock S[sub 1]/S[sub 2] ratios greater than 0.30 usually indicate associated oil gravities greater than 14[degrees] API. This analytical mix gives a multiple approach for estimating reservoir oil gravities within proposed drill-stem test (DST) intervals. Using this approach, oil gravities of more than 50 DSTs have been accurately predicted in the offshore southern California area. The technique is also useful for reevaluating API gravities in older wells where Monterey reservoirs were not the primary target. Moreover, the technique should have application elsewhere, provided the range of oil gravities are not the result of obvious biodegradation and sufficient rock and oil samples are available to establish pertinent correlations. 34 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Kuwait: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that the major event in Kuwait today is the ongoing effort to control blowouts stemming from Iraqi demolition of oil wells and producing facilities last February. A total of 732 wells---about two- thirds of all wells in Kuwait---were blown up. All but 80 caught on fire.

  9. Bakken Shale Oil Production Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tran, Tan

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    to study this Type of behavior because of scattering data, which leads to erroneous interpretation for the analysis. These production Types, especially Types I and II will give a new type curve matches for shale oil wells above or below the bubble point....

  10. Biosurfactant and enhanced oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McInerney, Michael J. (Norman, OK); Jenneman, Gary E. (Norman, OK); Knapp, Roy M. (Norman, OK); Menzie, Donald E. (Norman, OK)

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A pure culture of Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 (ATCC No. 39307) and a process for using said culture and the surfactant lichenysin produced thereby for the enhancement of oil recovery from subterranean formations. Lichenysin is an effective surfactant over a wide range of temperatures, pH's, salt and calcium concentrations.

  11. Urea dewaxing of naphthene oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mead, Th. C.; Wright, J. H.

    1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In an improved urea dewaxing process a urea/alcohol slurry chilled to 60/sup 0/ F. to 65/sup 0/ F. is added to a naphthenic distillate chilled to 60/sup 0/ F. to 65/sup 0/ F. to produce a refrigerator oil with improved low temperature properties.

  12. Systems Engineering Cost Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    on project, human capital impact. 7 How to estimate Cost? Difficult to know what we are building early on1 Systems Engineering Lecture 3 Cost Estimation Dr. Joanna Bryson Dr. Leon Watts University of Bath: Contrast approaches for estimating software project cost, and identify the main sources of cost

  13. Used Oil, Antifreeze, and Car Battery Recycling in Centre County* Location Used Oil Used Antifreeze Car Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Used Oil, Antifreeze, and Car Battery Recycling in Centre County* Location Used Oil Used Antifreeze) 237-0121 Yes No No #12;Location Used Oil Used Antifreeze Car Batteries Valvoline Instant Oil Change-9929 Yes Yes Yes * See the DEP website, www.dep.state.pa.us/cgi_apps/oil, for used oil recycling locations

  14. LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

  15. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that cocombustion of municipal solid waste and oil shale can reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2} and HCl) to acceptable levels. Tests in 6- and 15-inch units showed that the oil shale absorbs acid gas pollutants and produces an ash which could be, at the least, disposed of in a normal landfill. Further analysis of the results are underway to estimate scale-up to commercial size. Additional work will be done to evaluate the cementitious properties of oil shale ash.

  16. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

  17. Minimizing casing corrosion in Kuwait oil fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agiza, M.N.; Awar, S.A.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion in production strings is a well known problem in Kuwait oil fields. Failure to remedy the affected wells results mainly in undesirable dump flooding of the oil reservoirs, or in oil seepage and hydrocarbon contamination in shallow water bearing strata. Any of these situations (unless properly handled) leads to a disastrous waste of oil resources. This study discusses casing leaks in Kuwait oil fields, the nature of the formations opposite the leaks and their contained fluids, and the field measures that can be adopted in order to avoid casing leak problems.

  18. USED MINERAL-BASED CRANKCASE OIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Used Mineral-Based Crankcase

    based crankcase oil vary depending on the brand and type of oil, whether gasoline or diesel fuel was used, the mechanical condition of the engine that the oil came from, and the amount of use between oil changes. Used oil is not naturally found in the environment. What happens to used mineral-based crankcase oil when it enters the environment? q Used mineral-based crankcase oil enters the air through the exhaust system during engine use. q It may enter water or soil when disposed of improperly. q The hydrocarbon components of the oil generally stick to the soil surface. q Some hydrocarbons evaporate into the air very quickly, and others evaporate more slowly. q Hydrocarbon components of the oil that enter surface water bind to small particles in the water and eventually settle to the bottom. q Hydrocarbons from used mineral-based crankcase oil may build up in shellfish or other organisms. q Some metals in used mineral-based crankcase oil dissolve in water and move through the s

  19. Business Feasibility Plan for an Onsite Mobile Oil Changing Business

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hecker, Jon W.

