National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for recirculation timing retard

  1. Combustion oscillation: Chemical control showing mechanistic link to recirculation zone purge time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gemmen, R.S.; Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Norton, T.S.

    1995-12-01

    Active control mechanisms are being examined for lean premix combustion applications, such as gas turbine generators. Lean premix combustors are susceptible to large combustion oscillations, particularly when driven very lean to achieve low NOx. While past design work has been focussed on understanding the source of the oscillation and modifying the combustor to avoid such oscillations, commercial combustion designers have more recently considered applying new control elements. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is investigating various active control techniques. This paper presents results from experiments studying the effect of pilot fuel modulation on combustor oscillation and pollutant emissions for a pilot stabilized dump swirl combustor, typical of gas turbine combustors. The results show that a significant level of attenuation can be achieved in the combustor pressure oscillation (50 to 90 percent) while only moderately affecting pollutant emissions. The control mechanism producing the attenuation is shown to be purely chemical in nature, rather than fluid mechanic. In addition, the frequency region over which control is obtained is shown to be related to the recirculation zone purge time. For this reason, control can be achieved at control frequencies much lower than the frequency of oscillation.

  2. Retarded Interaction of Electromagnetic field and Symmetry Violation of Time Reversal in Non-linear Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mei Xiaochun

    2008-04-19

    Based on Document (1), by considering the retarded interaction of radiation fields, the third order transition probabilities of stimulated radiations and absorptions of light are calculated. The revised formulas of nonlinear polarizations are provided. The results show that that the general processes of non-linear optics violate time reversal symmetry. The phenomena of non-linear optics violating time reversal symmetry just as sum frequency, double frequency, different frequencies, double stable states, self-focusing and self-defocusing, echo phenomena, as well as optical self-transparence and self absorptions and so on are analyzed.

  3. Impact of retarded spark timing on engine combustion, hydrocarbon emissions, and fast catalyst light-off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallgren, Brian E. (Brian Eric), 1976-

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to determine the effects of substantial spark retard on engine combustion, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, feed gas enthalpy, and catalyst light-off. Engine experiments were conducted at ...

  4. TANK MIXING STUDY WITH FLOW RECIRCULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.

    2014-06-25

    The primary objective of this work is to quantify the mixing time when two miscible fluids are mixed by one recirculation pump and to evaluate adequacy of 2.5 hours of pump recirculation to be considered well mixed in SRS tanks, JT-71/72. The work scope described here consists of two modeling analyses. They are the steady state flow pattern analysis during pump recirculation operation of the tank liquid and transient species transport calculations based on the initial steady state flow patterns. The modeling calculations for the mixing time are performed by using the 99% homogeneity criterion for the entire domain of the tank contents.

  5. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  6. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  7. Flume simulation of sedimentation in recirculating flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, J.C. (Middlebury College, VT (USA)); Rubin, D.M. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Ikeda, H. (Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    A 4-m-wide flume at the University of Tsukuba Environmental Research Center was used to simulate flow conditions near debris fans in bedrock gorges. Flow was constricted to 2 m by a semicircular obstruction. During the authors experiments (discharge = 600 L/sec; Froude number of constricted flow = 1) a zone of recirculating current extended 25-30 m downstream from the separation point at the constriction. The pattern and velocity of surface flow was determined using time-lapse photography; subsurface velocity was measured with a two-dimensional electromagnetic current meter. During 32-hr of run time, a fine, very coarse sand mixture was fed into the flow at a rate between 0.5-1 kg/sec. Oscillation ripples developed beneath the separation surface that bounds the recirculation zone, and upstream-migrating dunes and ripples developed within the recirculation zone upstream from the reattachment point. A mid-channel expansion bar was deposited downstream from the reattachment point. Sedimentation within the recirculation zone continued by vertical aggradation and by upstream migration of dunes and ripples. Sediments within the recirculation zone were areally sorted with the finest sediment deposited near the separation point. These patterns are consistent with field observations of bars along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.

  8. Measuring catchment-scale chemical retardation using spectral analysis of reactive and passive chemical tracer time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Measuring catchment-scale chemical retardation using spectral analysis of reactive and passive for Ecology and Hydrology, McLean Building, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB, UK Received 28 August 2002; revised 14, carrying soluble substances with it. Some chemical constituents are non- reactive; these act as passive

  9. Energy conservation by partial recirculation of peanut drying air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, J.H.

    1983-06-01

    Conventional, recirculating, and intermittent type peanut dryers were compared in a three-year study. Comparisons indicate that partial recirculation of peanut drying air may reduce energy consumption per unit of water removed by approximately 25% while also reducing required drying time and maintaining high quality.

  10. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  11. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  12. Recirculating cross-correlation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, W.H. Jr.; Roberts, M.J.

    1985-01-18

    A digital cross-correlation detector is provided in which two time-varying signals are correlated by repetitively comparing data samples stored in digital form to detect correlation between the two signals. The signals are sampled at a selected rate converted to digital form, and stored in separate locations in separate memories. When the memories are filled, the data samples from each memory are first fed word-by-word through a multiplier and summing circuit and each result is compared to the last in a peak memory circuit and if larger than the last is retained in the peak memory. Then the address line to leading signal memory is offset by one byte to affect one sample period delay of a known amount in that memory and the data in the two memories are then multiplied word-by-word once again and summed. If a new result is larger than a former sum, it is saved in the peak memory together with the time delay. The recirculating process continues with the address of the one memory being offset one additional byte each cycle until the address is shifted through the length of the memory. The correlation between the two signals is indicated by the peak signal stored in the peak memory together with the delay time at which the peak occurred. The circuit is faster and considerably less expensive than comparable accuracy correlation detectors.

  13. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brizard, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    model lies with the simple wave energy conservation law itthe recirculation of wave energy introduces interference e?particles, the tertiary-wave energy may be negative and thus

  14. Prediction-based trajectory tracking of External Gas Recirculation for turbocharged SI Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prediction-based trajectory tracking of External Gas Recirculation for turbocharged SI Engines with direct injection, turbocharger and Variable Valve Timing (VVT) actuators [21]. Such a setup

  15. Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits Characterized field-aged exhaust gas recirculation...

  16. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Kaufman, A. N. [Department of Physics and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tracy, E. R. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  17. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Física del Plasma , Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  18. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown...

  19. Xenon Recirculation-Purification with a Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. L. Giboni; E. Aprile; B. Choi; T. Haruyama; R. F. Lang; K. E. Lim; A. J. Melgarejo; G. Plante

    2011-03-04

    Liquid-xenon based particle detectors have been dramatically growing in size during the last years, and are now exceeding the one-ton scale. The required high xenon purity is usually achieved by continuous recirculation of xenon gas through a high-temperature getter. This challenges the traditional way of cooling these large detectors, since in a thermally well insulated detector, most of the cooling power is spent to compensate losses from recirculation. The phase change during recondensing requires five times more cooling power than cooling the gas from ambient temperature to -100C (173 K). Thus, to reduce the cooling power requirements for large detectors, we propose to use the heat from the purified incoming gas to evaporate the outgoing xenon gas, by means of a heat exchanger. Generally, a heat exchanger would appear to be only of very limited use, since evaporation and liquefaction occur at zero temperature difference. However, the use of a recirculation pump reduces the pressure of the extracted liquid, forces it to evaporate, and thus cools it down. We show that this temperature difference can be used for an efficient heat exchange process. We investigate the use of a commercial parallel plate heat exchanger with a small liquid xenon detector. Although we expected to be limited by the available cooling power to flow rates of about 2 SLPM, rates in excess of 12 SLPM can easily be sustained, limited only by the pump speed and the impedance of the flow loop. The heat exchanger operates with an efficiency of (96.8 +/- 0.5)%. This opens the possibility for fast xenon gas recirculation in large-scale experiments, while minimizing thermal losses.

  20. Turbocharged engine exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stachowicz, R.W.

    1984-01-24

    Improved exhaust gas recirculation systems for turbocharged gas engines that include an exhaust pipe, a turbocharger connected thereto, and a carburetor connected with a source of gas for the engine. The recirculation system includes an air conduit extending from the turbocharger compressor discharge to a venturi, an exhaust gas conduit that extends from a connection with the exhaust pipe between the engine and the turbocharger to the venturi, a second air conduit that extends from the exhaust pipe to a connection with the first air conduit, and control valves located in the exhaust gas conduit and in the second air conduit. The valves are closed when the engine is being started or idling at no load and open when a load is imposed or when engine rpm's are increased. No pumps, blowers, etc. are needed because the system operates on a differential in pressure created within the system to cause the exhaust gas recirculation.

  1. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil - Impact on Wear Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil - Impact on Wear Results of completed...

  2. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  3. In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM); Dwyer, Brian P. (Albuquerque, NM); Krumhansl, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Chwirka, Joseph D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2009-04-07

    A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

  4. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  5. Preliminary Study on Emittance Growth in the LHEC Recirculating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and synchrotron radiation (SR) fluctuations in the recirculating arcs. 6-D multi-particle tracking is launched to calculate the emittance from the statistical point of view. The...

  6. Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Characterized field-aged exhaust gas recirculation coolers from 7 engine manufacturers, discussed differences and commonalities, and provided understanding of cooler fouling and prevention.

  7. PULSED-FOCUSING RECIRCULATING LINACS FOR MUON ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland PAUL

    2014-12-31

    Since the muon has a short lifetime, fast acceleration is essential for high-energy applications such as muon colliders, Higgs factories, or neutrino factories. The best one can do is to make a linear accelerator with the highest possible accelerating gradient to make the accelerating time as short as possible. However, the cost of such a single linear accelerator is prohibitively large due to expensive power sources, cavities, tunnels, and related infrastructure. As was demonstrated in the Thomas Jefferson Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), an elegant solution to reduce cost is to use magnetic return arcs to recirculate the beam through the accelerating RF cavities many times, where they gain energy on each pass. In such a Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA), the magnetic focusing strength diminishes as the beam energy increases in a conventional linac that has constant strength quadrupoles. After some number of passes the focusing strength is insufficient to keep the beam from going unstable and being lost. In this project, the use of fast pulsed quadrupoles in the linac sections was considered for stronger focusing as a function of time to allow more successive passes of a muon beam in a recirculating linear accelerator. In one simulation, it was shown that the number of passes could be increased from 8 to 12 using pulsed magnet designs that have been developed and tested. This could reduce the cost of linac sections of a muon RLA by 8/12, where more improvement is still possible. The expense of a greater number of passes and corresponding number of return arcs was also addressed in this project by exploring the use of ramped or FFAG-style magnets in the return arcs. A better solution, invented in this project, is to use combined-function dipole-quadrupole magnets to simultaneously transport two beams of different energies through one magnet string to reduce costs of return arcs by almost a factor of two. A patent application was filed for this invention and a detailed report published in Physical Review Special Topics. A scaled model using an electron beam was developed and proposed to test the concept of a dog bone RLA with combined-function return arcs. The efforts supported by this grant were reported in a series of contributions to particle accelerator conferences that are reproduced in the appendices and summarized in the body of this report.

  8. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schartel, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schartel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21{sup st} century. The exploitation of 'new' effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  9. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  10. Energy savings from air recirculation in peanut curing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, D.F.; Cundiff, J.S.; Vaughan, D.H.

    1982-12-01

    A thin-layer peanut drying simulation model was adapted to incorporate air recirculation. Laboratory crop dryers were designed and constructed to conduct experiments to verify the model. Five batches of peanuts were dried using different recirculation strategies. The model successfully predicted the results.

  11. Recirculating Molten Metal Supply System And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2003-07-01

    The melter furnace includes a heating chamber (16), a pump chamber (18), a degassing chamber (20), and a filter chamber (22). The pump chamber (18) is located adjacent the heating chamber (16) and houses a molten metal pump (30). The degassing chamber (20) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the pump chamber (18), and houses a degassing mechanism (36). The filter chamber (22) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the degassing chamber (20). The filter chamber (22) includes a molten metal filter (38). The melter furnace (12) is used to supply molten metal to an externally located holder furnace (14), which then recirculates molten metal back to the melter furnace (12).

  12. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Hector (Evans, GA); Bickford, Dennis (Folly Beach, SC)

    2007-06-05

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  13. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    vapor retarders: Class I vapor retarders (0.1 perms or less): Glass Sheet metal Polyethylene sheet Rubber membrane Class II vapor retarders (greater than 0.1 perms and less...

  14. Heat recirculating cooler for fluid stream pollutant removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV)

    2008-10-28

    A process by which heat is removed from a reactant fluid to reach the operating temperature of a known pollutant removal method and said heat is recirculated to raise the temperature of the product fluid. The process can be utilized whenever an intermediate step reaction requires a lower reaction temperature than the prior and next steps. The benefits of a heat-recirculating cooler include the ability to use known pollutant removal methods and increased thermal efficiency of the system.

  15. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vapor retarder classification. Air-tight and well-insulated homes have little or no tolerance for drying if they get wet; moisture control is critical. This Top Innovation profile...

  16. Environmentally Benign Flame Retardant Nanocoatings for Fabric 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yu-Chin

    2012-07-16

    A variety of materials were used to fabricate nanocoatings using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly to reduce the flammability of cotton fabric. The most effective brominated flame retardants have raised concerns related to ...

  17. Using Residence Time for the Extraction of Recirculation Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    ­Wendroff integration. An implementation is discussed that allows the coupling of this solver to any explicit CFD code regimes. For combustion, swirling flow is used to enhance mix­ ing but can also cause isolated regions investigating the results of CFD simula­ tions have historically seeded streamlines (in steady­ state flows

  18. Comparison of metrics from retarded integrals and transverse traceless subgauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Lewis; G. Modanese

    2013-04-12

    The time-varying gravitational field produced by a Weber bar is used to explore mathematical features of the linearized Einstein equation. We present a self-contained formal framework for the treatment of the linear field, which is applicable to several situations where the standard quadrupolar formulas are not adequate. The expressions for retarded integrals reveal a singularity associated with boundary conditions. Results from the transverse traceless subgauge are compared with the radiation calculated from retarded integrals. Lienard-Wiechert potentials are used in a treatment of the Weber bar as a collection of point particles and further possible applications are outlined. The Riemann tensor clarifies the transition from near-field geodesic forces to tidal forces in the far field.

  19. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2015-12-22

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a turbine housing includes a turbine inlet in fluid communication with a turbine volute configured to house a turbine wheel, the turbine inlet configured to direct an exhaust gas flow from an engine to the turbine wheel. The turbine housing also includes a turbine outlet in fluid communication with the turbine volute, the turbine outlet configured to direct the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas conduit and a first exhaust gas recirculation supply port located on and in fluid communication with the turbine outlet, the first exhaust gas recirculation supply port being configured to direct a portion of the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas recirculation supply conduit.

  20. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  1. Recirculating Liquid Nitrogen System for Operation of Cryogenic Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Mitchell

    1 Recirculating Liquid Nitrogen System for Operation of Cryogenic Pumps IEPC-2011-217 Presented Abstract: Cryogenic pumps are attractive for electric propulsion test facilities due to their pumping speed cryogenerators to provide the cooling necessary for a ten-cryopump vacuum facility with a pumping rate on xenon

  2. Design of a computerized, temperature-controlled, recirculating aquaria system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonar, Scott A.

    in fish tanks to a desired set temperature and then calculated the amount of hot or cold water to addDesign of a computerized, temperature-controlled, recirculating aquaria system Ann M. Widmer to tanks to reach or maintain the desired temperature. Intellifaucet1 three-way mixing valves controlled

  3. On-Road Air Quality and the Effect of Partial Recirculation on In-Cabin Air Quality for Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grady, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The proposed fractional air recirculation system canThe suggested fractional air recirculation method is away of improving cabin air quality. References [1] U.S. DOT.

  4. Fast switchable electro-optic radial polarization retarder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. C. Lim; P. B. Phua; W. J. Lai; M. H. Hong

    2008-01-21

    A fast, switchable electro-optic radial polarization retarder (EO-RPR) fabricated using the electro-optic ceramic PMN-PT is presented. This EO-RPR is useful for fast, switchable generation of pure cylindrical vector beam. When used together with a pair of half-wave plates, the EO-RPR can change circularly polarized light into any cylindrical vector beam of interest such as radially or azimuthally polarized light. Radially and azimuthally polarized light with purities greater than 95% are generated experimentally. The advantages of using EO-RPR include fast response times, low driving voltage and transparency in a wide spectral range (500 -7000 nm).

  5. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA)

    1989-01-01

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combuston chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end of the combustor chamber and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture.

  6. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1988-07-19

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture is described. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combustor chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture. 10 figs.

  7. Mirror-mediated cooling: a paradigm for particle cooling via the retarded dipole force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tim Freegarde; James Bateman; André Xuereb; Peter Horak

    2012-06-01

    Cooling forces result from the retarded dipole interaction between an illuminated particle and its reflection. For a one-dimensional example, we find cooling times of milliseconds and limiting temperatures in the millikelvin range. The force, which may be considered the prototype for cavity-mediated cooling, may be enhanced by plasmon and geometric resonances at the mirror.

  8. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  9. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    retarders. Materials such as rigid foam insulation, reinforced plastics, aluminum, and stainless steel are relatively resistant to water vapor diffusion. These types of vapor...

  10. Parameter choices for a muon recirculating linear accelerator from 5 to 63 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, J. S.

    2014-06-19

    A recirculating linear accelerator (RLA) has been proposed to accelerate muons from 5 to 63 GeV for a muon collider. It should be usable both for a Higgs factory and as a stage for a higher energy collider. First, the constraints due to the beam loading are computed. Next, an expression for the longitudinal emittance growth to lowest order in the longitudinal emittance is worked out. After finding the longitudinal expression, a simplified model that describes the arcs and their approximate expression for the time of flight dependence on energy in those arcs is found. Finally, these results are used to estimate the parameters required for the RLA arcs and the linac phase.

  11. Identification of optimum potassium nutrition of greenhouse plants grown in recirculating subirrigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blessington, Trisha R.

    2002-01-01

    of this research was to determine the optimum potassium nutrition of greenhouse plants grown in recirculating subirrigation. New Guinea impatiens 'Ovation Salmon Pink Swirl' were grown in recirculating subirrigation trays using 0 -12 mM K, with constant 1.5 mM P...

  12. RECENT PROGRESS TOWARD A MUON RECIRCULATING LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slawomir Bogacz, Vasiliy Morozov, Yves Roblin, Kevin Beard

    2012-07-01

    Both Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require very rapid acceleration due to the short lifetime of muons. After a capture and bunching section, a linac raises the energy to about 900 MeV, and is followed by one or more Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA), possibly followed by a Rapid Cycling Synchnotron (RCS) or Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) ring. A RLA reuses the expensive RF linac section for a number of passes at the price of having to deal with different energies within the same linac. Various techniques including pulsed focusing quadruopoles, beta frequency beating, and multipass arcs have been investigated via simulations to improve the performance and reduce the cost of such RLAs.

  13. Simultaneous water desalination and electricity generation in a microbial desalination cell with electrolyte recirculation for pH control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simultaneous water desalination and electricity generation in a microbial desalination cell November 2011 Keywords: Microbial desalination cell Recirculation pH imbalance a b s t r a c t A recirculation microbial desalination cell (rMDC) was designed and operated to allow recirculation of solutions

  14. Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the technology of re-circulation evaporative cooling (REC), which uses a portion of supply air as secondary air to make cool water used to indirectly cool outside air through a heat exchanger. The circulation volume...

  15. Analysis of non-adiabatic heat-recirculating combustors Paul D. Ronney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " burners, first studied over 30 years ago [1, 2], has been renewed due to efforts in microscale combustion of extinction limits and limit mechanisms in heat-recirculating burners. In 1978 Jones et al. [7] performed

  16. Ozone (o3) efficacy on reduction of phytophthora capsici in recirculated horticultural irrigation water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Garry Vernon

    2009-05-15

    Microorganisms that cause plant disease have been isolated in recirculated irrigation water and increase the risks of disease incidence in horticultural operations. Ozone is an effective oxidizer used to disinfect drinking ...

  17. The entrainment and homogenization of tracers within the cyclonic gulf stream recirculation gyre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickart, Robert S

    1987-01-01

    The various distributions of tracer associated with the Northern Recirculation Gyre of the Gulf Stream (NRG) are studied to try to obtain information about the flow. An advective-diffusive numerical model is implemented ...

  18. Feasibility study for a recirculating linac-based facility for femtosecond dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corlett, J.N.; Barry, W.; Barletta, W.A.; Byrd, J.M.; DeSantis, S.; Doolittle, L.; Fawley, W.; Green, M.A.; Hartman, N.; Heimann, P.; Kairan, D.; Kujawski, E.; Li, D.; Lidia, S.; Luft, P.; McClure, R.; Parmigiani, F.; Petroff, Y.; Pirkl, W.; Placidi, M.; Reavill, D.; Reichel, I.; Rimmer, R.A.; Ratti, A.; Robinson, K.E.; Sannibale, F.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Tanabe, J.; Truchlikova, D.; Wan, W.; Wang, S.; Wells, R.; Wolski, A.; Zholents, A.

    2002-12-21

    LBNL is pursuing design studies and the scientific program for a facility dedicated to the production of x-ray pulses with ultra-short time duration, for application in dynamical studies of processes in physics, biology, and chemistry. The proposed x-ray facility has the short x-ray pulse length ({approx}60 fs FWHM) necessary to study very fast dynamics, high flux (up to approximately 10E11 photons/sec/0.1 percentBW) to study weakly scattering systems, and tuneability over 1-12 keV photon energy. The hard x-ray photon production section of the machine accommodates seven 2-m long undulators. Design studies for longer wavelength sources, using high-gain harmonic generation, are in progress. The x-ray pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz is matched to studies of dynamical processes (initiated by ultra-short laser pulses) that typically have a long recovery time or are not generally cyclic or reversible and need time to allow relaxation, replacement, or flow of the sample. The technique for producing ultra-short x-ray pulses uses relatively long electron bunches to minimize high-peak-current collective effects, and the ultimate x-ray duration is achieved by a combination of bunch manipulation and optical compression. Synchronization of x-ray pulses to sample excitation signals is expected to be of order 50 - 100 fs. Techniques for making use of the recirculating geometry to provide beam-based signals from early passes through the machine are being studied.

  19. Upstream open loop control of the recirculation area downstream of a backward-facing step

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The flow downstream a backward-facing step is controlled using a pulsed jet placed upstream of the step edge. Experimental velocity fields are computed and used to the recirculation area quantify. The effects of jet amplitude, frequency and duty cycle on this recirculation area are investigated for two Reynolds numbers (Re=2070 and Re=2900). The results of this experimental study demonstrate that upstream actuation can be as efficient as actuation at the step edge when exciting the shear layer at its natural frequency. Moreover it is shown that it is possible to minimize both jet amplitude and duty cycle and still achieve optimal efficiency. With minimal amplitude and a duty-cycle as low as 10\\% the recirculation area is nearly canceled.

  20. Silica Fume as a Radon Retardant from Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Silica Fume as a Radon Retardant from Concrete K . N . Y U , * , R . V . B A L E N D R A N of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Radon, and tracheobronchial deposition of radon progeny can lead to lung cancers. Aggregates (granite) are known

  1. Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    ARTICLE Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion Rajeev Kumar derived pseudo-lignin on cellulose conversion at the moderate to low enzyme loadings necessary for favorable economics, dilute acid pretreatment of Avicel cellulose alone and mixed with beechwood xylan

  2. Environmentally-benign Flame Retardant Nanocoating for Foam and Fabric 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cain, Amanda Ashley

    2014-12-09

    for the purpose of inhibiting or suppressing the combustion cycle. Inspiration for first applying polymer/clay thin films (i.e., nanobrick walls) as flame retardant (FR) coatings to polyurethane foam via LbL came from the final stage of a proposed flame...

