National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for recover stranded costs

  1. After Cajun, what next for stranded costs?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pembroke, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    Members of FERC have said that the Cajun decision does not pose a serious problem to its proposed rulemaking on stranded costs. But the D.C. Circuit`s Cajun decision, criticizing the concept of recovery for stranded investment in broad terms, promises to make that task difficult, if not impossible. The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, in its July 12, 1994 opinion in Cajun Electric Power Cooperative, Inc. v. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, subjected the Entergy Corporations`s transmission tariff`s stranded investment provision to broad and, perhaps, fatal criticism. The Cajun opinion, premised on basic concepts of antitrust law, was issued at a time of substantial industry discussion on the concept of stranded investment and should greatly impact the decisions of both federal and state regulators on stranded investment.

  2. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining should more fully recover or eliminate its costs of regulating coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-05-28

    The Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) is spending about $65 million annually to implement regulatory program requirements of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The act requires the regulatory authority, whether OSM or that of a state with an OSM-approved program, to charge fees to mining operators for reviewing, enforcing, and administering coal mine operating permits and authorizes that the amount of such fees can fully recover costs. The OSM and states assess certain fees, but the fees recover only a small portion of their program costs. GAO found that if OSM and states fully recovered their regulatory costs, OSM could save over $50 million a year and the impact on coal demand and production would be minimal. GAO recommends that the Secretary of the Interior collect fees that fully recover OSM's regulatory costs, phase out or substantially reduce financial assistance to states, and encourage states to fully recover their own costs.

  3. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  4. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

  5. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.

  6. Process for recovering uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacWood, G. E.; Wilder, C. D.; Altman, D.

    1959-03-24

    A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

  7. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-12-29

    A method is presented for separating and recovering uranium from a complex mixure of impurities. The uranium is dissolved to produce an aqueous acidic solution including various impurities. In accordance with one method, with the uranium in the uranyl state, hydrogen cyanide is introduced into the solution to complex the impurities. Subsequently, ammonia is added to the solution to precipitate the uraniunn as ammonium diuranate away from the impurities in the solution. Alternatively, the uranium is precipitated by adding an alkaline metal hydroxide. In accordance with the second method, the uranium is reduced to the uranous state in the solution. The reduced solution is then treated with solid alkali metal cyanide sufficient to render the solution about 0.1 to 1.0 N in cyanide ions whereat cyanide complex ions of the metal impurities are produced and the uranium is simultaneously precipituted as uranous hydroxide. Alternatively, hydrogen cyanide may be added to the reduced solution and the uranium precipitated subsequently by adding ammonium hydroxide or an alkali metal hydroxide. Other refinements of the method are also disclosed.

  8. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering heat from boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  9. Neutrino Physics AAPT Strand Day

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics AAPT Strand Day NSTA Regional, 2005 Jocelyn Monroe, Columbia University 1. What Is ... quark (FNAL) The Standard Model New Physics (Relatively Speaking) 1900s: e discovered ...

  10. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  11. One million curies of radioactive material recovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radioactive material recovered One million curies of radioactive material recovered The accomplishment represents a major milestone in protecting our nation and the world from...

  12. Recovering entanglement by local operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D’Arrigo, A.; Lo Franco, R.; Benenti, G.; Paladino, E.; Falci, G.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.

  13. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  14. Double stranded nucleic acid biochips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chernov, Boris; Golova, Julia

    2006-05-23

    This invention describes a new method of constructing double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays based on the use of pre-synthesized or natural DNA duplexes without a stem-loop structure. The complementary oligonucleotide chains are bonded together by a novel connector that includes a linker for immobilization on a matrix. A non-enzymatic method for synthesizing double-stranded nucleic acids with this novel connector enables the construction of inexpensive and robust dsDNA/dsRNA microarrays. DNA-DNA and DNA-protein interactions are investigated using the microarrays.

  15. METHOD OF RECOVERING URANIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poirier, R.H.

    1957-10-29

    S>The recovery of uranium compounds which have been adsorbed on anion exchange resins is discussed. The uranium and thorium-containing residues from monazite processed by alkali hydroxide are separated from solution, and leached with an alkali metal carbonate solution, whereby the uranium and thorium hydrorides are dissolved. The carbonate solution is then passed over an anion exchange resin causing the uranium to be adsorbed while the thorium remains in solution. The uranium may be recovered by contacting the uranium-holding resin with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution whereby the uranium values are eluted from the resin and then heating the eluate whereby carbon dioxide and ammonia are given off, the pH value of the solution is lowered, and the uranium is precipitated.

  16. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  17. Recovering Radioactive Materials with OSRP team

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered

  18. Electrochemical processes in recovering metals from ores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felker, D.L. ); Bautista, R.G. . Dept. of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    Chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}) is one of the most abundant copper-bearing minerals in the U.S. Oxidative leaching and smelting and refining are the most common methods used for recovering copper from chalcopyrite. One of the problems associated with oxidative leaching is the formation of an elemental sulfur product layer around the unreacted chalcopyrite core. The sulfur coating slows the reaction by inhibiting both the diffusion of the oxidant to the unreacted core, and the diffusion of the copper and iron species to the bulk solution. Another problem with leaching is that the iron and copper are oxidized simultaneously. Both appear in the bulk solution in their most oxidized states. The direct electrodissolution of copper sulfide ore slurries could reduce the number of steps involved in the copper recovery process, possibly leading to significant reductions in energy consumption and operating costs. The potential application of electrodissolution processes in hydrometallurgy has been reviewed. This paper reviews investigations of the electrochemical dissolution of chalcopyrite, digenite (Cu{sub 1.8}S), chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) and covellite (CuS).

  19. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (Revised0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  20. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste - Steam Tip Sheet #11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  1. Recovering Radioactive Materials with ORSP Team

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LANL

    2009-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration sponsors a program, executed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to recover radioisotopes used by industry and academia and no longer needed. Called the "Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP), it has recovered more than 16,000 orphan sources as of 2008.

  2. Onsite Recovered Energy LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Onsite Recovered Energy LP Address: Centurion Region: South Africa Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Year Founded: 2009 Phone Number: +27 (0)83 526-3767...

  3. Recovered materials and the proposed procurement rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1994-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a Comprehensive Procurement Guideline'' in April designating items that are or can be made with recovered materials. The Agency is proposing to designate 21 additional items and to amend the building installation guideline to establish recovered materials content levels for fiberglass and increase the levels for rock wool. The Comprehensive Procurement Guideline implements Section 6002(e) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and Section 502 of Executive Order 12873. RCRA Section 6002 requires EPA to designate items that are or can be made with recovered materials and to recommend practices to assist federal procuring agencies with meeting their statutory obligations under RCRA Section 6002. After EPA designates an item, RCRA requires that each procuring agency purchase that designated item composed of the highest percentage of recovered materials practicable.

  4. One million curies of radioactive material recovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radioactive material recovered One million curies of radioactive material recovered The accomplishment represents a major milestone in protecting our nation and the world from material that could be used in "dirty bombs" by terrorists. December 22, 2014 Rick Day of Los Alamos National Laboratory's International Threat Reduction group and the Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP) holds a non-radioactive training mockup of what a typical cobalt-60 source might look like. The source is

  5. Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Under the federal Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS), businesses may recover investments in certain property through depreciation deductions. The MACRS establishes a set of class...

  6. Process for recovering filler from polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Maurice L.; Smith, Robert M.

    1978-01-01

    This disclosure relates to a process for recovering filler material from a polymeric matrix by reacting the matrix at an elevated temperature in a gas atmosphere with a controlled oxidizing potential and thereafter separating and cleaning the residue from the reaction mixture.

  7. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam This tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides ...

  8. Recovering START institutional knowledge (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recovering START institutional knowledge Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovering START institutional knowledge Authors: Murphy, Chantell L 1 ; Johnson, M. W. 1 ; ...

  9. Recovering START institutional knowledge (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recovering START institutional knowledge Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovering START institutional knowledge You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  10. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Heat can be recovered from boiler blowdown by using a heat exchanger to preheat boiler makeup water. Any boiler with continuous blowdown ...

  11. Apparatus for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering hydrogen and separating its isotopes. The apparatus includes a housing bearing at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. A baffle is disposed within the housing, attached thereto by a bracket. A hollow conduit is coiled about the baffle, in spaced relation to the baffle and the housing. The coiled conduit is at least partially filled with a hydride. The hydride can be heated to a high temperature and cooled to a low temperature quickly by circulating a heat transfer fluid in the housing. The spacing between the baffle and the housing maximizes the heat exchange rate between the fluid in the housing and the hydride in the conduit. The apparatus can be used to recover hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from gaseous mixtures, or to separate hydrogen isotopes from each other.

  12. Method for recovering materials from waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, a vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800{degrees}C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1000--1550{degrees}C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  13. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    A method is described for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800 C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000--1,550 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification. 2 figs.

  14. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    2000-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  15. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    1998-01-01

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300.degree.-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000.degree.-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  16. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I.; Knell, Everett W.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  17. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galvanek, P. Jr.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.

  18. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  19. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  20. Apparatus to recover tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swansiger, William A. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering tritium from tritiated compounds is provided, including a preheater for heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. and a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide for receiving the preheated mixture. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide.

  1. Method and apparatus for testing a forward-moving strand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ducommun, Joel; Vulliens, Philippe

    1980-01-01

    In a method for testing a continuously forward-moving strand a light beam which passes along a plane that extends approximately perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the strand is introduced into the strand. The brightness value is measured on a place of the strand exterior which is distal from the light incidence place by means of at least one photoelectronic element disposed directly on the strand exterior and the measured result is evaluated in a gating circuit which is electrically connected to the photoelectronic element.

  2. Method of preparing and applying single stranded DNA probes to double stranded target DNAs in situ

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1991-07-02

    A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes, and for treating target DNA for use therewith. The probe is constructed by treating DNA with a restriction enzyme and an exonuclease to form template/primers for a DNA polymerase. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe. Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe, and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations. No Drawings

  3. Method of preparing and applying single stranded DNA probes to double stranded target DNAs in situ

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes, and for treating target DNA for use therewith. Probe is constructed by treating DNA with a restriction enzyme and an exonuclease to form template/primers for a DNA polymerase. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe. Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe, and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations.

  4. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  5. Method for producing labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J.; Quesada, Mark A.; Randesi, Matthew

    1999-10-19

    Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

  6. USE OF POLYMERS TO RECOVER VISCOUS OIL FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall Seright

    2011-09-30

    This final technical progress report summarizes work performed the project, 'Use of Polymers to Recover Viscous Oil from Unconventional Reservoirs.' The objective of this three-year research project was to develop methods using water soluble polymers to recover viscous oil from unconventional reservoirs (i.e., on Alaska's North Slope). The project had three technical tasks. First, limits were re-examined and redefined for where polymer flooding technology can be applied with respect to unfavorable displacements. Second, we tested existing and new polymers for effective polymer flooding of viscous oil, and we tested newly proposed mechanisms for oil displacement by polymer solutions. Third, we examined novel methods of using polymer gels to improve sweep efficiency during recovery of unconventional viscous oil. This report details work performed during the project. First, using fractional flow calculations, we examined the potential of polymer flooding for recovering viscous oils when the polymer is able to reduce the residual oil saturation to a value less than that of a waterflood. Second, we extensively investigated the rheology in porous media for a new hydrophobic associative polymer. Third, using simulation and analytical studies, we compared oil recovery efficiency for polymer flooding versus in-depth profile modification (i.e., 'Bright Water') as a function of (1) permeability contrast, (2) relative zone thickness, (3) oil viscosity, (4) polymer solution viscosity, (5) polymer or blocking-agent bank size, and (6) relative costs for polymer versus blocking agent. Fourth, we experimentally established how much polymer flooding can reduce the residual oil saturation in an oil-wet core that is saturated with viscous North Slope crude. Finally, an experimental study compared mechanical degradation of an associative polymer with that of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Detailed results from the first two years of the project may be found in our first and second annual reports. Our latest research results, along with detailed documentation of our past work, can be found on our web site at http://baervan.nmt.edu/randy/. As an overall summary of important findings for the project, polymer flooding has tremendous potential for enhanced recovery of viscous oil. Fear of substantial injectivity reduction was a primary hurdle that limited application of polymer flooding. However, that concern is largely mitigated by (1) use of horizontal wells and (2) judicious injection above the formation parting pressure. Field cases now exist where 200-300-cp polymer solutions are injected without significant reductions in injectivity. Concern about costs associated with injection of viscous polymer solutions was a second major hurdle. However, that concern is reduced substantially by realization that polymer viscosity increases approximately with the square of polymer concentration. Viscosity can be doubled with only a 40% increase in polymer concentration. Up to a readily definable point, increases in viscosity of the injected polymer solution are directly related to increases in sweep efficiency and oil recovery. Previously published simulation results - suggesting that shear-thinning polymer solutions were detrimental to sweep efficiency - were shown to be unfounded (both theoretically and experimentally).

  7. Aqueous process for recovering sulfur from hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha

    2015-05-05

    A process for recovering sulfur from a hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas utilizes an aqueous reaction medium, a temperature of about 110-150.degree. C., and a high enough pressure to maintain the aqueous reaction medium in a liquid state. The process reduces material and equipment costs and addresses the environmental disadvantages associated with known processes that rely on high boiling point organic solvents.

  8. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene HCL and terephthalic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    acid (Patent) | SciTech Connect Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene HCL and terephthalic acid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene HCL and terephthalic acid A process of pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first

  9. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate ...

  10. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure ...

  11. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.

    2003-03-10

    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  12. Working Together to Recover and Rebuild After Hurricane Sandy | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Working Together to Recover and Rebuild After Hurricane Sandy Working Together to Recover and Rebuild After Hurricane Sandy November 5, 2012 - 6:30pm Addthis Supervising Engineer for Public Service Electric and Gas Company, Michael Vincent, right, Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu, center, and FEMA Deputy Administrator Rich Serino review power restoration at the Hoboken electrical substation. Restoration of power to communities impacted by Hurricane Sandy remains a high

  13. Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm The Enclosure to this memo discusses the solid phase characterization of a solid sample that was retrieved from the single-shell Tank 241-C-111 extended reach sluicer #2. This sluicer, removed from riser #3 on September 25, 2014, was found to have approximately 0.4

  14. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solid hydrates (Patent) | SciTech Connect Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon

  15. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solid hydrates (Patent) | SciTech Connect Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize

  16. Pyrolysis of polystyrene - polyphenylene oxide to recover styrene and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    useful products (Patent) | SciTech Connect Pyrolysis of polystyrene - polyphenylene oxide to recover styrene and useful products Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pyrolysis of polystyrene - polyphenylene oxide to recover styrene and useful products A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide plastic waste to a given polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting

  17. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates (Patent) | SciTech Connect Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either

  18. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates (Patent) | SciTech Connect Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  19. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Unidirectional Scaffold-Strand Arrangement in DNA Origami

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unidirectional Scaffold-Strand Arrangement in DNA Origami Authors: Han, D., Jiang, S., Samanta, A., Liu, Y., and Yan, H. Title: Unidirectional Scaffold-Strand Arrangement in DNA Origami Source: Angewandte Chemie International Edition Year: 2013 Volume: 52 Pages: 9031-9034 ABSTRACT: Date of online publication: Sun, 2013-07-14 Link online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201302177/suppinfo

  1. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec

    2002-12-20

    This document is the First Annual Report for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No., a three-year contract entitled: ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The research improved our knowledge and understanding of CO{sub 2} flooding and includes work in the areas of injectivity and mobility control. The bulk of this work has been performed by the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, a research division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. This report covers the reporting period of September 28, 2001 and September 27, 2002. Injectivity continues to be a concern to the industry. During this period we have contacted most of the CO{sub 2} operators in the Permian Basin and talked again about their problems in this area. This report has a summary of what we found. It is a given that carbonate mineral dissolution and deposition occur in a formation in geologic time and are expected to some degree in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods. Water-alternating-gas (WAG) core flood experiments conducted on limestone and dolomite core plugs confirm that these processes can occur over relatively short time periods (hours to days) and in close proximity to each other. Results from laboratory CO{sub 2}-brine flow experiments performed in rock core were used to calibrate a reactive transport simulator. The calibrated model is being used to estimate in situ effects of a range of possible sequestration options in depleted oil/gas reservoirs. The code applied in this study is a combination of the well known TOUGH2 simulator, for coupled groundwater/brine and heat flow, with the chemistry code TRANS for chemically reactive transport. Variability in response among rock types suggests that CO{sub 2} injection will induce ranges of transient and spatially dependent changes in intrinsic rock permeability and porosity. Determining the effect of matrix changes on CO{sub 2} mobility is crucial in evaluating the efficacy and potential environmental implications of storing CO{sub 2} in the subsurface. Chemical cost reductions are identified that are derived from the synergistic effects of cosurfactant systems using a good foaming agent and a less expensive poor foaming agent. The required good foaming agent is reduced by at least 75%. Also the effect on injectivity is reduced by as much as 50% using the cosurfactant system, compared to a previously used surfactant system. Mobility control of injected CO{sub 2} for improved oil recovery can be achieved with significant reduction in the chemical cost of SAG, improved injectivity of SAG, and improved economics of CO{sub 2} injection project when compared to reported systems. Our past work has identified a number of mobility control agents to use for CO{sub 2}-foam flooding. In particular the combination of the good foaming agent CD 1045 and a sacrificial agent and cosurfactant lignosulfonate. This work scrutinizes the methods that we are using to determine the efficiency of the sacrificial agents and cosurfactant systems. These have required concentration determinations and reusing core samples. Here, we report some of the problems that have been found and some interesting effects that must be considered.

  2. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  3. An intercalation-locked parallel-stranded DNA tetraplex

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tripathi, S.; Zhang, D.; Paukstelis, P. J.

    2015-01-27

    DNA has proved to be an excellent material for nanoscale construction because complementary DNA duplexes are programmable and structurally predictable. However, in the absence of Watson–Crick pairings, DNA can be structurally more diverse. Here, we describe the crystal structures of d(ACTCGGATGAT) and the brominated derivative, d(ACBrUCGGABrUGAT). These oligonucleotides form parallel-stranded duplexes with a crystallographically equivalent strand, resulting in the first examples of DNA crystal structures that contains four different symmetric homo base pairs. Two of the parallel-stranded duplexes are coaxially stacked in opposite directions and locked together to form a tetraplex through intercalation of the 5'-most A–A base pairs betweenmore » adjacent G–G pairs in the partner duplex. The intercalation region is a new type of DNA tertiary structural motif with similarities to the i-motif. 1H–1H nuclear magnetic resonance and native gel electrophoresis confirmed the formation of a parallel-stranded duplex in solution. Finally, we modified specific nucleotide positions and added d(GAY) motifs to oligonucleotides and were readily able to obtain similar crystals. This suggests that this parallel-stranded DNA structure may be useful in the rational design of DNA crystals and nanostructures.« less

  4. An intercalation-locked parallel-stranded DNA tetraplex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, S.; Zhang, D.; Paukstelis, P. J.

    2015-01-27

    DNA has proved to be an excellent material for nanoscale construction because complementary DNA duplexes are programmable and structurally predictable. However, in the absence of Watson–Crick pairings, DNA can be structurally more diverse. Here, we describe the crystal structures of d(ACTCGGATGAT) and the brominated derivative, d(ACBrUCGGABrUGAT). These oligonucleotides form parallel-stranded duplexes with a crystallographically equivalent strand, resulting in the first examples of DNA crystal structures that contains four different symmetric homo base pairs. Two of the parallel-stranded duplexes are coaxially stacked in opposite directions and locked together to form a tetraplex through intercalation of the 5'-most A–A base pairs between adjacent G–G pairs in the partner duplex. The intercalation region is a new type of DNA tertiary structural motif with similarities to the i-motif. 1H–1H nuclear magnetic resonance and native gel electrophoresis confirmed the formation of a parallel-stranded duplex in solution. Finally, we modified specific nucleotide positions and added d(GAY) motifs to oligonucleotides and were readily able to obtain similar crystals. This suggests that this parallel-stranded DNA structure may be useful in the rational design of DNA crystals and nanostructures.

  5. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Steven A.; Creech, Edward T.; Northcutt, Walter G.

    1983-01-01

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and leave an insoluble residue of niobium stannide, then separating the niobium stannide from the acid.

  6. Process for recovering niobium from uranium-niobium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, S.A.; Creech, E.T.; Northcutt, W.G.

    1982-09-27

    Niobium is recovered from scrap uranium-niobium alloy by melting the scrap with tin, solidifying the billet thus formed, heating the billet to combine niobium with tin therein, placing the billet in hydrochloric acid to dissolve the uranium and form a precipitate of niobium stannide, then separating the precipitate from the acid.

  7. Advanced Actuators and Transducers: Hybrid actuator systems recover

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    environment energy to power devices - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Advanced Actuators and Transducers: Hybrid actuator systems recover environment energy to power devices National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contact NASA About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryActuators and transducers are deployed to

  8. Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

    1996-07-01

    Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

  9. Method for fabricating multi-strand superconducting cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, A.R.

    1985-04-01

    Multi-strand superconducting cables adapted to be used, for example, to wind a magnet are fabricated by directing wire strands inwardly from spools disposed on the perimeter of a rotating disk and wrapping them diagonally around a tapered mandrel with a flattened cross-sectional shape with a core having a wedge-shaped channel. As the cable is pulled axially, flexibly coupled wedge-shaped pieces are continuously passed through the channel in the mandrel and inserted into the cable as an internal support therefor.

  10. BPA's Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  11. Method of recovering hazardous waste from phenolic resin filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bourne, Gary L. (Idaho Falls, ID); McFee, John N. (Albuquerque, NM); Burdge, Bradley G. (Idaho Falls, ID); McConnell, Jr., John W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a process for the recovery of hazardous wastes such as heavy metals and radioactive elements from phenolic resin filter by a circulating a solution of 8 to 16 molar nitric acid at a temperature of 110 to 190 degrees F. through the filter. The hot solution dissolves the filter material and releases the hazardous material so that it can be recovered or treated for long term storage in an environmentally safe manner.

