National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for recover stranded costs

  1. After Cajun, what next for stranded costs?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pembroke, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    Members of FERC have said that the Cajun decision does not pose a serious problem to its proposed rulemaking on stranded costs. But the D.C. Circuit`s Cajun decision, criticizing the concept of recovery for stranded investment in broad terms, promises to make that task difficult, if not impossible. The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, in its July 12, 1994 opinion in Cajun Electric Power Cooperative, Inc. v. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, subjected the Entergy Corporations`s transmission tariff`s stranded investment provision to broad and, perhaps, fatal criticism. The Cajun opinion, premised on basic concepts of antitrust law, was issued at a time of substantial industry discussion on the concept of stranded investment and should greatly impact the decisions of both federal and state regulators on stranded investment.

  2. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining should more fully recover or eliminate its costs of regulating coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-05-28

    The Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) is spending about $65 million annually to implement regulatory program requirements of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The act requires the regulatory authority, whether OSM or that of a state with an OSM-approved program, to charge fees to mining operators for reviewing, enforcing, and administering coal mine operating permits and authorizes that the amount of such fees can fully recover costs. The OSM and states assess certain fees, but the fees recover only a small portion of their program costs. GAO found that if OSM and states fully recovered their regulatory costs, OSM could save over $50 million a year and the impact on coal demand and production would be minimal. GAO recommends that the Secretary of the Interior collect fees that fully recover OSM's regulatory costs, phase out or substantially reduce financial assistance to states, and encourage states to fully recover their own costs.

  3. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering heat from boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Generation cost unbundling: Untangling the gordian knot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conkling, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    One useful byproduct of California`s efforts to restructure its electricity industry comes in the form of Southern California Edison`s proposal to facilitate unbundling by adopting a superior cost allocation method. Utilities and regulators elsewhere should take notice. Clearing the deck for generating competition is the urgent order of the day in electric restructuring. The critical question is: What are the generation costs to be unbundled? Schemes for restructuring, both in California and elsewhere, have called for the stranded component of utility generating costs to be recovered through customer payments of a non-bypassable competition transition charge (CTC). The stranded cost component of generation is the difference between total costs and the revenues received from future market-based prices. This makes a total cost determination for the calculation of the CTC essential, not optional.

  5. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  7. Process for recovering uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  8. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  9. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

  10. Method of recovering uranium hexafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuman, S.

    1975-12-01

    A method of recovering uranium hexafluoride from gaseous mixtures which comprises adsorbing said uranium hexafluoride on activated carbon is described.

  11. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for separating and recovering uranium from a complex mixure of impurities. The uranium is dissolved to produce an aqueous acidic solution including various impurities. In accordance with one method, with the uranium in the uranyl state, hydrogen cyanide is introduced into the solution to complex the impurities. Subsequently, ammonia is added to the solution to precipitate the uraniunn as ammonium diuranate away from the impurities in the solution. Alternatively, the uranium is precipitated by adding an alkaline metal hydroxide. In accordance with the second method, the uranium is reduced to the uranous state in the solution. The reduced solution is then treated with solid alkali metal cyanide sufficient to render the solution about 0.1 to 1.0 N in cyanide ions whereat cyanide complex ions of the metal impurities are produced and the uranium is simultaneously precipituted as uranous hydroxide. Alternatively, hydrogen cyanide may be added to the reduced solution and the uranium precipitated subsequently by adding ammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide. Other refinements of the method are also disclosed.

  12. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering heat from boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  14. One million curies of radioactive material recovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radioactive material recovered One million curies of radioactive material recovered The accomplishment represents a major milestone in protecting our nation and the world from...

  15. Recovering entanglement by local operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D’Arrigo, A.; Lo Franco, R.; Benenti, G.; Paladino, E.; Falci, G.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.

  16. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  17. Double stranded nucleic acid biochips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chernov, Boris; Golova, Julia

    2006-05-23

    This invention describes a new method of constructing double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays based on the use of pre-synthesized or natural DNA duplexes without a stem-loop structure. The complementary oligonucleotide chains are bonded together by a novel connector that includes a linker for immobilization on a matrix. A non-enzymatic method for synthesizing double-stranded nucleic acids with this novel connector enables the construction of inexpensive and robust dsDNA/dsRNA microarrays. DNA-DNA and DNA-protein interactions are investigated using the microarrays.

  18. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  19. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  20. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  1. Electrochemical processes in recovering metals from ores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felker, D.L. ); Bautista, R.G. . Dept. of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    Chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}) is one of the most abundant copper-bearing minerals in the U.S. Oxidative leaching and smelting and refining are the most common methods used for recovering copper from chalcopyrite. One of the problems associated with oxidative leaching is the formation of an elemental sulfur product layer around the unreacted chalcopyrite core. The sulfur coating slows the reaction by inhibiting both the diffusion of the oxidant to the unreacted core, and the diffusion of the copper and iron species to the bulk solution. Another problem with leaching is that the iron and copper are oxidized simultaneously. Both appear in the bulk solution in their most oxidized states. The direct electrodissolution of copper sulfide ore slurries could reduce the number of steps involved in the copper recovery process, possibly leading to significant reductions in energy consumption and operating costs. The potential application of electrodissolution processes in hydrometallurgy has been reviewed. This paper reviews investigations of the electrochemical dissolution of chalcopyrite, digenite (Cu{sub 1.8}S), chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) and covellite (CuS).

  2. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (Revised0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  3. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy - Steam Tip Sheet #13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on vent condenser to recover flash steam energy provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste - Steam Tip Sheet #11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Neutrino Physics AAPT Strand Day

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics AAPT Strand Day NSTA Regional, 2005 Jocelyn Monroe, Columbia University 1. What Is a Neutrino Anyway? 2. The Question Of Neutrino Mass 3. Searching For Neutrino Oscillations 4. Where Are We Now? ν Neutrinos, they are very small. They have no charge and have no mass And do not interact at all. The earth is just a silly ball To them, through which they simply pass... ...And pierce the lover and his lass From underneath the bed- you call It wonderful; I call it crass. J from ``Cosmic

  6. Recovering Radioactive Materials with ORSP Team

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LANL

    2009-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered more than 16,000 orphan sources as of 2008.

  7. Onsite Recovered Energy LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Onsite Recovered Energy LP Address: Centurion Region: South Africa Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Year Founded: 2009 Phone Number: +27 (0)83 526-3767...

  8. Recovered materials and the proposed procurement rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a Comprehensive Procurement Guideline'' in April designating items that are or can be made with recovered materials. The Agency is proposing to designate 21 additional items and to amend the building installation guideline to establish recovered materials content levels for fiberglass and increase the levels for rock wool. The Comprehensive Procurement Guideline implements Section 6002(e) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Section 502 of Executive Order 12873. RCRA Section 6002 requires EPA to designate items that are or can be made with recovered materials and to recommend practices to assist federal procuring agencies with meeting their statutory obligations under RCRA Section 6002. After EPA designates an item, RCRA requires that each procuring agency purchase that designated item composed of the highest percentage of recovered materials practicable.

  9. METHOD FOR RECOVERING URANIUM FROM OILS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gooch, L.H.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for recovering uranium from hydrocarbon oils, wherein the uranium is principally present as UF/sub 4/. According to the invention, substantially complete removal of the uranium from the hydrocarbon oil may be effected by intimately mixing one part of acetone to about 2 to 12 parts of the hydrocarbon oil containing uranium and separating the resulting cake of uranium from the resulting mixture. The uranium in the cake may be readily recovered by burning to the oxide.

  10. One million curies of radioactive material recovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radioactive material recovered One million curies of radioactive material recovered The accomplishment represents a major milestone in protecting our nation and the world from material that could be used in "dirty bombs" by terrorists. December 22, 2014 Rick Day of Los Alamos National Laboratory's International Threat Reduction group and the Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP) holds a non-radioactive training mockup of what a typical cobalt-60 source might look like. The source is

  11. Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Under the federal Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS), businesses may recover investments in certain property through depreciation deductions. The MACRS establishes a set of class...

  12. Process for recovering filler from polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Maurice L.; Smith, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a process for recovering filler material from a polymeric matrix by reacting the matrix at an elevated temperature in a gas atmosphere with a controlled oxidizing potential and thereafter separating and cleaning the residue from the reaction mixture.

  13. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Heat can be recovered from boiler blowdown by using a heat exchanger to preheat boiler makeup water. Any boiler with continuous blowdown ...

  14. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy (January 2012) (374.64 KB) More Documents & Publications Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems ...

  15. Recovering START institutional knowledge (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recovering START institutional knowledge Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovering START institutional knowledge You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  16. Apparatus for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering hydrogen and separating its isotopes. The apparatus includes a housing bearing at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. A baffle is disposed within the housing, attached thereto by a bracket. A hollow conduit is coiled about the baffle, in spaced relation to the baffle and the housing. The coiled conduit is at least partially filled with a hydride. The hydride can be heated to a high temperature and cooled to a low temperature quickly by circulating a heat transfer fluid in the housing. The spacing between the baffle and the housing maximizes the heat exchange rate between the fluid in the housing and the hydride in the conduit. The apparatus can be used to recover hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from gaseous mixtures, or to separate hydrogen isotopes from each other.

  17. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    A method is described for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800 C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000--1,550 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification. 2 figs.

  18. Method for recovering materials from waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, a vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800{degrees}C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1000--1550{degrees}C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  19. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    2000-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  20. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    1998-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree.-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000.degree.-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  1. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I.; Knell, Everett W.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  2. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  3. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galvanek, P. Jr.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.

  4. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  5. PROCESSES OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM A CALUTRON

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baird, D.O.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1958-07-15

    An improved process is described for recovering the residue of a uranium compound which has been subjected to treatment in a calutron, from the parts of the calutron disposed in the source region upon which the residue is deposited. The process may be utilized when the uranium compound adheres to a surface containing metals of the group consisting of copper, iron, chromium, and nickel. The steps comprise washing the surface with an aqueous acidic oxidizing solvent for the uranium whereby there is obtained an acidic aqueous Solution containing uranium as uranyl ions and metals of said group as impurities, treating the acidic solution with sodium acetate in the presenee of added sodium nitrate to precipitate the uranium as sodium uranyl acetate away from the impurities in the solution, and separating the sodium uranyl acetate from the solution.

  6. Apparatus to recover tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swansiger, William A. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering tritium from tritiated compounds is provided, including a preheater for heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. and a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide for receiving the preheated mixture. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide.

  7. Method and apparatus for testing a forward-moving strand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ducommun, Joel; Vulliens, Philippe

    1980-01-01

    In a method for testing a continuously forward-moving strand a light beam which passes along a plane that extends approximately perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the strand is introduced into the strand. The brightness value is measured on a place of the strand exterior which is distal from the light incidence place by means of at least one photoelectronic element disposed directly on the strand exterior and the measured result is evaluated in a gating circuit which is electrically connected to the photoelectronic element.

  8. Recovering metals from spent hydroprocessing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubred, G. L.; Van Leirshurg, D. A.

    1985-02-19

    A process for recovering the metal values from spent hydroprocessing catalyst particles. The metal values will include at least one metal of Group VIII of the Periodic Table and at least one metal of Group Vb or Group VIb of the Periodic Table. The spent catalyst particles are first roasted at between 400/sup 0/ C. and 600/sup 0/ C. and then contacted with a first aqueous solution of ammonia and an ammonium salt forming a first pregnant liquor. The once-leached spent hydroprocessing catalysts are contacted with a second aqueous solution of sulfur dioxide forming a second pregnant liquor. The metal values are precipitated from the second pregnant liquor with hydrogen sulfide and the precipitate is roasted with unroasted spent hydroprocessing catalysts. The metal values of Group Vb and Group VIb in the first pregnant liquor are transferred into a first organic solution by liquid ion exchange. The first organic solution is stripped by an aqueous strip solution and the metal values separated by sequential precipitation. The metals of Group VIII are separated and purified by serial liquid ion exchange.

  9. Method of preparing and applying single stranded DNA probes to double stranded target DNAs in situ

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes, and for treating target DNA for use therewith. Probe is constructed by treating DNA with a restriction enzyme and an exonuclease to form template/primers for a DNA polymerase. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe. Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe, and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations.

  10. Method of preparing and applying single stranded DNA probes to double stranded target DNAs in situ

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1991-07-02

    A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes, and for treating target DNA for use therewith. The probe is constructed by treating DNA with a restriction enzyme and an exonuclease to form template/primers for a DNA polymerase. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe. Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe, and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations. No Drawings

  11. Method for producing labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J.; Quesada, Mark A.; Randesi, Matthew

    1999-10-19

    Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

  12. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  13. USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall Seright

    2011-09-30

    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be found in our first and

  14. Aqueous process for recovering sulfur from hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha

    2015-05-05

    A process for recovering sulfur from a hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas utilizes an aqueous reaction medium, a temperature of about 110-150.degree. C., and a high enough pressure to maintain the aqueous reaction medium in a liquid state. The process reduces material and equipment costs and addresses the environmental disadvantages associated with known processes that rely on high boiling point organic solvents.