  3. Arsenic Occurrence, Mobility, and Retardation in Sandstone and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahai, Nita

    Arsenic Occurrence, Mobility, and Retardation in Sandstone and Dolomite Formations of the Fox River were conducted on samples from the Sinnipee Group dolomite and St. Peter sandstone in eastern Wisconsin in the dolomite and sandstone. The released As sub- sequently sorbs on the ferric oxyhydroxides formed

  4. Path integral formulation of retardation effects in nonlinear optics Vladimir Chernyaka) and Shaul Mukamel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukamel, Shaul

    Path integral formulation of retardation effects in nonlinear optics Vladimir Chernyaka) and Shaul;accepted4 October 1993) The signaturesof retardation in nonlinear optical susceptibilitiesare studiedby optical signalsare usually'calculatedby first calculating a nonlinear susceptibility definedby expanding

  5. Measuring nonequilibrium retarded spin-spin Green's functions in an ion-trap based quantum simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryce T. Yoshimura; J. K. Freericks

    2015-12-16

    Recent work proposed a variant on Ramsey interferometry for coupled spin-$1/2$ systems that directly measures the retarded spin-spin Green's function. We expand on that work by investigating nonequilibrium retarded spin-spin Green's functions within the transverse-field Ising model. We derive the lowest four spectral moments to understand the short-time behavior and we employ a Lehmann-like representation to determine the spectral behavior. We simulate a Ramsey protocol for a nonequilibrium quantum spin system that consists of a coherent superposition of the ground state and diabatically excited higher-energy states via a temporally ramped transverse magnetic field. We then apply the Ramsey spectroscopy protocol to the final Hamiltonian, which has a constant transverse field. The short-time behavior directly relates to Lieb-Robinson bounds for the transport of many-body correlations, while the long-time behavior relates to the excitation spectra of the Hamiltonian. Compressive sensing is employed in the data analysis to efficiently extract that spectra.

  6. Suction-recirculation device for stabilizing particle flows within a solar powered solid particle receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolb, Gregory J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-02-07

    A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.

  7. Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Adaptive Air Charge Estimation for Turbocharged Diesel Engines without Exhaust Gas Recirculation an adaptive observer for in-cylinder air charge estimation for turbocharged diesel engines without exhaust gas Fuel economy benefits obtained by turbocharged (TC) diesel engines render them common practice

  8. Achromatic recirculated chicane with fixed geometry and independently variable path length and momentum compaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David R.; Neil, George R.

    2005-04-26

    A particle beam recirculated chicane geometry that, through the inducement of a pair of 180 degree bends directed by the poles of a pair of controllable magnetic fields allows for variation of dipole position, return loop radii and steering/focussing, thereby allowing the implementation of independent variation of path length and momentum compaction.

  9. On thermoelectric power conversion from heat re-circulating combustion systems F. J. Weinberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On thermoelectric power conversion from heat re-circulating combustion systems F. J. Weinberg Fax: 4420 7594 5604 Word count: 3750 Diags. equivalent: 1600 5350 #12;On thermoelectric power the absolute maximum efficiency of energy conversion by thermoelectric devices that operate as part of the heat

  10. EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL OF VARIABLE CAM TIMING ACTUATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This dilution of the mixture in the cylinder re- duces HC and NOx feedgas emissions. Neverthe- less, retarding al., 1998). Table 1 illus- trates the sought after NOx emission reduction when the Variable Cam conditions (1500rpm, 30Nm). NOx pollutant emissions are lowered by retarding the cam timing. ically

  11. SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

    2005-01-01

    The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus the baseline and finding the ratio between the injected NO amounts. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity and engine operating points affected the NOx decomposition rates of the natural gas engine. A highest NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine. A separate exploratory tests conducted with a gasoline engine with a low air/fuel ratio yielded results that suggested, that high NOx decomposition rates may be possible if a normally lean burn engine were operated at conditions closer to stoichiometric, with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a brief period of time during the NOx decomposition phase and with a wider range of air/fuel ratios. Chemical kinetic model predictions using CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with the established rate and equilibrium models. NOx decomposition rates from 35% to 42% were estimated using the CHEMKIN software. This provided insight on how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for a large bore engine. In the future, the modeling will be used to examine the effect of higher NO{sub 2}/NO ratios that are associated with lower speed and larger bore lean burn operation.

  12. Effect of recirculation pump trip following anticipated transients without scram at Big Rock Point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, R.E.

    1981-08-01

    As requested by the US Atomic Energy Commission (now US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) in their Technical Report on Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) for Water-Cooled Reactors (WASH-1270), Consumers Power Company has submitted analyses which describe the response of their Big Rock Point (BRP) Plant to ATWS. The original analyses were submitted on Febuary 21, 1975, and results indicated that a recirculation pump trip (RPT) was effective in limiting the consequences of an ATWS. The response of BRP to an ATWS was reanalyzed as a part of the Big Rock Point Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Results of the analysis were submitted on February 26, 1981, with the conclusion that automatic RPT provides little safety improvement at BRP. Purpose of this report is to evaluate the submitted analyses to determine the effectiveness of Recirculation Pump Trip in ATWS recovery.

  13. Effects of inlet geometries on flow recirculation in an axial-flow pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpan, Kenan

    1984-01-01

    , e) hydraulic surging on the suction side, f) intense vortices with high velocities resulting with high wall static pressures at the pump inlet, g) formation of intense cavitation, h) severe pressure pulsations and noise, i) loss of energy...) mechanical seal damage. Despite elaborate research in the field of cavitation no study has been done to determine its interaction with recirculation. It is believed that they both contribute to the blade erosion. Homogenous liquids such as water are more...

  14. High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Yin-An (Opelika, AL)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

  15. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, Mike S.; Detwiler, Russell L.; Lao, Kang; Serajian, Vahid; Elkhoury, Jean; Diessl, Julia; White, Nicky

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  16. Evaluation of a paint spray booth utilizing air recirculation. Final report June 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, L.E.; Bryan, R.J.; Becvar, D.P.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the recirculating air spray booth process at the Deere and Company facility in Davenport, Iowa. The effort involved a field measurement program and subsequent analysis of flow rates and emission data from the spray booth to define the degree of enhancement of the emissions stream and permit more efficient and economical control of spray booth emissions. Energy conservation became a matter of concern for industrial operators during the late 1970s when energy costs began to climb rapidly. Deere and Company engineers noted

  17. Constructions of Optical Queues With a Limited Number of Recirculations--Part II: Optimal Constructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xuan-Chao

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in all-optical packet-switched networks is the lack of optical buffers, and one feasible technology for the constructions of optical buffers is to use optical crossbar Switches and fiber Delay Lines (SDL). In this two-part paper, we consider SDL constructions of optical queues with a limited number of recirculations through the optical switches and the fiber delay lines. Such a problem arises from practical feasibility considerations. In Part I, we have proposed a class of greedy constructions for certain types of optical queues, including linear compressors, linear decompressors, and 2-to-1 FIFO multiplexers, and have shown that every optimal construction among our previous constructions of these types of optical queues under the constraint of a limited number of recirculations must be a greedy construction. In Part II, the present paper, we further show that there are at most two optimal constructions and give a simple algorithm to obtain the optimal construction(s). The main idea i...

  18. Linear Fixed-Field Multi-Pass Arcs for Recirculating Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.S. Morozov, S.A. Bogacz, Y.R. Roblin, K.B. Beard

    2012-06-01

    Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA's) provide a compact and efficient way of accelerating particle beams to medium and high energies by reusing the same linac for multiple passes. In the conventional scheme, after each pass, the different energy beams coming out of the linac are separated and directed into appropriate arcs for recirculation, with each pass requiring a separate fixed-energy arc. In this paper we present a concept of an RLA return arc based on linear combined-function magnets, in which two and potentially more consecutive passes with very different energies are transported through the same string of magnets. By adjusting the dipole and quadrupole components of the constituting linear combined-function magnets, the arc is designed to be achromatic and to have zero initial and final reference orbit offsets for all transported beam energies. We demonstrate the concept by developing a design for a droplet-shaped return arc for a dog-bone RLA capable of transporting two beam passes with momenta different by a factor of two. We present the results of tracking simulations of the two passes and lay out the path to end-to-end design and simulation of a complete dog-bone RLA.

  19. Novel concept development of an internal recirculation catalyst for mild gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A.; Babu, S.P.; Martin, K.A.; Chao, S.C.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of this program is to provide an overall evaluation of a novel process concept for mild gasification by completing work in three major tasks: (1) Laboratory-Scale Experiments, (2) Bench-Scale Tests, and (3) Proof-of-Concept Tests and Evaluation (optional). During this quarter, experimental work involving potential recirculating catalysts for coal, initiated in the previous quarter, was continued. The construction and shakedown of an all quartz laboratory-scale isothermal free-fall reactor was completed. Three free-fall experiments were performed in an existing stainless-steel free-fall reactor with untreated and ammonia treated Illinois No. 6 high-voltatile bituminous coal, and the analyzed data are presented herein. A survey of available literature on catalyzed devolatilization of coal, coal pretreatment methods, and related topics was made. Based on the results of this survey, two potential recirculating catalysts, in addition to the already selected zinc chloride, were selected for study: ferrous chloride (FeCl{sub 2}) and ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}). Also, based on the survey, two coal pretreatment/chemical comminution methods were selected for study, in addition to methanol treatment: ammonia and n-butylamine pretreatment. A matrix of experiments was formulated to study the three catalysts and three pretreatment methods selected. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood, Lars Sitzki* and Paul D. Ronney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood title: Extinction limits in excess enthalpy burners To be published in Proceedings of the Combustion-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood, Lars Sitzki* and Paul D

  1. Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-08-04

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

  2. Method for Producing Flame Retardant Porous Products and Products Produced Thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-08-04

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

  3. Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-08-04

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame. 1 fig.

  4. Use of exhaust gas recirculation as a control approach for thermoacoustic instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranalli, J.; Ferguson, D.

    2011-10-09

    Investigation into exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a method for reducing costs of postcombustion carbon capture in gas turbine systems reveals that EGR offers potential applications as a control strategy for thermoacoustic instabilities. Introduction of EGR allows semi-independent variation of the operating parameter of flame temperature and characteristic flame length scales, known to play a primary role in the phase of the thermoacoustic coupling mechanism. Measurements were made showing the ability of EGR to reduce the amplitude of thermoacoustic oscillations over a range of operating conditions in a laboratory scale, swirled dump combustor, without affecting the flame temperature. Theoretical analysis was also performed to investigate the limitations on the ability of this approach to influence dynamics.

  5. CSR induced microbunching gain estimation including transient effects in transport and recirculation arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Cheng; Douglas, David R.; Li, Rui

    2015-09-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport or recirculation arcs, may result in the microbunching instability (?BI). To accurately quantify the direct consequence of this effect, we further extend our previously developed semi-analytical Vlasov solver to include more relevant coherent radiation models than the steady-state free-space CSR impedance, such as the entrance and exit transient effects derived from upstream beam entering to and exiting from individual dipoles. The resultant microbunching gain functions and spectra for our example lattices are presented and compared with particle tracking simulation. Some underlying physics with inclusion of these effects are also discussed.

  6. Plume configuration and plume recirculation/interference of the Vienna cooling towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, S.C.; Kennedy, J.F.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the laboratory model investigation reported herein was to study the behavior of the effluent plumes from the existing and proposed mechanical draft wet cooling towers at the Vienna power plant. Included in the study are plume recirculation and interference of the existing rectangular tower and the proposed round tower as well as effects on plume behavior of the power plant buildings and the coal pile. The study results can be utilized to determine the visible plume boundaries and cooling tower stack effluent concentration distributions for various meteorological and power plant operating conditions. The results can then be used to determine whether or not the plumes will cause fogging or icing on the proposed Route 50 bypass. Tests were conducted for several wind speeds and for the prevailing winter and summer wind directions.

  7. Aalborg Universitet Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells in a micro combined heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    combined heat and power system Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kćr, Sřren Knudsen Published in fuel cells in a micro combined heat and power system Vincenzo Liso , Mads Pagh Nielsen, Sřren Knudsen. (2014). Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells in a micro combined heat

  8. Numerical Modeling of Non-adiabatic Heat-Recirculating Combustors C. H. Kuo and P. D. Ronney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @usc.edu Colloquium topic area: 12. New Technology Concepts Keywords: Micro-combustion, Heat-recirculating combustors) for propane-air mixtures. These limits showed reasonable quantitative agreement with experiments. Comparison based on existing macro-scale designs such as internal combustion engines may be impractical

  9. Economizer recirculation for low-load stability in heat recovery steam generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuscino, R.T.; Shade, R.L. Jr.

    1986-04-15

    An economizer system is described for heating feedwater in a heat recovery steam generator which consists of: at least first and second economizer tube planes; each of the economizer tube planes including a plurality of generally parallel tubes; the tubes being generally vertically disposed; each of the economizer tube planes including a top header and a bottom header; all of the plurality of tubes in each economizer tube plane being connected in parallel to their top and bottom headers whereby parallel feedwater flow through the plurality of tubes between the top and bottom headers is enabled; one of the top and bottom headers being an inlet header; a second of the top and bottom headers being an outlet header; a boiler feed pump; the boiler feed pump being effective for applying a flow of feedwater to the inlet header; means for serially interconnecting the economizer tube planes; the means for serially interconnecting including means for flowing the feedwater upward and downward in tubes of alternating ones of the economizer tube planes between the inlet header and the outlet header; means for conveying heated feedwater from the outlet header to a using process; means for recirculating at least a portion of the heated feedwater from the outlet header to an inlet of the boiler feed pump; and the means for recirculating including means for relating the portion to a steam load in the using process whereby an increased flow is produced through all of the economizer tube planes at values of the steam load below a predetermined value and a condition permitting initiation of reverse flow in any of the tubes is substantially reduced.

  10. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Ping [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, 59 Qinglong Road, Mianyang 621010 (China); Song, Lei; Wang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. • OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. • OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char.

  11. Method and apparatus for advanced staged combustion utilizing forced internal recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Nester, Serguei; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2003-12-16

    A method and apparatus for combustion of a fuel in which a first-stage fuel and a first-stage oxidant are introduced into a combustion chamber and ignited, forming a primary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the total heat output produced by combustion of the first-stage fuel and the first-stage oxidant is removed from the primary combustion zone, forming cooled first-stage combustion products. A portion of the cooled first-stage combustion products from a downstream region of the primary combustion zone is recirculated to an upstream region of primary combustion zone. A second-stage fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the primary combustion zone and ignited, forming a secondary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the heat from the secondary combustion zone is removed. In accordance with one embodiment, a third-stage oxidant is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the secondary combustion zone, forming a tertiary combustion zone.

  12. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bruno; Russell L. Detwiler; Kang Lao; Vahid Serajian; Jean Elkhoury; Julia Diessl; Nicky White

    2012-09-30

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

  13. Investigations into the reproductive performance and larval rearing of the Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, using closed recirculating systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandy, Ryan Leighton

    2005-02-17

    tanks larval rearing management schedule????????? 54 4.2 Recirculating larval rearing feed and water turnover rate associated with larval developmental stage??????????????????. 56 4.3 Water quality indicators monitored and methods used... of spawning tanks from larval rearing tanks allowed for the hatchery manager to maximize larval rearing productivity by transferring only viable nauplii of known quality and quantity to larval rearing tanks. The use of certain species of unicellular algae...

  14. Effect of heat recirculation on the self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane/air mixtures in a quartz reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Pirone, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione-CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Russo, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Vlachos, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane is experimentally studied in a two-pass, quartz heat-recirculation reactor (HRR) and compared to that in a no (heat) recirculation reactor (NRR). Structured monolithic reactors with Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Pt doped perovskite catalysts have been compared in the HRR and NRR configurations. Heat recirculation enhances combustion stability, by widening the operating window of self-sustained operation, and changes the mode of stability loss from blowout to extinction. It is found that thermal shields (upstream and downstream of the monolith) play no role in the stability of a HRR but increase the stability of a NRR. The stability of a HRR follows this trend: Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > doped perovskite > LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Finally, a higher cell density monolith enlarges the operating window of self-sustained combustion, and allows further increase of the power density of the process. (author)

  15. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  16. Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Final technical report, February 1991-October 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

    1994-07-01

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint, the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation. A volunteer painter was briefed on the increased risk of exposure during recirculation, and on the purposes and possible benefits of this study. He then signed an informed consent form before participating in the recirculation tests. A series of tests generally equivalent to the baseline series was conducted during split-flow and recirculating ventilation, and three tests were performed during only split-flow ventilation.

  17. The Human Genome Project and Mental Retardation: An Educational Program. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Sharon

    1999-05-03

    The Arc, a national organization on mental retardation, conducted an educational program for members, many of whom have a family member with a genetic condition causing mental retardation. The project informed members about the Human Genome scientific efforts, conducted training regarding ethical, legal and social implications and involved members in issue discussions. Short reports and fact sheets on genetic and ELSI topics were disseminated to 2,200 of the Arc's leaders across the country and to other interested individuals. Materials produced by the project can e found on the Arc's web site, TheArc.org.

  18. Invariant quantities of a Mueller matrix under rotation and retarder transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gil, Jose J

    2015-01-01

    Mueller matrices are defined with respect to appropriate Cartesian reference frames for the representation of the states of polarization of the input and output electromagnetic waves. The polarimetric quantities that are invariant under rotations of the said reference frames about the respective directions of propagation (rotation transformations) provide particularly interesting physical information. Moreover, certain properties are also invariant with respect to the action of birefringent devices located at both sides of the medium under consideration (retarder transformations). The polarimetric properties that remain invariant under rotation and retarder transformations are analyzed and interpreted, providing significant parameterizations of Mueller matrices in terms of meaningful physical quantities.

  19. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

  20. Next Generation Pressurized Oxy-Coal Combustion: High Efficiency and No Flue Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rue, David

    2013-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has developed a pressurized oxy-coal fired molten bed boiler (MBB) concept, in which coal and oxygen are fired directly into a bed of molten coal slag through burners located on the bottom of the boiler and fired upward. Circulation of heat by the molten slag eliminates the need for a flue gas recirculation loop and provides excellent heat transfer to steam tubes in the boiler walls. Advantages of the MBB technology over other boilers include higher efficiency (from eliminating flue gas recirculation), a smaller and less expensive boiler, modular design leading to direct scalability, decreased fines carryover and handling costs, smaller exhaust duct size, and smaller emissions control equipment sizes. The objective of this project was to conduct techno-economic analyses and an engineering design of the MBB project and to support this work with thermodynamic analyses and oxy-coal burner testing. Techno-economic analyses of GTI’s pressurized oxy-coal fired MBB technology found that the overall plant with compressed CO2 has an efficiency of 31.6%. This is a significant increase over calculated 29.2% efficiency of first generation oxy-coal plants. Cost of electricity (COE) for the pressurized MBB supercritical steam power plant with CO2 capture and compression was calculated to be 134% of the COE for an air-coal supercritical steam power plant with no CO2 capture. This compares positively with a calculated COE for first generation oxy-coal supercritical steam power plants with CO2 capture and compression of 164%. The COE for the MBB power plant is found to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) target of 135%, before any plant optimization. The MBB power plant was also determined to be simpler than other oxy-coal power plants with a 17% lower capital cost. No other known combustion technology can produce higher efficiencies or lower COE when CO2 capture and compression are included. A thermodynamic enthalpy and exergy analysis found a number of modifications and adjustments that could provide higher efficiency and better use of available work. Conclusions from this analysis will help guide the analyses and CFD modeling in future process development. The MBB technology has the potential to be a disruptive technology that will enable coal combustion power plants to be built and operated in a cost effective way, cleanly with no carbon dioxide emissions. A large amount of work is needed to quantify and confirm the great promise of the MBB technology. A Phase 2 proposal was submitted to DOE and other sponsors to address the most critical MBB process technical gaps. The Phase 2 proposal was not accepted for current DOE support.

  1. Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    -retardant shield, reducing the peak heat release rate by more than 60% and reducing smoke generation by 50% during resistance to the formation of a protective nanotube network structure that acts as a heat shield, including carbon nanotube actu- ators [17], artificial muscles [18], strain sensors [19], electro- magnetic

  2. Flame-Retardant Electrical Conductive Nanopolymers Based on Bisphenol F Epoxy Resin Reinforced with Nano Polyanilines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    for obtaining epoxy resin polymer nano- composites (PNCs). The effects of nanofiller morphology and loading The development of conductive or semiconductive polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) from insulating polymers hasFlame-Retardant Electrical Conductive Nanopolymers Based on Bisphenol F Epoxy Resin Reinforced

  3. An In-depth Investigation of an Aluminum Chloride Retarded Mud Acid System on Sandstone Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneto, Nnenna

    2012-07-16

    is very detrimental to the sandstone core as calcium fluoride is precipitated and the retarded acid system is found to be compatible with iron(III) as an impurity. The regular acid (RMHF) dissolves considerably more silicon and produces more fines than...

  4. Loss of WAVE-1 causes sensorimotor retardation and reduced learning and memory in mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, John D.

    Loss of WAVE-1 causes sensorimotor retardation and reduced learning and memory in mice Scott H and Science Univesity, Portland, OR, December 31, 2002 (received for review December 23, 2002) The Scar WAVE to the actin cytoskel- eton. The WAVE-1 isoform is a brain-specific protein expressed in variety of areas

  5. Role of retardation in 3-D relativistic equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D. Lahiff; I. R. Afnan

    1997-08-20

    Equal-time Green's function is used to derive a three-dimensional integral equation from the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The resultant equation, in the absence of anti-particles, is identical to the use of time-ordered diagrams, and has been used within the framework of $\\phi^2\\sigma$ coupling to study the role of energy dependence and non-locality when the two-body potential is the sum of $\\sigma$-exchange and crossed $\\sigma$ exchange. The results show that non-locality and energy dependence make a substantial contribution to both the on-shell and off-shell amplitudes.

  6. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28

    Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer review meeting at Argonne National Laboratories, in-cylinder pressure was measured to calculate engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) changes due to NOx injections and EGR variations, and to observe conditions in the cylinder. The third experimental campaign gathered NOx decomposition data at 800, 1200 and 1800 rpm. EGR was added via an external loop, with EGR ranging from zero to the point of misfire. The air/fuel ratio was set at both stoichiometric and slightly rich conditions, and NOx decomposition rates were calculated for each set of runs. Modifications were made to the engine exhaust manifold to record individual exhaust temperatures. The three experimental campaigns have provided the data needed for a comprehensive model of NOx decomposition during the combustion process, and data have confirmed that there was no significant impact of injected NO on in-cylinder pressure. The NOx adsorption system provided by Sorbent Technologies Corp. (Twinsburg, OH), comprised a NOx adsorber, heat exchanger and a demister. These components were connected to the engine, and data were gathered to show both the adsorption of NOx from the engine, and desorption of NOx from the carbon-based sorbent material back into the engine intake, using a heated air stream. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a bench top adsorption system was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples and the system output was fed into a NOx analyzer. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while gathering data on the characteristics of the sorbent material. These data were required for development of a system model. Preliminary data were gathered in 2005, and will continue in early 2006. To assess the economic benefits of the proposed SNR technology the WVU research team has been joined in the last quarter by Dr Richard Turton (WVU-Chemical Engineering), who is modeling, sizing and costing the major components. The tasks will address modeling and preliminary design of the heat exchanger, demister and NOx sorbent chamber s

  7. Novel concept development of an internal recirculation catalyst for mild gasification. Progress report, June 1, 1988--August 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A.; Babu, S.P.; Martin, K.A.; Chao, S.C.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of this program is to provide an overall evaluation of a novel process concept for mild gasification by completing work in three major tasks: (1) Laboratory-Scale Experiments, (2) Bench-Scale Tests, and (3) Proof-of-Concept Tests and Evaluation (optional). During this quarter, experimental work involving potential recirculating catalysts for coal, initiated in the previous quarter, was continued. The construction and shakedown of an all quartz laboratory-scale isothermal free-fall reactor was completed. Three free-fall experiments were performed in an existing stainless-steel free-fall reactor with untreated and ammonia treated Illinois No. 6 high-voltatile bituminous coal, and the analyzed data are presented herein. A survey of available literature on catalyzed devolatilization of coal, coal pretreatment methods, and related topics was made. Based on the results of this survey, two potential recirculating catalysts, in addition to the already selected zinc chloride, were selected for study: ferrous chloride (FeCl{sub 2}) and ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}). Also, based on the survey, two coal pretreatment/chemical comminution methods were selected for study, in addition to methanol treatment: ammonia and n-butylamine pretreatment. A matrix of experiments was formulated to study the three catalysts and three pretreatment methods selected. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Instability due to a two recirculation pump trip in a BWR using RAMONA-4B computer code with 3D neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, H.S.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1993-06-01

    An investigation was made of the potential for thermal-hydraulic instabilities coupled to neutronic feedback in a BWR due to a two recirculation pump trip event using the RAMONA-4B computer code with 3D neutron kinetics. It is concluded that a high-power (100%) and low-flow (75%) initial condition would most likely lead to in-phase density wave oscillations after the tripping of both recirculation pumps, and that RAMONA-4B is capable of predicting such thermal-hydraulic instabilities coupled to neutronic feedback in BWR and in SBWR.