  12. Method for recovering oil from an underground formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesselink, F.T.; Saidi, A.M.

    1982-12-21

    Method for recovering oil from an underground formation consisting of blocks of relatively low permeability with an oilwet pore space containing oil surrounded by a fracture network of relatively high permeability by supplying to the fracture network an aqueous solution of a surfactant adapted for decreasing the surface tension between water and oil and displacing the oil from the oil-wet pore space of the blocks.

  13. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  14. Analysis of FERC's Final EIS for Electricity Open Access & Recovery of Stranded Costs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) prepared by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for its electricity transmission system open access prepared in April 1996 and uses the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to analyze the open access rule (Orders 888 and 889).

  15. Applications of Strand-Specific in situ Hybridization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, E.H.; Meyne, J.; Bailey, S.M.; Quigley, D.; Smith, L.; Tennyson, R.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is used to determine the location of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. It is an effective tool in genomic mapping and is finding increasing use in medical diagnosis. A ''strand-specific'' version of FISH has been developed in the Life Sciences Division of LANL. The new procedure, named CO-FISH, reveals not only location but also the 5'-to-3'direction of a target sequence, such as the sense strand of a gene. This project was designed to investigate applications of the new technique. Strand-specific FISH was found to be useful and informative for genomic mapping of repetitive DNA sequences. The method provide a valuable new tool for investigating the mechanisms of aneuploidy inducing agents and the cytogenetic phenomena called lateral asymmetry. Finally, using strand-specific FISH, the authors were able to detect certain types of chromosome aberrations (isochromosomes, inversions and Robertsonian translocations) that can be difficult to observe with standard techniques.

  16. Solid phase sequencing of double-stranded nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Dong-Jing (Waltham, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Koster, Hubert (Concord, MA); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA)

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing of target double-stranded nucleic acid sequences, to nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probe comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include nucleic acids in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated determination of molecular weights and identification of the target sequence.

  17. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. ... More Documents & Publications Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System Consider ...

  18. NNSA Recovers Radiological Material from Mexico | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Recovers Radiological Material from Mexico July 28, 2015 The irradiators were loaded on the U.S. Air Force C-17 in Southern Mexico and flown back to a base in the United States. WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), in partnership with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), the U.S. Air Force (USAF), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the United Mexican States, has successfully completed the

  19. Improvements in strand feeding and its effect of sintering performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, H.; Kersting, K.; Werner, P.

    1995-12-01

    Sintering may be considered a rather simple, counter current gas-solid process. A bed of granular solids is moved horizontally on a strand of pallets and suction is applied beneath the grate. Shortly after the sinter mix is fed onto the strand the incorporated solid fuel is ignited in the surface layer and the hot gases are drawn into the bed. The temperature of the top layer is raised high enough to burn the fuel particles while air is sucked down through it. Passing the upper, already sintered part of the bed the air is first preheated then sustains the combustion reaction. The hot, still oxygen-rich combustion gases leave the sintering zone and transfer its heat to the charge below. While the solids are preheated, carbonates, combined water, and moisture are driven off, rapidly cooling the gas. Thus, a flame front propagates through the traveling bed, generating at peak temperatures enough heat to agglomerate the bed of quasi-particles into a sinter cake. The strand speed is adjusted so that the burning through of the combustion zone coincides with the end of the suction area. To ensure stable operation this cross stream reactor has to be kept in a steady state.

  20. Analysis of the Reuse of Uranium Recovered from the Reprocessing of Commercial LWR Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DelCul, Guillermo Daniel; Trowbridge, Lee D; Renier, John-Paul; Ellis, Ronald James; Williams, Kent Alan; Spencer, Barry B; Collins, Emory D

    2009-02-01

    This report provides an analysis of the factors involved in the reuse of uranium recovered from commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels (1) by reenrichment and recycling as fuel to LWRs and/or (2) by recycling directly as fuel to heavy-water-reactors (HWRs), such as the CANDU (registered trade name for the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor). Reuse is an attractive alternative to the current Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) baseline plan, which stores the reprocessed uranium (RU) for an uncertain future or attempts to dispose of it as 'greater-than-Class C' waste. Considering that the open fuel cycle currently deployed in the United States already creates a huge excess quantity of depleted uranium, the closed fuel cycle should enable the recycle of the major components of spent fuel, such as the uranium and the hazardous, long-lived transuranic (TRU) actinides, as well as the managed disposal of fission product wastes. Compared with the GNEP baseline scenario, the reuse of RU in the uranium fuel cycle has a number of potential advantages: (1) avoidance of purchase costs of 11-20% of the natural uranium feed; (2) avoidance of disposal costs for a large majority of the volume of spent fuel that is reprocessed; (3) avoidance of disposal costs for a portion of the depleted uranium from the enrichment step; (4) depending on the {sup 235}U assay of the RU, possible avoidance of separative work costs; and (5) a significant increase in the production of {sup 238}Pu due to the presence of {sup 236}U, which benefits somewhat the transmutation value of the plutonium and also provides some proliferation resistance.

  1. Process for recovering organic components from liquid streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo; Baker, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    A separation process for recovering organic components from liquid streams. The process is a combination of pervaporation and decantation. In cases where the liquid stream contains the organic to be separated in dissolved form, the pervaporation step is used to concentrate the organic to a point above the solubility limit, so that a two-phase permeate is formed and then decanted. In cases where the liquid stream is a two-phase mixture, the decantation step is performed first, to remove the organic product phase, and the residue from the decanter is then treated by pervaporation. The condensed permeate from the pervaporation unit is sufficiently concentrated in the organic component to be fed back to the decanter. The process can be tailored to produce only two streams: an essentially pure organic product stream suitable for reuse, and a residue stream for discharge or reuse.

  2. Separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David R.

    2015-09-01

    A separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator apparatus and method. The accelerator includes a first linac, a second linac, and a plurality of arcs of differing path lengths, including a plurality of up arcs, a plurality of downgoing arcs, and a full energy arc providing a path independent of the up arcs and downgoing arcs. The up arcs have a path length that is substantially a multiple of the RF wavelength and the full energy arc includes a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer multiple of the RF wavelength. Operation of the accelerator includes accelerating the beam utilizing the linacs and up arcs until the beam is at full energy, at full energy executing a full recirculation to the second linac using a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer of the RF wavelength, and then decelerating the beam using the linacs and downgoing arcs.

  3. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkholder, Harvey R.; Fanslow, Glenn E.

    1983-01-01

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed.

  4. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkholder, H.R.; Fanslow, G.E.

    1983-12-20

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed. 8 figs.

  5. Innovative Elution Processes for Recovering Uranium from Seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wai, Chien; Tian, Guoxin; Janke, Christopher

    2014-05-29

    Utilizing amidoxime-based polymer sorbents for extraction of uranium from seawater has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Uranium collected in the sorbent is recovered typically by elution with an acid. One drawback of acid elution is deterioration of the sorbent which is a significant factor that limits the economic competitiveness of the amidoxime-based sorbent systems for sequestering uranium from seawater. Developing innovative elution processes to improve efficiency and to minimize loss of sorbent capacity become essential in order to make this technology economically feasible for large-scale industrial applications. This project has evaluated several elution processes including acid elution, carbonate elution, and supercritical fluid elution for recovering uranium from amidoxime-based polymer sorbents. The elution efficiency, durability and sorbent regeneration for repeated uranium adsorption- desorption cycles in simulated seawater have been studied. Spectroscopic techniques are used to evaluate chemical nature of the sorbent before and after elution. A sodium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide elution process for effective removal of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is developed. The cause of this sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide synergistic leaching of uranium from amidoxime-based sorbent is attributed to the formation of an extremely stable uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex. The efficiency of uranium elution by the carbonate-hydrogen peroxide method is comparable to that of the hydrochloric acid elution but damage to the sorbent material is much less for the former. The carbonate- hydrogen peroxide elution also does not need any elaborate step to regenerate the sorbent as those required for hydrochloric acid leaching. Several CO2-soluble ligands have been tested for extraction of uranium from the sorbent in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. A mixture of hexafluoroacetylacetone and tri-n-butylphosphate shows the best result but uranium removal from the sorbent reaches only 80% after 10 hours of leaching. Some information regarding coordination of vanadium with amidoxime molecules and elution of vanadium from amidoxime- based sorbents is also given in the report.

  6. Nuclear power fleets and uranium resources recovered from phosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G.

    2013-07-01

    Current light water reactors (LWR) burn fissile uranium, whereas some future reactors, as Sodium fast reactors (SFR) will be capable of recycling their own plutonium and already-extracted depleted uranium. This makes them a feasible solution for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Nonetheless, a sufficient quantity of plutonium is needed to start up an SFR, with the plutonium already being produced in light water reactors. The availability of natural uranium therefore has a direct impact on the capacity of the reactors (both LWR and SFR) that we can build. It is therefore important to have an accurate estimate of the available uranium resources in order to plan for the world's future nuclear reactor fleet. This paper discusses the correspondence between the resources (uranium and plutonium) and the nuclear power demand. Sodium fast reactors will be built in line with the availability of plutonium, including fast breeders when necessary. Different assumptions on the global uranium resources are taken into consideration. The largely quoted estimate of 22 Mt of uranium recovered for phosphate rocks can be seriously downscaled. Based on our current knowledge of phosphate resources, 4 Mt of recoverable uranium already seems to be an upper bound value. The impact of the downscaled estimate on the deployment of a nuclear fleet is assessed accordingly. (authors)

  7. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  8. Transporting carbon dioxide recovered from fossil-energy cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doctor, R. D.; Molburg, J. C.; Brockmeier, J. F.

    2000-07-24

    Transportation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for enhanced oil recovery is a mature technology, with operating experience dating from the mid-1980s. Because of this maturity, recent sequestration studies for the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory have been able to incorporate transportation into overall energy-cycle economics with reasonable certainty. For these studies, two different coal-fueled plants are considered; the first collects CO{sub 2} from a 456-MW integrated coal gasification combined-cycle plant, while the second employs a 353-MW pulverized-coal boiler plant retrofitted for flue-gas recycling (Doctor et al. 1999; MacDonald and Palkes 1999). The pulverized-coal plant fires a mixture of coal in a 33% O{sub 2} atmosphere, the bulk of the inert gas being made up to CO{sub 2} to the greatest extent practical. If one power plant with one pipe feeds one sequestration reservoir, projected costs for a 500-km delivery pipeline are problematic, because when supplying one reservoir both plant availability issues and useful pipeline life heavily influence capital recovery costs. The transportation system proposed here refines the sequestration scheme into a network of three distinctive pipelines: (1) 80-km collection pipelines for a 330-MW pulverized-coal power plant with 100% CO{sub 2} recovery; (2) a main CO{sub 2} transportation trunk of 320 km that aggregates the CO{sub 2} from four such plants; and (3) an 80-km distribution network. A 25-year life is assumed for the first two segments, but only half that for the distribution to the reservoir. Projected costs for a 500-km delivery pipeline, assuming an infrastructure, are $7.82/tonne ($17.22/10{sup 3} Nm{sub 3} CO{sub 2} or $0.49/10{sup 3} scf CO{sub 2}), a savings of nearly 60% with respect to base-case estimates with no infrastructure. These costs are consistent only with conditioned CO{sub 2} having low oxygen and sulfur content; they do not include CO{sub 2} recovery, drying, and compression.

  9. Energy Recovered Light Source Technology at TJNAF | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26Germantown Building ... Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Energy Recovered Light Source Technology at TJNAF ...

  10. Inter-strand current sharing and ac loss measurements in superconducting YBCO Roebel cables

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Majoros, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.; Long, N. J.

    2015-04-08

    A Roebel cable, one twist pitch long, was modified from its as-received state by soldering copper strips between the strands to provide inter-strand connections enabling current sharing. Various DC transport currents (representing different percentages of its critical current) were applied to a single strand of such a modified cable at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. Simultaneous monitoring of I–V curves in different parts of the strand as well as in its interconnections with other strands was made using a number of sensitive Keithley nanovoltmeters in combination with a multichannel high-speed data acquisition card, all controlled via LabView software.more » Current sharing onset was observed at about 1.02 of strand Ic. At a strand current of 1.3Ic about 5% of the current was shared through the copper strip interconnections. A finite element method modeling was performed to estimate the inter-strand resistivities required to enable different levels of current sharing. The relative contributions of coupling and hysteretic magnetization (and loss) were compared, and for our cable and tape geometry, and at dB/dt=1 T s-1, and our inter-strand resistance of 0.77 mΩ, (enabling a current sharing of 5% at 1.3Ic) the coupling component was 0.32% of the hysteretic component. However, inter-strand contact resistance values of 100–1000 times smaller (close to those of NbTi and Nb3Sn based accelerator cables) would make the coupling components comparable in size to the hysteretic components.« less

  11. Characteristics of Cu stabilized Nb3Al strands with low Cu ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikuchi, A.; Yamada, R.; Barzi, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Lamm, M.; Nakagawa, K.; Sasaki, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /NIMC, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Hitachi, Tsuchiura Works /KEK, Tsukuba

    2008-12-01

    Characteristics of recently developed F4-Nb{sub 3}Al strand with low Cu ratio are described. The overall J{sub c} of the Nb{sub 3}Al strand could be easily increased by decreasing of the Cu ratio. Although the quench of a pulse-like voltage generation is usually observed in superconducting unstable conductor, the F4 strand with a low Cu ratio of 0.61 exhibited an ordinary critical transition of gradual voltage generation. The F4 strand does not have magnetic instabilities at 4.2 K because of the tantalum interfilament matrix. The overall J{sub c} of the F4 strand achieved was 80-85% of the RRP strand. In the large mechanical stress above 100 MPa, the overall J{sub c} of the F4 strand might be comparable to that of high J{sub c} RRP-Nb{sub 3}Sn strands. The Rutherford cable with a high packing factor of 86.5% has been fabricated using F4 strands. The small racetrack magnet, SR07, was also fabricated by a 14 m F4 cable. The quench current, I{sub q}, of SR07 were obtained 22.4 kA at 4.5 K and 25.2 kA at 2.2 K. The tantalum matrix Nb{sub 3}Al strands are promising for the application of super-cooled high-field magnets as well as 4.2 K operation magnets.

  12. Inter-strand current sharing and ac loss measurements in superconducting YBCO Roebel cables

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    sumption, Mike; Majoros, Milan; Collings, E. W.; Van der Laan, D. C.

    2014-11-07

    A Roebel cable, one twist pitch long, was modified from its as-received state by soldering copper strips between the strands to provide inter-strand connections enabling current sharing. Various DC transport currents (representing different percentages of its critical current) were applied to a single strand of such a modified cable at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. Simultaneous monitoring of I–V curves in different parts of the strand as well as in its interconnections with other strands was made using a number of sensitive Keithley nanovoltmeters in combination with a multichannel high-speed data acquisition card, all controlled via LabView software.more » Current sharing onset was observed at about 1.02 of strand Ic. At a strand current of 1.3Ic about 5% of the current was shared through the copper strip interconnections. A finite element method modeling was performed to estimate the inter-strand resistivities required to enable different levels of current sharing. The relative contributions of coupling and hysteretic magnetization (and loss) were compared, and for our cable and tape geometry, and at dB/dt=1 T s-1, and our inter-strand resistance of 0.77 mΩ, (enabling a current sharing of 5% at 1.3Ic ) the coupling component was 0.32% of the hysteretic component. However, inter-strand contact resistance values of 100–1000 times smaller (close to those of NbTi and Nb3Sn based accelerator cables) would make the coupling components comparable in size to the hysteretic components.« less

  13. Inter-strand current sharing and ac loss measurements in superconducting YBCO Roebel cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majoros, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.; Long, N. J.

    2015-04-08

    A Roebel cable, one twist pitch long, was modified from its as-received state by soldering copper strips between the strands to provide inter-strand connections enabling current sharing. Various DC transport currents (representing different percentages of its critical current) were applied to a single strand of such a modified cable at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. Simultaneous monitoring of I–V curves in different parts of the strand as well as in its interconnections with other strands was made using a number of sensitive Keithley nanovoltmeters in combination with a multichannel high-speed data acquisition card, all controlled via LabView software. Current sharing onset was observed at about 1.02 of strand Ic. At a strand current of 1.3Ic about 5% of the current was shared through the copper strip interconnections. A finite element method modeling was performed to estimate the inter-strand resistivities required to enable different levels of current sharing. The relative contributions of coupling and hysteretic magnetization (and loss) were compared, and for our cable and tape geometry, and at dB/dt=1 T s-1, and our inter-strand resistance of 0.77 mΩ, (enabling a current sharing of 5% at 1.3Ic) the coupling component was 0.32% of the hysteretic component. However, inter-strand contact resistance values of 100–1000 times smaller (close to those of NbTi and Nb3Sn based accelerator cables) would make the coupling components comparable in size to the hysteretic components.

  14. Inter-strand current sharing and ac loss measurements in superconducting YBCO Roebel cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    sumption, Mike; Majoros, Milan; Collings, E. W.; Van der Laan, D. C.

    2014-11-07

    A Roebel cable, one twist pitch long, was modified from its as-received state by soldering copper strips between the strands to provide inter-strand connections enabling current sharing. Various DC transport currents (representing different percentages of its critical current) were applied to a single strand of such a modified cable at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. Simultaneous monitoring of IV curves in different parts of the strand as well as in its interconnections with other strands was made using a number of sensitive Keithley nanovoltmeters in combination with a multichannel high-speed data acquisition card, all controlled via LabView software. Current sharing onset was observed at about 1.02 of strand Ic. At a strand current of 1.3Ic about 5% of the current was shared through the copper strip interconnections. A finite element method modeling was performed to estimate the inter-strand resistivities required to enable different levels of current sharing. The relative contributions of coupling and hysteretic magnetization (and loss) were compared, and for our cable and tape geometry, and at dB/dt=1 T s-1, and our inter-strand resistance of 0.77 m?, (enabling a current sharing of 5% at 1.3Ic ) the coupling component was 0.32% of the hysteretic component. However, inter-strand contact resistance values of 1001000 times smaller (close to those of NbTi and Nb3Sn based accelerator cables) would make the coupling components comparable in size to the hysteretic components.

  15. Materials, Strands, and Cables for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumption, Mike D.; Collings, Edward W.

    2014-09-19

    This report focuses on Materials, Strands and Cables for High Energy Physics Particle accelerators. In the materials area, work has included studies of basic reactions, diffusion, transformations, and phase assemblage of Nb3Sn. These materials science aspects have been married to results, in the form of flux pinning, Bc2, Birr, and transport Jc, with an emphasis on obtaining the needed Jc for HEP needs. Attention has also been paid to the “intermediate-temperature superconductor”, magnesium diboride emphasis being placed on (i) irreversibility field enhancement, (ii) critical current density and flux pinning, and (iii) connectivity. We also report on studies of Bi-2212. The second area of the program has been in the area of “Strands” in which, aside from the materials aspect of the conductor, its physical properties and their influence on performance have been studied. Much of this work has been in the area of magnetization estimation and flux jump calculation and control. One of the areas of this work was strand instabilities in high-performance Nb3Sn conductors due to combined fields and currents. Additionally, we investigated quench and thermal propagation in YBCO coated conductors at low temperatures and high fields. The last section, “Cables”, focussed on interstrand contact resistance, ICR, it origins, control, and implications. Following on from earlier work in NbTi, the present work in Nb3Sn has aimed to make ICR intermediate between the two extremes of too little contact (no current sharing) and too much (large and unacceptable magnetization and associated beam de-focussing). Interstrand contact and current sharing measurements are being made on YBCO based Roebel cables using transport current methods. Finally, quench was investigated for YBCO cables and the magnets wound from them, presently with a focus on 50 T solenoids for muon collider applications.

  16. Costs of Building Waste Facilities; Price Per Shipment to Recoup Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-05-14

    The Automated Pricing Schedule is a computer model for evaluating the economics of developing, operating, and closing a low-level radioactive waste disposal site. It provides pricing for individual shipments based on the characteristics of the shipment, and calculates a disposal fee to be charged for each shipment to recover the costs of the facility. It includes a sensitivity analysis module to evaluate the effect of varying the parameters of the model.

  17. Electrochemical performance studies of MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers recovered from spent battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Gomaa A.M.; Tan, Ling Ling; Jose, Rajan; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Chong, Kwok Feng

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: MnO{sub 2} is recovered from spent zinccarbon batteries as nanoflowers structure. Recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers show high specific capacitance. Recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers show stable electrochemical cycling up to 900 cycles. Recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers show low resistance in EIS data. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers recovered from spent household zinccarbon battery is studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers are recovered from spent zinccarbon battery by combination of solution leaching and electrowinning techniques. In an effort to utilize recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers as energy storage supercapacitor, it is crucial to understand their structure and electrochemical performance. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the recovery of MnO{sub 2} in birnessite phase, while electron microscopy analysis shows the MnO{sub 2} is recovered as 3D nanostructure with nanoflower morphology. The recovered MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers exhibit high specific capacitance (294 F g{sup ?1} at 10 mV s{sup ?1}; 208.5 F g{sup ?1} at 0.1 A g{sup ?1}) in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, with stable electrochemical cycling. Electrochemical data analysis reveal the great potential of MnO{sub 2} nanoflowers recovered from spent zinccarbon battery in the development of high performance energy storage supercapacitor system.