  15. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate ...

  16. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    STEAM TIP SHEET 10 Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown (January 2012) (372.21 KB) More Documents & Publications Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System Consider Installing a ...

  17. Analysis of ``soft`` recovered shaped charge jet particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lassila, D.H.; Nikkel, D.J. Jr.; Kershaw, R.P.; Walters, W.P.

    1996-04-01

    A shaped charge with an 81 mm diameter, 42{degree} apex angle oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper conical liner was fired into a ``soft`` recovery bunker to allow metallurgical examination of recovered jet particles and the slug. The initial weight of the copper liner was 245 g, of which 184 g was recovered. The number of jet particles recovered was 37 (approximately 63% of the particles formed by the charge). Extensive metallurgical analyses were performed on the recovered slug and jet particles. The microstructural features associated with voids, e.g., dendritic grain growth, clearly indicate that the regions in the vicinity of the centerline of the slug and jet particles were melted. In this work the authors present calculations of jet temperature as a function of constitutive behavior. In order to predict melt in the center region of the jet they find it necessary to scale flow stress with a pressure dependent shear modulus.

  18. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.

    2003-03-10

    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  19. Working Together to Recover and Rebuild After Hurricane Sandy | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Recover and Rebuild After Hurricane Sandy Working Together to Recover and Rebuild After Hurricane Sandy November 5, 2012 - 6:30pm Addthis Supervising Engineer for Public Service Electric and Gas Company, Michael Vincent, right, Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu, center, and FEMA Deputy Administrator Rich Serino review power restoration at the Hoboken electrical substation. Restoration of power to communities impacted by Hurricane Sandy remains a high priority. | Photo by

  20. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Background meeting and technology demonstration: Chromium electroplating of superconductor strand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    A meeting concerned with electroplating copper onto superconducting wires was held. Topics of discussion were concerned with the market, strand cleanliness, and an improved rinsing system for the process.

  2. Unidirectional Scaffold-Strand Arrangement in DNA Origami

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unidirectional Scaffold-Strand Arrangement in DNA Origami Authors: Han, D., Jiang, S., Samanta, A., Liu, Y., and Yan, H. Title: Unidirectional Scaffold-Strand Arrangement in DNA Origami Source: Angewandte Chemie International Edition Year: 2013 Volume: 52 Pages: 9031-9034 ABSTRACT: Date of online publication: Sun, 2013-07-14 Link online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201302177/suppinfo

  3. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec

    2002-12-20

    This document is the First Annual Report for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No., a three-year contract entitled: ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The research improved our knowledge and understanding of CO{sub 2} flooding and includes work in the areas of injectivity and mobility control. The bulk of this work has been performed by the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, a research division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. This report covers the reporting period of September 28, 2001 and September 27, 2002. Injectivity continues to be a concern to the industry. During this period we have contacted most of the CO{sub 2} operators in the Permian Basin and talked again about their problems in this area. This report has a summary of what we found. It is a given that carbonate mineral dissolution and deposition occur in a formation in geologic time and are expected to some degree in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods. Water-alternating-gas (WAG) core flood experiments conducted on limestone and dolomite core plugs confirm that these processes can occur over relatively short time periods (hours to days) and in close proximity to each other. Results from laboratory CO{sub 2}-brine flow experiments performed in rock core were used to calibrate a reactive transport simulator. The calibrated model is being used to estimate in situ effects of a range of possible sequestration options in depleted oil/gas reservoirs. The code applied in this study is a combination of the well known TOUGH2 simulator, for coupled groundwater/brine and heat flow, with the chemistry code TRANS for chemically reactive transport. Variability in response among rock types suggests that CO{sub 2} injection will induce ranges of transient and spatially dependent changes in intrinsic rock permeability and porosity. Determining the effect of matrix changes on CO{sub 2} mobility is crucial in evaluating the efficacy

  4. Using compressive sensing to recover images from PET scanners with partial detector rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valiollahzadeh, SeyyedMajid; Clark, John W.; Mawlawi, Osama

    2015-01-15

    from six patient studies were investigated using the same strategy of the phantom study. The recovered images using WTV and TV as well as the partially sampled images from all three experiments were then compared with the fully sampled images (the baseline). Comparisons were done by calculating the mean error (%bias), root mean square error (RMSE), contrast recovery (CR), and SNR of activity concentration in regions of interest drawn in the background as well as the disks, spheres, and lesions. Results: For the simulation study, the mean error, RMSE, and CR for the WTV (TV) recovered images were 0.26% (0.48%), 2.6% (2.9%), 97% (96%), respectively, when compared to baseline. For the partially sampled images, these results were 22.5%, 45.9%, and 64%, respectively. For the simulation study, the average SNR for the baseline was 41.7 while for WTV (TV), recovered image was 44.2 (44.0). The phantom study showed similar trends with 5.4% (18.2%), 15.6% (18.8%), and 78% (60%), respectively, for the WTV (TV) images and 33%, 34.3%, and 69% for the partially sampled images. For the phantom study, the average SNR for the baseline was 14.7 while for WTV (TV) recovered image was 13.7 (11.9). Finally, the average of these values for the six patient studies for the WTV-recovered, TV, and partially sampled images was 1%, 7.2%, 92% and 1.3%, 15.1%, 87%, and 27%, 25.8%, 45%, respectively. Conclusions: CS with WTV is capable of recovering PET images with good quantitative accuracy from partially sampled data. Such an approach can be used to potentially reduce the cost of scanners while maintaining good image quality.

  5. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  6. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Steven A.; Creech, Edward T.; Northcutt, Walter G.

    1983-01-01

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and leave an insoluble residue of niobium stannide, then separating the niobium stannide from the acid.

  7. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, S.A.; Creech, E.T.; Northcutt, W.G.

    1982-09-27

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and form a precipitate of niobium stannide, then separating the precipitate from the acid.

  8. An intercalation-locked parallel-stranded DNA tetraplex

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tripathi, S.; Zhang, D.; Paukstelis, P. J.

    2015-01-27

    DNA has proved to be an excellent material for nanoscale construction because complementary DNA duplexes are programmable and structurally predictable. However, in the absence of Watson–Crick pairings, DNA can be structurally more diverse. Here, we describe the crystal structures of d(ACTCGGATGAT) and the brominated derivative, d(ACBrUCGGABrUGAT). These oligonucleotides form parallel-stranded duplexes with a crystallographically equivalent strand, resulting in the first examples of DNA crystal structures that contains four different symmetric homo base pairs. Two of the parallel-stranded duplexes are coaxially stacked in opposite directions and locked together to form a tetraplex through intercalation of the 5'-most A–A base pairs betweenmore » adjacent G–G pairs in the partner duplex. The intercalation region is a new type of DNA tertiary structural motif with similarities to the i-motif. 1H–1H nuclear magnetic resonance and native gel electrophoresis confirmed the formation of a parallel-stranded duplex in solution. Finally, we modified specific nucleotide positions and added d(GAY) motifs to oligonucleotides and were readily able to obtain similar crystals. This suggests that this parallel-stranded DNA structure may be useful in the rational design of DNA crystals and nanostructures.« less

  9. An intercalation-locked parallel-stranded DNA tetraplex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, S.; Zhang, D.; Paukstelis, P. J.

    2015-01-27

    DNA has proved to be an excellent material for nanoscale construction because complementary DNA duplexes are programmable and structurally predictable. However, in the absence of Watson–Crick pairings, DNA can be structurally more diverse. Here, we describe the crystal structures of d(ACTCGGATGAT) and the brominated derivative, d(ACBrUCGGABrUGAT). These oligonucleotides form parallel-stranded duplexes with a crystallographically equivalent strand, resulting in the first examples of DNA crystal structures that contains four different symmetric homo base pairs. Two of the parallel-stranded duplexes are coaxially stacked in opposite directions and locked together to form a tetraplex through intercalation of the 5'-most A–A base pairs between adjacent G–G pairs in the partner duplex. The intercalation region is a new type of DNA tertiary structural motif with similarities to the i-motif. 1H–1H nuclear magnetic resonance and native gel electrophoresis confirmed the formation of a parallel-stranded duplex in solution. Finally, we modified specific nucleotide positions and added d(GAY) motifs to oligonucleotides and were readily able to obtain similar crystals. This suggests that this parallel-stranded DNA structure may be useful in the rational design of DNA crystals and nanostructures.

  10. Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

    1996-07-01

    Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

  11. Method for fabricating multi-strand superconducting cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, A.R.

    1985-04-01

    Multi-strand superconducting cables adapted to be used, for example, to wind a magnet are fabricated by directing wire strands inwardly from spools disposed on the perimeter of a rotating disk and wrapping them diagonally around a tapered mandrel with a flattened cross-sectional shape with a core having a wedge-shaped channel. As the cable is pulled axially, flexibly coupled wedge-shaped pieces are continuously passed through the channel in the mandrel and inserted into the cable as an internal support therefor.

  12. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  13. Method of recovering hazardous waste from phenolic resin filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H.; Bourne, Gary L.; McFee, John N.; Burdge, Bradley G.; McConnell, Jr., John W.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a process for the recovery of hazardous wastes such as heavy metals and radioactive elements from phenolic resin filter by a circulating a solution of 8 to 16 molar nitric acid at a temperature of 110 to 190 degrees F. through the filter. The hot solution dissolves the filter material and releases the hazardous material so that it can be recovered or treated for long term storage in an environmentally safe manner.

  14. Method for recovering oil from an underground formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesselink, F.T.; Saidi, A.M.

    1982-12-21

    Method for recovering oil from an underground formation consisting of blocks of relatively low permeability with an oilwet pore space containing oil surrounded by a fracture network of relatively high permeability by supplying to the fracture network an aqueous solution of a surfactant adapted for decreasing the surface tension between water and oil and displacing the oil from the oil-wet pore space of the blocks.

  15. Methods for Recovering Metals From Electronic Waste, and Related Systems -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Methods for Recovering Metals From Electronic Waste, and Related Systems Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Technology Summary Poster (4,219 KB) PDF Document Publication Technology Fact Sheet (1,012 KB) Technology Marketing Summary End-of-life electronic devices such as smart phones, computers, televisions and other

  16. BPA's Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  17. Applications of Strand-Specific in situ Hybridization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, E.H.; Meyne, J.; Bailey, S.M.; Quigley, D.; Smith, L.; Tennyson, R.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is used to determine the location of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. It is an effective tool in genomic mapping and is finding increasing use in medical diagnosis. A ''strand-specific'' version of FISH has been developed in the Life Sciences Division of LANL. The new procedure, named CO-FISH, reveals not only location but also the 5'-to-3'direction of a target sequence, such as the sense strand of a gene. This project was designed to investigate applications of the new technique. Strand-specific FISH was found to be useful and informative for genomic mapping of repetitive DNA sequences. The method provide a valuable new tool for investigating the mechanisms of aneuploidy inducing agents and the cytogenetic phenomena called lateral asymmetry. Finally, using strand-specific FISH, the authors were able to detect certain types of chromosome aberrations (isochromosomes, inversions and Robertsonian translocations) that can be difficult to observe with standard techniques.

  18. Solid phase sequencing of double-stranded nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Cantor, Charles R.; Koster, Hubert; Smith, Cassandra L.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing of target double-stranded nucleic acid sequences, to nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probe comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include nucleic acids in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated determination of molecular weights and identification of the target sequence.

  19. Analysis of FERC's Final EIS for Electricity Open Access & Recovery of Stranded Costs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) prepared by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for its electricity transmission system open access prepared in April 1996 and uses the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to analyze the open access rule (Orders 888 and 889).

  20. NNSA Recovers Radiological Material from Mexico | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) Recovers Radiological Material from Mexico July 28, 2015 The irradiators were loaded on the U.S. Air Force C-17 in Southern Mexico and flown back to a base in the United States. WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), in partnership with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), the U.S. Air Force (USAF), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the United Mexican States, has successfully completed

  1. Improvements in strand feeding and its effect of sintering performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, H.; Kersting, K.; Werner, P.

    1995-12-01

    Sintering may be considered a rather simple, counter current gas-solid process. A bed of granular solids is moved horizontally on a strand of pallets and suction is applied beneath the grate. Shortly after the sinter mix is fed onto the strand the incorporated solid fuel is ignited in the surface layer and the hot gases are drawn into the bed. The temperature of the top layer is raised high enough to burn the fuel particles while air is sucked down through it. Passing the upper, already sintered part of the bed the air is first preheated then sustains the combustion reaction. The hot, still oxygen-rich combustion gases leave the sintering zone and transfer its heat to the charge below. While the solids are preheated, carbonates, combined water, and moisture are driven off, rapidly cooling the gas. Thus, a flame front propagates through the traveling bed, generating at peak temperatures enough heat to agglomerate the bed of quasi-particles into a sinter cake. The strand speed is adjusted so that the burning through of the combustion zone coincides with the end of the suction area. To ensure stable operation this cross stream reactor has to be kept in a steady state.