  9. Retardation of Particle Evaporation from Excited Nuclear Systems Due to Thermal Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Tőke; L. Pie?kowski; M. Houck; W. U. Schröder; L. G. Sobotka

    2005-07-26

    Particle evaporation rates from excited nuclear systems at equilibrium matter density are studied within the Harmonic-Interaction Fermi Gas Model (HIFGM) combined with Weisskopf's detailed balance approach. It is found that thermal expansion of a hot nucleus, as described quantitatively by HIFGM, leads to a significant retardation of particle emission, greatly extending the validity of Weisskopf's approach. The decay of such highly excited nuclei is strongly influenced by surface instabilities.

  10. Bullet Retarding Forces in Ballistic Gelatin by Analysis of High Speed Video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaylord, Steven; Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Though three distinct wounding mechanisms (permanent cavity, temporary cavity, and ballistic pressure wave) are described in the wound ballistics literature, they all have their physical origin in the retarding force between bullet and tissue as the bullet penetrates. If the bullet path is the same, larger retarding forces produce larger wounding effects and a greater probability of rapid incapacitation. By Newton's third law, the force of the bullet on the tissue is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of the tissue on the bullet. For bullets penetrating with constant mass, the retarding force on the bullet can be determined by frame by frame analysis of high speed video of the bullet penetrating a suitable tissue simulant such as calibrated 10% ballistic gelatin. Here the technique is demonstrated with 9mm NATO bullets, 32 cm long blocks of gelatin, and a high speed video camera operating at 20,000 frames per second. It is found that different 9mm NATO bullets have a wide variety of pot...

  11. Extending Exhaust Gas Recirculation Limits in Diesel Engines Robert M. Wagner, Johney B. Green, Jr., John M. Storey, and C. Stuart Daw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    1 Extending Exhaust Gas Recirculation Limits in Diesel Engines Robert M. Wagner, Johney B. Green) for reduced nitro- gen oxide emissions from diesel engines. The research objective is to develop fundamental in- formation about the relationship between EGR parameters and diesel combustion instability

  12. A numerical study of geometry dependent errors in velocity, temperature, and density measurements from single grid planar retarding potential analyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R. L.; Earle, G. D.; Heelis, R. A.; Klenzing, J. H.

    2010-08-15

    Planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) have been utilized numerous times on high profile missions such as the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program to measure plasma composition, temperature, density, and the velocity component perpendicular to the plane of the instrument aperture. These instruments use biased grids to approximate ideal biased planes. These grids introduce perturbations in the electric potential distribution inside the instrument and when unaccounted for cause errors in the measured plasma parameters. Traditionally, the grids utilized in RPAs have been made of fine wires woven into a mesh. Previous studies on the errors caused by grids in RPAs have approximated woven grids with a truly flat grid. Using a commercial ion optics software package, errors in inferred parameters caused by both woven and flat grids are examined. A flat grid geometry shows the smallest temperature and density errors, while the double thick flat grid displays minimal errors for velocities over the temperature and velocity range used. Wire thickness along the dominant flow direction is found to be a critical design parameter in regard to errors in all three inferred plasma parameters. The results shown for each case provide valuable design guidelines for future RPA development.

  13. On Time Machines in KerrNewman Spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wüthrich, Christian

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 6 Energy Consumption during Time Travel 75 6.1 Acceleration on Trajectory 4.2 Kerr­Newman Spacetime with Q = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 5 Time Machines 53 5.1 Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 7 Conclusion 89 Acknowledgments 93 A Units 95 B Advanced and Retarded

  14. Migration and Retardation of Chemical Toxic Components from Radioactive Waste - Hydrochemical Aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jedinakova-Krizova, V.; Hanslik, E.

    2003-02-24

    A systematic analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) operation and radioactive wastes disposal (near-surface disposal and geologic disposal) in underground repositories has provided the basis for a comparison between the radiotoxicity and chemotoxicity as part of an EIA (environmental impact assessment) procedure. This contribution summarizes the hydrochemical mechanisms of transport and retardation processes, chemistry and migration behavior of radionuclides and chemical toxics in natural sorbents, especially bentonites. The effect of solubility and dissolution reactions, diffusion and sorption/desorption, complexation and variations in the aqueous phase composition, pH-value and oxidation-reduction properties and other phenomena affecting distribution coefficients (Kd values) is discussed.

  15. Development of flame retardant PV module encapsulants: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galica, J.P.

    1998-06-01

    This Phase 1 final report covers the work performed by Springborn Testing and Research, Inc., for the period October 1, 1997 to June 30, 1998 under the Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC36-97GO10255, entitled Development of Flame Retardant PV Module Encapsulants. While use of roof-mounted arrays has always been an attractive means of deploying PV, only within recent years have such building integrated concepts (BIPV) found renewed interest among module makers and end-users. Prior to building integrated and rooftop applications, flammability requirements for modules have not been a great industry concern. However, with growing interest in BIPV and the requirement for building code requirements for commercial and industrial structures, flammability issues have become a barrier to entry for many module constructions into this potentially huge domestic market for PV. The overall goal of the 3 phase PV BONUS two project is to develop and commercialize a line of fire retardant encapsulation materials to serve the emerging building integrated and building mounted PV market. The objectives of the Phase 1 effort are limited to concept development and business planning activities.

  16. Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Final report, 15 February 1991-9 October 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

    1994-07-27

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint, the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation. A volunteer painter was briefed on the increased risk of exposure during recirculation, and on the purposes and possible benefits of this study. He then signed an informed consent form before participating in the recirculation tests. A series of tests generally equivalent to the baseline series was conducted during split-flow and recirculating ventilation, and three tests were performed during only split-flow ventilation.

  17. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Simko, Steve [Ford Motor Company

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

  18. Mass-resolved retarding field energy analyzer and its measurement of ion energy distribution in helicon plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zexian, Cao

    Mass-resolved retarding field energy analyzer and its measurement of ion energy distribution) are measured at rf power of 1000 W. The results show that the fairly broad energy distributions of different analyzer; Ion energy distribution; Helicon plasma 1. Introduction It is well recognized that ion

  19. Variable Camshaft Timing Engine Control A. G. Stefanopoulou, J. S. Freudenberg, J. W. Grizzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Abstract| Retarding camshaft timing in an engine equipped with a dual equal camshaft timing phaser reduces this positive e ect to feedgas emissions, camshaft timing can cause large air-to-fuel ratio excursions if not coordinated with the fuel command. Large air-to-fuel ratio excursions can reduce the catalytic converter e

  20. Variable Camshaft Timing Engine Control A. G. Stefanopoulou, J. S. Freudenberg, J. W. Grizzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    Abstract| Retarding camshaft timing in an engine equipped with a dual equal camshaft timing phaser reduces e ect to feedgas emissions, camshaft timing can cause large air-to-fuel ratio excursions if not coordinated with the fuel command. Large air-to-fuel ratio excursions can reduce the catalytic converter e

  1. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

  2. A practical application for the chemical treatment of Southern California`s reclaimed, Title 22 water for use as makeup water for recirculating cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Cosulich, J.; Bartling, E.

    1998-12-31

    Pilot cooling water studies conducted at a Southern California landfill/cogeneration station demonstrated a successful chemical treatment program for recirculating cooling water that used unnitrified, reclaimed, Title 22 water as the primary makeup water source. The constituents in the reclaimed water are supplied by variety of residential and waste water sources resulting in a water quality that may vary to a greater degree than domestic water supplies. This water contains high concentrations of orthophosphate, ammonia, chlorides and suspended solids. The impact of which, under cycled conditions is calcium orthophosphate scaling, high corrosion of yellow metal and mild steel, stress cracking of copper alloys and stainless steel and rapidly growing biological activity. A mobile cooling water testing laboratory with two pilot recirculating water systems modeled the cogeneration station`s cooling tower operating conditions and parameters. The tube and shell, tube side cooling heat exchangers were fitted with 443 admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel, 316 stainless steel and 1202 mild steel heat exchanger tubes. Coupons and Corrater electrodes were also installed. A chemical treatment program consisting of 60/40 AA/AMPS copolymer for scale, deposits and dispersion, sodium tolyltriazole for yellow metal corrosion, and a bromination program to control the biological activity was utilized in the pilot systems. Recirculating water orthophosphate concentrations reached levels of 70 mg/L as PO, and ammonia concentrations reached levels of 35 mg/L, as total NH3. The study successfully demonstrated a chemical treatment program to control scale and deposition, minimize admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel and carbon steel corrosion rates, prevent non-heat transfer yellow metal and stainless steel stress cracking, and control the biological activity in this high nutrient water.

  3. Controlling exhaust gas recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zurlo, James Richard (Madison, WI); Konkle, Kevin Paul (West Bend, WI); May, Andrew (Milwaukee, WI)

    2012-01-31

    In controlling an engine, an amount of an intake charge provided, during operation of the engine, to a combustion chamber of the engine is determined. The intake charge includes an air component, a fuel component and a diluent component. An amount of the air component of the intake charge is determined. An amount of the diluent component of the intake charge is determined utilizing the amount of the intake charge, the amount of the air component and, in some instances, the amount of the fuel component. An amount of a diluent supplied to the intake charge is adjusted based at least in part on the determined amount of diluent component of the intake charge.

  4. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  5. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  6. A design approach for improving the performance of single-grid planar retarding potential analyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R. L.; Earle, G. D. [William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W. Campbell Rd. WT15, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) have a long flight history and have been included on numerous spaceflight missions including Dynamics Explorer, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, and the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System. RPAs allow for simultaneous measurement of plasma composition, density, temperature, and the component of the velocity vector normal to the aperture plane. Internal conductive grids are used to approximate ideal potential planes within the instrument, but these grids introduce perturbations to the potential map inside the RPA and cause errors in the measurement of the parameters listed above. A numerical technique is presented herein for minimizing these grid errors for a specific mission by varying the depth and spacing of the grid wires. The example mission selected concentrates on plasma dynamics near the sunset terminator in the equatorial region. The international reference ionosphere model is used to discern the average conditions expected for this mission, and a numerical model of the grid-particle interaction is used to choose a grid design that will best fulfill the mission goals.

  7. Design of a retarding potential grid system for a neutral particle analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titus, J. B., E-mail: jtitus@wisc.edu; Mezonlin, E. D. [Department of Physics, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Anderson, J. K.; Reusch, J. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The ion energy distribution in a magnetically confined plasma can be inferred from charge exchange neutral particles. On the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST), deuterium neutrals are measured by the Florida A and M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA) and the advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA). The CNPA energy range covers the bulk deuterium ions to the beginning of the fast ion tail (0.34–5.2 keV) with high-energy resolution (25 channels) while the ANPA covers the vast majority of the fast ion tail distribution (?10–45 keV) with low energy resolution (10 channels). Though the ANPA has provided insight into fast ion energization in MST plasma, more can be gained by increasing the energy resolution in that energy range. To utilize the energy resolution of the CNPA, fast ions can be retarded by an electric potential well, enabling their detection by the diagnostic. The ion energy distribution can be measured with arbitrary resolution by combining data from many similar MST discharges with different energy ranges on the CNPA, providing further insight into ion energization and fast ion dynamics on MST.

  8. An analysis of the performance of black and white retardates on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Catherine Phillips

    1972-01-01

    AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF BLACK AND WHITE RETARDATES ON WISC SUBTESTS AND FULL SCALE IQ PAGE 32 33 36 38 5 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR VOCABULARY SUBTEST ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR PICTURE ARRANGE SUBTEST ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR DIGIT SPAN SUBTEST 39... DEVIATIONS OF THREE AGE GROUPS ON WISC SUBTESTS AND FULL SCALE IQ ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR INFORMATION SUBTEST. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR COMPREHENSION SUBTEST. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR ARITHMETIC SUBTEST ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR SIMILARITIES SUBTEST...

  9. Real-time correlators in warped AdS/CFT correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bin Chen; Bo Ning; Zhi-bo Xu

    2009-11-01

    We study real-time correlators in the warped AdS/CFT correspondence. We apply the prescription used in the usual AdS/CFT correspondence and obtain the retarded Green's functions for the scalar and vector fields in the spacelike warped and the null warped black hole backgrounds. We find that the retarded Green's functions and the cross sections are well consistent with the predictions from dual CFT. Our results not only support strongly the conjectured warped AdS/CFT correspondence, but also show that the usual relativistic AdS/CFT prescription of obtaining the real-time correlators remain effective in more general backgrounds with anisotropic conformal infinity.

  10. Two-body relaxation times in heated nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Plujko; O. M. Gorbachenko; M. O. Kavatsyuk

    2001-07-28

    The retardation and temperature effects in two-body collisions are studied. The collision integral with retardation effects is obtained on the base of the Kadanoff- Baym equations for Green functions in a form with allowance for reaching the local equilibrium system. The collisional relaxation times of collective vibrations are calculated using both the transport approach and doorway state mechanism with hierarchy of particle-hole configurations in heated nuclei. The relaxation times of the kinetic method are rather slowly dependent on multipolarity of the Fermi surface distortion and mode of the collective motion. The dependence of the relaxation times on temperature as well as on frequency of collective vibrations is considered and compared. It is shown that variations of the in-medium two-body cross-sections with energy lead to non-quadratic dependence of the collisional relaxation time both on temperature and on collective motion frequency.

  11. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J.; Houk, T.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

  12. Enhancing Independent Task Performance for Individuals with Mental Retardation Through Use of a Handheld Self-Directed Visual and Audio Promptiong System.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    , the most frequently used input devices (keyboard and mouse) are not easily mastered by people with mental retardation and despite the fact that touch screen devices for desktop PCs are available, they are not widely available in most community... to individuals with mental retardation. Devices that operate the Windows CE operating system include an integrated touch screen for device operation and are specifically designed for portable use. The training software developed for this platform involved...

  13. Comparison of Energy Efficiency and Power Density in Pressure Retarded Osmosis and Reverse Electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yip, NY; Elimelech, M

    2014-09-16

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and reverse electrodialysis (RED) are emerging membrane-based technologies that can convert chemical energy in salinity gradients to useful work. The two processes have intrinsically different working principles: controlled mixing in PRO is achieved by water permeation across salt-rejecting membranes, whereas RED is driven by ion flux across charged membranes. This study compares the energy efficiency and power density performance of PRO and RED with simulated technologically available membranes for natural, anthropogenic, and engineered salinity gradients (seawater-river water, desalination brine-wastewater, and synthetic hypersaline solutions, respectively). The analysis shows that PRO can achieve both greater efficiencies (54-56%) and higher power densities (2.4-38 W/m(2)) than RED (18-38% and 0.77-1.2 W/m(2)). The superior efficiency is attributed to the ability of PRO membranes to more effectively utilize the salinity difference to drive water permeation and better suppress the detrimental leakage of salts. On the other hand, the low conductivity of currently available ion exchange membranes impedes RED ion flux and, thus, constrains the power density. Both technologies exhibit a trade-off between efficiency and power density: employing more permeable but less selective membranes can enhance the power density, but undesired entropy production due to uncontrolled mixing increases and some efficiency is sacrificed. When the concentration difference is increased (i.e., natural -> anthropogenic -> engineered salinity gradients), PRO osmotic pressure difference rises proportionally but not so for RED Nernst potential, which has logarithmic dependence on the solution concentration. Because of this inherently different characteristic, RED is unable to take advantage of larger salinity gradients, whereas PRO power density is considerably enhanced. Additionally, high solution concentrations suppress the Donnan exclusion effect of the charged RED membranes, severely reducing the permselectivity and diminishing the energy conversion efficiency. This study indicates that PRO is more suitable to extract energy from a range of salinity gradients, while significant advancements in ion exchange membranes are likely necessary for RED to be competitive with PRO.

  14. Self-Determination and Positive Adult Outcomes: A Follow-up Study of Youth with Mental Retardation or Learning Disabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Schwartz, Michelle

    1997-01-01

    ). Fifty percent of the sample consisted of students with mild mental retardation (mean age = 20.15, SD = 1.78, mean IQ = 61.43). The remainder were students with learning disabilities (mean age = 19.42, SD = 1.18, mean IQ = 93.10). Fifty-five percent... by evaluations of others, 248 Winter 1997 reinforcements, and attributions of one's own be- havior (Wehmeyer, 1996). There are a total of 148 points available on the Scale and higher scores reflect higher self-de- termination. The Arc's Self...

  15. Thermoacoustic instability - a dynamical system and time domain analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayadi, Taraneh; Schmid, Peter; Richecoeur, Franck; Massot, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the Rijke tube problem, which includes features relevant to the modeling of thermoacoustic coupling in reactive flows: a compact acoustic source, an empirical model for the heat source, and nonlinearities. This system features both linear and nonlinear flow regimes with complex dynamical behavior. In order to synthesize accurate time-series, we tackle this problem from a numerical point-of-view, and start by proposing a dedicated solver designed for dealing with the underlying stiffness, in particular, the retarded time and the discontinuity at the location of the heat source. Stability analysis is performed on the limit of the low amplitude perturbations by means of the projection method proposed by Jarlebring (2008), which alleviates the linearization of the retarded term. The results are then compared to the analytical solution of the undamped system, in addition to the analysis based on Galerkin projection. The method provides insight into the consequence of the simplification due to...

  16. X-linked borderline mental retardation with prominent behavioral disturbance: Phenotype, genetic localization, and evidence for disturbed monoamine metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunner, H.G.; Nelen, M.R.; Zandvoort, P. van; Abeling, N.G.G.M.; Gennip, A.H. van; Ropers, H.H.; Oost, B.A. van ); Wolters, E.C.; Kuiper, M.A. )

    1993-06-01

    The authors have identified a large Dutch kindred with a new form of X-linked nondysmorphic mild mental retardation. All affected males in this family show very characteristic abnormal behavior, in particular aggressive and sometimes violent behavior. Other types of impulsive behavior include arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Attempted suicide has been reported in a single case. The locus for this disorder could be assigned to the Xp11-21 interval between DXS7 and DXS77 by linkage analysis using markers spanning the X chromosome. A maximal multipoint lod score of 3.69 was obtained at the monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) monoamine metabolism. These data are compatible with a primary defect in the structural gene for MAOA and/or monoamine oxidase type B (MAOB). Normal platelet MAOB activity suggests that the unusual behavior pattern in this family may be caused by isolated MAOA deficiency. 34 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Volume 2. Final report, 15 February 1991-9 January 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

    1994-07-27

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices, and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint, the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation.

  18. Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Volume 1. Final report, 15 February 1991-9 January 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

    1994-07-27

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices, and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation.

  19. Holographic dual of a time machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irina Arefeva; Andrey Bagrov; Petter Saterskog; Koenraad Schalm

    2015-08-18

    We apply the $AdS/CFT$ holography to the simplest possible eternal time machine solution in $AdS_3$ based on two conical defects moving around their center of mass along a circular orbit. Closed timelike curves in this space-time extend all the way to the boundary of $AdS_3$, violating causality of the boundary field theory. By use of the geodesic approximation we address the "grandfather paradox" in the dual $1+1$ dimensional field theory and calculate the two-point retarded Green function. It has a non-trivial analytical structure both at negative and positive times, providing us with an intuition on how an interacting quantum field could behave once causality is broken. In contrast with the previous considerations our calculations reveal the possibility of a consistent and controllable evolution of a quantum system without any need to impose additional consistency constraints.

  20. A statistical analysis of systematic errors in temperature and ram velocity estimates from satellite-borne retarding potential analyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klenzing, J. H.; Earle, G. D.; Heelis, R. A.; Coley, W. R. [William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W. Campbell Rd. WT15, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The use of biased grids as energy filters for charged particles is common in satellite-borne instruments such as a planar retarding potential analyzer (RPA). Planar RPAs are currently flown on missions such as the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System and the Defense Meteorological Satellites Program to obtain estimates of geophysical parameters including ion velocity and temperature. It has been shown previously that the use of biased grids in such instruments creates a nonuniform potential in the grid plane, which leads to inherent errors in the inferred parameters. A simulation of ion interactions with various configurations of biased grids has been developed using a commercial finite-element analysis software package. Using a statistical approach, the simulation calculates collected flux from Maxwellian ion distributions with three-dimensional drift relative to the instrument. Perturbations in the performance of flight instrumentation relative to expectations from the idealized RPA flux equation are discussed. Both single grid and dual-grid systems are modeled to investigate design considerations. Relative errors in the inferred parameters for each geometry are characterized as functions of ion temperature and drift velocity.

  1. A spatially resolved retarding field energy analyzer design suitable for uniformity analysis across the surface of a semiconductor wafer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S.; Gahan, D. Hopkins, M. B.; Kechkar, S.; Daniels, S.

    2014-04-15

    A novel retarding field energy analyzer design capable of measuring the spatial uniformity of the ion energy and ion flux across the surface of a semiconductor wafer is presented. The design consists of 13 individual, compact-sized, analyzers, all of which are multiplexed and controlled by a single acquisition unit. The analyzers were tested to have less than 2% variability from unit to unit due to tight manufacturing tolerances. The main sensor assembly consists of a 300 mm disk to mimic a semiconductor wafer and the plasma sampling orifices of each sensor are flush with disk surface. This device is placed directly on top of the rf biased electrode, at the wafer location, in an industrial capacitively coupled plasma reactor without the need for any modification to the electrode structure. The ion energy distribution, average ion energy, and average ion flux were measured at the 13 locations over the surface of the powered electrode to determine the degree of spatial nonuniformity. The ion energy and ion flux are shown to vary by approximately 20% and 5%, respectively, across the surface of the electrode for the range of conditions investigated in this study.

  2. Entombment: It is Time to Reconsider this Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birk, Sandra Margaret; Hanson, Robert Gail; Vernon, Donald Keith

    2000-09-01

    It is time to reconsider entombment of nuclear reactors and other facilities. Decommissioning worker exposure and safety, transportation, cost, potential loss of LLW disposal capacity, and need for strong technical basis are shared drivers for the renewed interest in developing the entombment D&D option. Entombment relies on retarding the release of radionuclides for a very long period, a number of factors must be considered prior to selection and implementation of entombment. A technical basis for addressing and evaluating these factors with associated stakeholder acceptance of the technology is needed before entombment becomes an accepted D&D option.