  18. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  19. DOE Announces Three Projects to Help the Gulf Coast Recover and Rebuild |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Three Projects to Help the Gulf Coast Recover and Rebuild DOE Announces Three Projects to Help the Gulf Coast Recover and Rebuild January 20, 2006 - 10:52am Addthis ROBINSONVILLE, MS - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced three Department of Energy (DOE) initiatives to help the people in the Gulf coast region recover from the hurricanes in 2005, as well as prevent loss of life and damage in the future. During his speech to the Energy Leadership Forum, the

  20. Nonenzymatic Role for WRN in Preserving Nascent DNA Strands after Replication Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Fengtao; Mukherjee, Shibani; Yang, Yanyong; Mori, Eiichiro; Bhattacharya, Souparno; Kobayashi, Junya; Yannone, Steven  M.; Chen, David  J.; Asaithamby, Aroumougame

    2014-11-20

    WRN, the protein defective in Werner syndrome (WS), is a multifunctional nuclease involved in DNA damage repair, replication, and genome stability maintenance. It was assumed that the nuclease activities of WRN were critical for these functions. Here, we report a nonenzymatic role for WRN in preserving nascent DNA strands following replication stress. We found that lack of WRN led to shortening of nascent DNA strands after replication stress. Furthermore, we discovered that the exonuclease activity of MRE11 was responsible for the shortening of newly replicated DNA in the absence of WRN. Mechanistically, the N-terminal FHA domain of NBS1 recruits WRN to replication-associated DNA double-stranded breaks to stabilize Rad51 and to limit the nuclease activity of its C-terminal binding partner MRE11. Thus, this previously unrecognized nonenzymatic function of WRN in the stabilization of nascent DNA strands sheds light on the molecular reason for the origin of genome instability in WS individuals.

  1. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  2. Analysis of Strand-Specific RNA-Seq Data Using Machine Learning Reveals the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structures of Transcription Units in Clostridium thermocellum (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Analysis of Strand-Specific RNA-Seq Data Using Machine Learning Reveals the Structures of Transcription Units in Clostridium thermocellum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of Strand-Specific RNA-Seq Data Using Machine Learning Reveals the Structures of Transcription Units in Clostridium thermocellum The identification of transcription units (TUs) encoded in a bacterial genome

  3. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, V. V.; Davies, R. W.; Holbery, J.

    2006-04-01

    This report analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities.

  4. Magnetization anomaly of Nb3Al strands and instability of Nb3Al Rutherford cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Ryuji; /Fermilab; Kikuchi, Akihiro; /Tsukuba Magnet Lab; Wake, Masayoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2006-08-01

    Using a Cu stabilized Nb{sub 3}Al strand with Nb matrix, a 30 meter long Nb{sub 3}Al Rutherford cable was made by a collaboration of Fermilab and NIMS. Recently the strand and cable were tested. In both cases instability was observed at around 1.5 Tesla. The magnetization of this Nb{sub 3}Al strand was measured first using a balanced coil magnetometer at 4.2 K. Strands showed an anomalously large magnetization behavior around at 1.6 T, which is much higher than the usual B{sub c2} {approx} 0.5 Tesla (4.2 K) of Nb matrix. This result is compared with the magnetization data of short strand samples using a SQUID magnetometer, in which a flux-jump signal was observed at 0.5 Tesla, but not at higher field. As a possible explanation for this magnetization anomaly, the interfilament coupling through the thin Nb films in the strands is suggested. The instability problem observed in low field tests of the Nb{sub 3}Al Rutherford cables is attributed to this effect.

  5. Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores A method and apparatus suitable for stabilizing hydrocarbon cores are given. Such stabilized cores have not previously been obtainable for laboratory study, and such study is believed to be required before the hydrate reserves can become a utilizable resource. The apparatus can be built using commercially available parts and is very simple

  6. Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also

  7. Method for recovering materials from waste (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Method for recovering materials from waste Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method for recovering materials from waste × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the

  8. Method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Delphin, Walter H.

    1979-07-24

    A method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions containing these and other values by contacting the waste solution with an extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert hydrocarbon diluent which extracts the palladium and technetium values from the waste solution. The palladium and technetium values are recovered from the extractant and from any other coextracted values with a strong nitric acid strip solution.

  9. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Hydrogen Program Record number11007, Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation, documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost.

  10. Marginal pricing of transmission services: An analysis of cost recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Arriaga, I.J.; Rubio, F.J.; Puerta, J.F.; Arceluz, J.; Marin, J.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis of network revenues computed with marginal pricing, and in particular it investigates the reasons why marginal prices fail to recover the total incurred network costs in actual power systems. The basic theoretical results are presented and the major causes of the mismatch between network costs and marginal revenues are identified and illustrated with numerical examples, some tutorial and others of realistic size. The regulatory implications of marginal network pricing in the context of competitive electricity markets are analyzed, and suggestions are provided for the meaningful allocation of the costs of the network among its users.

  11. A chronicle of costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elioff, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains the history of all estimated costs associated with the superconducting super collider.

  12. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  13. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  14. Bayer Material Science (TRL 1 2 3 System)- River Devices to Recover Energy with Advanced Materials(River DREAM)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bayer Material Science (TRL 1 2 3 System) - River Devices to Recover Energy with Advanced Materials(River DREAM)

  15. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  16. New Orleans Schools Recover from Hurricane Katrina with Assistance from DOE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and NREL | Department of Energy Orleans Schools Recover from Hurricane Katrina with Assistance from DOE and NREL New Orleans Schools Recover from Hurricane Katrina with Assistance from DOE and NREL June 17, 2014 - 11:42am Addthis The solar installation at Warren Easton Senior High School was the first of four installations placed on local schools as part of Solar Schools Initiative program. At 28 kW of thin-film, it is the largest installation in the city of New Orleans. | Photo by Garrett

  17. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  18. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Annual Fuel Cost gal Annual GHG Emissions (lbs of CO2) Vehicle Cost Calculator See Assumptions and Methodology Back Next U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and ...

  19. Manganese oxide helices, rings, strands, and films, and methods for their preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suib, Steven L.; Giraldo, Oscar; Marquez, Manuel; Brock, Stephanie

    2003-01-07

    Methods for the preparation of mixed-valence manganese oxide compositions with quaternary ammonium ions are described. The compositions self-assemble into helices, rings, and strands without any imposed concentration gradient. These helices, rings, and strands, as well as films having the same composition, undergo rapid ion exchange to replace the quaternary ammonium ions with various metal ions. And the metal-ion-containing manganese oxide compositions so formed can be heat treated to form semi-conducting materials with high surface areas.

  20. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  1. Chloride-free processing of aluminum scrap to recover by-product materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines has developed technology to recover by-product materials from aluminum scrap using engineered scavenger compounds (ESC). ESCs are structural oxides with a channel or tunnel structure that allows them to hold ions of a specific sizes and charges. The scavenging reaction is easily reversible allowing the ESC to be recharged for continued use and the ion is recovered as an electrodeposit. Key features of this novel technology are: (a) ESC systems are designed to have a high degree of selectivity for a desired ionic species. (b) The recovered material requires little or no additional reprocessing prior to reuse. Two current uses for the ESC technology that are described in this paper are the removal and recycle of lithium (Li) from lithium aluminum (Li-Al) alloys; and, using ESCs as a replacement for the conventional demaging (magnesium removal) technology used by the secondary casting industry. Research indicates that the ESC technology proposed for both these applications has either distinct economic and/or environmental advantages over previously employed methods of recovering metal values from aluminum scrap.

  2. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Henry M.; Bohnert, George W.; Olson, Ronald B.; Hand, Thomas E.

    1998-01-27

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in as liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic.

  3. Method to separate and recover oil and plastic from plastic contaminated with oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, H.M.; Bohnert, G.W.; Olson, R.B.; Hand, T.E.

    1998-01-27

    The present invention provides a method to separate and recover oils and recyclable plastic from plastic contaminated with oil. The invention utilizes the different solubility of oil in a liquid or supercritical fluid as compared to a gas to effect separation of the oil from the plastic. 3 figs.

  4. Nb3Sn RRP® strand and Rutherford cable development for a 15 T dipole demonstrator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barzi, E.; Andreev, N.; Li, P.; Lombardo, V.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2016-03-16

    Keystoned Rutherford cables made of 28 strands and with a stainless steel core were developed and manufactured using 1 mm Nb3Sn composite wires produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology with 127 and 169 restacks using the Restacked-Rod-Process®. Furthermore, the performance and properties of these cables were studied to evaluate possible candidates for 15 T accelerator magnets.

  5. Zinc chromate induces chromosome instability and DNA double strand breaks in human lung cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie Hong; Holmes, Amie L.; Young, Jamie L.; Qin Qin; Joyce, Kellie; Pelsue, Stephen C.; Peng Cheng; Wise, Sandra S.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Wallace, William T.; Hammond, Dianne; Wise, John Pierce E-mail: John.Wise@usm.maine.edu

    2009-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is a respiratory toxicant and carcinogen, with solubility playing an important role in its carcinogenic potential. Zinc chromate, a water insoluble or 'particulate' Cr(VI) compound, has been shown to be carcinogenic in epidemiology studies and to induce tumors in experimental animals, but its genotoxicity is poorly understood. Our study shows that zinc chromate induced concentration-dependent increases in cytotoxicity, chromosome damage and DNA double strand breaks in human lung cells. In response to zinc chromate-induced breaks, MRE11 expression was increased and ATM and ATR were phosphorylated, indicating that the DNA double strand break repair system was initiated in the cells. In addition, our data show that zinc chromate-induced double strand breaks were only observed in the G2/M phase population, with no significant amount of double strand breaks observed in G1 and S phase cells. These data will aid in understanding the mechanisms of zinc chromate toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  6. Nonenzymatic Role for WRN in Preserving Nascent DNA Strands after Replication Stress

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Su, Fengtao; Mukherjee, Shibani; Yang, Yanyong; Mori, Eiichiro; Bhattacharya, Souparno; Kobayashi, Junya; Yannone, Steven  M.; Chen, David  J.; Asaithamby, Aroumougame

    2014-11-20

    WRN, the protein defective in Werner syndrome (WS), is a multifunctional nuclease involved in DNA damage repair, replication, and genome stability maintenance. It was assumed that the nuclease activities of WRN were critical for these functions. Here, we report a nonenzymatic role for WRN in preserving nascent DNA strands following replication stress. We found that lack of WRN led to shortening of nascent DNA strands after replication stress. Furthermore, we discovered that the exonuclease activity of MRE11 was responsible for the shortening of newly replicated DNA in the absence of WRN. Mechanistically, the N-terminal FHA domain of NBS1 recruits WRNmore » to replication-associated DNA double-stranded breaks to stabilize Rad51 and to limit the nuclease activity of its C-terminal binding partner MRE11. Thus, this previously unrecognized nonenzymatic function of WRN in the stabilization of nascent DNA strands sheds light on the molecular reason for the origin of genome instability in WS individuals.« less

  7. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  8. substantially reduced production costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    production costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  9. SOFT COST GRAND CHALLENGE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energycenter.org California Center for Sustainable Energy Soft Cost Grand Challenge May 22, 2014 Accelerating the transition to a sustainable world powered by clean energy 2...

  10. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... cost of maintenance, tires, repairs, insurance, registration, taxes, and fees, the ... FreedomCar & Fuel Partnership * Industrial gas companies, energy companies, automobile ...

  11. Workplace Charging Installation Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Installation costs and services vary considerably, so employers are encouraged to obtain a number of quotes before moving forward with any installation. An initial site investigation should include:

  12. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on low cost, durable seals, was given by George Roberts of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  13. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  14. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  15. Energy Recovered Light Source Technology at TJNAF | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Recovered Light Source Technology at TJNAF Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW

  16. Abundance of {sup 14}C in biomass fractions of wastes and solid recovered fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellner, Johann Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-05-15

    In recent years thermal utilization of mixed wastes and solid recovered fuels has become of increasing importance in European waste management. Since wastes or solid recovered fuels are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, only part of the CO{sub 2} emissions is accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories or emission trading schemes. A promising approach for determining this fraction is the so-called radiocarbon method. It is based on different ratios of the carbon isotopes {sup 14}C and {sup 12}C in fossil and biogenic fuels. Fossil fuels have zero radiocarbon, whereas biogenic materials are enriched in {sup 14}C and reflect the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} abundance of the ambient atmosphere. Due to nuclear weapons tests in the past century, the radiocarbon content in the atmosphere has not been constant, which has resulted in a varying {sup 14}C content of biogenic matter, depending on the period of growth. In the present paper {sup 14}C contents of different biogenic waste fractions (e.g., kitchen waste, paper, wood), as well as mixtures of different wastes (household, bulky waste, and commercial waste), and solid recovered fuels are determined. The calculated {sup 14}C content of the materials investigated ranges between 98 and 135 pMC.

  17. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  18. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

  19. Spin transport and spin polarization properties in double-stranded DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simchi, Hamidreza; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi Mazidabadi, Hossein

    2013-11-21

    We study the spin-dependent electron transport through a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and non-equilibrium Green's function method. We calculate the spin-dependent electron conductance and spin-polarization for different lengths, helix angles, twist angles of dsDNA, the environment-induced dephasing factors, and hopping integral. It is shown that the conductance decreases by increasing the length and dephasing factor. Also, we show that the spin-polarization depends on the helical symmetry and the length of DNA. It is shown that the double-stranded DNA can act as a perfect spin filter. Finally, we show that the sign of spin polarization can be inverted from +1 (?1) to ?1 (+1) for some values of hopping integral.

  20. Method for nucleic acid hybridization using single-stranded DNA binding protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    Method of nucleic acid hybridization for detecting the presence of a specific nucleic acid sequence in a population of different nucleic acid sequences using a nucleic acid probe. The nucleic acid probe hybridizes with the specific nucleic acid sequence but not with other nucleic acid sequences in the population. The method includes contacting a sample (potentially including the nucleic acid sequence) with the nucleic acid probe under hybridizing conditions in the presence of a single-stranded DNA binding protein provided in an amount which stimulates renaturation of a dilute solution (i.e., one in which the t.sub.1/2 of renaturation is longer than 3 weeks) of single-stranded DNA greater than 500 fold (i.e., to a t.sub.1/2 less than 60 min, preferably less than 5 min, and most preferably about 1 min.) in the absence of nucleotide triphosphates.

  1. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on the Hanford Reach, 1997-1999 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Paul; Nugent, John; Price, William

    1999-02-15

    Pilot work conducted in 1997 to aid the development of the study for the 1998 Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on The Hanford Reach. The objectives of the 1997 work were to: (1) identify juvenile chinook production and rearing areas..., (2) identify sampling sites and develop the statistical parameters necessary to complete the study, (3) develop a study plan..., (4) conduct field sampling activities...

  2. Methods to estimate stranded commitments for a restructuring US electricity industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

    1996-01-01

    Estimates of stranded commitments for US investor-owned electric utilities range widely, from as little as $20 billion to as much as $500 billion (more than double the shareholder equity in US utilities). These potential losses are a consequence of the above-market book values for some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts, deferred income taxes, regulatory assets, and public-policy programs. Because of the wide range of estimates and the potentially large dollar amounts involved, state and federal regulators need a clear understanding of the methods used to calculate these estimates. In addition, they may want simple methods that they can use to check the reasonableness of the estimates that utilities and other parties present in regulatory proceedings. This report explains various top-down and bottom-up methods to calculate stranded commitments. The purpose of this analysis is to help regulators and others understand the implications of different analytical approaches to estimating stranded-commitment amounts. Top-down methods, because they use the utility as the unit of analysis, are simple to apply and to understand. However, their aggregate nature makes it difficult to determine what specific assets and liabilities affect their estimates. Bottom-up methods use the individual asset (e.g., power plant) or liability (e.g., power-purchase contract, fuel-supply contract, and deferred income taxes) as the unit of analysis. These methods have substantial data and computational requirements.

  3. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The objective of this Guide is to improve the quality of cost estimates and further strengthen the DOE program/project management system. The original 25 separate chapters and three appendices have been combined to create a single document.

  4. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates.

  5. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  6. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Annual GHG Emissions (lbs of CO2) Vehicle Cost Calculator See Assumptions and Methodology Back Next U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Get Widget Code

  7. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  8. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Report SOP Standard Operating Procedure TEC Total Estimated Cost TIPR Technical ... FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 Total PED Construction TEC OPC TPC Note: above values include MR...

  9. System Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-03-27

    SCM is used for estimation of the life-cycle impacts (costs, health and safety risks) of waste management facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at Department of Energy (DOE) installations. SCM also provides transportation costs for intersite transfer of DOE wastes. SCM covers the entire DOE waste management complex tomore » allow system sensitivity analysis including: treatment, storage, and disposal configuration options; treatment technology selection; scheduling options; transportation options; waste stream and volume changes; and site specific conditions.« less

  10. Workplace Charging Equipment Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Charging stations are available from a variety of manufacturers in a range of models for all charging applications. For a single port charging station, Level 1 hardware costs range from $300-$1,500...

  11. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-04-10

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dew point and Btu value, and the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. The BP-Amoco gas processing plant in Pascagoula, MS was finalized as the location for the field demonstration. Detailed drawings of the MTR membrane skid (already constructed) were submitted to the plant in February, 2000. However, problems in reaching an agreement on the specifications of the system compressor delayed the project significantly, so MTR requested (and was subsequently granted) a no-cost extension to the project. Following resolution of the compressor issues, the goal is to order the compressor during the first quarter of 2002, and to start field tests in mid-2002. Information from potential users of the membrane separation process in the natural gas processing industry suggests that applications such as fuel gas conditioning and wellhead gas processing are the most promising initial targets. Therefore, most of our commercialization effort is focused on promoting these applications. Requests for stream evaluations and for design and price quotations have been received through MTR's web site, from direct contact with potential users, and through announcements in industry publications. To date, about 90 commercial quotes have been supplied, and orders totaling about $1.13 million for equipment or rental of membrane units have been received.

  12. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcdowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1981-03-03

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na2CO3 to a temperature in the range 700*-900* C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  13. Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail; Heinz, Robert

    2012-06-26

    A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

  14. Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, J.

    1992-05-01

    Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.

  15. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Constructs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Cornforth

    2012-03-26

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. Specific aims apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. The project includes research complementary to NASA/HRP space radiation project.

  16. Method and apparatus for recovering a gas from a gas hydrate located on the ocean floor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyatt, Douglas E.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for recovering a gas from a gas hydrate on the ocean floor includes a flexible cover, a plurality of steerable base members secured to the cover, and a steerable mining module. A suitable source for inflating the cover over the gas hydrate deposit is provided. The mining module, positioned on the gas hydrate deposit, is preferably connected to the cover by a control cable. A gas retrieval conduit or hose extends upwardly from the cover to be connected to a support ship on the ocean surface.

  17. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene HCL and terephthalic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process of pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding an acid or base catalyst on an oxide or carbonate support; heating the plastic waste feed stream to pyrolyze polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride; separating terephthalic acid or HCl; heating to a second temperature to pyrolyze polystyrene; separating styrene; heating the waste feed stream to a third temperature to pyrolyze polyethylene; and separating hydrocarbons.

  18. Sequential pyrolysis of plastic to recover polystyrene, HCl and terephthalic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1995-11-07

    A process is described for pyrolyzing plastic waste feed streams containing polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polyethylene to recover polystyrene, HCl and terephthalic acid comprising: heating the plastic waste feed stream to a first temperature; adding an acid or base catalyst on an oxide or carbonate support; heating the plastic waste feed stream to pyrolyze polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride; separating terephthalic acid or HCl; heating to a second temperature to pyrolyze polystyrene; separating styrene; heating the waste feed stream to a third temperature to pyrolyze polyethylene; and separating hydrocarbons. 83 figs.

  19. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to a temperature in the range 700/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acidsoluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  20. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  1. Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model – A User’s Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, William R.; Shehabi, Arman; Smith, Sarah Josephine

    2015-08-01

    The Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model is a cost-performance techno-economic model that estimates total large-scale manufacturing costs for necessary to produce a given product. It is designed to provide production cost estimates for technology researchers to help guide technology research and development towards an eventual cost-effective product. The model presented in this user’s guide is generic and can be tailored to the manufacturing of any product, including the generation of electricity (as a product). This flexibility, however, requires the user to develop the processes and process efficiencies that represents a full-scale manufacturing facility. The generic model is comprised of several modules that estimate variable costs (material, labor, and operating), fixed costs (capital & maintenance), financing structures (debt and equity financing), and tax implications (taxable income after equipment and building depreciation, debt interest payments, and expenses) of a notional manufacturing plant. A cash-flow method is used to estimate a selling price necessary for the manufacturing plant to recover its total cost of production. A levelized unit sales price ($ per unit of product) is determined by dividing the net-present value of the manufacturing plant’s expenses ($) by the net present value of its product output. A user defined production schedule drives the cash-flow method that determines the levelized unit price. In addition, an analyst can increase the levelized unit price to include a gross profit margin to estimate a product sales price. This model allows an analyst to understand the effect that any input variables could have on the cost of manufacturing a product. In addition, the tool is able to perform sensitivity analysis, which can be used to identify the key variables and assumptions that have the greatest influence on the levelized costs. This component is intended to help technology researchers focus their research attention on tasks that offer the greatest opportunities for cost reduction early in the research and development stages of technology invention.

  2. The effect of a magnetic field on the spin-selective transport in double-stranded DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simchi, Hamidreza; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi Mazidabadi, Hossein

    2014-05-28

    Spin-polarization in double-stranded DNA is studied in the presence of a magnetic field applied along its helix axis using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. The spin-polarization could be tuned by changing the magnetic field. In some special cases, the double-stranded DNA behaved as a perfect spin-filter. Furthermore, the dependency of the spin-polarization on the spin-orbit strength and dephasing strength is studied.

  3. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Worley, Christopher Gordon; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Borrego, Andres Patricio; Castro, Alonso; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Holland, Charlotte S.; Keller, Russell C.; Klundt, Dylan James; Martinez, Alexander; Martin, Frances Louise; Montoya, Dennis Patrick; Myers, Steven Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Schake, Ann Rene; Schappert, Michael Francis; Soderberg, Constance B.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Xu, Ning

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  4. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.; Lawson, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    A process for recovering zinc-rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered by distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10 C, separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream. 1 figure.