  2. Analysis of the Reuse of Uranium Recovered from the Reprocessing of Commercial LWR Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DelCul, Guillermo Daniel; Trowbridge, Lee D; Renier, John-Paul; Ellis, Ronald James; Williams, Kent Alan; Spencer, Barry B; Collins, Emory D

    2009-02-01

    This report provides an analysis of the factors involved in the reuse of uranium recovered from commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels (1) by reenrichment and recycling as fuel to LWRs and/or (2) by recycling directly as fuel to heavy-water-reactors (HWRs), such as the CANDU (registered trade name for the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor). Reuse is an attractive alternative to the current Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) baseline plan, which stores the reprocessed uranium (RU) for an uncertain future or attempts to dispose of it as 'greater-than-Class C' waste. Considering that the open fuel cycle currently deployed in the United States already creates a huge excess quantity of depleted uranium, the closed fuel cycle should enable the recycle of the major components of spent fuel, such as the uranium and the hazardous, long-lived transuranic (TRU) actinides, as well as the managed disposal of fission product wastes. Compared with the GNEP baseline scenario, the reuse of RU in the uranium fuel cycle has a number of potential advantages: (1) avoidance of purchase costs of 11-20% of the natural uranium feed; (2) avoidance of disposal costs for a large majority of the volume of spent fuel that is reprocessed; (3) avoidance of disposal costs for a portion of the depleted uranium from the enrichment step; (4) depending on the {sup 235}U assay of the RU, possible avoidance of separative work costs; and (5) a significant increase in the production of {sup 238}Pu due to the presence of {sup 236}U, which benefits somewhat the transmutation value of the plutonium and also provides some proliferation resistance.

  3. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkholder, Harvey R.; Fanslow, Glenn E.

    1983-01-01

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed.

  4. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkholder, H.R.; Fanslow, G.E.

    1983-12-20

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed. 8 figs.

  5. Process for recovering organic components from liquid streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo; Baker, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    A separation process for recovering organic components from liquid streams. The process is a combination of pervaporation and decantation. In cases where the liquid stream contains the organic to be separated in dissolved form, the pervaporation step is used to concentrate the organic to a point above the solubility limit, so that a two-phase permeate is formed and then decanted. In cases where the liquid stream is a two-phase mixture, the decantation step is performed first, to remove the organic product phase, and the residue from the decanter is then treated by pervaporation. The condensed permeate from the pervaporation unit is sufficiently concentrated in the organic component to be fed back to the decanter. The process can be tailored to produce only two streams: an essentially pure organic product stream suitable for reuse, and a residue stream for discharge or reuse.

  6. Separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David R.

    2015-09-01

    A separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator apparatus and method. The accelerator includes a first linac, a second linac, and a plurality of arcs of differing path lengths, including a plurality of up arcs, a plurality of downgoing arcs, and a full energy arc providing a path independent of the up arcs and downgoing arcs. The up arcs have a path length that is substantially a multiple of the RF wavelength and the full energy arc includes a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer multiple of the RF wavelength. Operation of the accelerator includes accelerating the beam utilizing the linacs and up arcs until the beam is at full energy, at full energy executing a full recirculation to the second linac using a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer of the RF wavelength, and then decelerating the beam using the linacs and downgoing arcs.

  7. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wai, Chien; Tian, Guoxin; Janke, Christopher

    2014-05-29

    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium

  8. Unbundling power products, modifying rate design, and fixed cost coverage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Procter, R.J.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper, the author provides an overview of efforts currently underway at the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to respond to these various challenges to how BPA has traditionally managed the marketing of power at the wholesale level in the Pacific Northwest and to areas outside this region along the West Cast in general. The paper begins with an overview of the role of the BPA in the region, and trends in costs and revenues. The paper provides a general outline of BPA`s efforts to separate its business into three separate product lines (power, energy services, and transmission) as well as providing an overview of how BPA is unbundling power products. In addition, the paper provides an overview of some of the major changes BPA has proposed in its rate design. This is followed by an overview of the approach to the issue of stranded cost. You will see that it is their desire to as much as possible avoid a legislative solution to this issue and rely on marketing and working with customers as a way of dealing with this very contentious issue. The paper wraps up with an assessment of the potential for power product unbundling to significantly reduce potential stranded costs. You will see that at the present time, unbundling power products offers BPA little in the way of substantial reductions in potential stranded costs. Whereas, margins on the delivery of energy and capacity offer the greatest potential for covering fixed costs.

  9. levelized costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    levelized costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  10. PROCESSES FOR SEPARATING AND RECOVERING CONSTITUENTS OF NEUTRON IRRADIATED URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Connick, R.E.; Gofman, J.W.; Pimentel, G.C.

    1959-11-10

    Processes are described for preparing plutonium, particularly processes of separating plutonium from uranium and fission products in neutron-irradiated uraniumcontaining matter. Specifically, plutonium solutions containing uranium, fission products and other impurities are contacted with reducing agents such as sulfur dioxide, uranous ion, hydroxyl ammonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and ferrous ion whereby the plutoninm is reduced to its fluoride-insoluble state. The reduced plutonium is then carried out of solution by precipitating niobic oxide therein. Uranium and certain fission products remain behind in the solution. Certain other fission products precipitate along with the plutonium. Subsequently, the plutonium and fission product precipitates are redissolved, and the solution is oxidized with oxidizing agents such as chlorine, peroxydisulfate ion in the presence of silver ion, permanganate ion, dichromate ion, ceric ion, and a bromate ion, whereby plutonium is oxidized to the fluoride-soluble state. The oxidized solution is once again treated with niobic oxide, thus precipitating the contamirant fission products along with the niobic oxide while the oxidized plutonium remains in solution. Plutonium is then recovered from the decontaminated solution.

  11. Nuclear power fleets and uranium resources recovered from phosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G.

    2013-07-01

    Current light water reactors (LWR) burn fissile uranium, whereas some future reactors, as Sodium fast reactors (SFR) will be capable of recycling their own plutonium and already-extracted depleted uranium. This makes them a feasible solution for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Nonetheless, a sufficient quantity of plutonium is needed to start up an SFR, with the plutonium already being produced in light water reactors. The availability of natural uranium therefore has a direct impact on the capacity of the reactors (both LWR and SFR) that we can build. It is therefore important to have an accurate estimate of the available uranium resources in order to plan for the world's future nuclear reactor fleet. This paper discusses the correspondence between the resources (uranium and plutonium) and the nuclear power demand. Sodium fast reactors will be built in line with the availability of plutonium, including fast breeders when necessary. Different assumptions on the global uranium resources are taken into consideration. The largely quoted estimate of 22 Mt of uranium recovered for phosphate rocks can be seriously downscaled. Based on our current knowledge of phosphate resources, 4 Mt of recoverable uranium already seems to be an upper bound value. The impact of the downscaled estimate on the deployment of a nuclear fleet is assessed accordingly. (authors)

  12. Analysis of Strand-Specific RNA-Seq Data Using Machine Learning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis of Strand-Specific RNA-Seq Data Using Machine Learning Reveals the Structures of Transcription Units in Clostridium thermocellum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  13. Transporting carbon dioxide recovered from fossil-energy cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doctor, R. D.; Molburg, J. C.; Brockmeier, J. F.

    2000-07-24

    Transportation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for enhanced oil recovery is a mature technology, with operating experience dating from the mid-1980s. Because of this maturity, recent sequestration studies for the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory have been able to incorporate transportation into overall energy-cycle economics with reasonable certainty. For these studies, two different coal-fueled plants are considered; the first collects CO{sub 2} from a 456-MW integrated coal gasification combined-cycle plant, while the second employs a 353-MW pulverized-coal boiler plant retrofitted for flue-gas recycling (Doctor et al. 1999; MacDonald and Palkes 1999). The pulverized-coal plant fires a mixture of coal in a 33% O{sub 2} atmosphere, the bulk of the inert gas being made up to CO{sub 2} to the greatest extent practical. If one power plant with one pipe feeds one sequestration reservoir, projected costs for a 500-km delivery pipeline are problematic, because when supplying one reservoir both plant availability issues and useful pipeline life heavily influence capital recovery costs. The transportation system proposed here refines the sequestration scheme into a network of three distinctive pipelines: (1) 80-km collection pipelines for a 330-MW pulverized-coal power plant with 100% CO{sub 2} recovery; (2) a main CO{sub 2} transportation trunk of 320 km that aggregates the CO{sub 2} from four such plants; and (3) an 80-km distribution network. A 25-year life is assumed for the first two segments, but only half that for the distribution to the reservoir. Projected costs for a 500-km delivery pipeline, assuming an infrastructure, are $7.82/tonne ($17.22/10{sup 3} Nm{sub 3} CO{sub 2} or $0.49/10{sup 3} scf CO{sub 2}), a savings of nearly 60% with respect to base-case estimates with no infrastructure. These costs are consistent only with conditioned CO{sub 2} having low oxygen and sulfur content; they do not include CO{sub 2} recovery, drying

  14. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  15. The feasibility of recovering medium to heavy oil using geopressured- geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negus-de Wys, J.; Kimmell, C.E.; Hart, G.F.; Plum, M.M.

    1991-09-01

    The feasibility, economics and environmental concerns of producing more domestic oil using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) are reviewed and the unique nature of geopressured-geothermal (GPGT) fluids for thermal recovery are outlined. Current methods of TEOR are briefly discussed and it is noted that these methods are presently under scrutiny by both federal and state air quality agencies; and moreover, they often involve costly operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection into the target reservoir. The characteristics of the GPGT resources as seen through previous Department of Energy (DOE) studies from sites in Louisiana and Texas are discussed. These studies indicate sufficient quantities of GPGT fluids can be produced to sustain a TEOR project. The Alworth Field in the south Texas Mirando Trend is proposed as a TEOR pilot site. The target reservoirs for injection of the GPGT fluids are the Jackson and Yegua sandstones of the upper Eocene Epoch. The reservoirs contain an estimated 4 MMbbls of heavy oil in place (OIP) (18.6{degree}API) of which it is estimated that at least 1 MMbbls could be recovered by TEOR. The problems associated with using the GPGT fluids for TEOR include those normally associated with hot water flooding but in addition the reaction of the brine from the geopressured-geothermal reservoir with the target reservoir is uncertain. Under the elevated temperatures associated with GPGT TEOR, actual increased porosity and permeability are possible. 120 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Cost Study Manual

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Cost Study Manual Executive Summary This Cost Study Manual documents the procedures for preparing a Cost Study to compare the cost of a contractor's employee benefits to the industry average from a broad-based national benefit cost survey. The annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison (Cost Study) assists with the analysis of contractors' employee benefits costs. The Contracting Officer (CO) may require corrective action when the average benefit per capita cost or the benefit cost as a

  17. Recovering complete and draft population genomes from metagenome datasets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sangwan, Naseer; Xia, Fangfang; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2016-03-08

    Assembly of metagenomic sequence data into microbial genomes is of fundamental value to improving our understanding of microbial ecology and metabolism by elucidating the functional potential of hard-to-culture microorganisms. Here, we provide a synthesis of available methods to bin metagenomic contigs into species-level groups and highlight how genetic diversity, sequencing depth, and coverage influence binning success. Despite the computational cost on application to deeply sequenced complex metagenomes (e.g., soil), covarying patterns of contig coverage across multiple datasets significantly improves the binning process. We also discuss and compare current genome validation methods and reveal how these methods tackle the problem ofmore » chimeric genome bins i.e., sequences from multiple species. Finally, we explore how population genome assembly can be used to uncover biogeographic trends and to characterize the effect of in situ functional constraints on the genome-wide evolution.« less

  18. Energy Recovered Light Source Technology at TJNAF | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26Germantown Building ... Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Energy Recovered Light Source Technology at TJNAF ...

  19. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy, Energy Tips...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy When the pressure of saturated ... tanks and deaerators for excessive flash steam plumes. Reexamine deaerator ...

  20. Inter-strand current sharing and ac loss measurements in superconducting YBCO Roebel cables

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Majoros, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.; Long, N. J.

    2015-04-08

    A Roebel cable, one twist pitch long, was modified from its as-received state by soldering copper strips between the strands to provide inter-strand connections enabling current sharing. Various DC transport currents (representing different percentages of its critical current) were applied to a single strand of such a modified cable at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. Simultaneous monitoring of I–V curves in different parts of the strand as well as in its interconnections with other strands was made using a number of sensitive Keithley nanovoltmeters in combination with a multichannel high-speed data acquisition card, all controlled via LabView software.more » Current sharing onset was observed at about 1.02 of strand Ic. At a strand current of 1.3Ic about 5% of the current was shared through the copper strip interconnections. A finite element method modeling was performed to estimate the inter-strand resistivities required to enable different levels of current sharing. The relative contributions of coupling and hysteretic magnetization (and loss) were compared, and for our cable and tape geometry, and at dB/dt=1 T s-1, and our inter-strand resistance of 0.77 mΩ, (enabling a current sharing of 5% at 1.3Ic) the coupling component was 0.32% of the hysteretic component. However, inter-strand contact resistance values of 100–1000 times smaller (close to those of NbTi and Nb3Sn based accelerator cables) would make the coupling components comparable in size to the hysteretic components.« less

  1. Inter-strand current sharing and ac loss measurements in superconducting YBCO Roebel cables

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    sumption, Mike; Majoros, Milan; Collings, E. W.; Van der Laan, D. C.