  3. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  4. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

  5. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D., E-mail: leitnerd@nscl.msu.edu; Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)] [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  6. SYMBOLS FOR TIME = time variable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    =forever) Cost spent to build variation point i at time i = index over variation points #12;SYMBOLS FOR TIME to account for net present value of money r = assumed interest rate i = index over variation points Cost Expected cost summed over all relevant time intervals Cost spent to build variation point i at time r

  7. Modelling Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2008-09-03

    We briefly review two concepts of time - the usual time associated with "being" and more recent ideas, answering to the description of "becoming". The approximation involved in the former is examined. Finally we argue that it is (unpredictable) fluctuations that underlie time.

  8. Quantum Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Ashmead

    2010-05-05

    Normally we quantize along the space dimensions but treat time classically. But from relativity we expect a high level of symmetry between time and space. What happens if we quantize time using the same rules we use to quantize space? To do this, we generalize the paths in the Feynman path integral to include paths that vary in time as well as in space. We use Morlet wavelet decomposition to ensure convergence and normalization of the path integrals. We derive the Schr\\"odinger equation in four dimensions from the short time limit of the path integral expression. We verify that we recover standard quantum theory in the non-relativistic, semi-classical, and long time limits. Quantum time is an experiment factory: most foundational experiments in quantum mechanics can be modified in a way that makes them tests of quantum time. We look at single and double slits in time, scattering by time-varying electric and magnetic fields, and the Aharonov-Bohm effect in time.

  9. Kodama time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abreu, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    In a general time-dependent (3+1)-dimensional spherically symmetric spacetime, the so-called Kodama vector is a naturally defined geometric quantity that is timelike outside the evolving horizon and so defines a preferred class of fiducial observers. However the Kodama vector does not by itself define any preferred notion of time. We demonstrate that a preferred time coordinate - which we shall call Kodama time - can be introduced by taking the additional step of applying the Clebsch decomposition theorem to the Kodama vector. We thus construct a geometrically preferred coordinate system for any time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime, and explore its properties. In particular we use this formalism to construct a general class of conservation laws, generalizing Kodama's energy flux. We study the geometrically preferred fiducial observers, and demonstrate that it is possible to define and calculate a generalized notion of surface gravity that is valid throughout the entire evolving spacetime. Furthermor...

  10. Quantum time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovannetti, Vittorio

    We give a consistent quantum description of time, based on Page and Wootters’s conditional probabilities mechanism, which overcomes the criticisms that were raised against similar previous proposals. In particular we show ...

  11. Comparing Terminal Performance of .357 SIG and 9mm Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keys, Elizabeth; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    High-speed video has emerged as an valuable tool for quantifying bullet performance in ballistic gelatin. This paper presents the results of testing four .357 SIG bullets using high-speed video of bullet impacts in ballistic gelatin to determine retarding force curves, permanent cavities, temporary cavities, and energy deposit vs. penetration depth. Since the methods are identical, results are meaningfully compared with four 9mm NATO bullets studied in an earlier project. Though .357 SIG bullets perform slightly better due to higher impact energy, the principal finding is that there is a much bigger difference in performance between the best and worst performing bullets in each cartridge than there is between bullets of similar design in the two cartridges. In each cartridge, higher performing expanding bullets (jacketed hollow points) outperform non-expanding bullets (full metal jacket) by a wide margin, showing a much higher probability of rapid incapacitation according to an Army Research Laboratory model ...

  12. Chow Time 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    -1 THE PREDICTION OF BUS ARRIVAL TIME USING AUTOMATIC VEHICLE LOCATION SYSTEMS DATA A Dissertation by RAN HEE JEONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2004 Major Subject: Civil Engineering THE PREDICTION OF BUS ARRIVAL TIME USING AUTOMATIC VEHICLE LOCATION SYSTEMS DATA A Dissertation by RAN HEE JEONG Submitted to Texas A...

  13. Dispatch R427 Time perception: Brain time or event time?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Alan

    Dispatch R427 Time perception: Brain time or event time? Alan Johnston* and Shin'ya Nishida Recent experiments show that synchronous events can appear to an observer to occur at different times. Neural processing time delays are offered as an explanation of these temporal illusions, but equating perceived time

  14. Time Management Managing Time and Tasks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    Time Management Managing Time and Tasks What is time management? Time can't be managed ­ but you can manage the amount of time you use each day for fun, work, rest, and time spent with others. Why is time management important? You have responsibilities to yourself, to your family and friends, to your

  15. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis-Membrane Distillation System for Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat: Thermodynamic Analysis and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Yip, NY; Cath, TY; Osuji, CO; Elimelech, M

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 degrees C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 degrees C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization.

  16. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The...

  17. Time and Labor Manual -Time Keepers -LSUSH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time and Labor Manual - Time Keepers - LSUSH Version Date: July 2012 #12;COPYRIGHT & TRADEMARKS create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software in dangerous applications, then you shall Guide Time and Labor Manual - Time Keepers - LSUSH Page iii Table of Contents Time and Labor Manual

  18. Time Commitments Where Does Your Time Go

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    Time Commitments Where Does Your Time Go Everyone starts the week with the same number of hours. So, why does your time go so fast? Let's find out! Number of hours of sleep each night ____ x 7 preparation/clean-up time) ____ x 7 = ____ Travel time to and from campus ___ x __ = ____ Number of hours per

  19. Plugging of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EGR coolers donated by industry and analyzed at ORNL contained lacquer-like deposits, which can be prevented by maintaining the cooler above the dew point of the hydrocarbons.

  20. Property:Recirculating | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report Url Jump to:Programmable WavemakingPurchasers

  1. Time Crystals from Minimum Time Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mir Faizal; Mohammed M. Khalil; Saurya Das

    2014-12-29

    Motivated by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, covariance, and a minimum measurable time, we propose a deformation of the Heisenberg algebra, and show that this leads to corrections to all quantum mechanical systems. We also demonstrate that such a deformation implies a discrete spectrum for time. In other words, time behaves like a crystal.

  2. Combustion Control of Diesel Engines Using Injection Timing M. Hillion, H. Buhlbuck, and J. Chauvin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the intake manifold, the intake throttle, the turbocharger, the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), and the EGR are employed (EGR valve, intake throttle and turbocharger). Classic fuelpath controllers can be described

  3. Space time and the passage of time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George F. R. Ellis; Rituparno Goswami

    2012-08-26

    This paper examines the various arguments that have been put forward suggesting either that time does not exist, or that it exists but its flow is not real. I argue that (i) time both exists and flows; (ii) an Evolving Block Universe (`EBU') model of spacetime adequately captures this feature, emphasizing the key differences between the past, present, and future; (iii) the associated surfaces of constant time are uniquely geometrically and physically determined in any realistic spacetime model based in General Relativity Theory; (iv) such a model is needed in order to capture the essential aspects of what is happening in circumstances where initial data does not uniquely determine the evolution of spacetime structure because quantum uncertainty plays a key role in that development. Assuming that the functioning of the mind is based in the physical brain, evidence from the way that the mind apprehends the flow of time prefers this evolving time model over those where there is no flow of time.

  4. Manage Your Time 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Lynn

    2000-06-27

    People view time in different ways, but we all could do a better job of managing our time. This publication explains three different time management tools: the 24-hour time log and chart; a self-assessment of thinking styles and time management...

  5. On Time. 6b: Quantum Mechanical Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. K. Raju

    2008-08-09

    The existence of small amounts of advanced radiation, or a tilt in the arrow of time, makes the basic equations of physics mixed-type functional differential equations. The novel features of such equations point to a microphysical structure of time. This corresponds to a change of logic at the microphysical level. We show that the resulting logic is a quantum logic. This provides a natural and rigorous explanation of quantum interference. This structured-time interpretation of quantum mechanics is briefly compared with various other interpretations of q.m.

  6. Yet another time about time - Part I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plamen L. Simeonov

    2015-08-29

    This paper presents yet another personal reflection on one the most important concepts in both science and the humanities: time. This elusive notion has been not only bothering philosophers since Plato and Aristotle. It goes throughout human history embracing all analytical and creative (anthropocentric) disciplines. Time has been a central theme in physical and life sciences, philosophy, psychology, music, art and many more. This theme is known with a vast body of knowledge across different theories and categories. What has been explored concerns its nature (rational, irrational, arational), appearances/qualia, degrees, dimensions and scales of conceptualization (internal, external, fractal, discrete, continuous, mechanical, quantum, local, global, etc.). Of particular interest have been parameters of time such as duration ranges, resolutions, modes (present, now, past, future), varieties of tenses (e.g. present perfect, present progressive, etc.) and some intuitive, but also fancy phenomenological characteristics such as arrow, stream, texture, width, depth, density, even scent. Perhaps the most distinct characteristic of this fundamental concept is the absolute time constituting the flow of consciousness according to Husserl, the reflection of pure (human) nature without having the distinction between exo and endo. This essay is a personal reflection upon the meaning of time in modern physics and phenomenological philosophy.

  7. Universal Time Tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guenter Nimtz

    2009-01-26

    How much time does a tunneling wave packet spent in traversing a barrier? Quantum mechanical calculations result in zero time inside a barrier . In the nineties analogous tunneling experiments with microwaves were carried out. The results agreed with quantum mechanical calculations. Electron tunneling time is hard to measure being extremely short and parasitic effects due to the electric charge of electrons may be dominant. However, quite recently the atomic ionization tunneling time has been measured. Experimental data of photonic, phononic, and electronic tunneling time is available now and will be presented. It appears that the tunneling time is a universal property independent of the field in question.

  8. Stellar spectropolarimetry with retarder waveplate and beam splitter devices Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, U.K.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 3K7 jlandstr@astro.uwo.ca and E. Landi Degl of the instrumental capabilities. It is important to be aware of the possible sources of spurious polarization, i.e., how the electric field vector oscillates. Polarization arises every time there is a mechanism

  9. Time Asymmetric Quantum Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bohm

    1999-02-26

    Mathematical and phenomenological arguments in favor of asymmetric time evolution of micro-physical states are presented.

  10. Noncommutative Two Time Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Chagas-Filho

    2006-05-10

    We present a classical formalism describing two-time physics with Abelian canonical gauge field backgrounds. The formalism can be used as a starting point for the construction of an interacting quantized two-time physics theory in a noncommutative soace-time.

  11. Time-periodic universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De-Xing Kong; Kefeng Liu; Ming Shen

    2008-08-30

    In this letter we construct a new time-periodic solution of the vacuum Einstein's field equations whose Riemann curvature norm takes the infinity at some points. We show that this solution is intrinsically time-periodic and describes a time-periodic universe with the "black hole". New physical phenomena are investigated and new singularities are analyzed for this universal model.

  12. Absolute Time Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Matolcsi; P. Van

    2006-10-23

    A four dimensional treatment of nonrelativistic space-time gives a natural frame to deal with objective time derivatives. In this framework some well known objective time derivatives of continuum mechanics appear as Lie-derivatives. Their coordinatized forms depends on the tensorial properties of the relevant physical quantities. We calculate the particular forms of objective time derivatives for scalars, vectors, covectors and different second order tensors from the point of view of a rotating observer. The relation of substantial, material and objective time derivatives is treated.

  13. Time scales in LISA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Pireaux

    2007-03-23

    The LISA mission is a space interferometer aiming at the detection of gravitational waves in the [$10^{-4}$,$10^{-1}$] Hz frequency band. In order to reach the gravitational wave detection level, a Time Delay Interferometry (TDI) method must be applied to get rid of (most of) the laser frequency noise and optical bench noise. This TDI analysis is carried out in terms of the coordinate time corresponding to the Barycentric Coordinate Reference System (BCRS), TCB, whereas the data at each of the three LISA stations is recorded in terms of each station proper time. We provide here the required proper time versus BCRS time transformation. We show that the difference in rate of station proper time versus TCB is of the order of $5 10^{-8}$. The difference between station proper times and TCB exhibits an oscillatory trend with a maximum amplitude of about $10^{-3}$ s.

  14. Time in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curt A. Moyer

    2013-05-23

    The failure of conventional quantum theory to recognize time as an observable and to admit time operators is addressed. Instead of focusing on the existence of a time operator for a given Hamiltonian, we emphasize the role of the Hamiltonian as the generator of translations in time to construct time states. Taken together, these states constitute what we call a timeline, or quantum history, that is adequate for the representation of any physical state of the system. Such timelines appear to exist even for the semi-bounded and discrete Hamiltonian systems ruled out by Pauli's theorem. However, the step from a timeline to a valid time operator requires additional assumptions that are not always met. Still, this approach illuminates the crucial issue surrounding the construction of time operators, and establishes quantum histories as legitimate alternatives to the familiar coordinate and momentum bases of standard quantum theory.

  15. Matter: Space without Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai

    2012-11-19

    While Quantum Gravity remains elusive and Quantum Field Theory retains the interpretational difficulties of Quantum Mechanics, we have introduced an alternate approach to the unification of particles, fields, space and time, suggesting that the concept of matter as space without time provides a framework which unifies matter with spacetime and in which we anticipate the development of complete theories (ideally a single unified theory) describing observed 'particles, charges, fields and forces' solely with the geometry of our matter-space-time universe.

  16. Intrinsic Time Quantum Geometrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eyo Eyo Ita III; Chopin Soo; Hoi-Lai Yu

    2015-02-06

    Quantum Geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl Curvature Hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational `arrows of time' point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's General Relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics.

  17. Time functions as utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Minguzzi

    2009-09-04

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin's theorem and smoothing techniques.

  18. Time Domain Reflectometry Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palermo, Sam

    Time Domain Reflectometry Theory Application Note 1304-2 For Use with Agilent 86100 Infiniium DCA #12;2 The most general approach to evaluating the time domain response of any electromagnetic system a concise presentation of the fundamentals of TDR and then relates these fundamentals to the parameters

  19. Decadal Variability in the Formation of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water: Oceanic versus Atmospheric Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    , during which time high regional eddy variability infuses high-PV KE water into the recirculation gyre

  20. Digital time delay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  1. Typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS analysis using RAMONA-3B code with space-time neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymotin, L.; Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    A best-estimate analysis of a typical BWR/4 MSIV closure ATWS has been performed using the RAMONA-3B code with three-dimensional neutron kinetics. All safety features, namely, the safety and relief valves, recirculation pump trip, high pressure safety injections and the standby liquid control system (boron injection), were assumed to work as designed. No other operator action was assumed. The results show a strong spatial dependence of reactor power during the transient. After the initial peak of pressure and reactor power, the reactor vessel pressure oscillated between the relief valve set points, and the reactor power oscillated between 20 to 50% of the steady state power until the hot shutdown condition was reached at approximately 1400 seconds. The suppression pool bulk water temperature at this time was predicted to be approx. 96/sup 0/C (205/sup 0/F). In view of code performance and reasonable computer running time, the RAMONA-3B code is recommended for further best-estimate analyses of ATWS-type events in BWRs.

  2. Kairoscope : coordinating time socially

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Reed Eric

    2010-01-01

    If everyone says time is relative, why is it still so rigidly defined? There have been many attempts to address the issue of coordinating schedules, but each of these attempts runs into an issue of rigidity: in order to ...

  3. The Williston time capsule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moses, David (David Patrick)

    2015-01-01

    This project is a time capsule of the oil economy, created by entombing everyday objects made from and powered by petroleum into a landscape that spatially recreates the processes of drilling and fracking a contemporary ...

  4. Sublinear Time Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinfeld, Ronitt

    Sublinear time algorithms represent a new paradigm in computing, where an algorithm must give some sort of an answer after inspecting only a very small portion of the input. We discuss the types of answers that one can ...

  5. Time, energy & form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McInnis, Martha Jane

    1982-01-01

    Physical manifestations of time occur in natural forms of all sizes. Architectural form serves as shelter while providing a built envelope of human life, simultaneously influencing and influenced by energetic activities ...

  6. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  7. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  8. Time in quantum mechanics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapin, Kimberly R.

    1997-01-01

    TIME IN QUANTUM MECHANICS A Thesis by KIMBERLY R. CHAPIN Submitted to Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Marian O. Scully (Chair... of Committee) Edward S. Fry (Member) aan Laane (Member) Thomas W. Adair, III (Head of Department) August 1997 Major Subject: Physics TIME IN QIJANTUM MECHANICS A Thesis by KIMBERLY R. CHAPIN Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  9. The thermodynamics of time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dries Sels; Michiel Wouters

    2015-01-22

    The problem of time is a deep paradox in our physical description of the world. According to Aristotle's relational theory, time is a measure of change and does not exist on its own. In contrast, quantum mechanics, just like Newtonian mechanics, is equipped with a master clock that dictates the evolution of a system. This clock is infinitely precise and tacitly supplied free of charge from outside physics. Not only does this absolute time make it notoriously difficult to make a consistent theory of quantum gravity, it is also the underlying problem in establishing the second law. Indeed, contrary to our experience, the Wheeler-deWitt equation --a canonical quantization of general relativity-- predicts a static universe. Similarly, when simply concerned with the dynamics of a closed quantum system, there is no second law because the Von Neumann entropy is invariant under unitary transformations. Here we are mainly concerned with the latter problem and we show that it can be resolved by attributing a minimal amount of resources to the measurement of time. Although there is an absolute time in quantum mechanics, an observer can only establish a time by measuring a clock. For a local measurement, the minimal entropy production is equal to the number of ticks. This lower bound is attained by a black hole.

  10. Engine Control Improvement through Application of Chaotic Time Series Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.B., Jr.; Daw, C.S.

    2003-07-15

    The objective of this program was to investigate cyclic variations in spark-ignition (SI) engines under lean fueling conditions and to develop options to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in compression-ignition direct-injection (CIDI) engines at high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. The CIDI activity builds upon an earlier collaboration between ORNL and Ford examining combustion instabilities in SI engines. Under the original CRADA, the principal objective was to understand the fundamental causes of combustion instability in spark-ignition engines operating with lean fueling. The results of this earlier activity demonstrated that such combustion instabilities are dominated by the effects of residual gas remaining in each cylinder from one cycle to the next. A very simple, low-order model was developed that explained the observed combustion instability as a noisy nonlinear dynamical process. The model concept lead to development of a real-time control strategy that could be employed to significantly reduce cyclic variations in real engines using existing sensors and engine control systems. This collaboration led to the issuance of a joint patent for spark-ignition engine control. After a few years, the CRADA was modified to focus more on EGR and CIDI engines. The modified CRADA examined relationships between EGR, combustion, and emissions in CIDI engines. Information from CIDI engine experiments, data analysis, and modeling were employed to identify and characterize new combustion regimes where it is possible to simultaneously achieve significant reductions in NOx and PM emissions. These results were also used to develop an on-line combustion diagnostic (virtual sensor) to make cycle-resolved combustion quality assessments for active feedback control. Extensive experiments on engines at Ford and ORNL led to the development of the virtual sensor concept that may be able to detect simultaneous reductions in NOx and PM emissions under low temperature combustion (LTC) regimes. An invention disclosure was submitted to ORNL for the virtual sensor under the CRADA. Industrial in-kind support was available throughout the project period. Review of the research results were carried out on a regular basis (annual reports and meetings) followed by suggestions for improvement in ongoing work and direction for future work. A significant portion of the industrial support was in the form of experimentation, data analysis, data exchange, and technical consultation.

  11. Time and Labor 9.1 Time Keeper Payroll -HCSD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time and Labor 9.1 Time Keeper Payroll - HCSD Version Date: July 2012 #12;COPYRIGHT & TRADEMARKS create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software in dangerous applications, then you shall Guide Time and Labor 9.1 Time Keeper Payroll - HCSD Page iii Table of Contents Time and Labor 9.1 Time

  12. Timed Alternating-Time Temporal Logic Thomas A. Henzinger1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    equally powerful options for updating the state of the game, advancing time, or blocking time. Second, we in order to specify real-time objectives for games played on timed structures. We define the semantics Timed games are a formal model for the synthesis of real-time systems [22, 20]. While much research

  13. Time-Resolved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment TopMetathesisSediments andTheTime-Resolved Time-Resolved

  14. Time Activity Time Activity Time Activity Tuesday CLOSED CONFERENCE CLOSED CONFERENCE CLOSED CONFERENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burg, Theresa

    Time Activity Time Activity Time Activity Tuesday CLOSED CONFERENCE CLOSED CONFERENCE CLOSED CONFERENCE 2-Jun-15 Wednesday CLOSED CONFERENCE CLOSED CONFERENCE CLOSED CONFERENCE 3-Jun-15 Thursday CLOSED

  15. Time in Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Brout; R. Parentani

    1999-02-05

    The notion of time in cosmology is revealed through an examination of transition matrix elements of radiative processes occurring in the cosmos. To begin with, the very concept of time is delineated in classical physics in terms of correlations between the succession of configurations which describe a process and a standard trajectory called the clock. The total is an isolated system of fixed energy. This is relevant for cosmology in that the universe is an isolated system which we take to be homogeneous and isotropic. Furthermore, in virtue of the constraint which arises from reparametrization invariance of time, it has total energy zero. Therefore the momentum of the scale factor is determined from the energy of matter. In the quantum theory this is exploited through use of the WKB approximation for the wave function of the scale factor, justified for a large universe. The formalism then gives rise to matrix elements describing matter processes. These are shown to take on the form of usual time dependent quantum amplitudes wherein the temporal dependence is given by a background which is once more fixed by the total energy of matter.

  16. Time and Attendance Reporting

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-10-22

    DOE O 535.1 establishes the Department's requirements and responsibilities governing time and attendance reporting. The purpose of this revision is to reflect the transition of payroll processing from the Capital Accounting Center to the Defense Finance and Accounting System. Cancels DOE O 3600.1B. Canceled by DOE O 322.1C.

  17. Presenter:! Time & Date: !

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collar, Juan I.

    a checkbook, you can understand which energy options have the promise of supporting humankind - wind, hydro://cfcpwork.uchicago.edu/mailman/listinfo/cafe! A Reality Check on Alternative Energy! #12;A Reality Check on Alternative Energy! Presenter: Liz Moyer! Time a bigger, richer population without fossil fuels (which will definitely run out someday)? Energy is a hot

  18. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  19. Time reversal communication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V. (Danville, CA); Meyer, Alan W. (Danville, CA)

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  20. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  1. Time Reversal Violation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, H; /SLAC

    2009-01-27

    This talk briefly reviews three types of time-asymmetry in physics, which I classify as universal, macroscopic and microscopic. Most of the talk is focused on the latter, namely the violation of T-reversal invariance in particle physics theories. In sum tests of microscopic T-invariance, or observations of its violation, are limited by the fact that, while we can measure many processes, only in very few cases can we construct a matched pair of process and inverse process and observe it with sufficient sensitivity to make a test. In both the cases discussed here we can achieve an observable T violation making use of flavor tagging, and in the second case also using the quantum properties of an antisymmetric coherent state of two B mesons to construct a CP-tag. Both these tagging properties depend only on very general properties of the flavor and/or CP quantum numbers and so provide model independent tests for T-invariance violations. The microscopic laws of physics are very close to T-symmetric. There are small effects that give CP- and T-violating processes in three-generation-probing weak decays. Where a T-violating observable can be constructed we see the relationships between T-violation and CP-violation expected in a CPT conserving theory. These microscopic effects are unrelated to the 'arrow of time' that is defined by increasing entropy, or in the time direction defined by the expansion of our Universe.

  2. On the stability of time-domain integral equations for acoustic wave propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles L. Epstein; Leslie Greengard; Thomas Hagstrom

    2015-04-15

    We give a principled approach for the selection of a boundary integral, retarded potential representation for the solution of scattering problems for the wave equation in an exterior domain.

  3. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stough, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Exceptional Children; Mar/Apr 1999; 31, 4; ProQuest pg. 62 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without...

  4. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stough, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Exceptional Children; Mar/Apr 1999; 31, 4; ProQuest pg. 62 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without...