  5. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  6. Process for removing thorium and recovering vanadium from titanium chlorinator waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsen, Richard S.; Banks, John T.

    1996-01-01

    A process for removal of thorium from titanium chlorinator waste comprising: (a) leaching an anhydrous titanium chlorinator waste in water or dilute hydrochloric acid solution and filtering to separate insoluble minerals and coke fractions from soluble metal chlorides; (b) beneficiating the insoluble fractions from step (a) on shaking tables to recover recyclable or otherwise useful TiO.sub.2 minerals and coke; and (c) treating filtrate from step (a) with reagents to precipitate and remove thorium by filtration along with acid metals of Ti, Zr, Nb, and Ta by the addition of the filtrate (a), a base and a precipitant to a boiling slurry of reaction products (d); treating filtrate from step (c) with reagents to precipitate and recover an iron vanadate product by the addition of the filtrate (c), a base and an oxidizing agent to a boiling slurry of reaction products; and (e) treating filtrate from step (d) to remove any remaining cations except Na by addition of Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and boiling.

  7. Factory Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-17

    The Factory Cost Model (FCM) is an economic analysis tool intended to provide flat panel display (FPD) and other similar discrete component manufacturers with the ability to make first-order estimates of the cost of unit production. This software has several intended uses. Primary among these is the ability to provide first-order economic analysis for future factories. Consequently, the model requires a minimal level of input detail, and accomodates situations where actual production data are notmore » available. This software is designed to be activity based such that most of the calculated direct costs are associated with the steps of a manufacturibg process. The FCM architecture has the ability to accomodate the analysis of existing manufacturing facilities. The FCM can provide assistance with strategic economic decisions surrounding production related matters. For instance, the program can project the effect on costs and resources of a new product''s introduction, or it can assess the potential cost reduction produced by step yield improvements in the manufacturing process.« less

  8. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    For technologies such as solar and wind generation that have no fuel costs and relatively ... costs, the inherent uncertainty about future fuel prices and future policies may cause ...

  9. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy, Energy Tips...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    operation: 8,000 hours per year (hryr) Boiler effciency: 80% Cost of fuel: 8.00 per ... transfer its thermal energy to incoming makeup water, and then return it to the boiler. ...

  10. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  11. QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the tonnes of CO2 utilized. The costs of the process are to include infrastructure, raw materials, processing, byproduct disposal, and utilities costs, as well as any other costs....

  12. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  13. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Costs Soft Costs The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's soft costs program works to lower the non-hardware costs of solar and accelerate the adoption of solar energy technologies throughout the United States. In support of the SunShot Initiative goals, the soft costs program works in the following strategic areas: networking and technical assistance, data analysis, business innovation, and training. Soft Costs Activity Areas, Business Innovation, Networking and Technical

  14. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and reuse this energy. As shown in Table E-1, non-CO2 GHG emissions from U.S. industry were identified as having 2180 peta joules (PJ) or 2 Quads (quadrillion Btu) of residual chemical fuel value. Since landfills are not traditionally considered industrial organizations, the industry component of these emissions had a value of 1480 PJ or 1.4 Quads. This represents approximately 4.3% of the total energy used in the United States Industry.

  15. CAPABILITY TO RECOVER PLUTONIUM-238 IN H-CANYON/HB-LINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, K.; Smith, Robert H. Jr.; Goergen, Charles R.

    2013-01-09

    Plutonium-238 is used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to generate electrical power and in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) to produce heat for electronics and environmental control for deep space missions. The domestic supply of Pu-238 consists of scrap material from previous mission production or material purchased from Russia. Currently, the United States has no significant production scale operational capability to produce and separate new Pu-238 from irradiated neptunium-237 targets. The Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy is currently evaluating and developing plans to reconstitute the United States capability to produce Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets. The Savannah River Site had previously produced and/or processed all the Pu-238 utilized in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for deep space missions up to and including the majority of the plutonium for the Cassini Mission. The previous full production cycle capabilities included: Np-237 target fabrication, target irradiation, target dissolution and Np-237 and Pu-238 separation and purification, conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide, scrap recovery, and Pu-238 encapsulation. The capability and equipment still exist and could be revitalized or put back into service to recover and purify Pu-238/Np-237 or broken General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) pellets utilizing existing process equipment in HB-Line Scrap Recovery, and H-anyon Frame Waste Recovery processes. The conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide can be performed in the existing HB-Line Phase-2 and Phase-3 Processes. Dissolution of irradiated Np-237 target material, and separation and purification of Np-237 and Pu-238 product streams would be possible at production rates of ~ 2 kg/month of Pu-238 if the existing H-Canyon Frames Process spare equipment were re-installed. Previously, the primary H-Canyon Frames equipment was removed to be replaced: however, the replacement project was stopped. The spare equipment is stored and still available for installation. Out of specification Pu-238 scrap material can be purified and recovered by utilizing the HB-Line Phase-1 Scrap Recovery Line and the Phase-3 Pu-238 Oxide Conversion Line along with H-Canyon Frame Waste Recovery process. In addition, it also covers and describes utilizing the Phase-2 Np-237 Oxide Conversion Line, in conjunction with the H-Canyon Frames Process to restore the H-Canyon capability to process and recover Np-237 and Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets and address potential synergies with other programs like recovery of Pu-244 and heavy isotopes of curium from other target material.

  16. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Learn more about SunShot's soft costs funding programs. Soft Costs Success Stories February 9, 2016 EERE Success Story-Sowing Seeds for Success: Interdisciplinary Research Blossoms ...

  17. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-06-02

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This alsomore » represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.« less

  18. Binding of undamaged double stranded DNA to vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schormann, Norbert; Banerjee, Surajit; Ricciardi, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-06-02

    Background: Uracil-DNA glycosylases are evolutionarily conserved DNA repair enzymes. However, vaccinia virus uracil-DNA glycosylase (known as D4), also serves as an intrinsic and essential component of the processive DNA polymerase complex during DNA replication. In this complex D4 binds to a unique poxvirus specific protein A20 which tethers it to the DNA polymerase. At the replication fork the DNA scanning and repair function of D4 is coupled with DNA replication. So far, DNA-binding to D4 has not been structurally characterized. Results: This manuscript describes the first structure of a DNA-complex of a uracil-DNA glycosylase from the poxvirus family. This also represents the first structure of a uracil DNA glycosylase in complex with an undamaged DNA. In the asymmetric unit two D4 subunits bind simultaneously to complementary strands of the DNA double helix. Each D4 subunit interacts mainly with the central region of one strand. DNA binds to the opposite side of the A20-binding surface on D4. In comparison of the present structure with the structure of uracil-containing DNA-bound human uracil-DNA glycosylase suggests that for DNA binding and uracil removal D4 employs a unique set of residues and motifs that are highly conserved within the poxvirus family but different in other organisms. Conclusion: The first structure of D4 bound to a truly non-specific undamaged double-stranded DNA suggests that initial binding of DNA may involve multiple non-specific interactions between the protein and the phosphate backbone.

  19. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  20. In situ method for recovering hydrocarbon from subterranean oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, R.H.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes in situ method for recovering hydrocarbons from subterranean oil shale deposits, the deposits comprising mineral rock and kerogen, comprising (a) penetrating the oil shale deposit with at least one well; (b) forming a zone of fractured and/or rubbilized oil shale material adjacent the well by hydraulic or explosive fracturing; (c) introducing a hydrogen donor solvent including tetralin into the portion of the oil shale formation treated in step (b) in a volume sufficient to fill substantially all of the void space created by the fracturing and rubbilizing treatment; (d) applying hydrogen to the tetralin and maintaining a predetermined pressure for a predetermined period of time sufficient to cause disintegration of the oil shale material; (e) thereafter introducing an oxidative environment into the portion of the oil shale deposit (f) producing the solvent in organic fragments to the surface of the earth, and (g) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

  1. Process for recovering evolved hydrogen enriched with at least one heavy hydrogen isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanaka, John; Reilly, Jr., James J.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a separation means and method for enriching a hydrogen atmosphere with at least one heavy hydrogen isotope by using a solid titaniun alloy hydride. To this end, the titanium alloy hydride containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of vanadium, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, iron, cobalt and nickel is contacted with a circulating gaseous flow of hydrogen containing at least one heavy hydrogen isotope at a temperature in the range of -20.degree. to +40.degree. C and at a pressure above the dissociation pressure of the hydrided alloy selectively to concentrate at least one of the isotopes of hydrogen in the hydrided metal alloy. The contacting is continued until equilibrium is reached, and then the gaseous flow is isolated while the temperature and pressure of the enriched hydride remain undisturbed selectively to isolate the hydride. Thereafter, the enriched hydrogen is selectively recovered in accordance with the separation factor (S.F.) of the alloy hydride employed.

  2. Final Report: MATERIALS, STRANDS, AND CABLES FOR SUPERCONDUCTING ACCELERATOR MAGNETS [Grant Number DE-SC0010312

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumption, Mike; Collings, E.

    2014-10-29

    Our program consisted of the two components: Strand Research and Cable Research, with a focus on Nb3Sn, Bi2212, and YBCO for accelerator magnet applications. We demonstrated a method to refine the grains in Nb3Sn by a factor of two, reaching 45 nm grain sizes, and layer Jcs of 6 kA/mm2 at 12 T. W also measured conductor magnetization for field quality. This has been done both with Nb3Sn conductor, as well as Bi:2212 strand. Work in support of quench studies of YBCO coils was also performed. Cable loss studies in Nb3Sn focused on connecting and comparing persistent magnetization and coupling magnetization for considering their relative impact on HEP machines. In the area of HTS cables, we have investigated both the quench in multistrand YBCO CORC cables, as well as the magnetization of these cables for use in high field magnets. In addition, we examined the magnetic and thermal properties of large (50 T) solenoids.

  3. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  4. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  5. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  6. Cost Study Manual | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 62912. PDF icon Memo regarding Cost Study Manual PDF icon Cost Study Manual More Documents & Publications Contractor Human Resources ...

  7. Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornforth, Michael N.

    2013-05-03

    Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of 'array painting'.

  8. Fact Sheet: Soft Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  9. Levelized cost and levelized avoided cost of new generation resources...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3 The importance of the factors varies among the technologies. For technologies such as solar and wind generation that have no fuel costs and relatively small variable O&M costs,...

  10. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  11. Proximity-induced superconductivity effect in a double-stranded DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simchi, Hamidreza; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi Mazidabadi, Hossein

    2014-02-07

    We study the proximity-induced superconductivity effect in a double-stranded DNA by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and taking into account the effect of thermal fluctuations of the twist angle between neighboring base pairs. We show that the electron conductance is spin-dependent and the conductance of spin up (down) increases (decreases) due to the spin-orbit coupling (SOC). It is found that, for T?

  12. Double-stranded DNA organization in bacteriophage heads: An alternative toroid-based model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hud, N.V.

    1995-10-01

    Studies of the organization of double-stranded DNA within bacteriophage heads during the past four decades have produced a wealth of data. However, despite the presentation of numerous models, the true organization of DNA within phage heads remains unresolved. The observations of toroidal DNA structures in electron micrographs of phage lysates have long been cited as support for the organization of DNA in a spool-like fashion. This particular model, like all other models, has not been found to be consistent with all available data. Recently, the authors proposed that DNA within toroidal condensates produced in vitro is organized in a manner significantly different from that suggested by the spool model. This new toroid model has allowed the development of an alternative model for DNA organization within bacteriophage heads that is consistent with a wide range of biophysical data. Here the authors propose that bacteriophage DNA is packaged in a toroid that is folded into a highly compact structure.

  13. Crystal Structure of a Super Leucine Zipper an Extended Two-Stranded Super Long Coiled Coil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Diao

    2011-12-31

    Coiled coil is a ubiquitous structural motif in proteins, with two to seven alpha helices coiled together like the strands of a rope, and coiled coil folding and assembly is not completely understood. A GCN4 leucine zipper mutant with four mutations of K3A, D7A, Y17W, and H18N has been designed, and the crystal structure has been determined at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. The peptide monomer shows a helix trunk with short curved N- and C-termini. In the crystal, two monomers cross in 35{sup o} and form an X-shaped dimer, and each X-shaped dimer is welded into the next one through sticky hydrophobic ends, thus forming an extended two-stranded, parallel, super long coiled coil rather than a discrete, two-helix coiled coil of the wild-type GCN4 leucine zipper. Leucine residues appear at every seventh position in the super long coiled coil, suggesting that it is an extended super leucine zipper. Compared to the wild-type leucine zipper, the N-terminus of the mutant has a dramatic conformational change and the C-terminus has one more residue Glu 32 determined. The mutant X-shaped dimer has a large crossing angle of 35{sup o} instead of 18{sup o} in the wild-type dimer. The results show a novel assembly mode and oligomeric state of coiled coil, and demonstrate that mutations may affect folding and assembly of the overall coiled coil. Analysis of the formation mechanism of the super long coiled coil may help understand and design self-assembling protein fibers.

  14. Cost | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Home Ocop's picture Submitted by Ocop(5) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Cost Current DOE LCOE numerical modeling Performance Tidal Wave To...

  15. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  16. Energy recycling by co-combustion of coal and recovered paint solids from automobile paint operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achariya Suriyawong; Rogan Magee; Ken Peebles; Pratim Biswas

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of particulate emission and the fate of 13 trace elements (arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) during combustion tests of recovered paint solids (RPS) and coal. The emissions from combustions of coal or RPS alone were compared with those of co-combustion of RPS with subbituminous coal. The distribution/partitioning of these toxic elements between a coarse-mode ash (particle diameter (d{sub p}) > 0.5 {mu}m), a submicrometer-mode ash (d{sub p} < 0.5 {mu}m), and flue gases was also evaluated. Submicrometer particles generated by combustion of RPS alone were lower in concentration and smaller in size than that from combustion of coal. However, co-combustion of RPS and coal increased the formation of submicrometer-sized particles because of the higher reducing environment in the vicinity of burning particles and the higher volatile chlorine species. Hg was completely volatilized in all cases; however, the fraction in the oxidized state increased with co-combustion. Most trace elements, except Zn, were retained in ash during combustion of RPS alone. Mo was mostly retained in all samples. The behavior of elements, except Mn and Mo, varied depending on the fuel samples. As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, and Pb were vaporized to a greater extent from cocombustion of RPS and coal than from combustion of either fuel. Evidence of the enrichment of certain toxic elements in submicrometer particles has also been observed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni during co-combustion. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  18. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  19. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

  20. Thermochemical process for recovering Cu from CuO or CuO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, deceased, Donald M.; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1981-01-01

    A process for producing hydrogen comprises the step of reacting metallic Cu with Ba(OH).sub.2 in the presence of steam to produce hydrogen and BaCu.sub.2 O.sub.2. The BaCu.sub.2 O.sub.2 is reacted with H.sub.2 O to form Cu.sub.2 O and a Ba(OH).sub.2 product for recycle to the initial reaction step. Cu can be obtained from the Cu.sub.2 O product by several methods. In one embodiment the Cu.sub.2 O is reacted with HF solution to provide CuF.sub.2 and Cu. The CuF.sub.2 is reacted with H.sub.2 O to provide CuO and HF. CuO is decomposed to Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2. The HF, Cu and Cu.sub.2 O are recycled. In another embodiment the Cu.sub.2 O is reacted with aqueous H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 solution to provide CuSO.sub.4 solution and Cu. The CuSO.sub.4 is decomposed to CuO and SO.sub.3. The CuO is decomposed to form Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2. The SO.sub.3 is dissolved to form H.sub.2 SO.sub.4. H.sub.2 SO.sub.4, Cu and Cu.sub.2 O are recycled. In another embodiment Cu.sub.2 O is decomposed electrolytically to Cu and O.sub.2. In another aspect of the invention, Cu is recovered from CuO by the steps of decomposing CuO to Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2, reacting the Cu.sub.2 O with aqueous HF solution to produce Cu and CuF.sub.2, reacting the CuF.sub.2 with H.sub.2 O to form CuO and HF, and recycling the CuO and HF to previous reaction steps.

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  2. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  3. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  4. Method for recycling tires and similarly compounded materials to recover usable constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letsch, W.

    1980-12-23

    A processing plant and method are described for processing scrap tires and similar materials containing a mixture of technical rubber, scrap metal and tire cord in which the plant is essentially vehicular and thus eliminates the necessity of hauling accumulated tires long distances with the accompanying costs. The plant includes means for directing mixed tire sizes to a cyrogenic section where the technical rubber is reduced to a sufficient temperature making it brittle so that initial separation of reusable technical rubber is accomplished; the plant is operated essentially on the reusable by-products of pyrolytic reduction of the tires so that hydrocarbons and heated gas are utilized and additional commercial by-products such as commercial soots, metal and tire beads are obtained.

  5. Signal processing Model/Method for Recovering Acoustic Reflectivity of Spot Weld

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-09-08

    Until recently, U.S. auto manufacturers have inspected the veracity of welds in the auto bodies they build by using destructive tear-down, which typically results in more than $1 M of scrappage per plant per year. Much of this expense could possibly be avoided with a nondestructive technique (and 100% instead of 1% inspection could be achieved). Recent advances in ultrasound probes promise to provide a sufficiently accurate non-destructive evaluation technique, but the necessary signal processingmore » has not yet been developed. This disclosure describes a signal processing model and method useful for diagnosing the veracity of spot welds between two sheets of the same thickness from ultrasound signals Standard systems theory describes a signal as a convolution of a transducer function, h(t), and an impulse train (beta(t), tau(t)) [1] (see Eq. (1) attached). With a Gaussian wavelet as a transducer function, this model describes the signal from an ultrasound probe quite well, and the literature provides many methods for "deconvolution," for recovery of the impulse train from the signal [see e.g., 2-3]. What is novel about the technique disclosed is the model that describes the impulse train as a function of reflectivity, the share of energy incident on the interface that is reflected, and that allows the recovery of its estimated value. The reflectivity estimate provides an ideal indicator of weld veracity, compressing each signal into a single value between 0 and 1, which can then be displayed as a 2d greyscale or colormap of the weld. The model describing the system is attached as Eqs. (2). These equations account for the energy in the probe-side and opposite sheets. In each period, this energy is a sum of that reflected from the same sheet plus that transmitted from the opposite (dampened by material attenuation at rate a). This model is consistent with physical first principles (in particular the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics) and has been verified empirically. For fast estimation of R using only observations beta(1, ..., T) a receiver state equation has been derived, and is attached as Eq. (3). This equation has the further advantage that the initial impulse S need not be known, rather it is estimated simultaneously. This is necessary because element failure and coupling can cause large variations in S. Constrained nonlinear least squares techniques can be applied to this equation to recover reflectivity (and initial impulse) [4]. In particular, the Gauss-Newton algorithm on the log of the sum of squared errors based on the receiver state equation is recommended. To summarize, it is the model described in Eqs. (2) and (3) that is novel, and that enables the recovery of acoustic reflectivity from the ultrasound signals. It has been verified that this reflectivity estimate provides a better indicator of weld veracity than other features previously derived from such signals.« less

  6. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  7. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... throughout the industry, resulting in widespread cost and project efficiency benefits. ... support staff on all of the above. Traveling to and from the installation sites, ...

  8. Syngas Mixed Alcohol Cost Validation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1, 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office: Project Peer Review Syngas Mixed Alcohol Cost Validation Abhijit Dutta, NREL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, ...

  9. Support for Cost Analyses on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... process conditions, major capital equipment, materials and utilities usage rates, and to estimate equipment sizes. A combination of capital equipment cost databases and ...

  10. HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

  11. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DE-AC36-08GO28308 Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization Genevieve Saur, Todd ......... 4 3.2 Wind Farm ......

  12. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions Presentation on hydrogen pathway cost distributions presented January 25, 2006. PDF icon wkshpstorageuihlein.pdf...

  13. Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet File Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet.xlsx More Documents & Publications Statement of Work (SOW) Template ...

  14. Laminar burn rates of gun propellants measured in the high-pressure strand burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J. E., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The pressure dependence of the laminar burn rate of gun propellants plays a role in the design and behavior of high-performance guns. We have begun a program to investigate the effects of processing variables on the laminar burn rates, using our high-pressure strand burner to measure these rates at pressures exceeding 700 MPa. We have burned JA2 and M43 propellant samples, provided by Dr. Arpad Juhasz, ARL, from propellant lots previously used in round-robin tests. Our results at room temperature are in accord with other measurements. In addition, we present results measured for propellant that has been preheated to 50 C before burning. We used our thermochemical equilibrium code, CHEETAH, to help interpret the simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements taken during the testing, and show examples of its use. It has been modified to provide performance measures and equations of state for the products that are familiar to the gun-propellant community users of BLAKE.

  15. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5: Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S.; Martin, R.J. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Experimental results are presented for bulk and mechanical properties measurements on specimens of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Measurements have been performed on three thermal/mechanical units, PTn, TSwl, and TSw2. On each specimen the following bulk properties have been reported: dry bulk density, saturated bulk density, average grain density, and porosity. Unconfined compression to failure, confined compression to failure, and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on selected specimens recovered from the boreholes. In addition, compressional and shear wave velocities were measured on specimens designated for unconfined compression and confined compression experiments. Measurements were conducted at room temperature on nominally water-saturated specimens. The nominal rate for the fracture experiments was 10{sup -5}s{sup -1}.

  16. Photoluminescence studies of shock-recovered Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishimura, Hiroaki Hamada, Sho; Aruga, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi

    2015-01-05

    A series of shock-recovery experiments on Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} powder were conducted involving the impact of a flyer plate accelerated by a single-stage powder-propellant gun. The recovered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The XRD and PL results of samples shocked at pressures of 13 GPa indicated that a phase transition from a cubic phase to a monoclinic phase occurred. The recovered samples shocked at 21 and 25 GPa consisted of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} with the cubic phase and the monoclinic phase. These results indicated that the shock-induced phase transition was the partial completion of the phase transition.