    2014-11-07

    A Roebel cable, one twist pitch long, was modified from its as-received state by soldering copper strips between the strands to provide inter-strand connections enabling current sharing. Various DC transport currents (representing different percentages of its critical current) were applied to a single strand of such a modified cable at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. Simultaneous monitoring of I–V curves in different parts of the strand as well as in its interconnections with other strands was made using a number of sensitive Keithley nanovoltmeters in combination with a multichannel high-speed data acquisition card, all controlled via LabView software.more » Current sharing onset was observed at about 1.02 of strand Ic. At a strand current of 1.3Ic about 5% of the current was shared through the copper strip interconnections. A finite element method modeling was performed to estimate the inter-strand resistivities required to enable different levels of current sharing. The relative contributions of coupling and hysteretic magnetization (and loss) were compared, and for our cable and tape geometry, and at dB/dt=1 T s-1, and our inter-strand resistance of 0.77 mΩ, (enabling a current sharing of 5% at 1.3Ic ) the coupling component was 0.32% of the hysteretic component. However, inter-strand contact resistance values of 100–1000 times smaller (close to those of NbTi and Nb3Sn based accelerator cables) would make the coupling components comparable in size to the hysteretic components.« less

  2. Inter-strand current sharing and ac loss measurements in superconducting YBCO Roebel cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majoros, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.; Long, N. J.

    2015-04-08

    A Roebel cable, one twist pitch long, was modified from its as-received state by soldering copper strips between the strands to provide inter-strand connections enabling current sharing. Various DC transport currents (representing different percentages of its critical current) were applied to a single strand of such a modified cable at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. Simultaneous monitoring of I–V curves in different parts of the strand as well as in its interconnections with other strands was made using a number of sensitive Keithley nanovoltmeters in combination with a multichannel high-speed data acquisition card, all controlled via LabView software. Current sharing onset was observed at about 1.02 of strand Ic. At a strand current of 1.3Ic about 5% of the current was shared through the copper strip interconnections. A finite element method modeling was performed to estimate the inter-strand resistivities required to enable different levels of current sharing. The relative contributions of coupling and hysteretic magnetization (and loss) were compared, and for our cable and tape geometry, and at dB/dt=1 T s-1, and our inter-strand resistance of 0.77 mΩ, (enabling a current sharing of 5% at 1.3Ic) the coupling component was 0.32% of the hysteretic component. However, inter-strand contact resistance values of 100–1000 times smaller (close to those of NbTi and Nb3Sn based accelerator cables) would make the coupling components comparable in size to the hysteretic components.

  3. Inter-strand current sharing and ac loss measurements in superconducting YBCO Roebel cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    sumption, Mike; Majoros, Milan; Collings, E. W.; Van der Laan, D. C.

    2014-11-07

    A Roebel cable, one twist pitch long, was modified from its as-received state by soldering copper strips between the strands to provide inter-strand connections enabling current sharing. Various DC transport currents (representing different percentages of its critical current) were applied to a single strand of such a modified cable at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. Simultaneous monitoring of IV curves in different parts of the strand as well as in its interconnections with other strands was made using a number of sensitive Keithley nanovoltmeters in combination with a multichannel high-speed data acquisition card, all controlled via LabView software. Current sharing onset was observed at about 1.02 of strand Ic. At a strand current of 1.3Ic about 5% of the current was shared through the copper strip interconnections. A finite element method modeling was performed to estimate the inter-strand resistivities required to enable different levels of current sharing. The relative contributions of coupling and hysteretic magnetization (and loss) were compared, and for our cable and tape geometry, and at dB/dt=1 T s-1, and our inter-strand resistance of 0.77 m?, (enabling a current sharing of 5% at 1.3Ic ) the coupling component was 0.32% of the hysteretic component. However, inter-strand contact resistance values of 1001000 times smaller (close to those of NbTi and Nb3Sn based accelerator cables) would make the coupling components comparable in size to the hysteretic components.

  4. Characteristics of Cu stabilized Nb3Al strands with low Cu ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikuchi, A.; Yamada, R.; Barzi, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Lamm, M.; Nakagawa, K.; Sasaki, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /NIMC, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Hitachi, Tsuchiura Works /KEK, Tsukuba

    2008-12-01

    Characteristics of recently developed F4-Nb{sub 3}Al strand with low Cu ratio are described. The overall J{sub c} of the Nb{sub 3}Al strand could be easily increased by decreasing of the Cu ratio. Although the quench of a pulse-like voltage generation is usually observed in superconducting unstable conductor, the F4 strand with a low Cu ratio of 0.61 exhibited an ordinary critical transition of gradual voltage generation. The F4 strand does not have magnetic instabilities at 4.2 K because of the tantalum interfilament matrix. The overall J{sub c} of the F4 strand achieved was 80-85% of the RRP strand. In the large mechanical stress above 100 MPa, the overall J{sub c} of the F4 strand might be comparable to that of high J{sub c} RRP-Nb{sub 3}Sn strands. The Rutherford cable with a high packing factor of 86.5% has been fabricated using F4 strands. The small racetrack magnet, SR07, was also fabricated by a 14 m F4 cable. The quench current, I{sub q}, of SR07 were obtained 22.4 kA at 4.5 K and 25.2 kA at 2.2 K. The tantalum matrix Nb{sub 3}Al strands are promising for the application of super-cooled high-field magnets as well as 4.2 K operation magnets.

  5. Materials, Strands, and Cables for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumption, Mike D.; Collings, Edward W.

    2014-09-19

    This report focuses on Materials, Strands and Cables for High Energy Physics Particle accelerators. In the materials area, work has included studies of basic reactions, diffusion, transformations, and phase assemblage of Nb3Sn. These materials science aspects have been married to results, in the form of flux pinning, Bc2, Birr, and transport Jc, with an emphasis on obtaining the needed Jc for HEP needs. Attention has also been paid to the “intermediate-temperature superconductor”, magnesium diboride emphasis being placed on (i) irreversibility field enhancement, (ii) critical current density and flux pinning, and (iii) connectivity. We also report on studies of Bi-2212. The second area of the program has been in the area of “Strands” in which, aside from the materials aspect of the conductor, its physical properties and their influence on performance have been studied. Much of this work has been in the area of magnetization estimation and flux jump calculation and control. One of the areas of this work was strand instabilities in high-performance Nb3Sn conductors due to combined fields and currents. Additionally, we investigated quench and thermal propagation in YBCO coated conductors at low temperatures and high fields. The last section, “Cables”, focussed on interstrand contact resistance, ICR, it origins, control, and implications. Following on from earlier work in NbTi, the present work in Nb3Sn has aimed to make ICR intermediate between the two extremes of too little contact (no current sharing) and too much (large and unacceptable magnetization and associated beam de-focussing). Interstrand contact and current sharing measurements are being made on YBCO based Roebel cables using transport current methods. Finally, quench was investigated for YBCO cables and the magnets wound from them, presently with a focus on 50 T solenoids for muon collider applications.

  6. Electrochemical performance studies of MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers recovered from spent battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Gomaa A.M.; Tan, Ling Ling; Jose, Rajan; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Chong, Kwok Feng

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: MnO{sub 2} is recovered from spent zinccarbon batteries as nanoflowers structure. Recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers show high specific capacitance. Recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers show stable electrochemical cycling up to 900 cycles. Recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers show low resistance in EIS data. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers recovered from spent household zinccarbon battery is studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers are recovered from spent zinccarbon battery by combination of solution leaching and electrowinning techniques. In an effort to utilize recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers as energy storage supercapacitor, it is crucial to understand their structure and electrochemical performance. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the recovery of MnO{sub 2} in birnessite phase, while electron microscopy analysis shows the MnO{sub 2} is recovered as 3D nanostructure with nanoflower morphology. The recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers exhibit high specific capacitance (294 F g{sup ?1} at 10 mV s{sup ?1}; 208.5 F g{sup ?1} at 0.1 A g{sup ?1}) in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, with stable electrochemical cycling. Electrochemical data analysis reveal the great potential of MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers recovered from spent zinccarbon battery in the development of high performance energy storage supercapacitor system.

  7. PAFC Cost Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PAFC Cost Challenges Sridhar Kanuri Manager, PAFC Technology *Sridhar.Kanuri@utcpower.com 2 AGENDA Purecell® 400 cost challenge Cost reduction opportunities Summary 3 PURECELL ® FUEL CELL SYSTEM First cost 2010 cost reduction is being accomplished by incremental changes in technology & low cost sourcing Technology advances are required to reduce further cost and attain UTC Power's commercialization targets 2010 First unit 2010 Last unit Commercialization target Powerplant cost 4

  8. Costs of Building Waste Facilities; Price Per Shipment to Recoup Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-05-14

    The Automated Pricing Schedule is a computer model for evaluating the economics of developing, operating, and closing a low-level radioactive waste disposal site. It provides pricing for individual shipments based on the characteristics of the shipment, and calculates a disposal fee to be charged for each shipment to recover the costs of the facility. It includes a sensitivity analysis module to evaluate the effect of varying the parameters of the model.

  9. DOE Announces Three Projects to Help the Gulf Coast Recover and Rebuild |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Three Projects to Help the Gulf Coast Recover and Rebuild DOE Announces Three Projects to Help the Gulf Coast Recover and Rebuild January 20, 2006 - 10:52am Addthis ROBINSONVILLE, MS - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced three Department of Energy (DOE) initiatives to help the people in the Gulf coast region recover from the hurricanes in 2005, as well as prevent loss of life and damage in the future. During his speech to the Energy Leadership Forum, the

  10. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  11. Nonenzymatic Role for WRN in Preserving Nascent DNA Strands after Replication Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Fengtao; Mukherjee, Shibani; Yang, Yanyong; Mori, Eiichiro; Bhattacharya, Souparno; Kobayashi, Junya; Yannone, Steven  M.; Chen, David  J.; Asaithamby, Aroumougame

    2014-11-20

    WRN, the protein defective in Werner syndrome (WS), is a multifunctional nuclease involved in DNA damage repair, replication, and genome stability maintenance. It was assumed that the nuclease activities of WRN were critical for these functions. Here, we report a nonenzymatic role for WRN in preserving nascent DNA strands following replication stress. We found that lack of WRN led to shortening of nascent DNA strands after replication stress. Furthermore, we discovered that the exonuclease activity of MRE11 was responsible for the shortening of newly replicated DNA in the absence of WRN. Mechanistically, the N-terminal FHA domain of NBS1 recruits WRN to replication-associated DNA double-stranded breaks to stabilize Rad51 and to limit the nuclease activity of its C-terminal binding partner MRE11. Thus, this previously unrecognized nonenzymatic function of WRN in the stabilization of nascent DNA strands sheds light on the molecular reason for the origin of genome instability in WS individuals.

  12. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, V. V.; Davies, R. W.; Holbery, J.

    2006-04-01

    This report analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities.

  13. Energy Department Awards Up to $4 Million for Projects to Recover Critical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials from Geothermal Fluids | Department of Energy Awards Up to $4 Million for Projects to Recover Critical Materials from Geothermal Fluids Energy Department Awards Up to $4 Million for Projects to Recover Critical Materials from Geothermal Fluids May 24, 2016 - 10:30am Addthis The Energy Department today announced four research and development (R&D) projects in California, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming that will receive up to $4 million in total funding to assess the occurrence of

  14. Method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Delphin, Walter H.

    1979-07-24

    A method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions containing these and other values by contacting the waste solution with an extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert hydrocarbon diluent which extracts the palladium and technetium values from the waste solution. The palladium and technetium values are recovered from the extractant and from any other coextracted values with a strong nitric acid strip solution.

  15. Magnetization anomaly of Nb3Al strands and instability of Nb3Al Rutherford cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Ryuji; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Wake, Masayoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2006-08-01

    Using a Cu stabilized Nb{sub 3}Al strand with Nb matrix, a 30 meter long Nb{sub 3}Al Rutherford cable was made by a collaboration of Fermilab and NIMS. Recently the strand and cable were tested. In both cases instability was observed at around 1.5 Tesla. The magnetization of this Nb{sub 3}Al strand was measured first using a balanced coil magnetometer at 4.2 K. Strands showed an anomalously large magnetization behavior around at 1.6 T, which is much higher than the usual B{sub c2} {approx} 0.5 Tesla (4.2 K) of Nb matrix. This result is compared with the magnetization data of short strand samples using a SQUID magnetometer, in which a flux-jump signal was observed at 0.5 Tesla, but not at higher field. As a possible explanation for this magnetization anomaly, the interfilament coupling through the thin Nb films in the strands is suggested. The instability problem observed in low field tests of the Nb{sub 3}Al Rutherford cables is attributed to this effect.