  5. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutoryin theNuclearEnergyVBA-0082 - In|955Department of

  6. Space-time diamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daiqin Su; T. C. Ralph

    2015-07-02

    We show that the particle number distribution of diamond modes, modes that are localised in a finite space-time region, are thermal for the Minkowski vacuum state of a massless scalar field, an analogue to the Unruh effect. The temperature of the diamond is inversely proportional to its size. An inertial observer can detect this thermal radiation by coupling to the diamond modes using an appropriate energy scaled detector. We further investigate the correlations between various diamonds and find that entanglement between adjacent diamonds dominates.

  7. Time Valid One-Time Signature for Time-Critical Multicast Data Authentication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    malicious attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel signature model ­ Time Valid One-Time Signature (TVTime Valid One-Time Signature for Time-Critical Multicast Data Authentication Qiyan Wang, Himanshu-OTS) ­ to boost the efficiency of regular one-time signature schemes. Based on the TV-OTS model, we design

  8. Advertising Emergency Department Wait Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiner, Scott G

    2013-01-01

    studies evaluating the advertising of ED wait times. Only 1potentially used for advertising may be inaccurate. AccessedE ditorial Advertising Emergency Department Wait Times Scott

  9. Final Exam Location and Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Final Exam Location and Time. Math 162 Fall 2001. Date: Wednesday December 12, 2001. Time: 7:00 pm -9:00 pm. Location: Lambert Fieldhouse ...

  10. Final Exam Location and Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Final Exam Location and Time. Math 161 Fall 2001. Date: Friday December 14, 2001. Time: 8:00 am -10:00 am. Location: Lambert Fieldhouse ...

  11. 1. 2 , 4 2 ( Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Alexander

    format with double line spacing (font Times New Roman, 12 pt; margins: left and up -- 30 mm, right , . 20. , , . 1. 2 , 4 2 ( Times New Roman, 12 pt

  12. Denoising Deterministic Time Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven P. Lalley; Andrew B. Nobel

    2006-04-21

    This paper is concerned with the problem of recovering a finite, deterministic time series from observations that are corrupted by additive, independent noise. A distinctive feature of this problem is that the available data exhibit long-range dependence and, as a consequence, existing statistical theory and methods are not readily applicable. This paper gives an analysis of the denoising problem that extends recent work of Lalley, but begins from first principles. Both positive and negative results are established. The positive results show that denoising is possible under somewhat restrictive conditions on the additive noise. The negative results show that, under more general conditions on the noise, no procedure can recover the underlying deterministic series.

  13. Real time automated inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.

    1985-05-21

    A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.

  14. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  15. Time's Ontic Voltage Craig Callender

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    Time's Ontic Voltage Craig Callender Philosophy of time, as practiced throughout the last hundred venue for attacking questions about the nature of time--in sharp contrast to the primary venue slowly in philosophy of time.1 Since twentieth-century analytic philosophy as a whole often drew

  16. Untameable Timed Automata! (Extended Abstract)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    are a widely studied model for real­time systems. Since 8 years, several tools implement this model­life systems. 1 Introduction Real­Time Systems ­ Since their introduction by Alur and Dill in [AD94], timed au­ tomata are one of the most studied models for real­time systems. Numerous works have been devoted

  17. Untameable Timed Automata! (Extended Abstract)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    model for real-time systems. Since 8 years, several tools implement this model and are successfully used for a restricted class of timed automata, which has been sufficient for modeling numerous real-life systems. 1 Introduction Real-Time Systems - Since their introduction by Alur and Dill in [AD94], timed au- tomata are one

  18. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, J.P.; Sawvel, R.M.; Draggoo, V.G.

    1994-06-28

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior. 8 figures.

  19. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jerome P. (Livermore, CA); Sawvel, Robert M. (Modesto, CA); Draggoo, Vaughn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior.

  20. Multistage CSR microbunching gain development in transport or recirculation arcs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Cheng-Ying; Li, Rui; Tennant, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) induced microbunching instability has been one of the most challenging issues in the design of modern accelerators. A linear Vlasov solver has been developed [1] and applied to investigate the physical processes of microbunching gain amplification for several example lattices [2]. In this paper, by further extending the concept of stage gain as proposed by Huang and Kim [3], we develop a method to characterize the microbunching development in terms of stage orders that allow the quantitative comparison of optics impacts on microbunching gain for different lattices. We find that the microbunching instability in our demonstrated arcs has a distinguishing feature of multistage amplification (e.g, up to 6th stage amplification for our example transport arcs, in contrast to two-stage amplification for a typical 4-dipole bunch compressor chicane). We also try to connect lattice optics pattern with the obtained stage gain functions by a physical interpretation. This Vlasov analys...

  1. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, T.L.

    1993-10-19

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank. 3 figures.

  2. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  3. Sandia Energy - Sandia's Continuously Recirculating Falling-Particle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Receiver Emplaced at Top of Solar Tower Sandia researchers are working to lower the cost of solar energy systems and improve efficiencies in a big way, thanks to a system of...

  4. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown to readily meet the 2010 EPA requirments for NOx and PM emisisons through independent testing programs.

  5. Recirculation of Factory Heat and Air to Reduce Energy Consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiel, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    such as wet scrubbers and activated carbon collectors) are fairly well known. So are the cyclone and filter devices which are capable of collecting relatively large parti ESL-IE-83-04-32 Proceedings from the Fifth Industrial Energy Conservation.... To collect such submicron particulates in filter type air cleaners necessi tates selection of media having extremely small air passages. Substantial resistance to airflow, With consequent high static pressure drop across the collector, is therefore...

  6. Recirculation of In-Plant Air at General Motors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKibben, V. L.

    1983-01-01

    the in-plant environment at GM is the rotary drum filter. This rotary drum filter is an air cleaning unit manufactured by two indus trial concerns. It consists of an expanded metal drum fitted with two layers of media. The inner layer (fitted around... rotary drum filters in winter and flush ventilation in the summer. Air tempering was con sidered, but dismissed as a viable alternative pri marily due to cost benefit. If summer temperatures could be controlled to within SOF above outside 2]6 ESL...

  7. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Xin (Denver, CO); Durrett, Russell P. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    2012-01-24

    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  8. Practical delay modeling of externally recirculated burned gas fraction for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a turbocharged SI engine equipped with direct injection, VVT and a low-pressure EGR loop. In this chapter with a turbocharger and direct

  9. Control method for turbocharged diesel engines having exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolmanovsky, I.V.; Jankovic, M.J.; Jankovic, M.

    2000-03-14

    A method of controlling the airflow into a compression ignition engine having an EGR and a VGT. The control strategy includes the steps of generating desired EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates as a function of the desired and measured compressor mass airflow values and exhaust manifold pressure values. The desired compressor mass airflow and exhaust manifold pressure values are generated as a function of the operator-requested fueling rate and engine speed. The EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates are then inverted to corresponding EGR and VGT actuator positions to achieve the desired compressor mass airflow rate and exhaust manifold pressure. The control strategy also includes a method of estimating the intake manifold pressure used in generating the EGR valve and VGT turbine positions.

  10. Improving Heating System Operations Using Water Re-Circulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, F.; Han, J.

    2006-01-01

    indicates that consumer- regulated indoor temperature is the primary factor that affects the flow rate and temperature of return water....

  11. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1993-01-01

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank.

  12. Sandia Energy - Sandia's Continuously Recirculating Falling-Particle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput AnalysisSinkhole OfficialsWork on CriegeeEuropean PVReactorReceiver

  13. Preliminary Study on Emittance Growth in the LHEC Recirculating Linac

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding accessusers'(x≤2) surface: A(Technical(Conference)Fragments

  14. Preliminary Study on Emittance Growth in the LHEC Recirculating Linac

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding accessusers'(x≤2) surface:

  15. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine?, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon-#12;fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning a timing-belt based hydroEngine ?powertrain: 1. Can a belt handle the high torques and power loads demanded by the SLH? (Yes.) 2. Can the SLH blades be mounted to belt with a connection that can withstand the loads encountered in operation? (Yes.) 3. Can the belt, with blade attachments, live through the required cyclic loading? (Yes.) The research adds to the general understanding of sustainable small hydropower systems by using innovative system testing to develop and demonstrate performance of a novel powertrain solution, enabling a new type of hydroelectric turbine to be commercially developed. The technical effectiveness of the methods investigated has been shown to be positive through an extensive design and testing process accommodating many constraints and goals, with a major emphasis on high cycle fatigue life. Economic feasibility of the innovations has been demonstrated through many iterations of design for manufacturability and cost reduction. The project is of benefit to the public because it has helped to develop a solution to a major problem -- despite the large available potential for new low-head hydropower, high capital costs and high levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) continue to be major barriers to project development. The hydroEngine? represents a significant innovation, leveraging novel fluid mechanics and mechanical configuration to allow lower-cost turbine manufacture and development of low head hydropower resources.

  16. Dead-time optimized time-correlated photon counting instrument with synchronized, independent timing channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enderlein, Jörg

    Dead-time optimized time-correlated photon counting instrument with synchronized, independent timing channels Michael Wahla and Hans-Jürgen Rahn PicoQuant GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29, D-12489 Berlin December 2006; accepted 19 February 2007; published online 23 March 2007 Time-correlated single photon

  17. Time and Labor 9.1 Time Keeper -HCSD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time and Labor 9.1 Time Keeper - HCSD Version Date: July 2012 #12;COPYRIGHT & TRADEMARKS Copyright create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software in dangerous applications, then you shall

  18. Date of Injury Date Time In Time Out

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : NORMAL Work Schedule (ie: MF, 8am5pm)First Name Last Name # of hours missed from work #12;RISK MGTDate of Injury Date Time In Time Out Total time worked medical appt no work within restrictions Next Medical Appointment(s): Tuesday of each week. Risk Mgt email: workcomp@colostate.edu; fax

  19. Time translation of quantum properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Vanni; R. Laura

    2008-12-03

    Based on the notion of time translation, we develop a formalism to deal with the logic of quantum properties at different times. In our formalism it is possible to enlarge the usual notion of context to include composed properties involving properties at different times. We compare our results with the theory of consistent histories.

  20. Time machines and quantum theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark J Hadley

    2006-12-02

    There is a deep structural link between acausal spacetimes and quantum theory. As a consequence quantum theory may resolve some "paradoxes" of time travel. Conversely, non-time-orientable spacetimes naturally give rise to electric charges and spin half. If an explanation of quantum theory is possible, then general relativity with time travel could be it.

  1. The LCLS Timing Event System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dusatko, John; Allison, S.; Browne, M.; Krejcik, P.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The Linac Coherent Light Source requires precision timing trigger signals for various accelerator diagnostics and controls at SLAC-NAL. A new timing system has been developed that meets these requirements. This system is based on COTS hardware with a mixture of custom-designed units. An added challenge has been the requirement that the LCLS Timing System must co-exist and 'know' about the existing SLC Timing System. This paper describes the architecture, construction and performance of the LCLS timing event system.

  2. Setting and Maintaining Arecibo Observatory's Timing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frequency Standard 14 Time Code Generators TRAK Synchronized Time Code Generator 38 EECO Time Code Generator the time codes if the TRAC Synchronized Time Code Generator fails. Soon the TrueTime time code generator) Time Code Generator TRAK Synchronized Time Code Generator EECO Time Code Generator Transfer standard

  3. Local-time effect on small space-time scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Panchelyuga; V. A. Kolombet; M. S. Panchelyuga; S. E. Shnoll

    2006-10-18

    The paper presents an investigation of local-time effect - one of the manifestations of macroscopic fluctuations phenomena. Was shown the existence of the named effect for longitudinal distance between locations of measurements up to 500 meters. Also a structure of intervals distribution in neighborhood of local-time peak was studied and splitting of the peak was found out. Obtained results lead to conclusion about sharp anisotropy of space-time.

  4. Time Consistent Risk Measure Under Stopping Time Framework ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-13

    to the stochastic volatility of security markets and constantly change of economic and financial information, the earliest target reaching time is random, it then ...

  5. The Piloted Transition to Flaming in Smoldering Fire Retarded and Non-Fire Retarded Polyurethane Foam 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putzeys, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Rein, Guillermo; Urban, David

    The piloted transition from smoldering to flaming, though a significant fire safety concern, has not been previously extensively studied. Experimental results are presented on the piloted transition from smoldering to ...

  6. On the Flow of Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George F R Ellis

    2008-12-01

    Current theoretical physics suggests the flow of time is an illusion: the entire universe just is, with no special meaning attached to the present time. This paper points out that this view, in essence represented by usual space-time diagrams, is based on time-reversible microphysical laws, which fail to capture essential features of the time-irreversible nature of decoherence and the quantum measurement process, as well as macro-physical behaviour and the development of emergent complex systems, including life, which exist in the real universe. When these are taken into account, the unchanging block universe view of spacetime is best replaced by an evolving block universe which extends as time evolves, with the potential of the future continually becoming the certainty of the past; spacetime itself evolves, as do the entities within it. However this time evolution is not related to any preferred surfaces in spacetime; rather it is associated with the evolution of proper time along families of world lines. The default state of fundamental physics should not be taken to be a time irreversible evolution of physical states: it is an ongoing irreversible development of time itself.

  7. Time is not the problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olaf Dreyer

    2009-04-22

    Attempts to quantize general relativity encounter an odd problem. The Hamiltonian that normally generates time evolution vanishes in the case of general relativity as a result of diffeomorphism invariance. The theory seems to be saying that time does not exist. The most obvious feature of our world, namely that time seems to progress and that the world changes accordingly becomes a problem in this presumably fundamental theory. This is called the problem of time. In this essay we argue that this problem is the result of an unphysical idealization. We are caught in this "problem of time" trap because we took a wrong turn in the early days of relativity by permanently including a split of geometry and matter into our physical theories. We show that another possibility exists that circumvents the problem of time and also sheds new light on other problems like the cosmological constant problem and the horizon problem in early universe cosmology.

  8. Three-body dwell time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelkar, N. G.

    2010-06-15

    The lifetime of an unstable state or resonance formed as an intermediate state in two-body scattering is known to be related to the dwell time or the time spent within a given region of space by the two interacting particles. This concept is extended to the case of three-body systems and a relation connecting the three-body dwell time with the two-body dwell times of the substructures of the three-body system is derived for the case of separable wave functions. The Kapur-Peierls formalism is revisited to discover one of the first definitions of dwell time in the literature. An extension of the Kapur-Peierls formalism to the three-body case shows that the lifetime of a three-body resonance can indeed be given by the three-body dwell time.

  9. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Peter T. K. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  10. Reactor control rod timing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, P.T.

    1982-02-09

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (Above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  11. Commencement Ceremony Department Time Location Department and Major Time Location

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaji, Hajime

    Engineering 15:30 Bldg. 63 Classroom 01 (2nd Fl.) Industrial and Management Systems Engineering 15:30 Bldg. 63 and Management 15:30 Bldg. 63 Classroom 01 (2nd Fl.) Department Time Location Department and Major Time Location:30 Bldg. 57 202 Modern Mechanical Engineering 10:30 Bldg. 57 202 Industrial and Management Systems

  12. 49 Stress-timed vs. Syllable-timed Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehler, Jacques

    49 Stress-timed vs. Syllable- timed Languages Marina Nespor Mohinish Shukla Jacques Mehler 1; Prince 1983; Nespor & Vogel 1989; chapter 43: representations of word stress), the element that "establishes order" in the flow of speech is stress: universally, stressed and unstressed positions alternate

  13. Time Structure of Muonic Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Cazon; R. A. Vazquez; A. A. Watson; E. Zas

    2003-11-10

    An analytical description of the time structure of the pulses induced by muons in air showers at ground level is deduced assuming the production distance distribution for the muons can be obtained elsewhere. The results of this description are compared against those obtained from simulated showers using AIRES. Major contributions to muon time delays are identified and a relation between the time structure and the depth distribution is unveiled.

  14. Seismic velocity estimation from time migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cameron, Maria Kourkina

    2007-01-01

    v List of Tables Comparison of time migration and depthof seismic imaging: time migration and depth migration. TimeComparison of time migration and depth migration Adequate

  15. Time and maps Menno-Jan Kraak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time and maps Menno-Jan Kraak Time and maps ! · Why interested in time? · What is time and · How is time perceived? · How is time represented? Why interested in time? GIScience perspective) - analysis of changes over time - analysis of patterns of change over time ! · Development of methods

  16. Quantum gravity, the origin of time and time's arrow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffat, J.W. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-03-01

    The local Lorentz and diffeomorphism symmetries of Einstein's gravitational theory are spontaneously broken by a Higgs mechanism by invoking a phase transition in the early universe, at a critical temperature [Tc] below which the symmetry is restored. The spontaneous breakdown of the vacuum state generates an external time, and the wave function of the universe satisfies a time-dependent Schroedinger equation, which reduces to the Wheeler-deWitt equation in the classical regime for T<[Tc], allowing a semiclassical WKB approximation to the wave function. The conservation of energy is spontaneously violated for T>[Tc], and matter is created fractions of seconds after the big bang, generating the matter in the Universe. The time direction of the vacuum expectation value of the scalar Higgs field generates a time asymmetry, which defines the cosmological arrow of time and the direction of increasing entropy as the Lorentz symmetry is restored at low temperatures. 52 refs.

  17. Time Dependence of ACIS Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Catherine E.

    Time Dependence of ACIS Contamination Chandra Calibration Workshop 27 October 2003 Catherine Grant Source · Measuring the decay · Monitoring contamination with the ECS · Models of ECS time dependence · Monitoring contamination with the LETG · Agreement between models #12;ACIS External Calibration Source

  18. STARBASE: MANAGING CONTENTION AND TIMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Sang H.

    systems (RT­DBMS) has primarily based on simulation. This chapter discusses how current real­time technology has been applied to architect an actual RT­DBMS on a real­time microkernel operating system. A real RT­DBMS must confront many practical issues which simulations typically ignore: race conditions

  19. The Time of Our Lives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor, David Hugh

    2001-01-01

    The article shows how McTaggart’s distinction between A- and B-series ways of locating events in time prompted and enabled the twentieth century’s most important advances in the philosophy of time. It argues that, even if the B-series represents...

  20. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R N Manchester

    2006-04-13

    Given sufficient sensitivity, pulsar timing observations can make a direct detection of gravitational waves passing over the Earth. Pulsar timing is most sensitive to gravitational waves with frequencies in the nanoHertz region, with the most likely astronomical sources being binary super-massive black holes in galaxy cores. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project uses the Parkes 64-m radio telescope to make precision timing observations of a sample of about 20 millisecond pulsars with a principal goal of making a direct detection of gravitational waves. Observations commenced about one year ago and so far sub-microsecond timing residuals have been achieved for more than half of these pulsars. New receiver and software systems are being developed with the aim of reducing these residuals to the level believed necessary for a positive detection of gravitational waves.

  1. Time-Dependent Lagrangian Biomechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivancevic, Tijana T

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the time-dependent generalization of an 'ordinary' autonomous human musculo-skeletal biomechanics. We start with the configuration manifold of human body, given as a set of its all active degrees of freedom (DOF). This is a Riemannian manifold with a material metric tensor given by the total mass-inertia matrix of the human body segments. This is the base manifold for standard autonomous biomechanics. To make its time-dependent generalization, we need to extend it with a real time axis. On this extended configuration space we develop time-dependent biomechanical Lagrangian dynamics, using derived jet spaces of velocities and accelerations, as well as the underlying geometric evolution of the mass-inertia matrix. Keywords: Human time-dependent biomechanics, configuration manifold, jet spaces, geometric evolution

  2. Time parallel gravitational collapse simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreienbuehl, Andreas; Ruprecht, Daniel; Krause, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates the applicability of the parallel-in-time method Parareal to the numerical solution of the Einstein gravity equations for the spherical collapse of a massless scalar field. To account for the shrinking of the spatial domain in time, a tailored load balancing scheme is proposed and compared to load balancing based on number of time steps alone. The performance of Parareal is studied for both the sub-critical and black hole case; our experiments show that Parareal generates substantial speedup and, in the super-critical regime, can also reproduce the black hole mass scaling law.

  3. User Experiment Time-Line

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Experiment Time-Line Event Target Call for proposal 2 months before proposals are due PAC Proposals Due 7 weeks before PAC meeting TAC Report for PAC Proposals (includes...

  4. Time Machine at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Ya. Aref'eva; I. V. Volovich

    2007-10-25

    Recently, black hole and brane production at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been widely discussed. We suggest that there is a possibility to test causality at the LHC. We argue that if the scale of quantum gravity is of the order of few TeVs, proton-proton collisions at the LHC could lead to the formation of time machines (spacetime regions with closed timelike curves) which violate causality. One model for the time machine is a traversable wormhole. We argue that the traversable wormhole production cross section at the LHC is of the same order as the cross section for the black hole production. Traversable wormholes assume violation of the null energy condition (NEC) and an exotic matter similar to the dark energy is required. Decay of the wormholes/time machines and signatures of time machine events at the LHC are discussed.

  5. Vocal Timing in the Bat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarvis, Jenna N

    2013-05-01

    respond to continuous noise by increasing their call rate, and that the switch between the responses to intermittent noise and continuous noise occurs at a duty cycle of 50% or higher. Overall, this dissertation establishes that bats alter the timing...

  6. TIME SCHEDULE WINTER QUARTER 1970

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Werner

    MASTER CON TIME SCHEDULE WINTER QUARTER 1970 ADVANCE REGISTRATION NOVEMBER 3-21 IN, please leave it or pass it along so that other students may use it. #12;Winter Quarter 1970. Examination

  7. Modeling of Time with Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov; Yu-Ju Hung

    2011-05-12

    Metamaterials have been already used to model various exotic "optical spaces". Here we demonstrate that mapping of monochromatic extraordinary light distribution in a hyperbolic metamaterial along some spatial direction may model the "flow of time". This idea is illustrated in experiments performed with plasmonic hyperbolic metamaterials. Appearance of the "statistical arrow of time" is examined in an experimental scenario which emulates a Big Bang-like event.

  8. Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, Scott

    2013-02-13

    The Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

  9. On the Nature of Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radovan, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The paper puts forward a conceptual framework in which the phenomenon of time can be presented and discussed in a proper way. We argue that change is ontologically and epistemologically a more basic phenomenon than time. Time is an abstract entity created by the human mind on the basis of the experience of change. Physical reality is a process of ceaseless becoming and vanishing; time is not a part of that process. Time is the abstract bank in relation to which we measure the intensity and amount of the flow (change) of physical reality. We must differentiate physical reality from abstract entities (language) by means of which we speak about this reality. It is necessary to differentiate a formal description (formulas) from its interpretation: a correct formal description can be interpreted in a logically inconsistent and factually wrong way. We argue that the discourse about the relativity of time joins (mixes) physical reality and language, and gives an inconsistent interpretation of correct formulas. Regar...

  10. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1981-02-11

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

  11. Measuring time with physical clocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esteban Castro-Ruiz; Flaminia Giacomini; ?aslav Brukner

    2015-07-07

    In general relativity, the picture of spacetime assigns an ideal clock to each spacetime point. Being ideal, gravitational effects due to these clocks are ignored and the flow of time according to one clock is not affected by the presence of surrounding clocks. However, if time is defined operationally, as a pointer position of a physical clock that obeys the laws of quantum mechanics and general relativity, such a picture is at most a convenient fiction. We show that the mass-energy equivalence implies gravitational interaction between the clocks, while the superposition of energy eigenstates leads to a non-fixed metric background. Based only on the assumption that both quantum mechanics and general relativity are valid in this situation, we show that the clocks necessarily get entangled through time dilation effect, which eventually leads to a loss of coherence of a single clock. Hence, the time as measured by a single clock is not well-defined. However, the general relativistic notion of time is recovered in the classical limit of clocks.