  17. Report on Audit of Activities Designed to Recover the Taxpayers' Investment in the Clean Coal Technology Program, IG-0391

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    June 6, 1996 REPLY TO ATTN OF: IG-1 SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Report on "Audit of Department of Energy's Activities Designed to Recover the Taxpayers' Investment in the Clean Coal Technology Program" TO: The Secretary BACKGROUND: In 1985, the Congress directed the Department of Energy to implement a Clean Coal Technology Program. The purpose of this Departmental initiative is to successfully demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies. As a part of the program, the

  18. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  19. Renewable Energy Cost Optimization Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-12-31

    The Software allow users to determine the optimum combination of renewable energy technologies to minimize life cycle cost for a facility by employing various algorithms which calculate initial and operating cost, energy delivery, and other attributes associated with each technology as a function of size.

  20. Costs of Storing and Transporting Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An analysis was performed to estimate the costs associated with storing and transporting hydrogen. These costs can be added to a hydrogen production cost to determine the total delivered cost of hydrogen.

  1. Low-cost, Rapid DNA Sequencing Technique - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More ... The nucleic acid strand transport mechanism located on the dielectric surface of the ...

  2. Unreasonable Cost Waivers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Unreasonable Cost Waivers Unreasonable Cost Waivers unreasonablecost10-03-2012.pdf cnmidecision.pdf eaglepassdecision.pdf...

  3. Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities ...

  4. The Promiscuity of [beta]-Strand Pairing Allows for Rational Design of [beta]-Sheet Face Inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makabe, Koki; Koide, Shohei

    2009-06-17

    Recent studies suggest the dominant role of main-chain H-bond formation in specifying {beta}-sheet topology. Its essentially sequence-independent nature implies a large degree of freedom in designing {beta}-sheet-based nanomaterials. Here we show rational design of {beta}-sheet face inversions by incremental deletions of {beta}-strands from the single-layer {beta}-sheet of Borrelia outer surface protein A. We show that a {beta}-sheet structure can be maintained when a large number of native contacts are removed and that one can design large-scale conformational transitions of a {beta}-sheet such as face inversion by exploiting the promiscuity of strand-strand interactions. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures confirmed the success of the design and supported the importance of main-chain H-bonds in determining {beta}-sheet topology. This work suggests a simple but effective strategy for designing and controlling nanomaterials based on {beta}-rich peptide self-assemblies.

  5. Multicopy single-stranded DNA directs intestinal colonization of enteric pathogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elfenbein, Johanna R.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Ansong, Charles; Brewer, Heather M.; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Adams, L. Garry; McClelland, Michael; Adkins, Joshua N.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; Fang, Ferric C.

    2015-09-14

    Multicopy single-stranded DNAs (msDNAs) are hybrid RNA-DNA molecules encoded on retroelements called retrons and produced by the action of retron reverse transcriptases. Retrons are widespread in bacteria but the natural function of msDNA has remained elusive despite 30 years of study. The major roadblock to elucidation of the function of these unique molecules has been the lack of any identifiable phenotypes for mutants unable to make msDNA. We report that msDNA of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium is necessary for colonization of the intestine. Similarly, we observed a defect in intestinal persistence in an enteropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking its retron reverse transcriptase. Under anaerobic conditions in the absence of msDNA, proteins of central anaerobic metabolism needed for Salmonella colonization of the intestine are dysregulated. We show that the msDNA-deficient mutant can utilize nitrate, but not other alternate electron acceptors in anaerobic conditions. Consistent with the availability of nitrate in the inflamed gut, a neutrophilic inflammatory response partially rescued the ability of a mutant lacking msDNA to colonize the intestine. These findings together indicate that the mechanistic basis of msDNA function during Salmonella colonization of the intestine is proper production of proteins needed for anaerobic metabolism. We further conclude that a natural function of msDNA is to regulate protein abundance, the first attributable function for any msDNA. Our data provide novel insight into the function of this mysterious molecule that likely represents a new class of regulatory molecules.

  6. Multicopy single-stranded DNA directs intestinal colonization of enteric pathogens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elfenbein, Johanna R.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Ansong, Charles; Brewer, Heather M.; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Adams, L. Garry; McClelland, Michael; Adkins, Joshua N.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; et al

    2015-09-14

    Multicopy single-stranded DNAs (msDNAs) are hybrid RNA-DNA molecules encoded on retroelements called retrons and produced by the action of retron reverse transcriptases. Retrons are widespread in bacteria but the natural function of msDNA has remained elusive despite 30 years of study. The major roadblock to elucidation of the function of these unique molecules has been the lack of any identifiable phenotypes for mutants unable to make msDNA. We report that msDNA of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium is necessary for colonization of the intestine. Similarly, we observed a defect in intestinal persistence in an enteropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking itsmore » retron reverse transcriptase. Under anaerobic conditions in the absence of msDNA, proteins of central anaerobic metabolism needed for Salmonella colonization of the intestine are dysregulated. We show that the msDNA-deficient mutant can utilize nitrate, but not other alternate electron acceptors in anaerobic conditions. Consistent with the availability of nitrate in the inflamed gut, a neutrophilic inflammatory response partially rescued the ability of a mutant lacking msDNA to colonize the intestine. These findings together indicate that the mechanistic basis of msDNA function during Salmonella colonization of the intestine is proper production of proteins needed for anaerobic metabolism. We further conclude that a natural function of msDNA is to regulate protein abundance, the first attributable function for any msDNA. Our data provide novel insight into the function of this mysterious molecule that likely represents a new class of regulatory molecules.« less

  7. Activation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase inhibits proliferation of pancreatic ?-cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shan-Shan [Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China) [Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Jiang, Teng [Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)] [Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Wang, Yi; Gu, Li-Ze [Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China) [Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Wu, Hui-Wen [Laboratory Center for Basic Medical Sciences, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)] [Laboratory Center for Basic Medical Sciences, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Tan, Lan [Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)] [Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Guo, Jun, E-mail: Guoj@njmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China) [Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: PKR can be activated by glucolipitoxicity and pro-inflammatory cytokines in ?-cells. Activated PKR inhibited ?-cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase. Activated PKR fully abrogated the pro-proliferative effects of IGF-I on ?-cells. -- Abstract: Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is revealed to participate in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Meanwhile, PKR is also characterized as a critical regulator of cell proliferation. To date, no study has focused on the impact of PKR on the proliferation of pancreatic ?-cells. Here, we adopted insulinoma cell lines and mice islet ?-cells to investigate: (1) the effects of glucolipotoxicity and pro-inflammatory cytokines on PKR activation; (2) the effects of PKR on proliferation of pancreatic ?-cells and its underlying mechanisms; (3) the actions of PKR on pro-proliferative effects of IGF-I and its underlying pathway. Our results provided the first evidence that PKR can be activated by glucolipitoxicity and pro-inflammatory cytokines in pancreatic ?-cells, and activated PKR significantly inhibited cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase. Reductions in cyclin D1 and D2 as well as increases in p27 and p53 were associated with the anti-proliferative effects of PKR, and proteasome-dependent degradation took part in the reduction of cyclin D1 and D2. Besides, PKR activation abrogated the pro-proliferative effects of IGF-I by activating JNK and disrupting IRS1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These findings indicate that the anti-proliferative actions of PKR on pancreatic ?-cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DM.

  8. Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, Scott

    2013-02-13

    The Department of Energys Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

  9. Titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (TiH1.65/KClO4) burn rates from hybrid closed bomb-strand burner experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Marcia A.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2012-08-01

    A hybrid closed bomb-strand burner is used to measure the burning behavior of the titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic with an equivalent hydrogen concentration of 1.65. This experimental facility allows for simultaneous measurement of the closed bomb pressure rise and pyrotechnic burn rate as detected by electrical break wires over a range of pressures. Strands were formed by pressing the pyrotechnic powders to bulk densities between 60% and 90% theoretical maximum density. The burn rate dependance on initial density and vessel pressure are measured. At all initial strand densities, the burn is observed to transition from conductive to convective burning within the strand. The measured vessel pressure history is further analyzed following the closed bomb analysis methods developed for solid propellants.

  10. Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question"Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

  11. Yearly Energy Costs for Buildings

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-03-20

    COSTSAFR3.0 generates a set of compliance forms which will be attached to housing Requests for Proposals (RFPs) issued by Departments or Agencies of the Federal Government. The compliance forms provide a uniform method for estimating the total yearly energy cost for each proposal. COSTSAFR3.0 analyzes specific housing projects at a given site, using alternative fuel types, and considering alternative housing types. The program is designed around the concept of minimizing overall costs through energy conservationmore » design, including first cost and future utility costs, and estabilishes a standard design to which proposed housing designs are compared. It provides a point table for each housing type that can be used to determine whether a proposed design meets the standard and how a design can be modified to meet the standard.« less

  12. Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop Tuesday, November 27, 2012 9:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. National Renewable Energy Lab Offices - Suite 930 901 D Street, SW, Washington, DC 20585 AGENDA ...

  13. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  14. Use of off-axis injection as an alternative to geometrically merging beams in an energy-recovering linac

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David R.

    2012-01-10

    A method of using off-axis particle beam injection in energy-recovering linear accelerators that increases operational efficiency while eliminating the need to merge the high energy re-circulating beam with an injected low energy beam. In this arrangement, the high energy re-circulating beam and the low energy beam are manipulated such that they are within a predetermined distance from one another and then the two immerged beams are injected into the linac and propagated through the system. The configuration permits injection without geometric beam merging as well as decelerated beam extraction without the use of typical beamline elements.

  15. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-25

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GENSIM) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration ofmore » a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emission trade-offs. The base case results using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax credit of 1.8 cents/kwhr.« less

  16. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  17. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative Island approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this islands used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an islands cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

  18. Rescuing Those Left Behind. Recovering and Characterizing Underdigested Membrane and Hydrophobic Proteins To Enhance Proteome Measurement Depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giannone, Richard J.; Wurch, Louie L.; Podar, Mircea; Hettich, Robert L.

    2015-07-21

    The marine archaeon Nanoarchaeum equitans is dependent on direct physical contact with its host, the hyperthermophile Ignicoccus hospitalis. This interaction is thought to be membrane-associated, involving a myriad of membrane-anchored proteins; proteomic efforts to better characterize this difficult to analyze interface are paramount to uncovering the mechanism of their association. By extending multienzyme digestion strategies that use sample filtration to recover underdigested proteins for reprocessing/consecutive proteolytic digestion, we applied chymotrypsin to redigest the proteinaceous material left over after initial proteolysis with trypsin of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extracted I. hospitalis-N. equitansproteins. We show that proteins with increased hydrophobic character, including membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane helices, are enriched and recovered in the underdigested fraction. Chymotryptic reprocessing provided significant sequence coverage gains in both soluble and hydrophobic proteins alike, with the latter benefiting more so in terms of membrane protein representation. These gains were despite a large proportion of high-quality peptide spectra remaining unassigned in the underdigested fraction suggesting high levels of protein modification on these often surface-exposed proteins. Importantly, these gains were achieved without applying extensive fractionation strategies usually required for thorough characterization of membrane-associated proteins and were facilitated by the generation of a distinct, complementary set of peptides that aid in both the identification and quantitation of this important, under-represented class of proteins.

  19. Rescuing Those Left Behind. Recovering and Characterizing Underdigested Membrane and Hydrophobic Proteins To Enhance Proteome Measurement Depth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Giannone, Richard J.; Wurch, Louie L.; Podar, Mircea; Hettich, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The marine archaeon Nanoarchaeum equitans is dependent on direct physical contact with its host, the hyperthermophile Ignicoccus hospitalis. This interaction is thought to be membrane-associated, involving a myriad of membrane-anchored proteins; proteomic efforts to better characterize this difficult to analyze interface are paramount to uncovering the mechanism of their association. By extending multienzyme digestion strategies that use sample filtration to recover underdigested proteins for reprocessing/consecutive proteolytic digestion, we applied chymotrypsin to redigest the proteinaceous material left over after initial proteolysis with trypsin of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extracted I. hospitalis-N. equitansproteins. We show that proteins with increased hydrophobic character, including membranemore » proteins with multiple transmembrane helices, are enriched and recovered in the underdigested fraction. Chymotryptic reprocessing provided significant sequence coverage gains in both soluble and hydrophobic proteins alike, with the latter benefiting more so in terms of membrane protein representation. These gains were despite a large proportion of high-quality peptide spectra remaining unassigned in the underdigested fraction suggesting high levels of protein modification on these often surface-exposed proteins. Importantly, these gains were achieved without applying extensive fractionation strategies usually required for thorough characterization of membrane-associated proteins and were facilitated by the generation of a distinct, complementary set of peptides that aid in both the identification and quantitation of this important, under-represented class of proteins.« less

  20. Studies of $${\\rm Nb}_{3}{\\rm Sn}$$ Strands Based on the Restacked-Rod Process for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barzi, E.; Bossert, M.; Gallo, G.; Lombardo, V.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2011-12-21

    A major thrust in Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program is the development of Nb3Sn wires which meet target requirements for high field magnets, such as high critical current density, low effective filament size, and the capability to withstand the cabling process. The performance of a number of strands with 150/169 restack design produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology was studied for round and deformed wires. To optimize the maximum plastic strain, finite element modeling was also used as an aid in the design. Results of mechanical, transport and metallographic analyses are presented for round and deformed wires.

  1. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach in the Columbia River, 1998 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugent, John; Newsome, Todd; Nugent, Michael

    2001-07-27

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the second year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fish species, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1998 field season.

  2. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugent, John

    2002-01-24

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the third year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1999 field season.

  3. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the fourth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2000 field season.

  4. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The evaluation, in the fifth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2001 field season.

  5. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godec, M. [ICF Resources, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1989-05-18

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985.

  6. Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.

    2011-06-01

    This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.

  7. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, Karl D.

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  8. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, K.D.

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tools Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on

  10. Example Cost Codes for Construction Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides an example outline of cost items and their corresponding cost codes that may be used for construction projects.

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report," collects the cost and quality of fossil fuel purchases made by electric ... a reduction of approximately 9 percent of natural gas purchases, cost, and quality data. ...

  12. Reducing Photovoltaic Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Photo of gloved hands pouring liquid from a glass bottle to glass beaker. The development of more ...

  13. Property:Cost | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:Cost&oldid285418...

  14. California Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators AgencyCompany...

  15. Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called 'Imminent' July 13, ... solar cells will reduce the cost of electricity from sunlight to competitive levels ...

  16. Early Station Costs Questionnaire | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Early Station Costs Questionnaire Early Station Costs Questionnaire Presentation by Marc Melaina, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, at the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market ...

  17. Creep properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-7/7A: Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.J.; Noel, J.S.; Boyd, P.J.

    1997-09-01

    Experimental results are presented for seven creep experiments on welded specimens of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-7/7A at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The measurements were performed at differential stresses of 40, 70, 100, and 130 MPa. The confining pressure and temperature for each of the experiments was 10 MPa and 225 {degrees}C respectively. All of the specimens were tested drained, in a room dry condition. All of the experiments were terminated prior to failure. The duration of the experiments range from 2.6 x 10{sup 6} seconds to 5.9 x 10{sup 6} seconds. Creep strain is observed for those specimens tested at a stress difference. The strain rate is not constant. A primary creep stage is observed. Secondary creep does not exhibit a constant strain rate, but decreases with increasing time.

  18. Assessment of landfill reclamation and the effects of age on the combustion of recovered municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forster, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarized the Lancaster county Solid Waste Management Authorities`s (LCSWMA)landfill reclamation activities, ongoing since 1991. All aspects have been analyzed from the manpower and equipment requirements at the landfill to the operational impacts felt at the LCSWMA Resource Recovery Facility (RRF) where the material is delivered for processing. Characteristics of the reclaimed refuse and soil recovered from trommeling operations are discussed as are results of air monitoring performed at the landfill excavation site and the RRF. The report also discusses the energy value of the reclaimed material and compares this value with those obtained for significantly older reclaimed waste streams. The effects of waste age on the air emissions and ash residue quality at the RRF are also provided. The report concludes by summarizing the project benefits and provides recommendations for other landfill reclamation operations and areas requiring further research.

  19. Regulatory cost-risk study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs. (JDB)

  20. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  1. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If the customer has a ratio of estimated monthly kilowatt-hour (kWh) usage to line extension mileage that is less than or equal to 1,000, the utility must provide the comparison at no cost. If the...

  2. Pollution prevention cost savings potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celeste, J.

    1994-12-01

    The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

  3. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

  4. Recovered File 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Livermore National Laboratory Dave Turner, Patrick Heck University of ... ACRF - One-year run complete * Shupe-Turner mixed-phase retrieval compared to ...

  5. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, T.D.; Jeung, N.M.

    1958-06-17

    An improved precipitation method is described for the recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. After removal of all but small amounts of Ni or Cu, and after complexing any iron present, the uranium is separated as the peroxide by adding H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The improvement lies in the fact that the addition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and consequent precipitation are carried out at a temperature below the freezing; point of the solution, so that minute crystals of solvent are present as seed crystals for the precipitation.

  6. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost models assume a natural gas cost of $5/MMBtu (HHV). Praxair has, in Phases I and II of this program, shown that significant improvements in cost, plant layout, system integration and overall system optimization are achievable. Phase III of the program, submitted in January 2007, was to focus on demonstrating both the technical feasibility and economic viability of the design developed in Phases I and II through a full-scale prototype design, construction, installation, analysis and operation at a hydrogen fueling station. Due to funding limitations, Phase III of the program was not approved by the DOE.

  7. Novel, Low-Cost Nanoparticle Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing a modular hybrid plasma reactor and process to manufacture low-cost nanoparticles

  8. Water Availability, Cost, and Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Availability, Cost, and Use - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  9. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2003-09-29

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGLs) and remove water from raw natural gas. To convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process, we plan to conduct an extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions. The membrane system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR). The MTR membrane system and the compressor are now onsite at BP's Pascagoula, MS plant. The plant is undergoing a very significant expansion and the installation of the membrane unit into the test location is being implemented, albeit at a slower rate than we expected. The startup of the system and conducting of tests will occur in the next six months, depending on the availability of the remaining budget. In the interim, significant commercial progress has been made regarding the introduction of the NGL membrane and systems into the natural gas market.

  10. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; K.A. Lokhandwala; Membrane Group; Module Group; Systems Group

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  11. Thermal behaviour of chrome shavings and of sludges recovered after digestion of tanned solid wastes with calcium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahiri, S. . E-mail: t_soufiane@yahoo.fr; Albizane, A.; Messaoudi, A.; Azzi, M.; Bennazha, J.; Younssi, S. Alami; Bouhria, M.

    2007-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of chrome shavings and of sludges recovered after digestion of tanned wastes with Ca(OH){sub 2} was studied. Ashes obtained after incineration of wastes at various temperatures were analysed by X-ray diffraction and EDX method. The main crystallized phases present in the ash obtained at 600 deg. C are Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NaCl. The diffractograms revealed an increase in the intensities of the chromium oxide peaks and a very notable decrease of the amount of sodium chloride at 1100 deg. C. EDX analysis revealed a total disappearance of the chlorine peak at this temperature. Scanning electron micrographs show that the waste lost its fibrous aspect when the temperature increases. Formation of aggregates was noted after 550 deg. C. Combustion of organic matters and decarbonation phenomenon are the main stages observed on GTA and DTA curves of sludges. These phenomena are, respectively, exothermic and endothermic. The diffractogram of sludges recorded at 550 deg. C, in the presence of a constant oxygen surplus, revealed the presence of CaCrO{sub 4} and CaCO{sub 3}.

  12. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagland, S.T.; Kilgallon, P.; Coveney, R.; Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.

    2011-06-15

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  13. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

  14. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for allocating baseline budgets and contingencies. Given the scope and magnitude of the cost-overrun problem, the benefits are likely to be significant.

  15. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PPPO/03-0145&D2 Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Group 1 Buildings X-103, X-334, and X-344B at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio This document has been approved for public release: Henry H. Thomas (signature on file) 10/29/10 Classification & Information Control Officer Date Restoration Services, Inc. (RSI) contributed to the preparation of this document and should not be considered an eligible contractor for its review DOE/PPPO/03-0145&D2 Engineering

  16. FY 1995 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue. Budgets remain on the decline, even while the expectations increase. Yet we are confident in our ability to keep our commitments and goals by identifying new efficiencies in the Hanford cleanup program. We will also pursue new contracting arrangements that will allow us to foster greater competition and use more commercial practices while maintaining our commitment to the safety and health of the public, our workers, and the environment.

  17. Structure of Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein B (VapB) reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel ?-barrel consisting of two Greek-key motifs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geerds, Christina; Wohlmann, Jens; Haas, Albert; Niemann, Hartmut H.

    2014-06-18

    The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel ?-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel ?-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded ?-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology.

  18. Stranded Fuel, Orphan Sites, Dead Plants: Transportation Planning Considerations After the BRC Report - 13393

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thrower, Alex W.