  16. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  17. Cellulosic Ethanol Cost Target

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plenary Talk May 21, 2013 Cellulosic Ethanol Cost Target 2 | Biomass Program ... "Our goal is to make cellulosic ethanol practical and cost competitive within 6 ...

  18. Marginal pricing of transmission services: An analysis of cost recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Arriaga, I.J.; Rubio, F.J.; Puerta, J.F.; Arceluz, J.; Marin, J.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis of network revenues computed with marginal pricing, and in particular it investigates the reasons why marginal prices fail to recover the total incurred network costs in actual power systems. The basic theoretical results are presented and the major causes of the mismatch between network costs and marginal revenues are identified and illustrated with numerical examples, some tutorial and others of realistic size. The regulatory implications of marginal network pricing in the context of competitive electricity markets are analyzed, and suggestions are provided for the meaningful allocation of the costs of the network among its users.

  19. Bayer Material Science (TRL 1 2 3 System)- River Devices to Recover Energy with Advanced Materials(River DREAM)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bayer Material Science (TRL 1 2 3 System) - River Devices to Recover Energy with Advanced Materials(River DREAM)

  20. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  1. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  2. A chronicle of costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elioff, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains the history of all estimated costs associated with the superconducting super collider.

  3. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing

  4. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric

  5. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  6. New Orleans Schools Recover from Hurricane Katrina with Assistance from DOE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and NREL | Department of Energy Orleans Schools Recover from Hurricane Katrina with Assistance from DOE and NREL New Orleans Schools Recover from Hurricane Katrina with Assistance from DOE and NREL June 17, 2014 - 11:42am Addthis The solar installation at Warren Easton Senior High School was the first of four installations placed on local schools as part of Solar Schools Initiative program. At 28 kW of thin-film, it is the largest installation in the city of New Orleans. | Photo by Garrett

  7. Methods for recovering a polar solvent from a fluid stream contaminated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with at least one polar impurity (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Methods for recovering a polar solvent from a fluid stream contaminated with at least one polar impurity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Methods for recovering a polar solvent from a fluid stream contaminated with at least one polar impurity A method of removing a polar solvent from a fluid volume contaminated with at least one polar impurity, such as a free fatty acid, is provided. The method comprises providing

  8. Methods for recovering a solvent from a fluid volume and methods of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    removing at least one compound from a nonpolar solvent (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Methods for recovering a solvent from a fluid volume and methods of removing at least one compound from a nonpolar solvent Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Methods for recovering a solvent from a fluid volume and methods of removing at least one compound from a nonpolar solvent A method of removing a nonpolar solvent from a fluid volume that includes at least one nonpolar compound, such as a

  9. ASPEN costing manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwint, K.J.

    1986-07-25

    The ASPEN program contains within it a Cost Estimation System (CES) which estimates the purchase cost and utility consumption rates for major pieces of equipment in a process flowsheet as well as installed equipment costs. These estimates are ''preliminary-study grade'' with an accuracy of plus or minus 30%. The ASPEN program also contains within it an Economic Evaluation System (EES) which estimates overall capital investment costs, annual operating expenses and profitability indices for a chemical plant. This ASPEN costing manual has been written as a guide for those inexperienced in the use of ASPEN and unfamiliar with standard cost estimating techniques who want to use the ASPEN CES and EES. The ASPEN Costing Manual is comprised of the following sections: (1) Introduction, (2) ASPEN Input Language, (3) ASPEN Cost Estimation System (CES), (4) ASPEN Cost Blocks; and (5) ASPEN Economic Evaluation System (EES).

  10. Manganese oxide helices, rings, strands, and films, and methods for their preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suib, Steven L.; Giraldo, Oscar; Marquez, Manuel; Brock, Stephanie

    2003-01-07

    Methods for the preparation of mixed-valence manganese oxide compositions with quaternary ammonium ions are described. The compositions self-assemble into helices, rings, and strands without any imposed concentration gradient. These helices, rings, and strands, as well as films having the same composition, undergo rapid ion exchange to replace the quaternary ammonium ions with various metal ions. And the metal-ion-containing manganese oxide compositions so formed can be heat treated to form semi-conducting materials with high surface areas.

  11. Chloride-free processing of aluminum scrap to recover by-product materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines has developed technology to recover by-product materials from aluminum scrap using engineered scavenger compounds (ESC). ESCs are structural oxides with a channel or tunnel structure that allows them to hold ions of a specific sizes and charges. The scavenging reaction is easily reversible allowing the ESC to be recharged for continued use and the ion is recovered as an electrodeposit. Key features of this novel technology are: (a) ESC systems are designed to have a high degree of selectivity for a desired ionic species. (b) The recovered material requires little or no additional reprocessing prior to reuse. Two current uses for the ESC technology that are described in this paper are the removal and recycle of lithium (Li) from lithium aluminum (Li-Al) alloys; and, using ESCs as a replacement for the conventional demaging (magnesium removal) technology used by the secondary casting industry. Research indicates that the ESC technology proposed for both these applications has either distinct economic and/or environmental advantages over previously employed methods of recovering metal values from aluminum scrap.

  12. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, H.M.; Bohnert, G.W.; Olson, R.B.; Hand, T.E.

    1998-01-27

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in a liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic. 3 figs.

  13. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Henry M.; Bohnert, George W.; Olson, Ronald B.; Hand, Thomas E.

    1998-01-27

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in as liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic.

  14. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Annual Fuel Cost gal Annual GHG Emissions (lbs of CO2) Vehicle Cost Calculator See Assumptions and Methodology Back Next U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and ...

  15. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  16. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  17. Nb3Sn RRP® strand and Rutherford cable development for a 15 T dipole demonstrator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barzi, E.; Andreev, N.; Li, P.; Lombardo, V.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2016-03-16

    Keystoned Rutherford cables made of 28 strands and with a stainless steel core were developed and manufactured using 1 mm Nb3Sn composite wires produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology with 127 and 169 restacks using the Restacked-Rod-Process®. Furthermore, the performance and properties of these cables were studied to evaluate possible candidates for 15 T accelerator magnets.

  18. Nonenzymatic Role for WRN in Preserving Nascent DNA Strands after Replication Stress

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Su, Fengtao; Mukherjee, Shibani; Yang, Yanyong; Mori, Eiichiro; Bhattacharya, Souparno; Kobayashi, Junya; Yannone, Steven  M.; Chen, David  J.; Asaithamby, Aroumougame

    2014-11-20

    WRN, the protein defective in Werner syndrome (WS), is a multifunctional nuclease involved in DNA damage repair, replication, and genome stability maintenance. It was assumed that the nuclease activities of WRN were critical for these functions. Here, we report a nonenzymatic role for WRN in preserving nascent DNA strands following replication stress. We found that lack of WRN led to shortening of nascent DNA strands after replication stress. Furthermore, we discovered that the exonuclease activity of MRE11 was responsible for the shortening of newly replicated DNA in the absence of WRN. Mechanistically, the N-terminal FHA domain of NBS1 recruits WRNmore » to replication-associated DNA double-stranded breaks to stabilize Rad51 and to limit the nuclease activity of its C-terminal binding partner MRE11. Thus, this previously unrecognized nonenzymatic function of WRN in the stabilization of nascent DNA strands sheds light on the molecular reason for the origin of genome instability in WS individuals.« less

  19. Zinc chromate induces chromosome instability and DNA double strand breaks in human lung cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Hong; Holmes, Amie L.; Young, Jamie L.; Qin Qin; Joyce, Kellie; Pelsue, Stephen C.; Peng Cheng; Wise, Sandra S.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Wallace, William T.; Hammond, Dianne; Wise, John Pierce E-mail: John.Wise@usm.maine.edu

    2009-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a respiratory toxicant and carcinogen, with solubility playing an important role in its carcinogenic potential. Zinc chromate, a water insoluble or 'particulate' Cr(VI) compound, has been shown to be carcinogenic in epidemiology studies and to induce tumors in experimental animals, but its genotoxicity is poorly understood. Our study shows that zinc chromate induced concentration-dependent increases in cytotoxicity, chromosome damage and DNA double strand breaks in human lung cells. In response to zinc chromate-induced breaks, MRE11 expression was increased and ATM and ATR were phosphorylated, indicating that the DNA double strand break repair system was initiated in the cells. In addition, our data show that zinc chromate-induced double strand breaks were only observed in the G2/M phase population, with no significant amount of double strand breaks observed in G1 and S phase cells. These data will aid in understanding the mechanisms of zinc chromate toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  20. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  1. Method and apparatus for recovering hydrogen from a feed comprising methane, ethylene, hydrogen and acetylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Reilly, R.

    1985-01-08

    Hydrogen is recovered from a feed comprising methane, ethylene, hydrogen and acetylene by first cooling the feed and then scrubbing the cooled feed with a scrubbing liquid selected from the group consisting of liquid ethylene, liquid propane, liquid ethane and mixtures thereof to remove substantially all the acetylene. The scrubbed gas is then further cooled to condense the methane and ethylene leaving gaseous hydrogen as product.

  2. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  3. Energy Recovered Light Source Technology at TJNAF | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Recovered Light Source Technology at TJNAF Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW

  4. NNSA Partners With Russia to Recover Material That Could Be Used in Dirty

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Bombs | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Partners With Russia to Recover Material That Could Be Used in Dirty Bombs November 07, 2013 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), in partnership with the Russian Federation, has successfully completed the removal of 14 Russian radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) from the Northern Sea Route. These devices, which contain high-activity radioactive sources, powered

  5. Abundance of {sup 14}C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellner, Johann Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-05-15

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO{sub 2} emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes {sup 14}C and {sup 12}C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in {sup 14}C and reflect the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying {sup 14}C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper {sup 14}C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated {sup 14}C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135 pMC.

  6. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  7. Workplace Charging Installation Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Installation costs and services vary considerably, so employers are encouraged to obtain a number of quotes before moving forward with any installation. An initial site investigation should include:

  8. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Outline * Project Objective * ...

  9. substantially reduced production costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    production costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  10. SOFT COST GRAND CHALLENGE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energycenter.org California Center for Sustainable Energy Soft Cost Grand Challenge May 22, 2014 Accelerating the transition to a sustainable world powered by clean energy 2...

  11. Comparison of indirect cost multipliers for vehicle manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-05-16

    In the process of manufacturing and selling vehicles, a manufacturer incurs certain costs. Among these costs are those incurred directly as a part of manufacturing operations and those incurred indirectly in the processes of manufacturing and selling. The indirect costs may be production-related, such as R and D and engineering; business-related, such as corporate staff salaries and pensions; or retail-sales-related, such as dealer support and marketing. These indirect costs are recovered by allocating them to each vehicle. Under a stable, high-volume production process, the allocation of these indirect costs can be approximated as multipliers (or factors) applied to the direct cost of manufacturing. A manufacturer usually allocates indirect costs to finished vehicles according to a corporation-specific pricing strategy. Because the volumes of sales and production vary widely by model within a corporation, the internal corporate percent allocation of various accounting categories (such as profit or corporate overheat) can vary widely among individual models. Approaches also vary across corporations. For these purposes, an average value is constructed, by means of a generic representative method, for vehicle models produced at high volume. To accomplish this, staff at Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) Center for Transportation Research analyzed the conventional vehicle cost structure and developed indirect cost multipliers for passenger vehicles. This memorandum summarizes the results of an effort to compare and put on a common basis the cost multipliers used in ANL's electric and hybrid electric vehicle cost estimation procedures with those resulting from two other methodologies. One of the two compared methodologies is derived from a 1996 presentation by Dr. Chris Borroni-Bird of Chrysler Corporation, the other is by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA), as described in a 1995 report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Congress of the United

  12. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: II. Significant reduction of strand movement and strand damage in short twist pitch CICCs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sanabria, Charlos; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2015-10-14

    Prototype cable in conduit conductors (CICCs) destined for use in the Toroidal Field (TF) and Central Solenoid (CS) coils of the ITER experimental fusion reactor underwent severe cyclic loading in the SULTAN facility. Their autopsies revealed significant and permanent transverse strand migration due to the large Lorentz forces of the SULTAN test. The movement resulted in a 3 7% void fraction increase on the Low Pressure (LP) side of the longer twist pitch CICCs. However, short twist pitch conductors exhibited less than 1% void fraction increase in the LP side, as well as a complete absence of the Nb3Sn filamentmore » fractures observed in the longer twist pitch conductors. We report here a detailed strand to cable analysis of short and longer “baseline” twist pitch CICCs. It was found that the use of Internal Tin strands in the longer “baseline” twist pitch CICCs can be beneficial possibly because of their superior stiffness—which better resist strand movement—while the use of Bronze Process strands showed more movement and poorer cyclic test performance. This was not the case for the short twist pitch CICC. Such conductor design seems to work well with both strand types. But it was found that despite the absence of filament fractures, the short twist pitch CICC made from the Internal Tin strands studied here developed severe strand distortion during cabling which resulted in diffusion barrier breaks and Sn contamination of the Cu stabilizer during the heat treatment. Furthermore, the short twist pitch CICC made from Bronze Process strands preserved diffusion barrier integrity.« less

  13. Simple Modular LED Cost Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The LED Cost Model, developed by the DOE Cost Modeling Working Group, provides a simplified method for analyzing the manufacturing costs of an LED package. The model focuses on the major cost...