  12. Static timing analysis in VLSI design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Shuo

    2006-01-01

    II.B Static Timing AnalysisStatic Timing Analysis in the Design Flow FalseChip Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.C Static Timing

  13. Time Series Analysis 1 Time series in astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babu, G. Jogesh

    (supernovae, gamma-ray bursts) Difficulties in astronomical time series Gapped data streams: Diurnal & monthly phenomena: thermonuclear (novae, X-ray bursts), magnetic reconnection (solar/stellar flares), star death); pulsation (helioseismology, Cepheids) Stochastic phenomena: accretion (CVs, X-ray binaries, Seyfert gals

  14. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H. (Arvada, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  15. TIME-RESOLVED VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrei Tokmakoff, MIT; Paul Champion, Northeastern University; Edwin J. Heilweil, NIST; Keith A. Nelson, MIT; Larry Ziegler, Boston University

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE�s Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all five of DOE�s grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  16. ANDERSON LOCALIZATION FOR TIME PERIODIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    disorder, Anderson localization in Z d is stable un- der localized time-periodic perturbations by proving random Schrodinger operators at large disorder has been well known since the seminal work of Fr is approximated by the potential V . The equation governing the system is (1.5) i @ @t = (#1; + V ) on Z d #2

  17. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  18. High resolution time interval counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condreva, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  19. Precision Timing Via Cerenkov Radiation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    ) beam splitter EG&G Ortec 9306 EG&G Ortec 9306 Microchannel­plate Photo Multiplier (MCP­PMT) 1 GHz Preamplifier Semiconductor Photo Diode 1 GHz Preamplifier EG&G Ortec 9307 EG&G Ortec 9307 ``Pico Timing Converter (TAC) 10 ns delay Stop Start Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA) beam splitter EG&G Ortec 9306 1 GHz

  20. The TESLA Time Projection Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabil Ghodbane

    2002-12-12

    A large Time Projection Chamber is proposed as part of the tracking system for a detector at the TESLA electron positron linear collider. Different ongoing R&D studies are reviewed, stressing progress made on a new type readout technique based on Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors.

  1. Theory of Earthquake Recurrence Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Saichev; D. Sornette

    2006-05-31

    The statistics of recurrence times in broad areas have been reported to obey universal scaling laws, both for single homogeneous regions (Corral, 2003) and when averaged over multiple regions (Bak et al.,2002). These unified scaling laws are characterized by intermediate power law asymptotics. On the other hand, Molchan (2005) has presented a mathematical proof that, if such a universal law exists, it is necessarily an exponential, in obvious contradiction with the data. First, we generalize Molchan's argument to show that an approximate unified law can be found which is compatible with the empirical observations when incorporating the impact of the Omori law of earthquake triggering. We then develop the full theory of the statistics of inter-event times in the framework of the ETAS model of triggered seismicity and show that the empirical observations can be fully explained. Our theoretical expression fits well the empirical statistics over the whole range of recurrence times, accounting for different regimes by using only the physics of triggering quantified by Omori's law. The description of the statistics of recurrence times over multiple regions requires an additional subtle statistical derivation that maps the fractal geometry of earthquake epicenters onto the distribution of the average seismic rates in multiple regions. This yields a prediction in excellent agreement with the empirical data for reasonable values of the fractal dimension $d \\approx 1.8$, the average clustering ratio $n \\approx 0.9$, and the productivity exponent $\\alpha \\approx 0.9$ times the $b$-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law.

  2. Data Collection, Testing, and Analysis of Hybrid Electric Trucks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    timing and exhaust gas recirculation rates), examine the composition of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) feed gas (NO 2 to NO x ratio), and look at tailpipe constituents...

  3. Andreas A. Malikopoulos e-mail: amaliko@umich.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    , which learns the values of injection timing and variable geometry turbocharging vane position, variable geometry turbocharging VGT , exhaust gas recirculation EGR , and variable valve actuation VVA

  4. High resolution time interval meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  5. Treating Time Travel Quantum Mechanically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John-Mark A. Allen

    2014-10-10

    The fact that closed timelike curves (CTCs) are permitted by general relativity raises the question as to how quantum systems behave when time travel to the past occurs. Research into answering this question by utilising the quantum circuit formalism has given rise to two theories: Deutschian-CTCs (D-CTCs) and "postselected" CTCs (P-CTCs). In this paper the quantum circuit approach is thoroughly reviewed, and the strengths and shortcomings of D-CTCs and P-CTCs are presented in view of their non-linearity and time travel paradoxes. In particular, the "equivalent circuit model"---which aims to make equivalent predictions to D-CTCs, while avoiding some of the difficulties of the original theory---is shown to contain errors. The discussion of D-CTCs and P-CTCs is used to motivate an analysis of the features one might require of a theory of quantum time travel, following which two overlapping classes of new theories are identified. One such theory, the theory of "transition probability" CTCs (T-CTCs), is fully developed. The theory of T-CTCs is shown not to have certain undesirable features---such as time travel paradoxes, the ability to distinguish non-orthogonal states with certainty, and the ability to clone or delete arbitrary pure states---that are present with D-CTCs and P-CTCs. The problems with non-linear extensions to quantum mechanics are discussed in relation to the interpretation of these theories, and the physical motivations of all three theories are discussed and compared.

  6. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. N. Manchester

    2007-11-12

    Detection and study of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources is a major goal of current astrophysics. Ground-based laser-interferometer systems such as LIGO and VIRGO are sensitive to gravitational waves with frequencies of order 100 Hz, whereas space-based systems such as LISA are sensitive in the millihertz regime. Precise timing observations of a sample of millisecond pulsars widely distributed on the sky have the potential to detect gravitational waves at nanohertz frequencies. Potential sources of such waves include binary super-massive black holes in the cores of galaxies, relic radiation from the inflationary era and oscillations of cosmic strings. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) is an implementation of such a system in which 20 millisecond pulsars have been observed using the Parkes radio telescope at three frequencies at intervals of two -- three weeks for more than two years. Analysis of these data has been used to limit the gravitational wave background in our Galaxy and to constrain some models for its generation. The data have also been used to investigate fluctuations in the interstellar and Solar-wind electron density and have the potential to investigate the stability of terrestrial time standards and the accuracy of solar-system ephemerides.

  7. Timing the Parkes Multibeam Pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. N. Manchester; A. G. Lyne; F. Camilo; V. M. Kaspi; I. H. Stairs; F. Crawford; D. J. Morris; J. F. Bell; N. D'Amico

    1999-11-17

    Measurement of accurate positions, pulse periods and period derivatives is an essential follow-up to any pulsar survey. The procedures being used to obtain timing parameters for the pulsars discovered in the Parkes multibeam pulsar survey are described. Completed solutions have been obtained so far for about 80 pulsars. They show that the survey is preferentially finding pulsars with higher than average surface dipole magnetic fields. Eight pulsars have been shown to be members of binary systems and some of the more interesting results relating to these are presented.

  8. Regression quantiles for time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Zongwu

    2002-02-01

    ~see, e+g+, Ibragimov and Linnik, 1971, p+ 316!+ Namely, partition REGRESSION QUANTILES FOR TIME SERIES 187 $1, + + + , n% into 2qn 1 1 subsets with large block of size r 5 rn and small block of size s 5 sn+ Set q 5 qn 5 ? n rn 1 sn? , (A.7) where {x...! are the standard Lindeberg–Feller conditions for asymptotic normality of Qn,1 for the independent setup+ Let us first establish ~A+8!+ To this effect, we define the large-block size rn by rn 5 {~nhn!102} and the small-block size sn 5 {~nhn!1020log n}+ Then, as n r...

  9. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  10. Time Scales in Spectator Fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Schwarz; for the ALADIN collaboration

    2000-09-07

    Proton-proton correlations and correlations of p-alpha, d-alpha, and t-alpha from spectator decays following Au + Au collisions at 1000 AMeV have been measured with an highly efficient detector hodoscope. The constructed correlation functions indicate a moderate expansion and low breakup densities similar to assumptions made in statistical multifragmentation models. In agreement with a volume breakup rather short time scales were deduced employing directional cuts in proton-proton correlations. PACS numbers: 25.70.Pq, 21.65.+f, 25.70.Mn

  11. Time-Bounded Verification Joel Ouaknine1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, James

    Time-Bounded Verification Jo¨el Ouaknine1 , Alexander Rabinovich2 , and James Worrell1 1 Oxford prob- lems for timed automata over time intervals of fixed, bounded length. One of our main results is that time-bounded language inclusion for timed automata is 2EXPSPACE-complete. We also investigate the satis

  12. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer, David

    2008-02-27

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere/ ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial/interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  13. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Archer

    2008-02-27

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  14. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    David Archer

    2010-01-08

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  15. Real time analysis under EDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs.

  16. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botti, Silvana

    Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An introduction Francesco Sottile LSI, Ecole Polytechnique (ETSF) Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Palaiseau, 7 February 2012 1 / 32 #12;Outline 1 Frontiers 4 Perspectives and Resources Francesco Sottile (ETSF) Time Dependent Density Functional Theory

  17. INVESTIGATION Genomic Background and Generation Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Michael

    INVESTIGATION Genomic Background and Generation Time Influence Deleterious Mutation Rates variation is generated and how selection shapes mutation rates over evolutionary time requires knowledge, genomic background and generation time, on deleterious mutation in Daphnia pulicaria, a cyclically

  18. AUTOMATIC PROGRAM TIMING PROFILES WITH FTN4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Richard.

    2010-01-01

    September 22-25, 1980 AUTOMATIC PROGRAM TIMING PROFILES WITHW-7405-ENG-48 LBL-1l290 Automatic Program Timing ProfilesW-1405-ENG-48 LBL-11290 Automatic Program Timing Profiles

  19. Time Travel and the Reality of Spontaneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. K. Raju

    2008-04-05

    Contrary to the informed consensus, time travel implies spontaneity (as distinct from chance) so that time travel can only be of the second kind.

  20. Time domain electromagnetic metal detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekstra, P.

    1996-04-01

    This presentation focuses on illustrating by case histories the range of applications and limitations of time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems for buried metal detection. Advantages claimed for TDEM metal detectors are: independent of instrument response (Geonics EM61) to surrounding soil and rock type; simple anomaly shape; mitigation of interference by ambient electromagnetic noise; and responsive to both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic targets. The data in all case histories to be presented were acquired with the Geonics EM61 TDEM system. Case histories are a test bed site on Molokai, Hawaii; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and USDOE, Rocky Flats Plant. The present limitations of this technology are: discrimination capabilities in terms of type of ordnance, and depth of burial is limited, and ability of resolving targets with small metallic ambient needs to be improved.

  1. Time change Almut E. D. Veraart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time change Almut E. D. Veraart CREATES University of Aarhus Aarhus Denmark +45 8942 2142 averaart 272595 winkel@stats.ox.ac.uk TimeChange8.tex ­ LaTeX2e Abstract The mathematical concept of time­changing continuous­time stochastic pro- cesses can be regarded as one of the standard tools for building financial

  2. Updatable Timed Automata Patricia Bouyer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    decidable and undecidable classes of updatable timed automata. We also study the expressive power classes of timed systems. 1 Introduction Since their introduction by Alur and Dill [AD90,AD94], timed automata are one of the most-studied and most-established models for real-time systems. Numerous works have

  3. Time Zone Information Compiled by John Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, John

    Deviations From Standard Time 1 The U.S. is on daylight saving time from the first Sunday in April @ 2am til the last Sunday in October @ 2am. Western Europe is on daylight saving time generally from the last Sunday designation. Additionally, it proclaims daylight saving time as does Europe. India's standard is at +05

  4. Timed CSP: A Retrospective Joel Ouaknine 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouaknine, Joël

    APC 2005 Timed CSP: A Retrospective Jo¨el Ouaknine 1 Oxford University Computing Laboratory, UK Timed CSP, from its inception nearly twenty years ago to very recent semantical and algorithmic developments. Key words: Process algebra, Timed CSP. Timed CSP was first proposed in 1986 by Reed and Roscoe

  5. A Concurrency-Preserving Translation from Time Petri Nets to Networks of Timed Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    A Concurrency-Preserving Translation from Time Petri Nets to Networks of Timed Automata Sandie time Petri nets (TPN) [17] and networks of timed automata (NTA) [3]. These formalisms have different}@lsv.ens-cachan.fr Abstract--Real-time distributed systems may be modeled in different formalisms such as time Petri nets (TPN

  6. Time and Causation 1 Walter J Freeman Perception of time and causation through the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Walter J.

    Time and Causation 1 Walter J Freeman Perception of time and causation through the kinesthesia, kinesthesia, perception, time Abstract Perception is an intentional action through space in time by which. Perceived time differs from world time in ways that are determined by the neural mechanisms

  7. Time and Causation 1 Walter J Freeman Perception of time and causation through the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Walter J.

    Time and Causation 1 Walter J Freeman Perception of time and causation through the kinesthesia, perception, time Abstract Perception is an intentional action through space in time by which the finite brain. Perceived time differs from world time in ways that are determined by the neural mechanisms

  8. Time and Matter An International Colloquium on the Science of Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time and Matter An International Colloquium on the Science of Time August 11 - 17, 2002 at Venice International University, Italy Topics: Precise measurements of time Arrow of time in classical and quantum physics Tunneling time and various paradoxa in quantum physics Matter, antimatter and microscopic time

  9. Timed AlternatingTime Temporal Logic # Thomas A. Henzinger 1 and Vinayak S. Prabhu 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    powerful options for updating the state of the game, advancing time, or blocking time. Second, we wish in order to specify real­time objectives for games played on timed structures. We define the semantics Timed games are a formal model for the synthesis of real­time systems [22, 20]. While much research e

  10. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  11. Time-of-flight radio location system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A bi-static radar configuration measures the direct time-of-flight of a transmitted RF pulse and is capable of measuring this time-of-flight with a jitter on the order of about one pico-second, or about 0.01 inch of free space distance for an electromagnetic pulse over a range of about one to ten feet. A transmitter transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal, and a receiver samples the sequence of electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the sequence of electromagnetic pulses such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence and sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The receive timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that pulses in the sequence are sampled at the pulse repetition rate, and with different delays in the range of delays to produce a sample signal representing magnitude of a received pulse in equivalent time. Automatic gain control circuitry in the receiver controls the magnitude of the equivalent time sample signal. A signal processor analyzes the sample signal to indicate the time-of-flight of the electromagnetic pulses in the sequence.

  12. Time-of-flight radio location system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-04-23

    A bi-static radar configuration measures the direct time-of-flight of a transmitted RF pulse and is capable of measuring this time-of-flight with a jitter on the order of about one pico-second, or about 0.01 inch of free space distance for an electromagnetic pulse over a range of about one to ten feet. A transmitter transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal, and a receiver samples the sequence of electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the sequence of electromagnetic pulses such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence and sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The receive timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that pulses in the sequence are sampled at the pulse repetition rate, and with different delays in the range of delays to produce a sample signal representing magnitude of a received pulse in equivalent time. Automatic gain control circuitry in the receiver controls the magnitude of the equivalent time sample signal. A signal processor analyzes the sample signal to indicate the time-of-flight of the electromagnetic pulses in the sequence. 7 figs.

  13. Did a Switch in Time Save Nine?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinn, Kevin M.; Ho, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Benjamin A. Kleinerman. 2002. “A Switch in Time Saves Nine:John W. 1969. “The Big Switch: Justice Roberts and theG. 2005. “When Did the ”Switch in Time” Actually Occur? :

  14. Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive...

  15. Arnold Schwarzenegger REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research (PIER) California Energy Commission Beth Chambers Contract Manager Jamie Patterson (VSA) prototype to monitor system voltage conditions and provide real time dispatchers with reliabilityArnold Schwarzenegger Governor REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY MANAGEMENT California ISO Real

  16. Space does not exist, so time can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fotini Markopoulou

    2009-09-10

    It is often said that in general relativity time does not exist. This is because the Einstein equations generate motion in time that is a symmetry of the theory, not true time evolution. In quantum gravity, the timelessness of general relativity clashes with time in quantum theory and leads to the ``problem of time'' which, in its various forms, is the main obstacle to a successful quantum theory of gravity. I argue that the problem of time is a paradox, stemming from an unstated faulty premise. Our faulty assumption is that space is real. I propose that what does not fundamentally exist is not time but space, geometry and gravity. The quantum theory of gravity will be spaceless, not timeless. If we are willing to throw out space, we can keep time and the trade is worth it.

  17. Detection Methods for Astronomical Time Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coehlo, Nathan Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Time Series by Nathan Kirk Coehlo A dissertation submittedCopyright 2010 by Nathan Kirk Coehlo Abstract DetectionTime Series by Nathan Kirk Coehlo Doctor of Philosophy in

  18. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01

    for grid topology changes (implying online  security and Security Constrained Economic Dispatch (SCED) procedures.   Built upon GRID-grid, reliability, real?time operator tools, time synchronized phasor  measurements, voltage security.  

  19. Sandia Energy - Time-Resolved FTIR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved FTIR Time-Resolved FTIRAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:31:27+00:00 Combustion chemistry involves many exothermic reactions, which produce hot molecules. For these...

  20. Can hedge funds time market liquidity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Charles

    We explore a new dimension of fund managers' timing ability by examining whether they can time market liquidity through adjusting their portfolios' market exposure as aggregate liquidity conditions change. Using a large ...

  1. VOLATILITY TIME AND PROPERTIES OF OPTION PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janson, Svante

    VOLATILITY TIME AND PROPERTIES OF OPTION PRICES volatility time, to show convexity of option prices in the underlying asset if the contract function is convex as well as continuity and monotonicity of the option price in the volatility

  2. Each instant of time a new Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakir Aharonov; Sandu Popescu; Jeff Tollaksen

    2013-05-07

    We present an alternative view of quantum evolution in which each moment of time is viewed as a new "universe" and time evolution is given by correlations between them.

  3. Time symmetry in wave function collapse models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Bedingham

    2015-02-25

    A framework for wave function collapse models that is symmetric under time reversal is presented. Within this framework there are equivalent pictures of collapsing wave functions evolving in both time directions. The backwards-in-time Born rule can be broken by an initial condition on the Universe resulting in asymmetric behaviour. Similarly the forwards-in-time Born rule can in principle be broken by a final condition on the Universe.

  4. Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded to Large-Scale Distributed Stephen Boyd Neal Parikh Lectures, UC Berkeley, 3/30/2015 1 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large-Scale Distributed Optimization Summary 2 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large

  5. Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded to Large-Scale Distributed Stephen Boyd Neal Parikh of Edinburgh, June 25 2014 1 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large-Scale Distributed Optimization Summary 2 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large

  6. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botti, Silvana

    Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An Introduction Francesco Sottile Laboratoire des Solides) Belfast, 29 Jun 2007 Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Francesco Sottile #12;Intro Formalism Linear Response Formalism 3 TDDFT in practice: The ALDA: Achievements and Shortcomings 4 Resources Time

  7. Symbolic Verification of Timed Asynchronous Hardware Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Ken

    of system level verification by applying symbolic model checking techniques to help mitigate the state constraints into verification models to prove timed behavioral correctness of systems employing timed protocol to model timing in asynchronous hardware protocols ­ a novel mapping of tim- ing into the verification flow

  8. Timed Automata with Observers under Energy Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    of schedules given an initial energy level of one. For one-clock priced timed automata both the lowerTimed Automata with Observers under Energy Constraints Patricia Bouyer Lab. Spécification et@lsv.ens-cachan.fr ABSTRACT In this paper we study one-clock priced timed automata in which prices can grow linearly ( p = k

  9. Business Time in the Foreign Exchange Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Business Time in the Foreign Exchange Markets Mark J L Orr Centre for Cognitive Science Edinburgh University June 1997 #12; Business Time in the Foreign Exchange Markets Mark J L Orr y Centre for Cognitive; Contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The Price Change Scaling Law 5 3 Business Time 7 4 The BZW Data 11 5 Volatility

  10. Finite-Time Stability of Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems: Analysis and Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finite-Time Stability of Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems: Analysis and Design S. Mastellone, P. Dorato, C. T. Abdallah Abstract-- Finite-time stability of nonlinear discrete-time systems is studied we propose a new analysis result for fi- nite time stability of deterministic and stochastic discrete

  11. Time_Limit_Extension_Form.docx | Revised: 10/13/2014 Time Limit Extension Request Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Time_Limit_Extension_Form.docx | Revised: 10/13/2014 Time Limit Extension Request Form OFFICE on your request. PURPOSE The Time Limit Extension may be filed when a student nears the end of the time limitation for completion of the requirements for their degree but needs more time to complete the degree

  12. A Linear-Time Approach for Static Timing Analysis Covering All Process Corners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    A Linear-Time Approach for Static Timing Analysis Covering All Process Corners Sari Onaissi into the timing analysis of a circuit. With the increase in the number of interesting process vari- ables process variations lead to circuit timing variability and a corresponding timing yield loss. Traditional

  13. Time-of-flight radio location system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26

    A bi-static radar configuration measures the direct time-of-flight of a transmitted RF pulse and is capable of measuring this time-of-flight with a jitter on the order of about one pico-second, or about 0.01 inch of free space distance for an electromagnetic pulse over a range of about one to ten feet. A transmitter transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal, and a receiver samples the sequence of electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the sequence of electromagnetic pulses such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence and sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The receive timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that pulses in the sequence are sampled at the pulse repetition rate, and with different delays in the range of delays to produce a sample signal representing magnitude of a received pulse in equivalent time. Automatic gain control circuitry in the receiver controls the magnitude of the equivalent time sample signal. A signal processor analyzes the sample signal to indicate the time-of-flight of the electromagnetic pulses in the sequence. The sample signal in equivalent time is passed through an envelope detection circuit, formed of an absolute value circuit followed by a low pass filter, to convert the sample signal to a unipolar signal to eliminate effects of antenna misorientation. 8 figs.

  14. Time-of-flight radio location system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A bi-static radar configuration measures the direct time-of-flight of a transmitted RF pulse and is capable of measuring this time-of-flight with a jitter on the order of about one pico-second, or about 0.01 inch of free space distance for an electromagnetic pulse over a range of about one to ten feet. A transmitter transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal, and a receiver samples the sequence of electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the sequence of electromagnetic pulses such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence and sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The receive timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that pulses in the sequence are sampled at the pulse repetition rate, and with different delays in the range of delays to produce a sample signal representing magnitude of a received pulse in equivalent time. Automatic gain control circuitry in the receiver controls the magnitude of the equivalent time sample signal. A signal processor analyzes the sample signal to indicate the time-of-flight of the electromagnetic pulses in the sequence. The sample signal in equivalent time is passed through an envelope detection circuit, formed of an absolute value circuit followed by a low pass filter, to convert the sample signal to a unipolar signal to eliminate effects of antenna misorientation.

  15. Metformin Retards Aging in C. elegans by Altering Microbial Folate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gems, David

    Health, University College London, London WC1N 1EH, UK 3School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences usage, including reduced risk of cancer (Dowling et al., 2011) and, in animal models, delayed aging to reduce energy-consuming processes (Pierotti et al., 2012). An unexplored possibility is that metformin

  16. A half wave retarder made of bilayer subwavelength metallic apertures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Optics Letters; Journal Volume: 98; Journal Issue: 15 Research Org: Oak Ridge National...

  17. Fragile X mental retardation protein and synaptic plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidorov, Michael Samuel

    Loss of the translational repressor FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome. In healthy neurons, FMRP modulates the local translation of numerous synaptic proteins. Synthesis of these proteins is required for the maintenance and ...

  18. Studies on the Ecological Impact of Evaporation Retardation Monolayers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wixson, B.G.

    1966-01-01

    microecosystems by Beyers. These small ecosystems may be used to study changes in water quality and population characteristics under controlled conditions obtained only in the laboratory. With the microcosm, one does not experience the complexity, environmental...