    2013-07-01

    The author explores transportation, packaging and storage questions related to a primary recommendation of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future; i.e., that fuel from shutdown plants be removed to consolidated storage as soon as possible to enable final decommissioning and beneficial re-use of those sites. The paper discusses the recommendations of the BRC, the implications and challenges that implementing those recommendations present, and provides recommended solutions for beginning the multi-year planning, coordination, material acquisition, and communications processes that will be needed to move fuel from shutdown plants when a destination site becomes available. Removal of used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites (which are serving no other purpose other than storing SNF and GTCC, at considerable expense) was a central recommendation of the BRC, for a number of reasons. This recommendation was one of the most widely acclaimed that the Commission put forward. However, there are significant challenges (such as availability of fuel canister overpacks, lack of infrastructure, handling constraints and others) that will need to be addressed, apart from the critically important identification of a suitable and workable storage destination site. Resolving these logistical challenges will need to begin even before a destination site is identified, given the long lead-times required for planning and procurement. Based on information available today, it is possible to make informed predictions about what will be needed to modify existing contractual arrangements with utilities, address equipment and infrastructure needs, and begin working with states, tribes and local governments to start initial preparation needs. If DOE, working with industry and other experienced parties, can begin planning and acquisition activities in the near term, overall schedule risk can be reduced and potential cost avoidance achieved. The most immediate benefit will accrue to the operators of the shutdown plants, but beginning to accept fuel as required under the NWPA will reduce the liability to the federal government, and also offer some assurance to other utilities and the public that DOE (or another entity if one is established) is capable of meeting its obligations under the NWPA. The indirect benefits, therefore, will be quite broad. (authors)

  19. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  20. Certificate of Current Cost and Pricing Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CERTIFICATE OF CURRENT COST AND PRICING DATA (OCT 1997) This is to certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the cost or pricing data (as defined in section 15.401 of...

  1. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  2. Low Cost Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Durable Seal Low Cost Durable Seal Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 4utc.pdf More Documents & Publications ...

  3. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  4. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  5. PAFC Cost Challenges | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Challenges PAFC Cost Challenges Presentation at the MCFC and PAFC R&D Workshop held Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA PDF icon mcfcpafcworkshopkanuri.pdf More Documents & ...

  6. NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost December 2, 2013 Two detailed reports from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) find that solar financing and other non-hardware costs - often referred to as "soft costs" - now comprise up to 64% of the total price of residential solar energy systems, reflecting how soft costs are becoming an increasingly larger fraction of the cost of installing solar.

  7. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average * Fuel costs vary widely based on feedstock, location, and technology option * Retail pellet costs are based on current prices in NE (~$243/ton) * Densifying biomass for heating (e.g. pyrolysis oil or pellets) can be a cost- competitive feedstock for residential heating system * These are not "drop-in" fuels

  8. Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Technology to Market » Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty As a basis for strategic planning, competitiveness analysis, funding metrics and targets, SunShot supports analysis teams at national laboratories to assess technology costs, location-specific competitive advantages, policy impacts on system financing, and to perform detailed levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analyses. This shows the

  9. High Energy Cost Grants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Energy Cost Grants High Energy Cost Grants The High Energy Cost Grant Program provides financial assistance for the improvement of energy generation, transmission, and distribution facilities servicing eligible rural communities with home energy costs that are over 275% of the national average. Grants under this program may be used for the acquisition, construction, installation, repair, replacement, or improvement of energy generation, transmission, or distribution facilities in

  10. Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentbiotrans-cost-optimization-model,http Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Demonstration &...

  11. Evolving Utility Cost-Effectiveness Test Criteria

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an overview of tests done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency program benefits.

  12. Microsoft Word - CR-091 Primary Basis of Cost Savings and Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Cost Savings and Cost Savings Amount. The new configurations will only apply to acquisition document types, specifically: BPA Calls, Contracts, Delivery OrderTask Order,...

  13. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

  14. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mone, C.; Smith, A.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2015-02-01

    This report uses representative project types to estimate the levelized cost of wind energy (LCOE) in the United States for 2013. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, it relies on both market and modeled data to maintain a current understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed from this analysis are used to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  15. ITP's Top Low- or No-Cost Improvements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Saving Improvements - Big three: *1. Reduce air pressure *2. Repair Leaks *3. Recover compressor waste heat - Others: *4. Reduce use of pneumatic tools *5. Reduceeliminate ...

  16. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  17. 2006 Update of Business Downtime Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinrichs, Mr. Doug; Goggin, Mr. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the downtime cost of power outages to businesses in the commercial and industrial sectors, updating and improving upon studies that have already been published on this subject. The goal is to produce a study that, relative to existing studies, (1) applies to a wider set of business types (2) reflects more current downtime costs, (3) accounts for the time duration factor of power outages, and (4) includes data on the costs imposed by real outages in a well-defined market. This study examines power outage costs in 11 commercial subsectors and 5 industrial subsectors, using data on downtime costs that was collected in the 1990's. This study also assesses power outage costs for power outages of 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours duration. Finally, this study incorporates data on the costs of real power outages for two business subsectors. However, the current limited state of data availability on the topic of downtime costs means there is room to improve upon this study. Useful next steps would be to generate more recent data on downtime costs, data that covers outages shorter than 20 minutes duration and longer than 4 hours duration, and more data that is based on the costs caused by real-world outages. Nevertheless, with the limited data that is currently available, this study is able to generate a clear and detailed picture of the downtime costs that are faced by different types of businesses.

  18. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  19. Cost Contributors to Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathwani, Jay; Mines, Greg

    2011-07-01

    The US Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office (DOE-GTO) has developed the tool Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model (GETEM) to assess the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of power produced from geothermal resources. Recently modifications to GETEM allow the DOE-GTO to better assess how different factors impact the generation costs, including initial project risk, time required to complete a development, and development size. The model characterizes the costs associated with project risk by including the costs to evaluate and drill those sites that are considered but not developed for commercial power generation, as well as to assign higher costs to finance those activities having more risk. This paper discusses how the important parameters impact the magnitude project costs for different project scenarios. The cost distributions presented include capital cost recovery for the exploration, confirmation, well field completion and power plant construction, as well as the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. The paper will present these cost distributions for both EGS and hydrothermal resources.

  20. GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process Step Description Associated task 1 Define estimate's purpose Determine estimate's purpose, required level of detail, and overall scope; Determine who will receive the estimate 2 Develop estimating plan Determine the cost estimating team and develop its master schedule; Determine who will do the independent cost estimate; Outline the cost estimating approach; Develop the estimate timeline 3 Define

  1. WIPP - Cost of a FOIA request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost of a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request The FOIA generally requires that requestors pay fees for processing their requests. If costs associated with the processing of a FOIA request are $15.00 or less, no fees are charged. Each FOIA request is reviewed for the purpose of placing a requestor in one of four fee categories described below: Commercial use requestor: Responsible for all direct costs; i.e. search for responsive documents, review of documents located for responsiveness; 16%

  2. Costing and pricing electricity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munasinghe, M.; Rungta, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers presented at a conference on costing and pricing electricity in developing countries. The topics discussed include: Power tariffs, an overview; electricity tariff policy; estimating and using marginal cost pricing concepts; power tariff policy of Philippines, India, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan; Inter-American Development Bank-Electricity tariffs, policies and practices; and costs of supplying electricity and tariff policy in some other countries.

  3. Probability of double-strand breaks in genome-sized DNA by {gamma}-ray decreases markedly as the DNA concentration increases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimobayashi, Shunsuke F.; Iwaki, Takafumi; Mori, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2013-05-07

    By use of the single-molecule observation, we count the number of DNA double-strand breaks caused by {gamma}-ray irradiation with genome-sized DNA molecules (166 kbp). We find that P{sub 1}, the number of double-strand breaks (DSBs) per base pair per unit Gy, is nearly inversely proportional to the DNA concentration above a certain threshold DNA concentration. The inverse relationship implies that the total number of DSBs remains essentially constant. We give a theoretical interpretation of our experimental results in terms of attack of reactive species upon DNA molecules, indicating the significance of the characteristics of genome-sized giant DNA as semiflexible polymers for the efficiency of DSBs.

  4. With low projected manufacturing costs, high ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is the only hydrocarbon membrane with performance meeting or exceeding the current state-of-the- art Nafion (Dupont) based membranes, with a projected cost structure below Nafion. ...

  5. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Document states additional feedback on the worksop received via a request for information issued in ...

  6. Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fingersh, L.; Hand, M.; Laxson, A.

    2006-12-01

    This model intends to provide projections of the impact on cost from changes in economic indicators such as the Gross Domestic Product and Producer Price Index.

  7. Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Green Algae: Milestone Completion Report This report updates the 1999 economic analysis ...

  8. Watt Does It Cost To Use It?

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students learn how electrical usage is counted and priced. They measure and evaluate energy use and cost of representative household and school electrical items.

  9. Aerogel commercialization: Technology, markets and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, G.; Lewis, D.; McKinley, K.; Richardson, J.; Tillotson, T.

    1994-10-07

    Commercialization of aerogels has been slow due to several factors including cost and manufacturability issues. The technology itself is well enough developed as a result of work over the past decade by an international-community of researchers. Several extensive substantial markets appear to exist for aerogels as thermal and sound insulators, if production costs can keep prices in line with competing established materials. The authors discuss here the elements which they have identified as key cost drivers, and they give a prognosis for the evolution of the technology leading to reduced cost aerogel production.

  10. Cost Recovery | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Recovery Home Kyoung's picture Submitted by Kyoung(150) Contributor 9 July, 2013 - 20:57 GRR 3rd Quarter - Stakeholder Update Meeting Alaska analysis appropriations...

  11. Cost Mechanisms | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Mechanisms Home Kyoung's picture Submitted by Kyoung(150) Contributor 9 July, 2013 - 20:57 GRR 3rd Quarter - Stakeholder Update Meeting Alaska analysis appropriations...

  12. Benchmarking for Cost Improvement. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) conducted the Benchmarking for Cost Improvement initiative with three objectives: Pilot test benchmarking as an EM cost improvement tool; identify areas for cost improvement and recommend actions to address these areas; provide a framework for future cost improvement. The benchmarking initiative featured the use of four principal methods (program classification, nationwide cost improvement survey, paired cost comparison and component benchmarking). Interested parties contributed during both the design and execution phases. The benchmarking initiative was conducted on an accelerated basis. Of necessity, it considered only a limited set of data that may not be fully representative of the diverse and complex conditions found at the many DOE installations. The initiative generated preliminary data about cost differences and it found a high degree of convergence on several issues. Based on this convergence, the report recommends cost improvement strategies and actions. This report describes the steps taken as part of the benchmarking initiative and discusses the findings and recommended actions for achieving cost improvement. The results and summary recommendations, reported below, are organized by the study objectives.

  13. 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mone, Christopher; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Settle, Edward

    2015-10-01

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2014. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  14. Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Evaluations in the Process and Utility Industries," adopted November 1990. 3 equipment. ... Table 6 shows approximate factors for setting various types of equipment. 1 The total cost ...

  15. Cutting Biofuel Production Costs | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cutting Biofuel Production Costs Working to use sunlight to convert biomass to biofuels, ... bioderived alcohols to benzaldehyde, toluene, and the zero-emission biofuel hydrogen. ...

  16. Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator This calculator is a tool designed for electric reliability planners at utilities, government organizations or other entities that are...

  17. Cost Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Cost Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs...

  18. Controller (Cost Compliance and Financial Reporting) | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GAAP, Cost Accounting Standards and internal controls required. Excellent analytical and problem solving skills Knowledge of DOE reporting requirements and prior Laboratory or...

  19. Clean distributed generation performance and cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2004-04-01

    This assessment examined the performance, cost, and timing of ultra-low emissions CHP technologies driven by certain air quality regions in the U.S.

  20. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    02_warren_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

  1. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  2. 2014 SunShot Initiative Soft Costs Subprogram Overview | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Costs Subprogram Overview 2014 SunShot Initiative Soft Costs Subprogram Overview These slides correspond to a presentation given by SunShot Initiative Soft Costs Acting ...

  3. Chemical repair of base lesions, AP-sites, and strand breaks on plasmid DNA in dilute aqueous solution by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hata, Kuniki; Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 ; Urushibara, Ayumi; Yamashita, Shinichi; Shikazono, Naoya; Yokoya, Akinari; Katsumura, Yosuke; Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakatashirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1188

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: We report a novel mechanism of radiation protection of DNA by chemical activity of ascorbic acid. The chemical repair of DNA damage was revealed using biochemical assay and chemical kinetics analysis. We found that ascorbic acid significantly repairs precursors of nucleobase lesions and abasic sites. However, ascorbic acid seldom repairs precursors of DNA-strand breaks. -- Abstract: We quantified the damage yields produced in plasmid DNA by ?-irradiation in the presence of low concentrations (10100 ?M) of ascorbic acid, which is a major antioxidant in living systems, to clarify whether it chemically repairs radiation damage in DNA. The yield of DNA single strand breaks induced by irradiation was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis as conformational changes in closed circular plasmids. Base lesions and abasic sites were also observed as additional conformational changes by treating irradiated samples with glycosylase proteins. By comparing the suppression efficiencies to the induction of each DNA lesion, in addition to scavenging of the OH radicals derived from water radiolysis, it was found that ascorbic acid promotes the chemical repair of precursors of AP-sites and base lesions more effectively than those of single strand breaks. We estimated the efficiency of the chemical repair of each lesion using a kinetic model. Approximately 5060% of base lesions and AP-sites were repaired by 10 ?M ascorbic acid, although strand breaks were largely unrepaired by ascorbic acid at low concentrations. The methods in this study will provide a route to understanding the mechanistic aspects of antioxidant activity in living systems.

  4. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-09-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

  5. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Gregory B.

    2015-09-01

    This research presents a systematic approach to evaluating the costs of integrating new generation and operational procedures into an existing power system, and the methodology is independent of the type of change or nature of the generation. The work was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy and performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to investigate three integration cost-related questions: (1) How does the addition of new generation affect a system's operational costs, (2) How do generation mix and operating parameters and procedures affect costs, and (3) How does the amount of variable generation (non-dispatchable wind and solar) impact the accuracy of natural gas orders? A detailed operational analysis was performed for seven sets of experiments: variable generation, large conventional generation, generation mix, gas prices, fast-start generation, self-scheduling, and gas supply constraints. For each experiment, four components of integration costs were examined: cycling costs, non-cycling VO&M costs, fuel costs, and reserves provisioning costs. The investigation was conducted with PLEXOS production cost modeling software utilizing an updated version of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 118-bus test system overlaid with projected operating loads from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Puget Sound Energy, and Public Service Colorado in the year 2020. The test system was selected in consultation with an industry-based technical review committee to be a reasonable approximation of an interconnection yet small enough to allow the research team to investigate a large number of scenarios and sensitivity combinations. The research should prove useful to market designers, regulators, utilities, and others who want to better understand how system changes can affect production costs.

  6. Cost Codes and the Work Breakdown Structure

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The chapter discusses the purpose of the work breakdown structure (WBS) and code of account (COA) cost code system, shows the purpose and fundamental structure of both the WBS and the cost code system, and explains the interface between the two systems.

  7. Standardized Cost Savings Definitions and Reporting Template

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Acquisition Savings Initiative and the DOE Strategic Sourcing Program, a key challenge has been to address the requirements of reporting cost savings and cost avoidance data. In order for DOE to fully comply with reporting requirements, we are directing that the attached template be utilized for reporting Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 data.

  8. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es111_gallagher_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Promises and Challenges of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition-Metal Layered-Oxide Cathodes PHEV Battery Cost Assessment EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects

  9. Draft Submission; Social Cost of Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-01-05

    This report is intended to provide a general understanding of the social costs associated with electric power generation. Based on a thorough review of recent literature on the subject, the report describes how these social costs can be most fully and accurately evaluated, and discusses important considerations in applying this information within the competitive bidding process. [DJE 2005

  10. NPR (New Production Reactor) capacity cost evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-07-01

    The ORNL Cost Evaluation Technical Support Group (CETSG) has been assigned by DOE-HQ Defense Programs (DP) the task defining, obtaining, and evaluating the capital and life-cycle costs for each of the technology/proponent/site/revenue possibilities envisioned for the New Production Reactor (NPR). The first part of this exercise is largely one of accounting, since all NPR proponents use different accounting methodologies in preparing their costs. In order to address this problem of comparing ''apples and oranges,'' the proponent-provided costs must be partitioned into a framework suitable for all proponents and concepts. If this is done, major cost categories can then be compared between concepts and major cost differences identified. Since the technologies proposed for the NPR and its needed fuel and target support facilities vary considerably in level of technical and operational maturity, considerable care must be taken to evaluate the proponent-derived costs in an equitable manner. The use of cost-risk analysis along with derivation of single point or deterministic estimates allows one to take into account these very real differences in technical and operational maturity. Chapter 2 summarizes the results of this study in tabular and bar graph form. The remaining chapters discuss each generic reactor type as follows: Chapter 3, LWR concepts (SWR and WNP-1); Chapter 4, HWR concepts; Chapter 5, HTGR concept; and Chapter 6, LMR concept. Each of these chapters could be a stand-alone report. 39 refs., 36 figs., 115 tabs.

  11. ''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

    2003-05-09

    Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

  12. Nuclear plant cancellations: causes, costs, and consequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study was commissioned in order to help quantify the effects of nuclear plant cancellations on the Nation's electricity prices. This report presents a historical overview of nuclear plant cancellations through 1982, the costs associated with those cancellations, and the reasons that the projects were terminated. A survey is presented of the precedents for regulatory treatment of the costs, the specific methods of cost recovery that were adopted, and the impacts of these decisions upon ratepayers, utility stockholders, and taxpayers. Finally, the report identifies a series of other nuclear plants that remain at risk of canellation in the future, principally as a result of similar demand, finance, or regulatory problems cited as causes of cancellation in the past. The costs associated with these potential cancellations are estimated, along with their regional distributions, and likely methods of cost recovery are suggested.

  13. Parametric Analysis of the Factors Controlling the Costs of Sedimentar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system costs to key assumptions in the base case model. 1. Decreased Drilling Costs Assumed that drilling costs were 75% of those in the base case. * Total well field costs ...

  14. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  15. Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P.C.; Skokan, B.

    2007-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

  16. Dissecting the Cost of the Smart Grid | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentdissecting-cost-smart-grid Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: "Resource Integration Planning,Cost...

  17. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  18. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  19. Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacey, Ph.D, P.E., Ronald E.

    2012-07-16

    Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks

  20. Cost and code study of underground buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Various regulatory and financial implications for earth-sheltered houses and buildings are discussed. Earth-sheltered houses are covered in the most detail including discussions of building-code restrictions, HUD Minimum Property Standards, legal aspects, zoning restrictions, taxation, insurance, and home financing. Examples of the initial-cost elements in earth-sheltered houses together with projected life-cycle costs are given and compared to more-conventional energy-conserving houses. For larger-scale underground buildings, further information is given on building code, fire protection, and insurance provisions. Initial-cost information for five large underground buildings is presented together with energy-use information where available.

  1. How three smart managers control steam costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendall, R.

    1982-11-01

    Three steam-intensive companies report innovative ways to reduce steam-production costs. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. concentrated on regular maintenance, process modifications, and heat recovery, but also has an on-going policy of seeking further cost savings. Future efforts will explore computer-based boiler controls. Zenith Radio Corporation's color picture tube-making process uses 12% less steam after 700 mechanical steam traps were replaced with fixed-orifice traps. Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. reduced steam costs by monitoring and optimizing process units and by making capital investments to improve steam management. (DCK)

  2. Transient oxidative stress and inflammation after intraperitoneal administration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with single strand DNA in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clichici, Simona; Biris, Alexandru Radu; Tabaran, Flaviu; Filip, Adriana

    2012-03-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used for nanotechnology. Their impact on living organisms is, however, not entirely clarified. Oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be the key mechanisms involved in MWCNTs' cytotoxicity. Until present, pulmonary and skin models were the main tested experimental designs to assess carbon nanotubes' toxicity. The systemic administration of MWCNTs is essential, with respect for future medical applications. Our research is performed on Wistar rats and is focused on the dynamics of oxidative stress parameters in blood and liver and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, after single dose (270 mg l{sup −1}) ip administration of MWCNTs (exterior diameter 15–25 nm, interior diameter 10–15 nm, surface 88 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) functionalized with single strand DNA (ss-DNA). The presence of MWCNTs in blood was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, while in liver histological examination and confocal microscopy were used. It was found that ss-DNA-MWCNTs induce oxidative stress in plasma and liver, with the return of the tested parameters to normal values, 6 h after ip injection of nanotubes, with the exception of reduced glutathione in plasma. The inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) had a similar pattern of evolution. We also assessed the level of ERK1/2 and the phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NF-kB in liver that had a transient increase and returned to normal at the end of the tested period. Our results demonstrate that ss-DNA-MWCNTs produce oxidative stress and inflammation, but with a transient pattern. Given the fact that antioxidants modify the profile not only for oxidative stress, but also of inflammation, the dynamics of these alterations may be of practical importance for future protective strategies. -- Highlights: ► ss-DNA-MWCNTs ip administration induce oxidative stress in plasma and liver. ► ss-DNA-MWCNTs ip administration determine liver inflammation. ► ERK1/2 and p65 phosphorylated NF-KB increase in liver after MWCNTs ip injection. ► All the alterations, except plasma GSH, return to normal within 6 days.

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... with specific circumstances, such a tanker might cost around 7 cents per gallon for a round trip. ATB's would be less efficient than tankers, but more efficient than a towed barge. ...

  4. Solar at the cost of coal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cost of coal 1 Domestic shale gas 2 US shale gas enables solar g SunShot: towards 1 Watt SunShot: towards 1 Watt Silicon PV can reach coal parity p y *LCOE calculated ...

  5. New developments in capital cost estimating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R.A.; Zocher, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The new developments in cost engineering revolve around the ability to capture information that in the past could not be automated. The purpose of automation is not to eliminate the expert cost engineer. The goal is to use available technology to have more information available to the professionals in the cost engineering field. In that sense, the demand for expertise increases in order to produce the highest quality estimate and project possible from all levels of cost engineers. We cannot overemphasize the importance of using a good source of expert information in building these types of programs. ''Garbage in, garbage out'' still applies in this form of programming. Expert systems technology will become commonplace in many vertical markets; it is important to undersand what can and cannot be accomplished in our field, and where this technology will lead us in the future.

  6. Total Estimated Contract Cost: Performance Period

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY2012 Fee Information Minimum Fee Maximum Fee September 2015 Contract Number: Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contractor: 3,264,909,094 Contract Period: EM Contractor Fee s Idaho...