  14. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for

  15. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  16. Spin transport and spin polarization properties in double-stranded DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simchi, Hamidreza; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi Mazidabadi, Hossein

    2013-11-21

    We study the spin-dependent electron transport through a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and non-equilibrium Green's function method. We calculate the spin-dependent electron conductance and spin-polarization for different lengths, helix angles, twist angles of dsDNA, the environment-induced dephasing factors, and hopping integral. It is shown that the conductance decreases by increasing the length and dephasing factor. Also, we show that the spin-polarization depends on the helical symmetry and the length of DNA. It is shown that the double-stranded DNA can act as a perfect spin filter. Finally, we show that the sign of spin polarization can be inverted from +1 (−1) to −1 (+1) for some values of hopping integral.

  17. Method for nucleic acid hybridization using single-stranded DNA binding protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    Method of nucleic acid hybridization for detecting the presence of a specific nucleic acid sequence in a population of different nucleic acid sequences using a nucleic acid probe. The nucleic acid probe hybridizes with the specific nucleic acid sequence but not with other nucleic acid sequences in the population. The method includes contacting a sample (potentially including the nucleic acid sequence) with the nucleic acid probe under hybridizing conditions in the presence of a single-stranded DNA binding protein provided in an amount which stimulates renaturation of a dilute solution (i.e., one in which the t.sub.1/2 of renaturation is longer than 3 weeks) of single-stranded DNA greater than 500 fold (i.e., to a t.sub.1/2 less than 60 min, preferably less than 5 min, and most preferably about 1 min.) in the absence of nucleotide triphosphates.

  18. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on the Hanford Reach, 1997-1999 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Paul; Nugent, John; Price, William

    1999-02-15

    Pilot work conducted in 1997 to aid the development of the study for the 1998 Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on The Hanford Reach. The objectives of the 1997 work were to: (1) identify juvenile chinook production and rearing areas..., (2) identify sampling sites and develop the statistical parameters necessary to complete the study, (3) develop a study plan..., (4) conduct field sampling activities...

  19. Screening Tool for Providers of Double-Stranded DNA - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Startup America Startup America Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Screening Tool for Providers of Double-Stranded DNA Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00227_ID2510 (2).pdf (829 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryThe invention screens purchase orders submitted to DNA synthesis

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-04-10

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dew point and Btu value, and the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. The BP-Amoco gas processing plant in Pascagoula, MS was finalized as the location for the field demonstration. Detailed drawings of the MTR membrane skid (already constructed) were submitted to the plant in February, 2000. However, problems in reaching an agreement on the specifications of the system compressor delayed the project significantly, so MTR requested (and was subsequently granted) a no-cost extension to the project. Following resolution of the compressor issues, the goal is to order the compressor during the first quarter of 2002, and to start field tests in mid-2002. Information from potential users of the membrane separation process in the natural gas processing industry suggests that applications such as fuel gas conditioning and wellhead gas processing are the most promising initial targets. Therefore, most of our commercialization effort is focused on promoting these applications. Requests for stream evaluations and for design and price quotations have been received through MTR's web site, from direct contact with potential users, and through announcements in industry publications. To date, about 90 commercial quotes have been supplied, and orders totaling about $1.13 million for equipment or rental of membrane units have been received.

  1. Methods to estimate stranded commitments for a restructuring US electricity industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

    1996-01-01

    Estimates of stranded commitments for US investor-owned electric utilities range widely, from as little as $20 billion to as much as $500 billion (more than double the shareholder equity in US utilities). These potential losses are a consequence of the above-market book values for some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts, deferred income taxes, regulatory assets, and public-policy programs. Because of the wide range of estimates and the potentially large dollar amounts involved, state and federal regulators need a clear understanding of the methods used to calculate these estimates. In addition, they may want simple methods that they can use to check the reasonableness of the estimates that utilities and other parties present in regulatory proceedings. This report explains various top-down and bottom-up methods to calculate stranded commitments. The purpose of this analysis is to help regulators and others understand the implications of different analytical approaches to estimating stranded-commitment amounts. Top-down methods, because they use the utility as the unit of analysis, are simple to apply and to understand. However, their aggregate nature makes it difficult to determine what specific assets and liabilities affect their estimates. Bottom-up methods use the individual asset (e.g., power plant) or liability (e.g., power-purchase contract, fuel-supply contract, and deferred income taxes) as the unit of analysis. These methods have substantial data and computational requirements.

  2. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcdowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1981-03-03

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na2CO3 to a temperature in the range 700*-900* C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  3. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Constructs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Cornforth

    2012-03-26

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. Specific aims apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. The project includes research complementary to NASA/HRP space radiation project.

  4. Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail; Heinz, Robert

    2012-06-26

    A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

  5. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene HCL and terephthalic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process of pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding an acid or base catalyst on an oxide or carbonate support; heating the plastic waste feed stream to pyrolyze polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride; separating terephthalic acid or HCl; heating to a second temperature to pyrolyze polystyrene; separating styrene; heating the waste feed stream to a third temperature to pyrolyze polyethylene; and separating hydrocarbons.

  6. Method and apparatus for recovering a gas from a gas hydrate located on the ocean floor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyatt, Douglas E.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for recovering a gas from a gas hydrate on the ocean floor includes a flexible cover, a plurality of steerable base members secured to the cover, and a steerable mining module. A suitable source for inflating the cover over the gas hydrate deposit is provided. The mining module, positioned on the gas hydrate deposit, is preferably connected to the cover by a control cable. A gas retrieval conduit or hose extends upwardly from the cover to be connected to a support ship on the ocean surface.

  7. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene, HCl and terephthalic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1995-11-07

    A process is described for pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene, HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding an acid or base catalyst on an oxide or carbonate support; heating the plastic waste feed stream to pyrolyze polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride; separating terephthalic acid or HCl; heating to a second temperature to pyrolyze polystyrene; separating styrene; heating the waste feed stream to a third temperature to pyrolyze polyethylene; and separating hydrocarbons. 83 figs.

  8. Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, J.

    1992-05-01

    Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.

  9. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to a temperature in the range 700/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acidsoluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  10. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  11. Workplace Charging Equipment Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Charging stations are available from a variety of manufacturers in a range of models for all charging applications. For a single port charging station, Level 1 hardware costs range from $300-$1,500...

  12. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  13. Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution Pipeline Costs Collected historical Oil & Gas Journal data, and surveyed for ... mile Downtown: 1 to 8 in. Downtown: 4 to 20 in. Urban H2A Right of Way Oil & Gas Journal

  14. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Report SOP Standard Operating Procedure TEC Total Estimated Cost TIPR Technical ... FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 Total PED Construction TEC OPC TPC Note: above values include MR...

  15. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with conventional forms of energy by the end of the decade. ...

  16. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  17. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Choose a vehicle to compare fuel cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select FuelTechnology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel ...

  18. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates.

  19. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The objective of this Guide is to improve the quality of cost estimates and further strengthen the DOE program/project management system. The original 25 separate chapters and three appendices have been combined to create a single document.

  20. System Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-03-27

    SCM is used for estimation of the life-cycle impacts (costs, health and safety risks) of waste management facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at Department of Energy (DOE) installations. SCM also provides transportation costs for intersite transfer of DOE wastes. SCM covers the entire DOE waste management complex tomore » allow system sensitivity analysis including: treatment, storage, and disposal configuration options; treatment technology selection; scheduling options; transportation options; waste stream and volume changes; and site specific conditions.« less

  1. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Intertek APTECH has organized the cycling cost data in consultation with NREL and WECC by the following eight generator plant types: 1. Small coal-fired sub-critical steam (35-299 ...

  2. Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model – A User’s Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, William R.; Shehabi, Arman; Smith, Sarah Josephine

    2015-08-01

    The Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model is a cost-performance techno-economic model that estimates total large-scale manufacturing costs for necessary to produce a given product. It is designed to provide production cost estimates for technology researchers to help guide technology research and development towards an eventual cost-effective product. The model presented in this user’s guide is generic and can be tailored to the manufacturing of any product, including the generation of electricity (as a product). This flexibility, however, requires the user to develop the processes and process efficiencies that represents a full-scale manufacturing facility. The generic model is comprised of several modules that estimate variable costs (material, labor, and operating), fixed costs (capital & maintenance), financing structures (debt and equity financing), and tax implications (taxable income after equipment and building depreciation, debt interest payments, and expenses) of a notional manufacturing plant. A cash-flow method is used to estimate a selling price necessary for the manufacturing plant to recover its total cost of production. A levelized unit sales price ($ per unit of product) is determined by dividing the net-present value of the manufacturing plant’s expenses ($) by the net present value of its product output. A user defined production schedule drives the cash-flow method that determines the levelized unit price. In addition, an analyst can increase the levelized unit price to include a gross profit margin to estimate a product sales price. This model allows an analyst to understand the effect that any input variables could have on the cost of manufacturing a product. In addition, the tool is able to perform sensitivity analysis, which can be used to identify the key variables and assumptions that have the greatest influence on the levelized costs. This component is intended to help technology researchers focus their research attention on tasks

  3. Independent Cost Estimate (ICE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independent Cost Estimate (ICE). On August 8-12, the Office of Project Management Oversight and Assessments (PM) will conduct an ICE on the NNSA Albuquerque Complex Project (NACP) at Albuquerque, NM. This estimate will support the Critical Decision (CD) for establishing the performance baseline and approval to start construction (CD-2/3). This project is at CD-1, with a total project cost range of $183M to $251M.

  4. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Choose a vehicle to compare fuel cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select Fuel/Technology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Next Vehicle Cost Calculator Update Your Widget Code This widget version will stop working on March 31. Update your widget code. × Widget Code Select All Close U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  5. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Worley, Christopher Gordon; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Borrego, Andres Patricio; Castro, Alonso; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Holland, Charlotte S.; Keller, Russell C.; Klundt, Dylan James; Martinez, Alexander; Martin, Frances Louise; Montoya, Dennis Patrick; Myers, Steven Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Schake, Ann Rene; Schappert, Michael Francis; Soderberg, Constance B.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Xu, Ning

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  6. Process for removing thorium and recovering vanadium from titanium chlorinator waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsen, Richard S.; Banks, John T.

    1996-01-01

    A process for removal of thorium from titanium chlorinator waste comprising: (a) leaching an anhydrous titanium chlorinator waste in water or dilute hydrochloric acid solution and filtering to separate insoluble minerals and coke fractions from soluble metal chlorides; (b) beneficiating the insoluble fractions from step (a) on shaking tables to recover recyclable or otherwise useful TiO.sub.2 minerals and coke; and (c) treating filtrate from step (a) with reagents to precipitate and remove thorium by filtration along with acid metals of Ti, Zr, Nb, and Ta by the addition of the filtrate (a), a base and a precipitant to a boiling slurry of reaction products (d); treating filtrate from step (c) with reagents to precipitate and recover an iron vanadate product by the addition of the filtrate (c), a base and an oxidizing agent to a boiling slurry of reaction products; and (e) treating filtrate from step (d) to remove any remaining cations except Na by addition of Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and boiling.

  7. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  8. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.; Lawson, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    A process for recovering zinc-rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered by distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10 C, separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream. 1 figure.

  9. The effect of a magnetic field on the spin-selective transport in double-stranded DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simchi, Hamidreza; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi Mazidabadi, Hossein

    2014-05-28

    Spin-polarization in double-stranded DNA is studied in the presence of a magnetic field applied along its helix axis using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. The spin-polarization could be tuned by changing the magnetic field. In some special cases, the double-stranded DNA behaved as a perfect spin-filter. Furthermore, the dependency of the spin-polarization on the spin-orbit strength and dephasing strength is studied.

  10. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Costs » Soft Costs Soft Costs The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's soft costs program works to lower the non-hardware costs of solar and accelerate the adoption of solar energy technologies throughout the United States. In support of the SunShot Initiative goals, the soft costs program works in the following strategic areas: networking and technical assistance, data analysis, business innovation, and training. Soft Costs Activity Areas, Business Innovation, Networking

  11. CAPABILITY TO RECOVER PLUTONIUM-238 IN H-CANYON/HB-LINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, K.; Smith, Robert H. Jr.; Goergen, Charles R.