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the antarctic environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi

    2009-05-15

    of Quantification m/z mass-to-charge ratio MDL Method Detection Limit MS Mass Spectrometry (or Mass Spectrometer) MSA Methanesulfonic Acid n number of samples nd not detected NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NOAA National Oceanic... 13 was associated with the particulate phase (Oros et al., 2005). Average concentrations in sediments were 9.63 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) (range: nd-212 ng g-1 dw). According to the authors, these concentrations are higher than concentrations observed...

  20. Identification and Integration of Commercial Heavy Vehicle Retarders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Druzhinina, Maria; Moklegaard, Lasse; Stefanopoulou, Anna G.

    2002-01-01

    mechanism converts the turbocharged diesel engine, thatwhich converts the turbocharged diesel engine, that powersconvert­ ing the turbocharged diesel engine, that powers the

  1. ESTIMATING RETARDATION FROM THE FREUNDLICH ISOTHERM FOR MODELING CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Cynthia

    to model leachate migration from landfills is needed to protect the public and the environment. Introduction A concern with landfills, and especially older unlined landfills, is the migration of leachate risk of off-site leachate migration at newer, lined landfills with leachate collection systems

  2. A half wave retarder made of bilayer subwavelength metallic apertures

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563 LLNL(Technical Report)Asegment, large format(Journal Article) |

  3. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchers at theAugust 1, 2013theEnergyThe1984 StartVapor

  4. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report1538-1950 TimelineUtility-Scale SolarV-Site AssemblyValue

  5. Relativity theory in time-space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ákos G. Horváth

    2014-11-05

    The concept of time-space defined in an earlier paper of the author is certain generalization of the so-called space-time. In this paper we introduce the concept of time-space manifold. In the homogeneous case, the time-space manifold is a differentiable manifold with such tangent spaces which have certain fixed time-space structure. We redefine the fundamental concepts of global relativity theory with respect to this general situation. We study the concepts of affine connection, parallel transport, curvature tensor and Einstein equation, respectively.

  6. The Collapse of Time: Decennial Anniversaries and the Experience of Time in the German Democratic Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyberg, Linda M.

    2008-01-01

    and Theory 19.2 (1980); David Carr, “Place and Time: On the19.2 (2005): 260-290. Carr, David. “Place and Time: On the

  7. American Association on Mental Retardation 231 VOLUME 109, NUMBER 3: 231236 MAY 2004 AMERICAN JOURNAL ON MENTAL RETARDATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellugi, Ursula

    adolescence and into adulthood (Kuck, Lincoln, & Heaton, in press). The developmental trajectory of IQ

  8. Time-Energy Costs of Quantum Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi-Hang Fred Fung; H. F. Chau

    2014-05-08

    Time and energy of quantum processes are a tradeoff against each other. We propose to ascribe to any given quantum process a time-energy cost to quantify how much computation it performs. Here, we analyze the time-energy costs for general quantum measurements, along a similar line as our previous work for quantum channels, and prove exact and lower bound formulae for the costs. We use these formulae to evaluate the efficiencies of actual measurement implementations. We find that one implementation for a Bell measurement is optimal in time-energy. We also analyze the time-energy cost for unambiguous state discrimination and find evidence that only a finite time-energy cost is needed to distinguish any number of states.

  9. Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-10-01

    We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  10. Reactor control rod timing system. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, P.T.K.

    1980-03-18

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system is described for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  11. Time Reversal of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Toulouse III, CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2008-08-15

    Using Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we study the time reversibility of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in kicked optical lattices, showing that in the regime of quantum chaos, the dynamics can be inverted from explosion to collapse. The accuracy of time reversal decreases with the increase of atom interactions in BEC, until it is completely lost. Surprisingly, quantum chaos helps to restore time reversibility. These predictions can be tested with existing experimental setups.

  12. Halanay type inequalities on time scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ad\\ivar, Murat

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce Halanay type inequalities on time scales. By means of these inequalities we derive new global stability conditions for nonlinear dynamic equations on time scales. Giving several examples we show that beside generalization and extension to q-difference case, our results also provide improvements for the existing theory regarding differential and difference inequalites, which are the most important particular cases of dynamic inequalities on time scales.

  13. Gauge Gravity and Space-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning Wu

    2012-07-11

    When we discuss problems on gravity, we can not avoid some fundamental physical problems, such as space-time, inertia, and inertial reference frame. The goal of this paper is to discuss the logic system of gravity theory and the problems of space-time, inertia, and inertial reference frame. The goal of this paper is to set up the theory on space-time in gauge theory of gravity. Based on this theory, it is possible for human kind to manipulate physical space-time on earth, and produce a machine which can physically prolong human's lifetime.

  14. Time-resolved photometry of cataclysmic variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Papadaki; H. M. J. Boffin; J. Cuypers; V. Stanishev; Z. Kraicheva; V. Genkov

    2003-12-18

    We present time-resolved photometry of two cataclysmic variables whose CCD photometric observations were obtained with the 1m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory in October 2002 and August 2003 and with the 1m telescope at Hoher List in Germany. Concerning MCT 2347-3144 we detect for the first time a period of 6.65h. For V1193 Ori the 3.96 h periodicity has for the first time been confirmed through time-resolved photometry.

  15. Hyperbolic statics in space-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Pavlov; Sergey Kokarev

    2014-12-11

    Based on the concept of material event as an elementary material source that is concentrated on metric sphere of zero radius --- light-cone of Minkowski space-time, we deduce the analog of Coulomb's law for hyperbolic space-time field universally acting between the events of space-time. Collective field that enables interaction of world lines of a pair of particles at rest contains a standard 3-dimensional Coulomb's part and logarithmic addendum. We've found that the Coulomb's part depends on a fine balance between causal and geometric space-time characteristics (the two regularizations concordance).

  16. Time reversal symmetry and collapse models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Bedingham; Owen Maroney

    2015-02-24

    Collapse models are modifications of quantum theory where the wave function is treated as physically real and the collapse of the wave function is a physical process. This appears to introduce a time reversal asymmetry into the dynamics of the wave function since the collapses affect only the future state. This paper challenges this conclusion, showing that in three different examples of time asymmetries associated with collapse models, if the physically real part of the model can be reduced to the locations in space and time about which collapses occur, then such a model works both forward and backward in time, in each case satisfying the Born rule. Despite the apparent asymmetry of the collapse process, these models in fact have time reversal symmetry. Any physically observed time asymmetries that arise in such models are due to the asymmetric imposition of initial or final time boundary conditions, rather than from an inherent asymmetry in the dynamical law. This is the standard explanation of time asymmetric behaviour resulting from time symmetric laws.

  17. Development of Nonlinear SSI Time Domain Methodology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of Nonlinear SSI Time Domain Methodology Justin Coleman, P.E. Nuclear Science and Technology Idaho National Laboratory October 22, 2014

  18. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Energy Management System (SCADA/EMS). In the long term, theadvanced real time control. SCADA is a category of softwareequipment and conditions. SCADA systems include hardware and

  19. Optimal timing problems in environmental economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the uncertainties and irreversibilities that are often inherent in environmental degradation, its prevention, and its economic consequences, environmental policy design can involve important problems of timing. ...

  20. Time & Fitness-Dependent Hamiltonian Biomechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivancevic, Tijana T

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose the time & fitness-dependent Hamiltonian form of human biomechanics, in which total mechanical + biochemical energy is not conserved. Starting with the Covariant Force Law, we first develop autonomous Hamiltonian biomechanics. Then we extend it using a powerful geometrical machinery consisting of fibre bundles, jet manifolds, polysymplectic geometry and Hamiltonian connections. In this way we derive time-dependent dissipative Hamiltonian equations and the fitness evolution equation for the general time & fitness-dependent human biomechanical system. Keywords: Human biomechanics, configuration bundle, Hamiltonian connections, jet manifolds, time & fitness-dependent dynamics

  1. San Pablo Avenue Pedestrian Signal Timing Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Ahn; Ragland, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Signals to Accommodate Pedestrian Travel. Road EngineeringM. Cynecki. A Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in theWalking Speeds for Pedestrian Clearance Timing Based on

  2. The Continuous Time Service Network Design Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-02

    ... School of Industrial & Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA ... Fast shipping times (and low cost) are critical to the success of.

  3. Discrete-Time Scheduling under Real-Time Constraints Eduard Cerny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aboulhamid, El Mostapha

    into a discrete- time relative schedule. Such a schedule serves as the basis for implementing a synchronous state-machine controller. Keywords: Timing diagrams, relative scheduling, real-time constraints, synchronous state machines that is suitable for synchronous system implementations. The input specification is in the form of timing diagrams

  4. A Real Time Operating System Survey What the heck is a Real Time system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    A Real Time Operating System Survey John Ford 1 #12; What the heck is a Real Time system anyway.'' From POSIX 1003.1: ``Realtime in operating systems: the ability of the operating system to pro­ vide­Time Operating System) has to have a real­time kernel ffl Good documentation ffl Good device support ffl Good

  5. On time-reversal and space-time harmonic processes for Markovian quantum channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Ticozzi; Michele Pavon

    2009-04-29

    The time reversal of a completely-positive, nonequilibrium discrete-time quantum Markov evolution is derived via a suitable adjointness relation. Space-time harmonic processes are introduced for the forward and reverse-time transition mechanisms, and their role for relative entropy dynamics is discussed.

  6. Real Time Voice Transmission Darshana Shah Real Time Voice transmission over Wireless medium using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Chansu

    to 300+ MHz Receiver #12;Real Time Voice Transmission Darshana Shah - 3 - LFTX -- DC-30 MHz TransmitterReal Time Voice Transmission Darshana Shah - 1 - Real Time Voice transmission over Wireless medium Yu 06/07/2009 #12;Real Time Voice Transmission Darshana Shah - 2 - Abstract My project is to transmit

  7. Time-varying Spectral Analysis in Neurophysiological Time Series Using Hilbert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitcher, Brandon

    ability to detect time-varying coherence and phase properties. Key words: Coherence, electromyographic

  8. Capacity-Optimal Training for Space-Time Modulation over a Time-Varying Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swindlehurst, A. Lee

    Capacity-Optimal Training for Space-Time Modulation over a Time-Varying Channel Christian B. Peel-autocorrelation function for time-varying MIMO channels, we find a lower bound on capacity for trained modulation, and find for differential unitary space-time modulation is discussed and compared with that for trained modulation. We

  9. Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jia

    Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures Jia Li. Wang alipr.com #12;Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures How Visible Are Web Images? Keukenhof photos Jia Li, James Z. Wang alipr.com #12;Real-Time Computerized Annotation of Pictures ALIPR: Automatic

  10. How Time Works in Quantum Systems: Overview of time ordering and time correlation in weakly perturbed atomic collisions and in strongly perturbed qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. H. McGuire; L. Kaplan; Kh. Kh. Shakov; A. Chalastaras; A. M. Smith; A. Godunov; H. Schmidt-Böcking; D. Uskov

    2005-12-29

    Time ordering may be defined by first defining the limit of no time ordering (NTO) in terms of a time average of an external interaction, V(t). Previously, time correlation was defined in terms of a similar limit called the independent time approximation (ITA). Experimental evidence for time correlation has not yet been distinguished from experimental evidence for time ordering.

  11. Continuous time random walk models for fractional space-time diffusion equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabir Umarov

    2014-09-14

    In this paper continuous time random walk models approximating fractional space-time diffusion processes are studied. Stochastic processes associated with the considered equations represent time-changed processes, where the time-change process is a L\\'evy's stable subordinator with the stability index $\\beta \\in (0,1).$ In the parer the convergence of constructed CTRWs to time-changed processes associated with the corresponding fractional diffusion equations are proved using a new analytic method.

  12. Gravity in Complex Hermitian Space-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali H. Chamseddine

    2006-10-09

    A generalized theory unifying gravity with electromagnetism was proposed by Einstein in 1945. He considered a Hermitian metric on a real space-time. In this work we review Einstein's idea and generalize it further to consider gravity in a complex Hermitian space-time.

  13. On the nature of cosmological time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magain, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Time is a parameter playing a central role in our most fundamental modeling of natural laws. Relativity theory shows that the comparison of times measured by different clocks depends on their relative motions and on the strength of the gravitational field in which they are embedded. In standard cosmology, the time parameter is the one measured by fundamental clocks, i.e. clocks at rest with respect to the expanding space. This proper time is assumed to flow at a constant rate throughout the whole history of the Universe. We make the alternative hypothesis that the rate at which cosmological time flows depends on the dynamical state of the Universe. In thermodynamics, the arrow of time is strongly related to the second law, which states that the entropy of an isolated system will always increase with time or, at best, stay constant. Hence, we assume that time measured by fundamental clocks is proportional to the entropy of the region of the Universe that is causally connected to them. Under that simple assumpt...

  14. Integrated method for chaotic time series analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, L.M.; Ng, E.G.

    1998-09-29

    Methods and apparatus for automatically detecting differences between similar but different states in a nonlinear process monitor nonlinear data are disclosed. Steps include: acquiring the data; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; and determining by comparison whether differences between similar but different states are indicated. 8 figs.

  15. Time Fractional Formalism: Classical and Quantum Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosein Nasrolahpour

    2012-03-18

    In this review, we present some fundamental classical and quantum phenomena in view of time fractional formalism. Time fractional formalism is a very useful tool in describing systems with memory and delay. We hope that this study can provide a deeper understanding of the physical interpretations of fractional derivative.

  16. Response time distributions via reversed processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imperial College, London

    Response time distributions via reversed processes Peter G. Harrison Maria G. Vigliotti Abstract in both the forward and reversed processes. There- fore if the reversed process is known, each node-sojourn time can be taken from either process. In particular, the reversed process can be used for the first

  17. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laabs, G.W.; Funk, D.J.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-06-09

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter is disclosed. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile. 4 figs.

  18. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laabs, Gary W. (Los Alamos, NM); Funk, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Asay, Blaine W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile.

  19. TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (SwRI) John Bally (U. Colorado) #12;Takeaway: Photo-evaporation alters the disk structure in essentially unpredictable ways, because for disks formed at the same time in the same cluster. #12;30 Doradus: 100+ O/B stars Photo

  20. Automatic Verification of Multiqueue Discrete Timed Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dang, Zhe

    become a useful model to investigate the verification of real­ time systems and have been extensively studied. The expressive power of TA has many limitations in modeling, since many real­time systems. The MQDTA model can be used to specify and verify various systems with unbounded queues, such as a real

  1. Practical reporting times for environmental samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayne, C.K.; Schmoyer, D.D.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    Preanalytical holding times for environmental samples are specified because chemical and physical characteristics may change between sampling and chemical analysis. For example, the Federal Register prescribes a preanalytical holding time of 14 days for volatile organic compounds in soil stored at 4{degrees}C. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) uses a more technical definition that the preanalytical holding time is the day when the analyte concentration for an environmental sample falls below the lower 99% confidence interval on the analyte concentration at day zero. This study reviews various holding time definitions and suggest a new preanalytical holding time approach using acceptable error rates for measuring an environmental analyte. This practical reporting time (PRT) approach has been applied to nineteen volatile organic compounds and four explosives in three environmental soil samples. A PRT nomograph of error rates has been developed to estimate the consequences of missing a preanalytical holding time. This nomograph can be applied to a large class of analytes with concentrations that decay linearly or exponentially with time regardless of sample matrices and storage conditions.

  2. Integrated method for chaotic time series analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Ng, Esmond G. (Concord, TN)

    1998-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for automatically detecting differences between similar but different states in a nonlinear process monitor nonlinear data. Steps include: acquiring the data; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; and determining by comparison whether differences between similar but different states are indicated.

  3. Multivariate Time Series Forecasting in Incomplete Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Stephen

    Multivariate Time Series Forecasting in Incomplete Environments Technical Report PARG 08-03 Seung of Oxford December 2008 #12;Seung Min Lee and Stephen J. Roberts Technical Report PARG 08-03 Multivariate missing observations and forecasting future values in incomplete multivariate time series data. We study

  4. Compact discrete-time chaos generator circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudek, Piotr

    Compact discrete-time chaos generator circuit P. Dudek and V.D. Juncu A three-transistor CMOS circuit is presented, with adjustable nonlinear characteristics, which can be used as a map that generates discrete-time chaotic signals. A method of constructing a chaos generator using two map circuits is also

  5. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rusch, Gordon K. (Downers Grove, IL); Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL); McDowell, William P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  6. Time-bin entangled photon holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Liang; J. D. Franson; T. B. Pittman

    2012-08-23

    The general concept of entangled photon holes is based on a correlated absence of photon pairs in an otherwise constant optical background. Here we consider the specialized case when this background is confined to two well-defined time bins, which allows the formation of time-bin entangled photon holes. We show that when the typical coherent state background is replaced by a true single-photon (Fock state) background, the basic time-bin entangled photon-hole state becomes equivalent to one of the time-bin entangled photon-pair states. We experimentally demonstrate these ideas using a parametric down-conversion photon-pair source, linear optics, and post-selection to violate a Bell inequality with time-bin entangled photon holes.

  7. Time delay measurement in the frequency domain

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Durbin, Stephen M.; Liu, Shih -Chieh; Dufresne, Eric M.; Li, Yuelin; Wen, Haidan

    2015-08-06

    Pump–probe studies at synchrotrons using X-ray and laser pulses require accurate determination of the time delay between pulses. This becomes especially important when observing ultrafast responses with lifetimes approaching or even less than the X-ray pulse duration (~100 ps). The standard approach of inspecting the time response of a detector sensitive to both types of pulses can have limitations due to dissimilar pulse profiles and other experimental factors. Here, a simple alternative is presented, where the frequency response of the detector is monitored versus time delay. Measurements readily demonstrate a time resolution of ~1 ps. Improved precision is possible bymore »simply extending the data acquisition time.« less

  8. Relaxation times calculated from angular deflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Athanassoula; Ch. L. Vozikis; J. C. Lambert

    2001-08-21

    In this paper we measure the two-body relaxation time from the angular deflection of test particles launched in a rigid configuration of field particles. We find that centrally concentrated configurations have relaxation times that can be shorter than those of the corresponding homogeneous distributions by an order of magnitude or more. For homogeneous distributions we confirm that the relaxation time is proportional to the number of particles. On the other hand centrally concentrated configurations have a much shallower dependence, particularly for small values of the softening. The relaxation time increases with the inter-particle velocities and with softening. The latter dependence is not very strong, of the order of a factor of two when the softening is increased by an order of magnitude. Finally we show that relaxation times are the same on GRAPE-3 and GRAPE-4, dedicated computer boards with limited and high precision respectively.

  9. Tunneling time calculations for general finite wavepackets based on the presence time formalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. del Barco; M. Ortuńo; V. Gasparian

    2015-05-31

    We analyze the tunneling time problem via the presence time formalism. With this method we reproduce previous results for very long wavepackets and we are able to calculate the tunneling time for general wavepackets of arbitrary shape and length. The tunneling time for a general wavepacket is equal to the average over the energy components of the standard phase time. With this approach we can also calculate the time uncertainty. We have checked that the results obtained with this approach agree extremely well with numerical simulations of the wavepacket evolution.

  10. Energy-time and frequency-time uncertainty relations: exact inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Dodonov; A. V. Dodonov

    2015-04-03

    We give a short review of known exact inequalities that can be interpreted as "energy-time" and "frequency-time" uncertainty relations. In particular we discuss a precise form of signals minimizing the physical frequency-time uncertainty product. Also, we calculate the "stationarity time" for mixed Gaussian states of a quantum harmonic oscillator, showing explicitly that pure quantum states are "more fragile" than mixed ones with the same value of the energy dispersion. The problems of quantum evolution speed limits, time operators and measurements of energy and time are briefly discussed, too.

  11. Narayanaswamy's 1971 aging theory and material time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeppe C. Dyre

    2015-08-23

    The Bochkov-Kuzovlev nonlinear fluctuation-dissipation theorem is used to derive Narayanaswamy's phenomenological theory of physical aging, in which this highly nonlinear phenomenon is described by a linear material-time convolution integral. A characteristic property of the Narayanaswamy aging description is material-time translational invariance, and this is here taken as a basic assumption of the derivation. It is shown that only one possible definition of the material time obeys this invariance, namely the square of the distance travelled from a configuration of the system far back in time. The paper concludes with suggestions for computer simulations that test for consequences of material-time translational invariance. One of these is a "unique-triangles property" according to which any three points on the system's path form a triangle such that two side lengths determine the third; this is analogous to the well-known triangular relation for time-autocorrelation functions of aging spin glasses [L. F. Cugliandolo and J. Kurchan, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 27, 5749 (1994)]. The unique-triangles property implies a simple geometric interpretation of out-of-equilibrium time-autocorrelation functions, which extends to aging a previously proposed framework for such functions in equilibrium [J. C. Dyre, cond-mat/9712222].

  12. Improving Pulsar Timing Precision with Single Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The measurement error of pulse times of arrival (TOAs) in the high S/N limit is dominated by the quasi-random variation of a pulsar's emission profile from rotation to rotation. Like measurement noise, this noise is only reduced as the square root of observing time, posing a major challenge to future pulsar timing campaigns with large aperture telescopes, e.g. the Five-hundred-metre Aperture Spherical Telescope and the Square Kilometre Array. We propose a new method of pulsar timing that attempts to approximate the pulse-to-pulse variability with a small family of 'basis' pulses. If pulsar data are integrated over many rotations, this basis can be used to measure sub-pulse structure. Or, if high-time resolution data are available, the basis can be used to 'tag' single pulses and produce an optimal timing template. With realistic simulations, we show that these applications can dramatically reduce the effect of pulse-to-pulse variability on TOAs. Using high-time resolution data taken from the bright PSR J0835-...

  13. NO TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS IN WASP-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrucci, R.; Schwartz, M.; Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Jofré, E.; Cúneo, V.; Gómez, M.; Martínez, C.

    2013-12-20

    We present six new transits of the system WASP-4. Together with 28 light curves published in the literature, we perform a homogeneous study of its parameters and search for variations in the transits' central times. The final values agree with those previously reported, except for a slightly lower inclination. We find no significant long-term variations in i or R{sub P} /R {sub *}. The O-C mid-transit times do not show signs of transit timing variations greater than 54 s.

  14. Moving Forth And Back In Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otten, James

    MOVING FORTH AND BACK IN TIME James Otten Clearly objects do move forth and back in space. Thus, for instance, Jackson walks from home to the corner drugstore and then walks back home. But do objects also move forth and back in time? And if not..., would it be logically possible for them to do so? Indeed, what would even constitute a proper description of an object's moving forth and back in time? My aim in this paper is to answer these perplexing questions.1 Richard Taylor has developed a...

  15. Time as a parameter of statistical ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei Viznyuk

    2011-11-26

    The notion of time is derived as a parameter of statistical ensemble representing the underlying system. Varying population numbers of microstates in statistical ensemble result in different expectation values corresponding to different times. We show a single parameter which equates to the notion of time is logarithm of the total number of microstates in statistical ensemble. We discuss the implications of proposed model for some topics of modern physics: Poincar\\'e recurrence theorem vs. Second Law of Thermodynamics, matter vs. anti-matter asymmetry of the universe, expansion of the universe, Big Bang.

  16. Part-Time Farming in Northeast Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, James R.; Southern, John H.

    1961-01-01

    days or more, includes 43 percent of all part-time operators. Part-time operators controlled 40 percent of the farm and land resources, marketed 28 percent of all farm products sold (in terms of value), but received only 16 percent of the net money...). The average value of farm resources was $16,024 with land $12,803, live- dock $1,846 and equipment $1,375. Part-time farmers controlled 29 percent of ie cropland and 33 percent of all idle crop- acres. However, they had relatively more ~~~~~dre, 42...

  17. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, Mary (West Richland, WA); Craig, Richard A. (West Richland, WA); Reeder, Paul L. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body.