  7. Renewable Energy Cost Recovery Incentive Payment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Some utilities have reached their cap for incentive allocations under the Renewable Energy Cost Recovery Incentive Payment program. Some of these utilities have reduced per-customer incentive...

  8. Low Cost Heliostat Development | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    blackmon.pdf More Documents & Publications Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY13 Q1 Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP - FY12 Q4 Low-Cost Heliostat for Modular Systems - FY13 Q1

  9. Costs | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 working days of the event. Any additional costs that are the result of additional audio visual usage or extraordinary cleanupdamages will be billed to the user. Use of the...

  10. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2011, DOE announced $42.4 million in funding over three years for the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems...

  11. Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mainstream Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEM) Cost ... CellEra's Platinum-Free Membrane Fuel Cell (PFM-FC) ... Enabler for price parity at volume with lead acid batteries ...

  12. Cost of Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as well as projections for the future. Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P. (March 2013). 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review. National Renewable...

  13. USDA High Energy Cost Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is accepting applications for the improvement of energy generation, transmission, and distribution facilities serving rural communities with home energy costs that are over 275% of the national average.

  14. Watt Does It Cost To Use It?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4. Learn the law of energy conservation. 5. Recall the dollar cost per kWh for ... 8. Generalize which electrical items are big users, and which are small, and evaluate ...

  15. SEP 2015 Cost Benefit Analysis Paper

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Superior Energy Performance® (SEP™) paper analyzes previously reported and newly collected data of costs and benefits associated with the implementation of an ISO 50001 and SEP certification.

  16. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost of Wind Energy Review C. Mon, A. Smith, B. Maples, and M. Hand National Renewable ... arrester 5 External maintenance crane (Davit) Lifts small components (e.g., <2 metric ...

  17. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-12

    In June 2009, ArcelorMittal learned about the potential to receive a 50% cost-matching grant from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ArcelorMittal applied for the competitive grant and, in November, received $31.6 million as a DOE cost-sharing award. By matching the federal funding, ArcelorMittal was able to construct a new, high efficiency Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler and supporting infrastructure.

  18. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  19. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Low-Cost Natural Gas | Department of Energy 2024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas This program record from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office provides information about the cost of hydrogen production using low-cost natural gas. PDF icon DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record # 12024 More Documents & Publications Distributed Hydrogen

  20. Studies of Nb3Sn Strands Based on the Restacked-Rod Process for High-Field Accelerator Magnets Nb3Sn

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barzi, E; Bossert, M; Gallo, G; Lombardo, V; Turrioni, D; Yamada, R; Zlobin, A V

    2012-06-01

    A major thrust in Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program is the development of Nb3Sn wires which meet target requirements for high field magnets, such as high critical current density, low effective filament size, and the capability to withstand the cabling process. The performance of a number of strands with 150/169 restack design produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology was studied for round and deformed wires. To optimize the maximum plastic strain, finite element modeling was also used as an aid in the design. Results of mechanical, transport and metallographic analyses are presented for round and deformed wires.

  1. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates M. Melaina and M. Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-56412 September 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  2. Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Wiser, R.

    2012-08-01

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions.

  3. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  4. Shifting the cost curve for subsea developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solheim, B.J.; Hestad, E.

    1995-12-31

    A steadily increasing challenge in offshore oil and gas field developments in the Norwegian part of the North Sea is to design, construct, and install offshore installations that give an acceptable return of investment Deeper water, limited reservoirs and a low, fluctuating oil price make the task even more demanding. Saga Petroleum has recently faced this challenge with its last field development project. Attention in this paper is focused on the Vigdis subsea production system. However, the considerations and cost reduction elements are valid for offshore field developments in general. The main cost reductions are obtained by: Maximum use of industry capability; Application of new organization principles; Focus on functional requirements; Shortened project execution time; Technological development. In addition this paper presents thoughts on further cost reduction possibilities for future subsea field developments.

  5. Subsea pipeline isolation systems: Reliability and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masheder, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    Since the Piper Alpha disaster, more than 80 subsea isolation systems (SSIS) have been installed in subsea gas and oil pipelines in the U.K. continental shelf at an estimated cost in the region of {Brit_pounds}500 million. The reliability and costs of these installations have now been assessed between Dec. 1992 and Oct. 1993. This assessment was based upon comprehensive reliability and cost databases which were established so that the studies could be based upon factual information in order to obtain a current status as required by the sponsoring group. The study consultants report findings have now been consolidated into a report by the UKOOA Pipeline Valve Work Group. Probabilities of failure for different types of valves and systems have been assessed and expenditures broken down and compared. The results of the studies and the conclusions drawn by UKOOA Pipeline Valve Group and the HSE Offshore Safety Division are presented in this paper.

  6. Natural gas industry's response to transaction costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulherin, J.H.

    1985-07-25

    Legislators and regulators have historically viewed the organizational features in the natural gas industry as noncompetitive. Challenging recent suggestions that the contractual arrangements in the industry are in violation of antitrust statutes, the author states that the methods of organization such as long-term contracts, take-or-pay provisions, and most-favored nation clauses are competitive responses to the costs of transacting in the natural gas industry. These arrangements lower transaction costs by mitigating the opportunistic behavior that can potentially arise in long-term relations involving specialized assets. If policymakers want to enable cost reductions in the industry to reduce the price burden felt by users of gas, an accompaniment of price decontrol by overall deregulation is in order.

  7. Investigation of structure and properties of the Nb rods manufactured by different deformation and heat treatment regimes in mass production conditions for the Nb{sub 3}Sn strands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdyukhanov, I. M.; Vorobieva, A. E.; Alekseev, M. V.; Mareev, K. A.; Dergunova, E. A.; Peredkova, T. N. [JSC Bochvar High-Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, 5a Rogova St., Moscow, 123060 (Russian Federation); Shikov, A. K. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, 1 Akademika Kurchatova Sq., Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Utkin, K. V.; Vorobieva, A. V.; Kharkovsky, D. N. [JSC Chepetsky Mechanical Plant, 7 Belova St., Glazov, 427620 (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-27

    From 2009 the mass production of the Nb{sub 3}Sn strands for ITER with the yield of several tens of tons per year operates at JSC Chepetsky Mechanical Plant (Glazov, Russia). In order to enhance the stability of output characteristics of the produced Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, to increase the Nb filaments dimensional homogeneity the manufacture regimes improvement of the used semiproducts such as Nb rods intended for the superconducting filaments formation in the finished strands has been carried out. In the work the investigations of the Nb rheological behavior, the influence of heat treatment in the wide temperature range from 700 to 1300 C on the predeformed Nb rods structure and mechanical properties have been performed. Different production routes of the Nb rods, including such operations like forging, extrusion and drawing combined with the recrystallization annealings, were used. Composite Nb{sub 3}Sn strands have been produced and their electrophysical properties have been tested. For the first time influence of the niobium rods manufacture regimes on the current carrying capacity of the industrial Nb{sub 3}Sn strands has been investigated.

  8. Microsoft PowerPoint - 15.1615_Cost Estimating Panel

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cost Estimate (ICE) - Same Basis as Project Cost Estimate (PCE) Sa e as s as ojec Cos s a e ( C ) - Reconcilable with PCE to Facilitate Validation * Independent Cost Review...

  9. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving...

  10. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Savings and Cost Estimate Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings and Cost Estimate Summary DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Savings and Cost Estimate Summary The U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home Savings and Cost Estimate ...

  11. Property:GeothermalArraAwardeeCostShare | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GeothermalArraAwardeeCostShare Property Type Number Description Geothermal ARRA Awardee Cost Share Pages using the property "GeothermalArraAwardeeCostShare" Showing 25 pages using...

  12. Levelized Cost of Energy in US | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Levelized Cost of Energy in US Home I'd like to pull a cost comparison for the levelized cost of energy in the US. How do I do this on this site? Does the LCOE interactive table...

  13. levelized cost of energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    levelized cost of energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of...

  14. Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda Renewable Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Workshop Agenda PDF icon carbonfiberworkshopagenda.pdf More ...

  15. The New Science of Soft Costs Breakout Session Flier | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The New Science of Soft Costs Breakout Session Flier The New Science of Soft Costs Breakout Session Flier Flier promoting The New Science of Soft Costs breakout session at the May...

  16. INFOGRAPHIC: Let's Get to Work on Solar Soft Costs | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Let's Get to Work on Solar Soft Costs INFOGRAPHIC: Let's Get to Work on Solar Soft Costs December 2, 2013 - 1:00pm Addthis Learn how soft costs are contributing to the price of ...

  17. DOE Perspective on Budget, Accounting, and Cost-Saving Initiatives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Joseph Hezir, Chief Financial Officer, DOE presented on the topic DOE Perspective on Budget, Accounting, and Cost-Saving Initiatives. The presentation focuses on FFRDCs, National Lab funding and cost accounting, ICR, and overhead costs.

  18. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  19. Simple Modular LED Cost Model | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tools » Simple Modular LED Cost Model Simple Modular LED Cost Model The LED Cost Model, developed by the DOE Cost Modeling Working Group, provides a simplified method for analyzing the manufacturing costs of an LED package. The model focuses on the major cost elements and includes preliminary raw data and manufacturing process flow, which provide a starting point and can be customized by the user to model different processes, materials, and equipment. The tool enables those involved in the

  20. Cost Principles Webinar for DOE Grant Recipients | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Principles Webinar for DOE Grant Recipients Cost Principles Webinar for DOE Grant Recipients The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Cost Principles in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) define, by organization type, what kinds of costs are allowable or unallowable for reimbursement in Federal financial assistance awards. This Cost Principles webinar was developed to help DOE award recipients understand the costing and invoicing requirements for their awards funded by the American

  1. GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide: Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process, from the first step of defining the estimate's purpose to the last step of updating the estimate to reflect actual costs and changes. PDF icon Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process Key Resources PMCDP EVMS PARS IIe FPD Resource Center PM Newsletter Forms and Templates More Documents & Publications

  2. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel S. Tam

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this series of design and estimating efforts was to start from the as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project and to develop optimized designs for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC power and coproduction projects. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This unoptimized plant has a thermal efficiency of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW. This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal and coke-fueled power plants. This side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, showed their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the coal plant and 1,260 $/kW for the coke plant). Therefore, in the near term, a coke IGCC power plant could penetrate the market and provide a foundation for future coal-fueled facilities. Subtask 1.6 generated a design, cost estimate and economics for a multiple train coal-fueled IGCC powerplant, also based on the Subtaks 1.3 cases. The Subtask 1.6 four gasification train plant has a thermal efficiency of 40.6% (HHV) and cost 1,066 $/kW. The single-train advanced Subtask 1.4 plant, which uses an advanced ''G/H-class'' combustion turbine, can have a thermal efficiency of 45.4% (HHV) and a plant cost of 1,096 $/kW. Multi-train plants will further reduce the cost. Again, all these plants have superior emissions performance. Subtask 1.7 developed an optimized design for a coal to hydrogen plant. At current natural gas prices, this facility is not competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas. The preferred scenario is to coproduce hydrogen in a plant similar to Subtask 1.3, as described above. Subtask 1.8 evaluated the potential merits of warm gas cleanup technology. This study showed that selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) is promising. As gasification technology matures, SCOHS and other improvements identified in this study will lead to further cost reductions and efficiency improvements.

  3. Methods for recovering a solvent from a fluid volume and methods of removing at least one compound from a nonpolar solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Wendt, Daniel S.; Petkovic, Lucia M.

    2014-06-10

    A method of removing a nonpolar solvent from a fluid volume that includes at least one nonpolar compound, such as a fat, an oil or a triglyceride, is provided. The method comprises contacting a fluid volume with an expanding gas to expand the nonpolar solvent and form a gas-expanded solvent. The gas-expanded solvent may have a substantially reduced density in comparison to the at least one nonpolar compound and/or a substantially reduced capacity to solubilize the nonpolar compound, causing the nonpolar compounds to separate from the gas-expanded nonpolar solvent into a separate liquid phase. The liquid phase including the at least one nonpolar compound may be separated from the gas-expanded solvent using conventional techniques. After separation of the liquid phase, at least one of the temperature and pressure may be reduced to separate the nonpolar solvent from the expanding gas such that the nonpolar solvent may be recovered and reused.

  4. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, Jason S.; Grace, Robert C.; Rickerson, Wilson H.

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  5. Microsoft Word - cost study manual final 06 25 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The subcommittee developed a contractors' Cost Study template that contractors could elect to use to prepare spreadsheets for the annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison. ...

  6. Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric...

  7. Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive ...

  8. Integrated Evaluation of Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Integrated Evaluation of Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential for Algal Biofuels at the National Scale Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated Evaluation of Cost, ...

  9. Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors Low Cost, High Temperature, High Ripple Current DC Bus Capacitors 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  10. On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) October 8...

  11. Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report This report outlines the final...

  12. Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality PDF icon mfg-initiativefactsheetjun2015.pdf More ...

  13. Manufacturing of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable Resources Lignin, a low-cost, biomass derived precursor, was selected as an alternative for carbon based free standing...

  14. Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Balance of Plant - Resin with lower density and cost - Carbon fiber from high volume ... and practices, DFMA software, innovation, and practicality Estimated Cost ...

  15. Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing This tip sheet discusses how to reduce pumping system costs through optimum pipe sizing. PUMPING SYSTEMS TIP SHEET 9 PDF icon ...

  16. Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrator Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrator This fact sheet describes a low-cost, lightweight solar conductor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating ...

  17. Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive ...

  18. Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange ...

  19. Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Storage Systems Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Systems Presentation by Stephen Lasher on cost analysis of hydrogen storage systems. PDF icon wkshpstoragelasher.pdf ...

  20. Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar Access the recording and download ...

  1. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report ...

  2. Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage: Performance and Cost Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compressed Hydrogen Storage: Performance and Cost Review Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage: Performance and Cost Review Presented at the R&D Strategies for Compressed, ...

  3. Project Profile: Low-Cost, Lightweight Solar Concentrators |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    components and associated control system Design, integrate, and test a low-cost concentrator Analyze the system's cost to demonstrate achieving the 75m2 collector system target. ...

  4. Financial and Cost Assessment Model (FICAM) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Cost Assessment Model (FICAM) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Financial and Cost Assessment Model (FICAM) AgencyCompany Organization: UNEP-Risoe...

  5. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing Citation Details ... reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create ...

  6. Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector This presentation was delivered at the ...

  7. PHEV and LEESS Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A 12V Start-Stop Li Polymer Battery Pack PHEV Battery Cost Assessment

  8. Chicago Solar Express Reduces Costs, Wait Times | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chicago Solar Express Reduces Costs, Wait Times Chicago Solar Express Reduces Costs, Wait Times October 28, 2014 - 10:48am Addthis The Solar Express program in Chicago, ...

  9. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investment in Photovoltai...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investment in Photovoltaic Energy Systems Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of DOE Investment in Photovoltaic Energy Systems This ...

  10. Sandia Algae Researchers Cut Costs with Improved Nutrient Recycling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sandia Algae Researchers Cut Costs with Improved Nutrient Recycling Sandia Algae Researchers Cut Costs with Improved Nutrient Recycling October 5, 2015 - 12:16pm Addthis Ryan Davis ...

  11. Estimating the Opportunity Cost of REDD+: A Training Manual ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Opportunity Cost of REDD+: A Training Manual Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Estimating the Opportunity Cost of REDD+: A Training Manual Agency...

  12. Understanding Cost Growth and Performance Shortfalls in Pioneer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cost Growth and Performance Shortfalls in Pioneer Process Plants Understanding Cost Growth and Performance Shortfalls in Pioneer Process Plants This report presents an empirical...

  13. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management This presentation, which ...

  14. Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Part of a 100 million ...

  15. Energy and Cost Savings Calculators for Energy-Efficient Products...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy and Cost Savings Calculators for Energy-Efficient Products Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy and Cost Savings Calculators for...

  16. Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk Reduction in Geothermal Exploration Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk ...

  17. A Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (non-dispatchable wind and solar) impact the ... operations and maintenance costs (VO&M), fuel costs, and ... identical except for an operation parameter change (e.g., ...

  18. High Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs: Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs: Production Builders - Building America Top Innovation High Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs: Production Builders - ...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cost-Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Effective Fabrication of High-Temperature Ceramic Capacitors for Power Inverters Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cost-Effective Fabrication of High-Temperature ...

  20. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy ...

  1. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's ...

  2. Renewable, Non-Toxic and Cost Competitive Solvents and Plasticizers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable, Non-Toxic and Cost Competitive Solvents and Plasticizers Renewable, Non-Toxic and Cost Competitive Solvents and Plasticizers Breakout Session 1-D: The Pitch Renewable, ...

  3. Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report Renewable, Low-Cost Carbon Fiber for Lightweight Vehicles: Summary Report This report outlines the final ...

  4. The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Cost to Developing Countries of Adapting to Climate Change...

  5. Estimating Well Costs for Enhanced Geothermal System Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. K. Bloomfield; P. T. Laney

    2005-08-01

    The objective of the work reported was to investigate the costs of drilling and completing wells and to relate those costs to the economic viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This is part of a larger parametric study of major cost components in an EGS. The possibility of improving the economics of EGS can be determined by analyzing the major cost components of the system, which include well drilling and completion. Determining what costs in developing an EGS are most sensitive will determine the areas of research to reduce those costs. The results of the well cost analysis will help determine the cost of a well for EGS development.

  6. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in...

  7. Energy Department Report Calculates Emissions and Costs of Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    does not consider other factors such as capital costs of construction for wind, solar, fossil-fueled power plants, or transmission. These costs are significant, but outside the...

  8. New Independent Analysis Confirms Climate Bill Costs About a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Independent Analysis Confirms Climate Bill Costs About a Postage Stamp a Day New Independent Analysis Confirms Climate Bill Costs About a Postage Stamp a Day August 4, 2009 - ...

  9. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and Summary Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop -...

  10. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. ...

  11. Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Polymer ...

  12. Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Life Cycle ...

  13. Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus ...

  14. Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison This cost of ownership analysis identifies the factors impacting the value proposition for fuel cell ...

  15. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's...

  16. Energy Department Announces Projects to Advance Cost-Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Department Announces Projects to Advance Cost-Effective Concentrating Solar Power Systems Energy Department Announces Projects to Advance Cost-Effective Concentrating Solar ...

  17. Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal ...

  18. Idaho Power Develops Renewable Integration Tool for More Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idaho Power Develops Renewable Integration Tool for More Cost Effective Use of Wind Power Idaho Power Develops Renewable Integration Tool for More Cost Effective Use of Wind Power ...

  19. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and Summary Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and ...

  20. Best Practices for Net Zero Energy Cost Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... - Identify specific projects to apply and refine NZE cost control strategies * Detailed cost assessment between robust baseline and NZE design * Practical considerations of ...

  1. Development of Low Cost Industrially Scalable PCM Capsules for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Industrially Scalable PCM Capsules for Thermal Energy Storage in CSP Plants Development of Low Cost Industrially Scalable PCM Capsules for Thermal Energy Storage in CSP ...

  2. Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Hydrogen Storage in Wind Turbine Towers: Cost Analysis and Conceptual Design Preprint PDF icon 34851.pdf More Documents ...

  3. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This cost is dependent upon fuel type, unit fuel cost, boiler effciency, feedwater ... steam and serves as a tracking device to allow for boiler performance monitoring. ...

  4. New Zealand Interactive Electricity Generation Cost Model 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interactive Electricity Generation Cost Model 2010 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: New Zealand Interactive Electricity Generation Cost Model 2010 Agency...

  5. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-IonBattery Electrodes Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen ...

  6. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ... PDF icon Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ...

  7. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by ...

  8. Best Practices for Controlling Capital Costs in Net Zero Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Best Practices for Controlling Capital Costs in Net Zero Energy Design and Construction - 2014 BTO Peer Review Best Practices for Controlling Capital Costs in Net Zero Energy ...

  9. Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-...

  10. Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality PDF icon mfg-initiativefactsheetjun2015.pdf More...

  11. A Review of Cost Estimation in New Technologies - Implications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Review of Cost Estimation in New Technologies - Implications for Energy Process Plants This report reviews literature on cost estimation in several areas involving major capital ...

  12. Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation This drawing shows simple ...

  13. Reducing Enzyme Costs Increases Market Potential of Biofuels...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    prices depend heavily on the cost of the cellulase enzymes used to break down the cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. To reduce these costs, the National Renewable ...

  14. Natural Gas Vehicle Cost Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vehicle Cost Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Natural Gas Vehicle Cost Calculator AgencyCompany Organization: United States Department of...

  15. Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Cost Savings Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator AgencyCompany Organization:...

  16. Renewable Energy Technology Costs and Drivers | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Costs and Drivers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Technology Costs and Drivers AgencyCompany Organization: National...

  17. Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries September 9, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov ...

  18. Cost-Effective Enzyme for Producing Biofuels from Cellulosic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The mixture is half as expensive as conventional inducers such as lactose and cellulose, significantly reducing the cost of cellulase and subsequently reducing the cost of ...

  19. Cost Analysis of NOx Control Alternatives for Stationary Gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Analysis of NOx Control Alternatives for Stationary Gas Turbines, November 1999 Cost Analysis of NOx Control Alternatives for Stationary Gas Turbines, November 1999 The use of ...

  20. Audit of Selected Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program Costs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HAZARDOUS WASTE REMEDIAL ACTIONS PROGRAM COSTS The Office of Inspector General wants to make the distribution of its reports as customer friendly and cost effective as possible. ...

  1. Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Fuel Consumption and Cost Benefits of DOE Vehicle Technologies Program 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  2. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  3. Workers' Compensation Costs Rising Across the Nation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the first time since 1992, benefits paid to workers and employers' costs for workers' compensation rose faster than wages by James L Nash (jnash@penton.com) The National Academy of Social Insurance (NASI) study, which provides the only comprehensive national data on the largely state-run program, states that premiums charged by insurers rose by eight percent in 2001.