    2013-01-09

    Plutonium-238 is used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to generate electrical power and in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) to produce heat for electronics and environmental control for deep space missions. The domestic supply of Pu-238 consists of scrap material from previous mission production or material purchased from Russia. Currently, the United States has no significant production scale operational capability to produce and separate new Pu-238 from irradiated neptunium-237 targets. The Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy is currently evaluating and developing plans to reconstitute the United States capability to produce Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets. The Savannah River Site had previously produced and/or processed all the Pu-238 utilized in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for deep space missions up to and including the majority of the plutonium for the Cassini Mission. The previous full production cycle capabilities included: Np-237 target fabrication, target irradiation, target dissolution and Np-237 and Pu-238 separation and purification, conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide, scrap recovery, and Pu-238 encapsulation. The capability and equipment still exist and could be revitalized or put back into service to recover and purify Pu-238/Np-237 or broken General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) pellets utilizing existing process equipment in HB-Line Scrap Recovery, and H-anyon Frame Waste Recovery processes. The conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide can be performed in the existing HB-Line Phase-2 and Phase-3 Processes. Dissolution of irradiated Np-237 target material, and separation and purification of Np-237 and Pu-238 product streams would be possible at production rates of ~ 2 kg/month of Pu-238 if the existing H-Canyon Frames Process spare equipment were re-installed. Previously, the primary H-Canyon Frames equipment was removed to be replaced: however, the replacement project was stopped. The spare equipment is

  12. Capability to Recover Plutonium-238 in H-Canyon/HB-Line - 13248

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Kenneth S. Jr.; Smith, Robert H. Jr.; Goergen, Charles R.

    2013-07-01

    Plutonium-238 is used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to generate electrical power and in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) to produce heat for electronics and environmental control for deep space missions. The domestic supply of Pu-238 consists of scrap material from previous mission production or material purchased from Russia. Currently, the United States has no significant production scale operational capability to produce and separate new Pu-238 from irradiated neptunium-237 targets. The Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy is currently evaluating and developing plans to reconstitute the United States capability to produce Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets. The Savannah River Site had previously produced and/or processed all the Pu-238 utilized in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for deep space missions up to and including the majority of the plutonium for the Cassini Mission. The previous full production cycle capabilities included: Np- 237 target fabrication, target irradiation, target dissolution and Np-237 and Pu-238 separation and purification, conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide, scrap recovery, and Pu-238 encapsulation. The capability and equipment still exist and could be revitalized or put back into service to recover and purify Pu-238/Np-237 or broken General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) pellets utilizing existing process equipment in HB-Line Scrap Recovery, and H-Canyon Frame Waste Recovery processes. The conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide can be performed in the existing HB-Line Phase-2 and Phase- 3 Processes. Dissolution of irradiated Np-237 target material, and separation and purification of Np-237 and Pu-238 product streams would be possible at production rates of ∼2 kg/month of Pu-238 if the existing H-Canyon Frames Process spare equipment were re-installed. Previously, the primary H-Canyon Frames equipment was removed to be replaced: however, the replacement project was stopped. The spare equipment

  13. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and

  14. Factory Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-17

    The Factory Cost Model (FCM) is an economic analysis tool intended to provide flat panel display (FPD) and other similar discrete component manufacturers with the ability to make first-order estimates of the cost of unit production. This software has several intended uses. Primary among these is the ability to provide first-order economic analysis for future factories. Consequently, the model requires a minimal level of input detail, and accomodates situations where actual production data are notmore » available. This software is designed to be activity based such that most of the calculated direct costs are associated with the steps of a manufacturibg process. The FCM architecture has the ability to accomodate the analysis of existing manufacturing facilities. The FCM can provide assistance with strategic economic decisions surrounding production related matters. For instance, the program can project the effect on costs and resources of a new product''s introduction, or it can assess the potential cost reduction produced by step yield improvements in the manufacturing process.« less

  15. Process for recovering evolved hydrogen enriched with at least one heavy hydrogen isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanaka, John; Reilly, Jr., James J.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a separation means and method for enriching a hydrogen atmosphere with at least one heavy hydrogen isotope by using a solid titaniun alloy hydride. To this end, the titanium alloy hydride containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of vanadium, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, iron, cobalt and nickel is contacted with a circulating gaseous flow of hydrogen containing at least one heavy hydrogen isotope at a temperature in the range of -20.degree. to +40.degree. C and at a pressure above the dissociation pressure of the hydrided alloy selectively to concentrate at least one of the isotopes of hydrogen in the hydrided metal alloy. The contacting is continued until equilibrium is reached, and then the gaseous flow is isolated while the temperature and pressure of the enriched hydride remain undisturbed selectively to isolate the hydride. Thereafter, the enriched hydrogen is selectively recovered in accordance with the separation factor (S.F.) of the alloy hydride employed.

  16. In situ method for recovering hydrocarbon from subterranean oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, R.H.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes in situ method for recovering hydrocarbons from subterranean oil shale deposits, the deposits comprising mineral rock and kerogen, comprising (a) penetrating the oil shale deposit with at least one well; (b) forming a zone of fractured and/or rubbilized oil shale material adjacent the well by hydraulic or explosive fracturing; (c) introducing a hydrogen donor solvent including tetralin into the portion of the oil shale formation treated in step (b) in a volume sufficient to fill substantially all of the void space created by the fracturing and rubbilizing treatment; (d) applying hydrogen to the tetralin and maintaining a predetermined pressure for a predetermined period of time sufficient to cause disintegration of the oil shale material; (e) thereafter introducing an oxidative environment into the portion of the oil shale deposit (f) producing the solvent in organic fragments to the surface of the earth, and (g) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

  17. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-06-02

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This also represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.

  18. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-06-02

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This alsomore » represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.« less

  19. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  20. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    costs program works to lower the non-hardware costs of ... data analysis, business innovation, and training. ... for as much as 64% of the total cost of a new solar system. ...

  1. QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the tonnes of CO2 utilized. The costs of the process are to include infrastructure, raw materials, processing, byproduct disposal, and utilities costs, as well as any other costs....

  2. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  3. Ligation of single-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides by T4 RNA ligase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessier, D.C.; Brousseau, R.; Vernet, T.

    1986-10-01

    Despite its unique ability to ligate single-stranded DNA molecules, T4 RNA ligase has so far seen little use in molecular biology due to long reaction times, modest yields, and apparent inability to promote ligations of long oligodeoxyribonucleotides. The authors describe here a set of reaction conditions which dramatically shorten the reaction time and give reproducible 40 to 60% ligation of DNA fragments of up to 40 bases in length. These improvements open promising new fields of application to T4 RNA ligase.

  4. Turbine Cost Systems Engineering Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-30

    turb_costSE is a set of models that link wind turbine component masses (and a few other key variables) to component costs.

  5. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David; Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  6. Final Report: MATERIALS, STRANDS, AND CABLES FOR SUPERCONDUCTING ACCELERATOR MAGNETS [Grant Number DE-SC0010312

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumption, Mike; Collings, E.

    2014-10-29

    Our program consisted of the two components: Strand Research and Cable Research, with a focus on Nb3Sn, Bi2212, and YBCO for accelerator magnet applications. We demonstrated a method to refine the grains in Nb3Sn by a factor of two, reaching 45 nm grain sizes, and layer Jcs of 6 kA/mm2 at 12 T. W also measured conductor magnetization for field quality. This has been done both with Nb3Sn conductor, as well as Bi:2212 strand. Work in support of quench studies of YBCO coils was also performed. Cable loss studies in Nb3Sn focused on connecting and comparing persistent magnetization and coupling magnetization for considering their relative impact on HEP machines. In the area of HTS cables, we have investigated both the quench in multistrand YBCO CORC cables, as well as the magnetization of these cables for use in high field magnets. In addition, we examined the magnetic and thermal properties of large (50 T) solenoids.

  7. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  8. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  9. Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Fuel Cells: Diverse Fuels and Applications More than $40 million from the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to fund 12 projects to deploy up to 1,000 fuel cells Recovery Act Funding for Fuel Cells COMPANY AWARD APPLICATION Delphi Automotive $2.4 M Auxiliary Power FedEx

  10. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  11. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornforth, Michael N.

    2013-05-03

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of 'array painting'.

  12. A new method for recovering Fe(II) sulfate, copper, and cobalt from converter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziyadanogullari, R. )

    1992-03-01

    The aim of this study was to recover copper and cobalt from the stock-piled converter slags at the Ergani Mining Co. in Turkey. Copper and cobalt are present in various chemical forms in the slag. For that reason, copper and cobalt were first converted to Cu{sub 2}S and CoS by passing H{sub 2}S gas through a slurry of ground slag in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions. In the second stage, the slurry was filtered and it was determined that 30-40% of the iron and trace amounts of copper and cobalt passed into the solution as Fe{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} ions. The slag residue was then dried at 105C for 2 h and roasted in a muffle furnace at about 600-700C for different time periods. In the third stage, the mass obtained at the end of the roasting process was boiled with distilled water and filtered. The final solution was brought to volume and analyzed for copper and cobalt. It was determined that practically all of the Cu and 70.7% of the Co passed into the solution.

  13. Cost Study Manual | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 62912. PDF icon Memo regarding Cost Study Manual PDF icon Cost Study Manual More Documents & Publications Contractor Human Resources ...

  14. Proximity-induced superconductivity effect in a double-stranded DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simchi, Hamidreza; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi Mazidabadi, Hossein

    2014-02-07

    We study the proximity-induced superconductivity effect in a double-stranded DNA by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and taking into account the effect of thermal fluctuations of the twist angle between neighboring base pairs. We show that the electron conductance is spin-dependent and the conductance of spin up (down) increases (decreases) due to the spin-orbit coupling (SOC). It is found that, for T < 100 K, the band gap energy is temperature-independent and it decreases due to the SOC. In addition, by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and local gap parameter equation self-consistently, we find the critical temperature at which transition to superconductivity can take place.

  15. Double-stranded DNA organization in bacteriophage heads: An alternative toroid-based model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hud, N.V.

    1995-10-01

    Studies of the organization of double-stranded DNA within bacteriophage heads during the past four decades have produced a wealth of data. However, despite the presentation of numerous models, the true organization of DNA within phage heads remains unresolved. The observations of toroidal DNA structures in electron micrographs of phage lysates have long been cited as support for the organization of DNA in a spool-like fashion. This particular model, like all other models, has not been found to be consistent with all available data. Recently, the authors proposed that DNA within toroidal condensates produced in vitro is organized in a manner significantly different from that suggested by the spool model. This new toroid model has allowed the development of an alternative model for DNA organization within bacteriophage heads that is consistent with a wide range of biophysical data. Here the authors propose that bacteriophage DNA is packaged in a toroid that is folded into a highly compact structure.

  16. Levelized cost and levelized avoided cost of new generation resources...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3 The importance of the factors varies among the technologies. For technologies such as solar and wind generation that have no fuel costs and relatively small variable O&M costs,...

  17. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  18. Crystal Structure of a Super Leucine Zipper an Extended Two-Stranded Super Long Coiled Coil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Diao

    2011-12-31

    Coiled coil is a ubiquitous structural motif in proteins, with two to seven alpha helices coiled together like the strands of a rope, and coiled coil folding and assembly is not completely understood. A GCN4 leucine zipper mutant with four mutations of K3A, D7A, Y17W, and H18N has been designed, and the crystal structure has been determined at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. The peptide monomer shows a helix trunk with short curved N- and C-termini. In the crystal, two monomers cross in 35{sup o} and form an X-shaped dimer, and each X-shaped dimer is welded into the next one through sticky hydrophobic ends, thus forming an extended two-stranded, parallel, super long coiled coil rather than a discrete, two-helix coiled coil of the wild-type GCN4 leucine zipper. Leucine residues appear at every seventh position in the super long coiled coil, suggesting that it is an extended super leucine zipper. Compared to the wild-type leucine zipper, the N-terminus of the mutant has a dramatic conformational change and the C-terminus has one more residue Glu 32 determined. The mutant X-shaped dimer has a large crossing angle of 35{sup o} instead of 18{sup o} in the wild-type dimer. The results show a novel assembly mode and oligomeric state of coiled coil, and demonstrate that mutations may affect folding and assembly of the overall coiled coil. Analysis of the formation mechanism of the super long coiled coil may help understand and design self-assembling protein fibers.

  19. Energy recycling by co-combustion of coal and recovered paint solids from automobile paint operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achariya Suriyawong; Rogan Magee; Ken Peebles; Pratim Biswas

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of particulate emission and the fate of 13 trace elements (arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) during combustion tests of recovered paint solids (RPS) and coal. The emissions from combustions of coal or RPS alone were compared with those of co-combustion of RPS with subbituminous coal. The distribution/partitioning of these toxic elements between a coarse-mode ash (particle diameter (d{sub p}) > 0.5 {mu}m), a submicrometer-mode ash (d{sub p} < 0.5 {mu}m), and flue gases was also evaluated. Submicrometer particles generated by combustion of RPS alone were lower in concentration and smaller in size than that from combustion of coal. However, co-combustion of RPS and coal increased the formation of submicrometer-sized particles because of the higher reducing environment in the vicinity of burning particles and the higher volatile chlorine species. Hg was completely volatilized in all cases; however, the fraction in the oxidized state increased with co-combustion. Most trace elements, except Zn, were retained in ash during combustion of RPS alone. Mo was mostly retained in all samples. The behavior of elements, except Mn and Mo, varied depending on the fuel samples. As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, and Pb were vaporized to a greater extent from cocombustion of RPS and coal than from combustion of either fuel. Evidence of the enrichment of certain toxic elements in submicrometer particles has also been observed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni during co-combustion. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Method for removing copper from molten metal with a molten slag and for recovering the copper from the slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oden, L.L.