    2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    in both of these vehicle markets as far as sales and models available is projected to increase in the years to come. If the government is successful in persuading its citizens to trade in their gas guzzler for a hybrid or EV, the 81191 market segment... and Analysis The Automotive Oil Change and Lubrication Shops (811191) market segment in the US achieved sales of 3.010 Billion dollars in 1999 and 4.902 Billion in 2009 (U.S. Census Bureau, Estimated revenue for employer firms). This calculates out to a 35...

  20. Acoustic Energy: An Innovative Technology for Stimulating Oil Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edgar, Dorland E.; Peters, Robert W.; Johnson, Donald O.; Paulsen, P. David; Roberts, Wayne

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the effectiveness of sonication in reducing the viscosity of heavy crude oils. Sonication is the use of acoustic or sound energy to produce physical and/or chemical changes in materials, usually fluids. The goal of the first project phase was to demonstrate a proof of concept for the project objective. Batch tests of three commercially available, single-weight oils (30-, 90-, and 120-wt) were performed in the laboratory. Several observations and conclusions were made from this series of experiments. These include the following: (1) In general, the lower the acoustic frequency, the greater the efficiency in reducing the viscosity of the oils; (2) Sonication treatment of the three oils resulted in reductions in viscosity that ranged from a low of 31% to a high of 75%; and (3) The results of the first phase of the project successfully demonstrated that sonication could reduce the viscosity of oils of differing viscosity. The goal of the second project phase was to demonstrate the ability of sonication to reduce the viscosity of three crude oils ranging from a light crude to a heavy crude. The experiments also were designed to examine the benefits of two proprietary chemical additives used in conjunction with sonication. Acoustic frequencies ranging from 800 Hz to 1.6 kHz were used in these tests, and a reactor chamber was designed for flow-through operation with a capacity of one gallon (3.8 liters). The three crude oils selected for use in the testing program were: (1) a heavy crude from California with a viscosity of approximately 65,000 cP (API gravity about 12{sup o}), (2) a crude from Alabama with a significant water content and a viscosity of approximately 6,000 cP (API gravity about 22 {sup o}), and (3) a light crude from the Middle East with a viscosity of approximately 700 cP (API gravity about 32{sup o}). The principal conclusions derived from the second project phase include the following: (1) The application of acoustic energy (sonication) significantly reduced the viscosity of crude oils, and the amount of viscosity reduction resulting is greater for more viscous, heavy crude oils than it is for less viscous, light crude oils. (2) Test results showed that after being heated, resulting viscosity reductions were not sustained following treatment to the extent that post-sonication reductions were sustained. (3) The maximum viscosity reductions in Oils 1, 2, and 3 due to sonication were 43%, 76%, and 6%, respectively. Samples of Oil 2 associated with larger viscosity reductions often exhibited a definite water separation layer follow the tests, whereas reductions of approximately 23% were measured when this separation was not observed. (4) It was observed that neither horn design nor the reduction of input power by 25% had very little effect on the ability of sonication to alter crude oil viscosity. (5) The chemical additives produced a range of viscosity reduction from 37% to a maximum of 94% with the largest reductions being facilitated by the abundant water present Oil 2. If the Oil 2 results are not considered, the maximum reduction was 73%. The effects of the additives and sonication are enhanced by each other. (6) In only one test did the viscosity return to as much as 50% of the pre-treatment value during a period of 30 days following treatment; recovery was much less in all other cases. Therefore, more than half of the viscosity reduction was maintained for a month without additional treatment. (7) Possible applications, market potential, and economic value of the implementation of a mature sonication technology within the petroleum industry were identified, and it was estimated that the potential exists that more than a billion barrels of oil could be upgraded or produced annually as a result. The project results successfully demonstrated that sonication alone and in combination with chemical additives can effectively reduce the viscosity of crude oils having a broad range of viscosity/API gravity values. Several recommendations are made for follow-on