  4. cost savings | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    cost savings NNSA's Nevada Field Office Transfers Two Armored Vehicles to FBI LAS VEGAS - The National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Nevada Field Office recently transferred two Advanced Concept Armored Vehicles (ACAVs) to The Department of Justice's local FBI office in Nevada. The transfer created $474,000 in savings to the government as the NFO security force no...

  5. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  6. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the years the industry has shown a good deal of ingenuity and, as a result, has developed several cost effective methods of processing and handling wood. SMB systems usually cannot afford to perform much onsite processing and therefore usually purchase fuels processed to specification. Owners of larger systems try to minimize onsite processing to minimize processing costs. Whole truck dumpers are expensive, but allow for faster and easier unloading, which reduces labor costs and charges by the haulers. Storage costs are a major factor in overall costs, thus the amount of fuel reserve is an important consideration. Silos and bins are relatively expensive compared to open piles used for larger facilities, but may be required depending on space available, wood characteristics, and amount of wood to be stored. For larger systems, a front-end loader has a lot of flexibility in use and is an essential piece of equipment for moving material. Few opportunities appear to exist for improving the cost effectiveness of these systems.

  7. Brookhaven National Laboratory's low cost solar technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1984-09-01

    The problems identified in early study - cost, architectural compatibility, and reliability - were not likely to be solved with conventional practices in the solar industry. BNL then embarked upon an iterative development process towards a solution founded on the methodology which establish a set of key guidelines for the research. With the derivation of cost goals ($5 to $6 per square foot, installed) and performance targets (consistent with conventional technology) it was considered important to use sophisticated industrial product development technologies to achieve the desired results. The normal industrial practice to reduce cost, for example, is to reduce material intensity, strive for simplicity in design and apply as much mass production as possible. This approach revealed the potential of polymer films as a basic construction material for solar collectors. Further refinements to reduce cost were developed, including the perfection of a non-pressurized absorber/heat exchanger and the adaptability of a printable optical selective surface. Additional significant advantages were acquired through application of a monocoque construction technique borrowed from the aircraft industry. The procedures used, including important support from industry to help identify materials and guide fabrication techniques, eventually resulted in construction and successful testing of a thin polymer film solar collector. To achieve the overall objectives of viable solar economics some system concepts have been explored by BNL. Consistent with the cost goals mentioned, it is believed that the low pressure designs pursued will be successful. Designs for the storage tank and distribution system that have been pursued include the use of polymer film lined sheet metal for the storage tanks and plastic pipe.

  8. Using life-cycle cost management to cut costs and reduce waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gess, D.; Cohan, D.; McLearn, M.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing competition is forcing electric utility companies to reduce costs and improve efficiency. At the same time, increasing costs for waste disposal and emissions control and growing environmental regulatory pressure are providing powerful incentives for firms in virtually every industry to investigate opportunities to reduce or even eliminate the adverse environmental impacts associated with their operations. companies are also striving toward environmental stewardship to realize the potential benefits to the firms`s public image, employees, an shareholders. Motivated by these cost and environmental concerns, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Decision Focus Inc. (DFI), and a consortium of electric utility companies have developed techniques and tools to help electric utility companies to make purchase and operating decisions based on their full life-cycle costs, which explicitly include environmental, health, and safety costs. The process, called Life-Cycle Cost Management (LCCM), helps utilities to efficiently assemble the appropriate life-cycle information and bring it to bear on their business decisions. To date, several utilities have used LCCM to evaluate a range of product substitution and process improvement decisions and to implement cost-savings actions. This paper summarizes some of these applications.

  9. Handbook for cost estimating. A method for developing estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, J.R.; Cohen, S.; Ziegler, E.Z.

    1984-10-01

    This document provides overall guidance to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required by the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines and to assist in the assignment of priorities in resolving generic safety issues. The Handbook presents an overall cost model that allows the cost analyst to develop a chronological series of activities needed to implement a specific regulatory requirement throughout all applicable commercial LWR power plants and to identify the significant cost elements for each activity. References to available cost data are provided along with rules of thumb and cost factors to assist in evaluating each cost element. A suitable code-of-accounts data base is presented to assist in organizing and aggregating costs. Rudimentary cost analysis methods are described to allow the analyst to produce a constant-dollar, lifetime cost for the requirement. A step-by-step example cost estimate is included to demonstrate the overall use of the Handbook.

  10. Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop Roster of Participants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is the list of attendees from the November 27, 2012, Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop.

  11. Thurston Regional Planning Council Helps Washingtonians Save on Travel Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thurston County provides travel information for lower costs, improved safety, and faster response to challenges.

  12. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, Barry L.; Skidmore, Jay A.

    1999-01-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost.

  13. Low-cost laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, B.L.; Skidmore, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    A substrate is used to fabricate a low-cost laser diode array. A substrate is machined from an electrically insulative material that is thermally conductive, or two substrates can be bonded together in which the top substrate is electrically as well as thermally conductive. The substrate thickness is slightly longer than the cavity length, and the width of the groove is wide enough to contain a bar and spring (which secures the laser bar firmly along one face of the groove). The spring also provides electrical continuity from the backside of the bar to the adjacent metalization layer on the laser bar substrate. Arrays containing one or more bars can be formed by creating many grooves at various spacings. Along the groove, many bars can be adjoined at the edges to provide parallel electrical conduction. This architecture allows precise and predictable registration of an array of laser bars to a self-aligned microlens array at low cost. 19 figs.

  14. New system reduces sludge management costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roll, R.R. ); Koser, M.R. )

    1993-06-01

    This article describes a recently completed a $2.7-million project to upgrade the sludge dewatering and stabilizing system at a 48-mgd wastewater treatment facility in Niagara Fall, New York. The work was necessitated by the deteriorated condition of the plant's original vacuum filters and increasing costs to landfill the dewatered sludge. The new equipment has restored sludge production capacity while reducing the final material's moisture content. The Niagara Falls plant is one of the few municipal physical-chemical treatment plants built in this country, and is the largest still functioning. Constructed in the mid-1970s, it was designed to treat a combination of domestic sewage and industrial wastes. One third of the flow and one half of the solids are industrial in nature. The changes made reduced electrical power consumption and sanitary landfill costs.

  15. Ensuring cost effectiveness in the TAP process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trego, A.L.

    1992-06-16

    The Training Accredition Program (TAP) at the Waste Isolation Division (WID) is discussed by the general manager. Cost effectiveness in the TAP process is made possible by saving through sharing which refers to the exchange and co-development of information and technology among Westinghouse Government owned-contractor operators and with other organizations. In 1990 a comprehensive management and supervisor training (MAST) program plan was devised and a MAST certification program of 31 self-paced written moduler was developed. This program has proven to be inexpensive to develop and implement when compared to classroom training. In addition, total quality is used as a tool to continuously improve work process. Continuous improvement requires continued evaluation of work process, such as TAP analysis and development in summary to make training at DOE facilities the most cost-effective training anywhere, we need to share, challenge conventional wisdom, and seek to continuously improve.

  16. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  17. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2004-05-18

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  18. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2003-07-22

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  19. Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Furnace can Cut Solar Industry Costs A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF)-developed by the National Renew- able Energy Laboratory (NREL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy-uses optics to heat and purify solar cells at unmatched precision, while also boosting the cells' efficiency. As solar cells move through a manufacturer's production line, they must be oxidized, annealed, purified, diffused, etched, and layered. Heat is an

  20. RSF Workshop Session III: Cost Considerations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    III: Cost Considerations Moderator: Dana Christensen Panelists: Phil Macey Paul Torcellini Rich von Luhrte NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. The Road to Net Zero Dana Christensen Deputy Laboratory Director Science & Technology RSF Workshop July 27-28, 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable

  1. Balance of Systems and Soft Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems and Soft Costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  2. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL,; Wiser, Ryan; Lantz, Eric; Hand, Maureen

    2012-03-26

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions. Our findings indicate that steady cost reductions were interrupted between 2004 and 2010, but falling turbine prices and improved turbine performance are expected to drive a historically low LCOE for current installations. In addition, the majority of studies indicate continued cost reductions on the order of 20%-30% through 2030. Moreover, useful cost projections are likely to benefit from stronger consideration of the interactions between capital cost and performance as well as trends in the quality of the wind resource where projects are located, transmission, grid integration, and other cost variables.

  3. The cost effectiveness of NEPA: Are the benefits worth the costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangi, J.I. )

    1993-01-01

    NEPA is much loved, and much hated; too often ignored, and even more often ill-used. NEPA's framers intended the Act to have some substantive effects on Government actions, but they did not foresee the regulatory process and organizational structures that have accreted around the Act. Compliance with NEPA and its regulations may cost the US taxpayer, directly and indirectly, on the order of $1 billion a year. The benefits of NEPA compliance are obvious in some cases, not so in others. NEPA has success stories, but also boondoggles in its current and recent practice. Yet the taxpayer is entitled to know whether NEPA's non-trivial costs yield sufficient benefit to make compliance efforts a worthwhile investment. This paper will analyze the issue of the costs of NEPA compliance, and the issue of its benefits, and will suggest an answer as to the question of NEPA's cost effectiveness.

  4. Cost reduction in deep water production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beltrao, R.L.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a cost reduction program that Petrobras has conceived for its deep water field. Beginning with the Floating Production Unit, a new concept of FPSO was established where a simple system, designed to long term testing, can be upgraded, on the location, to be the definitive production unit. Regarding to the subsea system, the following projects will be considered. (1) Subsea Manifold: There are two 8-well-diverless manifolds designed for 1,000 meters presently under construction and after a value analysis, a new design was achieved for the next generation. Both projects will be discussed and a cost evaluation will also be provided. (2) Subsea Pipelines: Petrobras has just started a large program aiming to reduce cost on this important item. There are several projects such as hybrid (flexible and rigid) pipes for large diameter in deep water, alternatives laying methods, rigid riser on FPS, new material...etc. The authors intend to provide an overview of each project.

  5. GASIFICATION PLANT COST AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldon Kramer

    2003-09-01

    This project developed optimized designs and cost estimates for several coal and petroleum coke IGCC coproduction projects that produced hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and hydrocarbon liquid fuel precursors in addition to power. The as-built design and actual operating data from the DOE sponsored Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project was the starting point for this study that was performed by Bechtel, Global Energy and Nexant under Department of Energy contract DE-AC26-99FT40342. First, the team developed a design for a grass-roots plant equivalent to the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project to provide a starting point and a detailed mid-year 2000 cost estimate based on the actual as-built plant design and subsequent modifications (Subtask 1.1). This non-optimized plant has a thermal efficiency to power of 38.3% (HHV) and a mid-year 2000 EPC cost of 1,681 $/kW.1 This design was enlarged and modified to become a Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant (Subtask 1.2) that produces hydrogen, industrial grade steam, and fuel gas for an adjacent Gulf Coast petroleum refinery in addition to export power. A structured Value Improving Practices (VIP) approach was applied to reduce costs and improve performance. The base case (Subtask 1.3) Optimized Petroleum Coke IGCC Coproduction Plant increased the power output by 16% and reduced the plant cost by 23%. The study looked at several options for gasifier sparing to enhance availability. Subtask 1.9 produced a detailed report on this availability analyses study. The Subtask 1.3 Next Plant, which retains the preferred spare gasification train approach, only reduced the cost by about 21%, but it has the highest availability (94.6%) and produces power at 30 $/MW-hr (at a 12% ROI). Thus, such a coke-fueled IGCC coproduction plant could fill a near term niche market. In all cases, the emissions performance of these plants is superior to the Wabash River project. Subtasks 1.5A and B developed designs for single-train coal- and coke-fueled IGCC power plants. A side-by-side comparison of these plants, which contain the Subtask 1.3 VIP enhancements, shows their similarity both in design and cost (1,318 $/kW for the coal plant and 1,260 $/kW for the coke plant). Therefore, in the near term, a coke IGCC power plant could penetrate the market and provide a foundation for future coal-fueled facilities. Subtask 1.6 generated a design, cost estimate and economics for a four-train coal-fueled IGCC power plant, also based on the Subtask 1.3 cases. This plant has a thermal efficiency to power of 40.6% (HHV) and cost 1,066 $/kW. The single-train advanced Subtask 1.4 plant, which uses an advanced ''G/H-class'' combustion turbine, can have a thermal efficiency to power of 44.5% (HHV) and a plant cost of 1,116 $/kW. Multi-train plants will further reduce the cost. Again, all these plants have superior emissions performance. Subtask 1.7 developed an optimized design for a coal to hydrogen plant. At current natural gas prices, this facility is not competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas. The preferred scenario is to co-produce hydrogen in a plant similar to Subtask 1.3, as described above. Subtask 1.8 evaluated the potential merits of warm gas cleanup technology. This study showed that selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) is promising. Subtask 2.1 developed a petroleum coke IGCC power plant with the coproduction of liquid fuel precursors from the Subtask 1.3 Next Plant by eliminating the export steam and hydrogen production and replacing it with a Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis facility that produced 4,125 bpd of liquid fuel precursors. By maximizing liquids production at the expense of power generation, Subtask 2.2 developed an optimized design that produces 10,450 bpd of liquid fuel precursors and 617 MW of export power from 5,417 tpd of dry petroleum coke. With 27 $/MW-hr power and 30 $/bbl liquids, the Subtask 2.2 plant can have a return on investment of 18%. Subtask 2.3 converted the Subtask 1.6 four-train coal fueled IGCC power plant into one that coproduced 12,377 bpd of liquid fuel precursors in addition to 676 MW of export power. Adding the coproduction of liquid fuel precursors can enhance the profitability of an IGCC power plant when oil prices are high relative to power prices. As gasification technology matures, improvements identified in this study will lead to further cost reductions and efficiency improvements that will make IGCC power plants more competitive in the marketplace.

  6. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  7. Workplace Charging Equipment and Installation Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Equipment and Installation Costs Workplace Charging Equipment and Installation Costs The costs for a workplace charging program include the costs for charging equipment, installation, maintenance, and supplying electricity. Charging equipment costs depend on the type of charging station you decide to install in your workplace. Level 1 ($300-$1,500) and Level 2 ($400-$6,500) charging stations are commonly installed at workplaces. Explore how charging station equipment features affect the total

  8. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) The Department of Energy investigated the major cost factors that affected PMU installation costs for the synchrophasor projects funded through the Recovery Act Smart Grid Programs. The data was compiled through interviews with the nine projects that deployed production grade synchrophasor systems. The study found that while the costs associated with PMUs as stand-alone

  9. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #15 PDF icon Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer How to Calculate the True

  10. Offshore Wind Balance-of-System Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maness, Michael; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Mone, Christopher

    2015-09-29

    Offshore wind balance-of-system (BOS) costs contribute up to 70% of installed capital costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand the impact of these costs on project economics as well as potential cost trends for new offshore wind technology developments. As a result, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and recently updated a BOS techno-economic model using project cost estimates created from wind energy industry sources.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    EVs Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  12. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-2, 2A, 2B, and 3: Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J.; Noel, J.S. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    An integral part of the licensing procedure for the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, involves characterization of the in situ rheology for the design and construction of the facility and the emplacement of canisters containing radioactive waste. The data used to model the thermal and mechanical behavior of the repository and surrounding lithologies include dry and saturated bulk densities, average grain density, porosity, compressional and shear wave velocities, elastic moduli, and compressional and tensional fracture strengths. In this study, a suite of experiments was performed on cores recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-2, 2A, 2B, and 3 drilled in support of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The holes penetrated the Timber Mountain tuff and two thermal/mechanical units of the Paintbrush tuff. The thermal/mechanical stratigraphy was defined by Ortiz to group rock horizons of similar properties for the purpose of simplifying modeling efforts. The relationship between the geologic stratigraphy and the thermal/mechanical stratigraphy for each borehole is presented. The tuff samples in this study have a wide range of welding characteristics (usually reflected in sample porosity), and a smaller range of mineralogy and petrology characteristics. Generally, the samples are silicic, ash-fall tuffs that exhibit large variability in their elastic and strength properties.

  13. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-7/7A: Data report. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.J.; Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S. [New England Research, Inc. White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    An integral part of the licensing procedure for the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, involves prediction of the in situ rheology for the design and construction of the facility and the emplacement of canisters containing radioactive waste. The data used to model the thermal and mechanical behavior of the repository and surrounding lithologies include dry and saturated bulk densities, average grain density, porosity, compressional and shear wave velocities, elastic moduli, and compressional and tensional fracture strengths. In this study, a suite of experiments was performed on cores recovered from the USW NRG-717A borehole drilled in support of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. USW NRG-7/7A was drilled to a depth of 1,513.4 feet through five thermal/mechanical units of Paintbrush tuff and terminating in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico IEUS. The thermal/mechanical stratigraphy was defined by Orfiz et al. to group rock horizons of similar properties for the purpose of simplifying modeling efforts. The relationship between the geologic stratigraphy and the thermal/mechanical stratigraphy is presented. The tuff samples in this study have a wide range of welding characteristics, and a smaller range of mineralogy and petrology characteristics. Generally, the samples are silicic, ash-fall tuffs that exhibit large variability in their elastic and strength properties.

  14. New technology, concepts aim at lower costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritis, G.

    1996-10-07

    New technologies both at the application stage and at the concept stage aim at reducing costs for producing and developing offshore fields. At the center of many of these new technologies are floating production, storage, offloading, and drilling vessels. These vessels are tied to subsea completions that take advantage of smaller and lighter wellheads, and such emerging technologies as subsea multiphase meters and pumps, and subsea separators and boosters. The paper discusses floating production, the inclusion of a drilling/workover rig on the turret of a ship-shaped FPSO, the use of smaller turrets, and subsea systems (wellheads, flowmeters, composite materials).

  15. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lowers Costs ArcelorMittal's Indiana Harbor plant in East Chicago, Indiana, is the largest steel mill in the Western Hemisphere. It operates five blast furnaces, including the largest in the United States, known as the No. 7 Blast Furnace. These furnaces transform iron ore, coke, limestone, and scrap into more than 9.5 million tons of high-quality steels each year, including hot- rolled, cold-rolled, and hot-dipped galvanized sheet products serving automotive,

  16. Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger DOE Grant DE-EE0004541 2013-2014 Dr. John T. Kelly Altex Technologies Corporation 244 Sobrante Way Sunnyvale, CA 94086 Phone: 408-328-8302 E-mail: john@altextech.com U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office PEER Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. ALTEX TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION Project Objectives  Define and test low

  17. Low Cost Carbon Fibre: Applications, Performance and Cost Models - Chapter 17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David; Wheatley, Dr. Alan; Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Weight saving in automotive applications has a major bearing on fuel economy. It is generally accepted that, typically, a 10% weight reduction in an automobile will lead to a 6-8% improvement in fuel economy. In this respect, carbon fibre composites are extremely attractive in their ability to provide superlative mechanical performance per unit weight. That is why they are specified for high-end uses such as Formula 1 racing cars and the latest aircraft (e.g. Boeing 787, Airbus A350 and A380), where they comprise over 50% by weight of the structure However, carbon fibres are expensive and this renders their composites similarly expensive. Research has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Tennessee, USA for over a decade with the aim of reducing the cost of carbon fibre such that it becomes a cost-effective option for the automotive industry. Aspects of this research relating to the development of low cost carbon fibre have been reported in Chapter 3 of this publication. In this chapter, the practical industrial applications of low-cost carbon fibre are presented, together with considerations of the performance and cost models which underpin the work.

  18. Using Cost-Effectiveness Tests to Design CHP Incentive Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidball, Rick

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the structure of cost-effectiveness tests to illustrate how they can accurately reflect the costs and benefits of CHP systems. This paper begins with a general background discussion on cost-effectiveness analysis of DER and then describes how cost-effectiveness tests can be applied to CHP. Cost-effectiveness results are then calculated and analyzed for CHP projects in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and North Carolina. Based on the results obtained for these five states, this paper offers four considerations to inform regulators in the application of cost-effectiveness tests in developing CHP programs.

  19. Technology advances keeping LNG cost-competitive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellow, E.J. Jr.; Ghazal, F.P.; Silverman, A.J.; Myers, S.D.

    1997-06-02

    LNG plants, often very expensive in the past, will in the future need to cost less to build and operate and yet maintain high safety and reliability standards, both during construction and operation. Technical advancements, both in the process and in equipment scaling, manufacturing, and metallurgy, will provide much of the impetus for the improved economics. Although world energy demand is predicted to grow on average of about 2% annually over the next decade, LNG is expected to contribute an increasing portion of this growth with annual growth rates averaging about 7%. This steep growth increase will be propelled mainly by the environmentally friendlier burning characteristics of natural gas and the strong industrial growth in Asian and pacific Rim countries. While LNG is emerging as the fuel of choice for developing economies, its delivered cost to consumers will need to stay competitive with alternate energy supplies if it is to remain in front. The paper discusses LNG process development, treating process, equipment developments (man heat exchanger, compressors, drivers, and pressure vessels), and economy of scale.

  20. Cost reduction in absorption chillers: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1989-02-01

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has addressed the possibility of dramatically lowering the first costs of absorption chillers through lowered material intensity and the use of lower cost materials, primarily in the heat exchangers which make up the bulk of the operating components of these systems. This must be done while retaining the best performance characteristics available today, a gross design point coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.3 and a net design (seasonal) average COP of 1.0 (0.90) in a directly fired, double effect unit. We have investigated several possible routes to these goals, and here report on these findings, focusing on the areas that appear most promising. The candidate technologies include the use of polymer film heat exchangers in several applications, the use of thin strips of new, corrosion resistant alloys to replace thicker, less impervious metals in applications exposed to gas flames, and copper or cupro-nickel foils in contact with system water. The use of such materials is only possible in the context of new heat exchanger and system designs, which are also discussed. To lend focus, we have concentrated on a directly fired double effect system providing capacity only. If successful, these techniques will also find wide applicability in heat pumps, cogeneration systems, solar cooling, heat recovery and chemical process heat transfer. 46 refs., 24 figs., 22 tabs.