    1993-12-31

    The present invention relates generally to a method for removing impurity metal from a molten metal such as iron and steel. It is a method for removing copper from molten iron and steel with a molten slag and thereafter recovering the copper from the slag.

  1. Cost | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Home Ocop's picture Submitted by Ocop(5) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Cost Current DOE LCOE numerical modeling Performance Tidal Wave To...

  2. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  3. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  4. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  5. Thermochemical process for recovering Cu from CuO or CuO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, deceased, Donald M.; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1981-01-01

    A process for producing hydrogen comprises the step of reacting metallic Cu with Ba(OH).sub.2 in the presence of steam to produce hydrogen and BaCu.sub.2 O.sub.2. The BaCu.sub.2 O.sub.2 is reacted with H.sub.2 O to form Cu.sub.2 O and a Ba(OH).sub.2 product for recycle to the initial reaction step. Cu can be obtained from the Cu.sub.2 O product by several methods. In one embodiment the Cu.sub.2 O is reacted with HF solution to provide CuF.sub.2 and Cu. The CuF.sub.2 is reacted with H.sub.2 O to provide CuO and HF. CuO is decomposed to Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2. The HF, Cu and Cu.sub.2 O are recycled. In another embodiment the Cu.sub.2 O is reacted with aqueous H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 solution to provide CuSO.sub.4 solution and Cu. The CuSO.sub.4 is decomposed to CuO and SO.sub.3. The CuO is decomposed to form Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2. The SO.sub.3 is dissolved to form H.sub.2 SO.sub.4. H.sub.2 SO.sub.4, Cu and Cu.sub.2 O are recycled. In another embodiment Cu.sub.2 O is decomposed electrolytically to Cu and O.sub.2. In another aspect of the invention, Cu is recovered from CuO by the steps of decomposing CuO to Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2, reacting the Cu.sub.2 O with aqueous HF solution to produce Cu and CuF.sub.2, reacting the CuF.sub.2 with H.sub.2 O to form CuO and HF, and recycling the CuO and HF to previous reaction steps.

  6. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding

  7. Method for recycling tires and similarly compounded materials to recover usable constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letsch, W.

    1980-12-23

    A processing plant and method are described for processing scrap tires and similar materials containing a mixture of technical rubber, scrap metal and tire cord in which the plant is essentially vehicular and thus eliminates the necessity of hauling accumulated tires long distances with the accompanying costs. The plant includes means for directing mixed tire sizes to a cyrogenic section where the technical rubber is reduced to a sufficient temperature making it brittle so that initial separation of reusable technical rubber is accomplished; the plant is operated essentially on the reusable by-products of pyrolytic reduction of the tires so that hydrocarbons and heated gas are utilized and additional commercial by-products such as commercial soots, metal and tire beads are obtained.

  8. Signal processing Model/Method for Recovering Acoustic Reflectivity of Spot Weld

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-09-08

    empirically. For fast estimation of R using only observations beta(1, ..., T) a receiver state equation has been derived, and is attached as Eq. (3). This equation has the further advantage that the initial impulse S need not be known, rather it is estimated simultaneously. This is necessary because element failure and coupling can cause large variations in S. Constrained nonlinear least squares techniques can be applied to this equation to recover reflectivity (and initial impulse) [4]. In particular, the Gauss-Newton algorithm on the log of the sum of squared errors based on the receiver state equation is recommended. To summarize, it is the model described in Eqs. (2) and (3) that is novel, and that enables the recovery of acoustic reflectivity from the ultrasound signals. It has been verified that this reflectivity estimate provides a better indicator of weld veracity than other features previously derived from such signals.« less

  9. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  10. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  11. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  12. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5: Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S.; Martin, R.J. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Experimental results are presented for bulk and mechanical properties measurements on specimens of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Measurements have been performed on three thermal/mechanical units, PTn, TSwl, and TSw2. On each specimen the following bulk properties have been reported: dry bulk density, saturated bulk density, average grain density, and porosity. Unconfined compression to failure, confined compression to failure, and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on selected specimens recovered from the boreholes. In addition, compressional and shear wave velocities were measured on specimens designated for unconfined compression and confined compression experiments. Measurements were conducted at room temperature on nominally water-saturated specimens. The nominal rate for the fracture experiments was 10{sup -5}s{sup -1}.

  13. Photoluminescence studies of shock-recovered Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishimura, Hiroaki Hamada, Sho; Aruga, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi

    2015-01-05

    A series of shock-recovery experiments on Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} powder were conducted involving the impact of a flyer plate accelerated by a single-stage powder-propellant gun. The recovered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The XRD and PL results of samples shocked at pressures of 13 GPa indicated that a phase transition from a cubic phase to a monoclinic phase occurred. The recovered samples shocked at 21 and 25 GPa consisted of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} with the cubic phase and the monoclinic phase. These results indicated that the shock-induced phase transition was the partial completion of the phase transition.

  14. Report on Audit of Activities Designed to Recover the Taxpayers' Investment in the Clean Coal Technology Program, IG-0391

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    June 6, 1996 REPLY TO ATTN OF: IG-1 SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Report on "Audit of Department of Energy's Activities Designed to Recover the Taxpayers' Investment in the Clean Coal Technology Program" TO: The Secretary BACKGROUND: In 1985, the Congress directed the Department of Energy to implement a Clean Coal Technology Program. The purpose of this Departmental initiative is to successfully demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies. As a part of the program, the

  15. Strand-Specific RNA-Seq Analyses of Fruiting Body Development in Coprinopsis cinerea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muraguchi, Hajime; Umezawa, Kiwamu; Niikura, Mai; Yoshida, Makoto; Kozaki, Toshinori; Ishii, Kazuo; Sakai, Kiyota; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Nakahori, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichi; Choi, Cindy; Ngan, Chew Yee; Lindquist, Eika; Lipzen, Anna; Tritt, Andrew; Haridas, Sajeet; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Pukkila, Patricia J.

    2015-10-28

    We report that the basidiomycete fungus Coprinopsis cinerea is an important model system for multicellular development. Fruiting bodies of C. cinerea are typical mushrooms, which can be produced synchronously on defined media in the laboratory. To investigate the transcriptome in detail during fruiting body development, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed using cDNA libraries strand-specifically constructed from 13 points (stages/tissues) with two biological replicates. The reads were aligned to 14,245 predicted transcripts, and counted for forward and reverse transcripts. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two adjacent points and between vegetative mycelium and each point were detected by Tag Count Comparison (TCC). To validate RNA-seq data, expression levels of selected genes were compared using RPKM values in RNA-seq data and qRT-PCR data, and DEGs detected in microarray data were examined in MA plots of RNA-seq data by TCC. We discuss events deduced from GO analysis of DEGs. In addition, we uncovered both transcription factor candidates and antisense transcripts that are likely to be involved in developmental regulation for fruiting.

  16. Double-stranded RNA transcribed from vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide acts as transcription factor decoy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Xiao; Gang, Yi; Wang, Honghong; Wang, Jiayin; Zhao, Lina; Xu, Li; Liu, Zhiguo

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • A shRNA vector based transcription factor decoy, VB-ODN, was designed. • VB-ODN for NF-κB inhibited cell viability in HEK293 cells. • VB-ODN inhibited expression of downstream genes of target transcription factors. • VB-ODN may enhance nuclear entry ratio for its feasibility of virus production. - Abstract: In this study, we designed a short hairpin RNA vector-based oligodeoxynucleotide (VB-ODN) carrying transcription factor (TF) consensus sequence which could function as a decoy to block TF activity. Specifically, VB-ODN for Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) could inhibit cell viability and decrease downstream gene expression in HEK293 cells without affecting expression of NF-κB itself. The specific binding between VB-ODN produced double-stranded RNA and NF-κB was evidenced by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, similar VB-ODNs designed for three other TFs also inhibit their downstream gene expression but not that of themselves. Our study provides a new design of decoy for blocking TF activity.

  17. Strand-Specific RNA-Seq Analyses of Fruiting Body Development in Coprinopsis cinerea

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Muraguchi, Hajime; Umezawa, Kiwamu; Niikura, Mai; Yoshida, Makoto; Kozaki, Toshinori; Ishii, Kazuo; Sakai, Kiyota; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Nakahori, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichi; et al

    2015-10-28

    We report that the basidiomycete fungus Coprinopsis cinerea is an important model system for multicellular development. Fruiting bodies of C. cinerea are typical mushrooms, which can be produced synchronously on defined media in the laboratory. To investigate the transcriptome in detail during fruiting body development, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed using cDNA libraries strand-specifically constructed from 13 points (stages/tissues) with two biological replicates. The reads were aligned to 14,245 predicted transcripts, and counted for forward and reverse transcripts. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two adjacent points and between vegetative mycelium and each point were detected by Tag Count Comparison (TCC).more » To validate RNA-seq data, expression levels of selected genes were compared using RPKM values in RNA-seq data and qRT-PCR data, and DEGs detected in microarray data were examined in MA plots of RNA-seq data by TCC. We discuss events deduced from GO analysis of DEGs. In addition, we uncovered both transcription factor candidates and antisense transcripts that are likely to be involved in developmental regulation for fruiting.« less

  18. Laminar burn rates of gun propellants measured in the high-pressure strand burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J. E., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The pressure dependence of the laminar burn rate of gun propellants plays a role in the design and behavior of high-performance guns. We have begun a program to investigate the effects of processing variables on the laminar burn rates, using our high-pressure strand burner to measure these rates at pressures exceeding 700 MPa. We have burned JA2 and M43 propellant samples, provided by Dr. Arpad Juhasz, ARL, from propellant lots previously used in round-robin tests. Our results at room temperature are in accord with other measurements. In addition, we present results measured for propellant that has been preheated to 50 C before burning. We used our thermochemical equilibrium code, CHEETAH, to help interpret the simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements taken during the testing, and show examples of its use. It has been modified to provide performance measures and equations of state for the products that are familiar to the gun-propellant community users of BLAKE.

  19. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  20. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    es_02_barnett.pdf (615.99 KB) More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV and LEESS Battery Cost Assessment

  1. Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet File Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet.xlsx More Documents & Publications Statement of Work (SOW) Template ...

  2. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions Presentation on hydrogen pathway cost distributions presented January 25, 2006. PDF icon wkshpstorageuihlein.pdf...

  3. HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

  4. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... information to improve the modeling, forecasting and controls of the grid Standards ... Department of Energy |September 2014 Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs | Page 3 ...

  5. The Promiscuity of [beta]-Strand Pairing Allows for Rational Design of [beta]-Sheet Face Inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2009-06-17

    Recent studies suggest the dominant role of main-chain H-bond formation in specifying {beta}-sheet topology. Its essentially sequence-independent nature implies a large degree of freedom in designing {beta}-sheet-based nanomaterials. Here we show rational design of {beta}-sheet face inversions by incremental deletions of {beta}-strands from the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. We show that a {beta}-sheet structure can be maintained when a large number of native contacts are removed and that one can design large-scale conformational transitions of a {beta}-sheet such as face inversion by exploiting the promiscuity of strand-strand interactions. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures confirmed the success of the design and supported the importance of main-chain H-bonds in determining {beta}-sheet topology. This work suggests a simple but effective strategy for designing and controlling nanomaterials based on {beta}-rich peptide self-assemblies.

  6. Solid-state NMR analysis of the {beta}-strand orientation of the protofibrils of amyloid {beta}-protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doi, Takashi; Masuda, Yuichi; Irie, Kazuhiro; Akagi, Ken-ichi; Monobe, Youko; Imazawa, Takayoshi; Takegoshi, K.

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supramolecular structure of A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by solid-state NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala-21 residue in the A{beta}42 protofibrils is included in a slightly disordered {beta}-strand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The A{beta}42 protofibrils do not form intermolecular in-register parallel {beta}-sheets. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by abnormal deposition (fibrillation) of a 42-residue amyloid {beta}-protein (A{beta}42) in the brain. During the process of fibrillation, the A{beta}42 takes the form of protofibrils with strong neurotoxicity, and is thus believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AD. To elucidate the supramolecular structure of the A{beta}42 protofibrils, the intermolecular proximity of the Ala-21 residues in the A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C rotational resonance experiments in the solid state. Unlike the A{beta}42 fibrils, an intermolecular {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C correlation was not found in the A{beta}42 protofibrils. This result suggests that the {beta}-strands of the A{beta}42 protofibrils are not in an in-register parallel orientation. A{beta}42 monomers would assemble to form protofibrils with the {beta}-strand conformation, then transform into fibrils by forming intermolecular parallel {beta}-sheets.

  7. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  8. Electric power substation capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-12-01

    The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

  9. Renewable Energy Cost Optimization Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-12-31

    The Software allow users to determine the optimum combination of renewable energy technologies to minimize life cycle cost for a facility by employing various algorithms which calculate initial and operating cost, energy delivery, and other attributes associated with each technology as a function of size.

  10. Low-cost, Rapid DNA Sequencing Technique - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More ... The nucleic acid strand transport mechanism located on the dielectric surface of the ...