  18. Nuclear dynamics in time-dependent picture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Nakatsukasa; Makoto Ito; Kazuhiro Yabana

    2006-10-19

    Using the time-dependent theory of quantum mechanics, we investigate nuclear electric dipole responses. The time evolution of a wave function is explicitly calculated in the coordinate-space representation. The particle continuum is treated with the absorbing boundary condition. Calculated time-dependent quantities are transformed into those of familiar energy representation. We apply the method to a three-body model for 11Li and to the mean-field model for 22O, then discuss properties of E1 response.

  19. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-06

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs.

  20. Time-aging time-stress superposition in soft glass under tensile deformation field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asima Shaukat; Ashutosh Sharma; Yogesh M. Joshi

    2010-06-10

    We have studied the tensile deformation behaviour of thin films of aging aqueous suspension of Laponite, a model soft glassy material, when subjected to a creep flow field generated by a constant engineering normal stress. Aqueous suspension of Laponite demonstrates aging behaviour wherein it undergoes time dependent enhancement of its elastic modulus as well as its characteristic relaxation time. However, under application of the normal stress, the rate of aging decreases and in the limit of high stress, the aging stops with the suspension now undergoing a plastic deformation. Overall, it is observed that the aging that occurs over short creep times at small normal stresses is same as the aging that occurs over long creep times at large normal stresses. This observation allows us to suggest an aging time - process time - normal stress superposition principle, which can predict rheological behaviour at longer times by carrying out short time tests.

  1. Space-Time Localization using Times of Arrival Sriram Venkateswaran and Upamanyu Madhow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhow, Upamanyu

    Space-Time Localization using Times of Arrival Sriram Venkateswaran and Upamanyu Madhow Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA Email: {sriram

  2. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy in Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: An Exact Condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pulse to create a nonstationary state, which is then monitored in time by a probe pulse, is a central generation, and exploring photovoltaic materials, to name a few. At the same time, however, recent work

  3. Chinook Timing 1 October 11, 2007 Run timing of adult Chinook salmon passing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Chinook Timing 1 October 11, 2007 Run timing of adult Chinook salmon passing Bonneville dam on the Columbia River White Paper Prepared by: W. Nicholas Beer Columbia Basin Research School of Aquatic....................................................................................................................... 8 In-River Conditions

  4. Development of a Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy System for Near Real-Time Clinical Diagnostic Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trivedi, Chintan A.

    2010-07-14

    The design and development of a versatile time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) system capable of near real time data acquisition and processing for potential clinical diagnostic applications is reported. The TRFS apparatus is portable...

  5. MAKING THE TIME TO FIND THE TIME Many students struggle to find a way to organise their time around all the things

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wapstra, Erik

    MAKING THE TIME TO FIND THE TIME Many students struggle to find a way to organise their time around all the things they have to do and all the things they want to do ... and to use the time into your approach to study. Where does your time go?? It is very difficult to make a time management plan

  6. Neuropsychological mechanisms of interval timing behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    perceiving a beat in a musical composition to returning to the stove just prior to the tea kettle whistling to expecting a traffic light to change from red to green. Furthermore, interval timing is exhibited in a wide

  7. Electron Waiting Times in Mesoscopic Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathias Albert; Géraldine Haack; Christian Flindt; Markus Büttiker

    2012-02-14

    Electron transport in mesoscopic conductors has traditionally involved investigations of the mean current and the fluctuations of the current. A complementary view on charge transport is provided by the distribution of waiting times between charge carriers, but a proper theoretical framework for coherent electronic systems has so far been lacking. Here we develop a quantum theory of electron waiting times in mesoscopic conductors expressed by a compact determinant formula. We illustrate our methodology by calculating the waiting time distribution for a quantum point contact and find a cross-over from Wigner-Dyson statistics at full transmission to Poisson statistics close to pinch-off. Even when the low-frequency transport is noiseless, the electrons are not equally spaced in time due to their inherent wave nature. We discuss the implications for renewal theory in mesoscopic systems and point out several analogies with energy level statistics and random matrix theory.

  8. Real time PCR measurement by fluorescence anisotropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crane, Bryan Lee, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold-standard for quantitation in both mutation and gene expression analyses. Already this technique has found valuable clinical application in disease diagnosis and progression ...

  9. Topic 5: Time-Dependent Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeiffer, P.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Tanabe, Tada-aki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1991-12-31

    This chapter is a report of the material presented at the International Workshop on Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete, Session 4 -- Time Dependent Behavior, held at Columbia University, New York on June 3--6, 1991. Dr. P.A. Pfeiffer presented recent developments in time-dependent behavior of concrete and Professor T. Tanabe presented a review of research in Japan on time-dependent behavior of concrete. The chapter discusses the recent research of time-dependent behavior of concrete in the past few years in both the USA-European and Japanese communities. The author appreciates the valuable information provided by Zdenek P. Bazant in preparing the USA-European Research section.

  10. The timely self-portrait machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haun, Gregory Cosmo

    1992-01-01

    This thesis explores the philosophy which underlies the Timely Self-Portrait Machine. The cultural history of the machine, the phenomenon of Television, and the personal history of this project are discussed. Technical ...

  11. Type Systems For Polynomial-time Computation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofmann, Martin

    This thesis introduces and studies a typed lambda calculus with higher-order primitive recursion over inductive datatypes which has the property that all definable number-theoretic functions are polynomial time computable. ...

  12. Near Real-Time Push Middleware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mal, Siddhartha Byron

    2012-01-01

    The mean time over all tests for SQL lat/lon searches wasmilliseconds, and 264.1 for SQL geography searches (Figureplatform capability between SQL and Java, and to represent

  13. Timing control by redundant inhibitory neuronal circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tristan, I. Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M.

    2014-03-15

    Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model.

  14. Research Finance Time and Effort System Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ...............................................................................................................7 To Review and Certify a Report" ...................................................................................................8 Grants & Contracts Unit participate in the T&E system. Additionally, faculty or staff with mandatory or committed cost share time

  15. Automatic tuning of continuous-time filters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumesaglam, Taner

    2004-11-15

    Integrated high-Q continuous-time filters require adaptive tuning circuits that will correct the filter parameters such as center frequency and quality factor (Q). Three different automatic tuning techniques are introduced. In all of the proposed...

  16. Success in the Time of NCLB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Laura K.

    2013-05-31

    This phenomenological study presents a description of the experience of students and teachers in a charter high school in an urban school district during the time of the implementation of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). The ...

  17. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2009-01-01

    N ATIONAL L ABORATORY EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis Tianzhenl y s i s Development of EnergyPlus for Use in Title 24 andCommission Staff Use of EnergyPlus Deliverable for Task

  18. GROUP SPARSITY VIA LINEAR-TIME PROJECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-08-01

    Jul 31, 2008 ... linear-time algorithm for Euclidean projection onto the l1- and group l1-norm ..... of 128 entries and eight non-zero groups, and additive noise si ...

  19. Myrinet Real Time Protocol with flexible routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kini, Savita

    1998-01-01

    Real Time communication relies on resource reservation ics. along the path of the connection for performance guarantees, typically in terms of bounded delays. A fully distributed admission control scheme for resource allocation in real...

  20. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence and Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, W. K.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Dippo, P.; Geisz, J.; Wanlass, M. W.; Kurtz, S.

    2005-01-01

    The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) technique and its ability to characterize recombination in bulk photovoltaic semiconductor materials are reviewed. Results from a variety of materials and a few recent studies are summarized and compared.

  1. Space and time from translation symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albert Schwarz

    2009-05-16

    We show that the notions of space and time in algebraic quantum field theory arise from translation symmetry if we assume asymptotic commutativity. We argue that this construction can be applied to string theory.

  2. Parental Time, Behaviors and Childhood Obesity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuteesa, Annette

    2012-02-14

    The rates of childhood obesity remain high in spite of the enormous efforts dedicated to tackling the disease. This dissertation investigates the effect of two of its causes, including parental time and children's obesity ...

  3. Wind and time in Homeric epic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purves, AC

    2010-01-01

    73–83. Scott, W. C. 1966. “Wind Imagery in the Oresteia. ”30–35; West 1961: 133–36. Wind and Time in Homeric Epic ———56. Stern, L. 2004. “‘Paths That Wind through the Thicket of

  4. Energy-time uncertainty principle and lower bounds on sojourn time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachim Asch; Olivier Bourget; Victor Cortes; Claudio Fernandez

    2015-07-23

    One manifestation of quantum resonances is a large sojourn time, or autocorrelation, of states which are initially localized. We elaborate on Lavine's time-energy uncertainty principle and give an estimate on the sojourn time. The bound involves Fermi's Golden Rule for the case of perturbed embedded eigenstates. Only very mild regularity is required. We illustrate the theory by applications to resonances for time dependent- and multistate systems .

  5. Extending quantum control of time-independent systems to time-dependent systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen-Yu Wang; Ren-Bao Liu

    2011-01-27

    We establish that if a scheme can control a time-independent system arbitrarily coupled to a generic finite bath over a short period of time $T$ with control precision $O(T^{N+1})$, it can also realize the control with the same order of precision on smoothly time-dependent systems. This result extends the validity of various universal dynamical control schemes to arbitrary analytically time-dependent systems.

  6. Time Domain Continuous Imaging TIME DOMAIN CONTINUOUS IMAGING doesn't sound like

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Henry G. "Hank"

    the scene with skewed timing and exposure settings. Our 3D-printed array camera at SC14 coordinates four

  7. Optimum time for artificial insemination of the bovine species at various times of the year 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broadway, John Louis

    1973-01-01

    OPTIMUM TIME FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION OF THE BOVINE SPECIES AT VARIOUS TIMES OF THE YEAR A Thesis by JOHN LOUIS BROAUNAY, III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1973 Major Subject; Physiology of Reproduction OPTIMUM TIME FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION OP THE BOVINE SPECIES AT VARIOUS TIMES OF THE YEAR A Thesis by JOHN LOUIS BROAINAY, III Approved as to style and content...

  8. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  9. Metastring Theory and Modular Space-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Freidel; Robert G. Leigh; Djordje Minic

    2015-02-27

    String theory is canonically accompanied with a space-time interpretation which determines S-matrix-like observables, and connects to the standard physics at low energies in the guise of local effective field theory. Recently, we have introduced a reformulation of string theory which does not rely on an {\\it a priori} space-time interpretation or a pre-assumption of locality. This \\hlt{metastring theory} is formulated in such a way that stringy symmetries (such as T-duality) are realized linearly. In this paper, we study metastring theory on a flat background and develop a variety of technical and interpretational ideas. These include a formulation of the moduli space of Lorentzian worldsheets, a careful study of the symplectic structure and consequently consistent closed and open boundary conditions, and the string spectrum and operator algebra. What emerges from these studies is a new quantum notion of space-time that we refer to as a quantum Lagrangian or equivalently a \\hlt{modular space-time}. This concept embodies the standard tenets of quantum theory and implements in a precise way a notion of {relative locality}. The usual string backgrounds (non-compact space-time along with some toroidally compactified spatial directions) are obtained from modular space-time by a limiting procedure that can be thought of as a correspondence limit.

  10. 22 March 2012 Employee Information Lost Time No Lost Time Modified Duties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machel, Hans

    22 March 2012 Employee Information Lost Time No Lost Time Modified Duties Last Name First Name the injured worker have personal coverage? Yes No Is the injured worker a partner or director in this business OR Did this condition develop over a period of time? Yes No Hours of employment on the day of accident

  11. Unfolding of time Petri nets for quantitative time analysis Medesu Sogbohossou and David Delfieu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are interesting formalism with expressing power of true parallelism or concurrency in discrete events systems. Time Petri nets (TPN) [1] are timed extension often used to modelize realtime systems. Thanks://www.irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Abstract. The verification of properties on a Time Petri net is often based on the state class graph

  12. Extended-Time Demand Bids: A New Bidding Framework to Accommodate Time-Shiftable Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    , price bids, energy bids, day-ahead market, demand response, price competativeness, load synchronization bids e Energy component of a bid p Price component of a bid Start-time component of a bid End-time component of a bid i Bidder index t Hourly time index q Cleared energy in the market Cleared price

  13. Time Limitation on Direct Subsidized Loan Eligibility for First-Time Borrowers on or after

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Time Limitation on Direct Subsidized Loan Eligibility for First-Time Borrowers on or after July 1, 2013 Maximum eligibility period to receive Direct Subsidized Loans There is a limit on the maximum period of time (measured in academic years) that you can receive Direct Subsidized Loans. In general, you

  14. Time Extraction from Real-time Generated Football Reports Markus Borg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time Extraction from Real-time Generated Football Reports Markus Borg D02, Lund Institute information from football match reports generated through minute- by-minute reporting. By using regular ex is presented. 1 Introduction Football reports written in real-time is an increas- ingly popular way to report

  15. Real Time Search User Behavior Real time search is an increasingly important area of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansen, James

    . The most frequently used terms accounted for only 0.03% of the total terms. Concerning search topics Web search. Searchers of real time content often repeat queries overtime, perhaps indicating long term content increasingly enters the main stream. Keywords Real time search, real time content, Collecta

  16. Pulsar searches and timing with the SKA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Smits; M. Kramer; B. Stappers; D. R. Lorimer; J. Cordes; A. Faulkner

    2008-11-03

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned multi purpose radio telescope with a collecting area approaching 1 million square metres. One of the key science objectives of the SKA is to provide exquisite strong-field tests of gravitational physics by finding and timing pulsars in extreme binary systems such as a pulsar-black hole binary. To find out how three preliminary SKA configurations will affect a pulsar survey, we have simulated SKA pulsar surveys for each configuration. We estimate that the total number of normal pulsars the SKA will detect, using only the 1-km core and 30 minutes integration time, is around 14000 normal pulsar and 6000 millisecond pulsars. We describe a simple strategy for follow-up timing observations and find that, depending on the configuration, it would take 1-6 days to obtain a single timing point for 14000 pulsars. Obtaining a single timing point for the high-precision timing projects of the SKA, will take less than 14 hours, 2 days, or 3 days, depending on the configuration. The presence of aperture arrays will be of great benefit here. We also study the computational requirements for beam forming and data analysis for a pulsar survey. Beam forming of the full field of view of the single-pixel feed 15-m dishes using the 1-km core of the SKA requires about 2.2*10^15 operations per second. The corresponding data rate from such a pulsar survey is about 4.7*10^11 bytes per second. The required computational power for a deep real time analysis is estimated to be 1.2*10^16 operations per second. For an aperture array or dishes equipped with phased array feeds, the survey can be performed faster, but the computational requirements and data rates will go up.

  17. Relative entropy and waiting times for continuous-time Markov processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Rene Chazottes; Cristian Giardina; Frank Redig

    2005-12-16

    For discrete-time stochastic processes, there is a close connection between return/waiting times and entropy. Such a connection cannot be straightforwardly extended to the continuous-time setting. Contrarily to the discrete-time case one does need a reference measure and so the natural object is relative entropy rather than entropy. In this paper we elaborate on this in the case of continuous-time Markov processes with finite state space. A reference measure of special interest is the one associated to the time-reversed process. In that case relative entropy is interpreted as the entropy production rate. The main results of this paper are: almost-sure convergence to relative entropy of suitable waiting-times and their fluctuation properties (central limit theorem and large deviation principle).

  18. Nonlinear Time Domain Modeling and Simulation of Surface and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nonlinear Time Domain Modeling and Simulation of Surface and Embedded NPPS Nonlinear Time Domain Modeling and Simulation of Surface and Embedded NPPS Nonlinear Time Domain Modeling...

  19. Covariant two point function for minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Vahid Takook

    2000-10-13

    In a recent paper [1], it has been shown that negative norm states are indispensable for a fully covariant quantization of the minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space. Their presence, while leaving unchanged the physical content of the theory, offers an automatic and covariant renormalization of the vacuum energy divergence. This paper is a completion of our previous work. An explicit construction of the covariant two-point function of the ``massless'' minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space is given, which is free of any infrared divergence. The associated Schwinger commutator function and retarded Green's function are calculated in a fully gauge invariant way, which also means coordinate independent.

  20. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA); Gosnell, Tom B. (Moraga, CA); Ham, Cheryl (Livermore, CA); Perkins, Dwight (Livermore, CA); Wong, James (Dublin, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  1. Measurable Maximal Energy and Minimal Time Interval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eiman Abou El Dahab; Abdel Nasser Tawfik

    2014-01-14

    The possibility of finding the measurable maximal energy and the minimal time interval is discussed in different quantum aspects. It is found that the linear generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) approach gives a non-physical result. Based on large scale Schwarzshild solution, the quadratic GUP approach is utilized. The calculations are performed at the shortest distance, at which the general relativity is assumed to be a good approximation for the quantum gravity and at larger distances, as well. It is found that both maximal energy and minimal time have the order of the Planck time. Then, the uncertainties in both quantities are accordingly bounded. Some physical insights are addressed. Also, the implications on the physics of early Universe and on quantized mass are outlined. The results are related to the existence of finite cosmological constant and minimum mass (mass quanta).

  2. Time-Resonant Tokamak Plasma Edge Instabilities?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, A J; Calderon, F A; Chapman, S C; Delabie, E; Dodt, D; Felton, R; Todd, T N; Maviglia, F; Morris, J; Riccardo, V; Alper, B; Brezinsek, S; Coad, P; Likonen, J; Rubel, M; Contributors, JET EFDA

    2013-01-01

    For a two week period during the Joint European Torus (JET) 2012 experimental campaign, the same high confinement plasma was repeated 151 times. The dataset was analysed to produce a probability density function (pdf) for the waiting times between edge-localised plasma instabilities ("ELMS"). The result was entirely unexpected. Instead of a smooth single peaked pdf, a succession of 4-5 sharp maxima and minima uniformly separated by 7-8 millisecond intervals was found. Here we explore the causes of this newly observed phenomenon, and conclude that it is either due to a self-organised plasma phenomenon or an interaction between the plasma and a real-time control system. If the maxima are a result of "resonant" frequencies at which ELMs can be triggered more easily, then future ELM control techniques can, and probably will, use them. Either way, these results demand a deeper understanding of the ELMing process.

  3. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Smatlak, D.L.; Cohn, D.R.; Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Surma, J.E.

    1995-12-26

    Microwave-induced plasma is described for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. 3 figs.

  4. Black hole thermodynamics in finite time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruber, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Finite-time thermodynamics provides the means to revisit ideal thermodynamic equilibrium processes in the light of reality and investigate the energetic "price of haste", i.e. the consequences of carrying out a process in finite time, when perfect equilibrium cannot be awaited due to economic reasons or the nature of the process. Employing the formalism of geometric thermodynamics, a lower bound on the energy dissipated during a process is derived from the thermodynamic length of that process. The notion of length is hereby defined via a metric structure on the space of equilibrium thermodynamics, spanned by a set of thermodynamic variables describing the system. Since the aim of finite-time thermodynamics is to obtain realistic limitations on idealized scenarios, it is a useful tool to reassess the efficiency of thermodynamic processes. We examine its implications for black hole thermodynamics, in particular scenarios inspired by the Penrose process, a thought experiment by which work can be extracted from a...

  5. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (4 Ledgewood Dr., Bedford, MA 01730); Smatlak, Donna L. (10 Village Hill Rd., Belmont, MA 02178); Cohn, Daniel R. (26 Walnut Hill Rd., Chestnut Hill, MA 02167); Wittle, J. Kenneth (1740 Conestoga Rd., Chester Springs, PA 19425); Titus, Charles H. (323 Echo Valley La., Newton Square, PA 19072); Surma, Jeffrey E. (806 Brian La., Kennewick, WA 99337)

    1995-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  6. Time-temperature equivalence in Martensite tempering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackenberg, Robert E.; Thomas, Grant A.; Speer, John G.; Matlock, David K.; Krauss, George

    2008-06-16

    The relationship between time and temperature is of great consequence in many materials-related processes including the tempering of martensite. In 1945, Hollomon and Jaffe quantified the 'degree of tempering' as a function of both tempering time, t, and tempering temperature, T, using the expression, T(log t + c). Here, c is thought to be a material constant and appears to decrease linearly with increasing carbon content. The Hollomon-Jaffe tempering parameter is frequently cited in the literature. This work reviews the original derivation of the tempering parameter concept, and presents the use of the characteristics diffusion distance as an alternative time-temperature relationship during martensite tempering. During the tempering of martensite, interstitial carbon atoms diffuse to form carbides. In addition, austenite decomposes, dislocations and grain boundaries rearrange, associated with iron self diffusion. Since these are all diffusional processes, it is reasonable to expect the degree of tempering to relate to the extent of diffusion.

  7. System Identification: Time Varying and Nonlinear Methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majji, Manoranjan

    2010-07-14

    fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, John L. Junkins Committee Members, Aniruddha Datta Jer-Nan Juang Daniele Mortari Othon K. Rediniotis Srinivas R. Vadali Head of Department... time varying systems are governed by a set of difference equations governing the evolution of the state in time being given by 1k k k k kA B+ = +x x u (2.1) together with a corresponding initial state vector 0x . The state variable nk ?x ? is most...

  8. Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet

    2009-05-07

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.

  9. Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    Original and dead-time corrected disdrometer results for observations made at SGP and TWP. The correction is based on the technique discussed in Sheppard and Joe, 1994. In addition, these files contain calculated radar reflectivity factor, mean Doppler velocity and attenuation for every measurement for both the original and dead-time corrected data at the following wavelengths: 0.316, 0.856, 3.2, 5, and 10cm (W,K,X,C,S bands). Pavlos Kollias provided the code to do these calculations.

  10. Rehabilitating space-times with NUTs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clément, Gérard; Guenouche, Mourad

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the Taub-NUT solution of the Einstein equations without time periodicity condition, showing that the Misner string is still fully transparent for geodesics. In this case, analytic continuation can be carried out through both horizons leading to a Hausdorff spacetime without a central singularity, and thus geodesically complete. Furthermore, we show that, in spite of the presence of a region containing closed time-like curves, there are no closed causal {\\em geodesics}. Thus, some longstanding obstructions to accept the Taub-NUT solution as physically relevant are removed.

  11. Rehabilitating space-times with NUTs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gérard Clément; Dmitri Gal'tsov; Mourad Guenouche

    2015-08-30

    We revisit the Taub-NUT solution of the Einstein equations without time periodicity condition, showing that the Misner string is still fully transparent for geodesics. In this case, analytic continuation can be carried out through both horizons leading to a Hausdorff spacetime without a central singularity, and thus geodesically complete. Furthermore, we show that, in spite of the presence of a region containing closed time-like curves, there are no closed causal {\\em geodesics}. Thus, some longstanding obstructions to accept the Taub-NUT solution as physically relevant are removed.

  12. Deriving time from the geometry of space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James M. Chappell; John G. Hartnett; Nicolangelo Iannella; Derek Abbott

    2015-04-08

    The Minkowski formulation of special relativity reveals the essential four-dimensional nature of spacetime, consisting of three space and one time dimension. Recognizing its fundamental importance, a variety of arguments have been proposed over the years attempting to derive the Minkowski spacetime structure from fundamental physical principles. In this paper we illustrate how Minkowski spacetime follows naturally from the geometric properties of three dimensional Clifford space modeled with multivectors. This approach also generalizes spacetime to an eight dimensional space as well as doubling the size of the Lorentz group. This description of spacetime also provides a new geometrical interpretation of the nature of time.

  13. Emergent Time and the M5-Brane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Hull; N. Lambert

    2014-03-18

    We consider the maximal super-Yang-Mills theory in 5 Euclidean dimensions with SO(5) R-symmetry and 16 supersymmetries. We argue that the strong coupling limit of this theory (with a possible UV completion) has an emergent time dimension and gives a description of the 5+1 dimensional Lorentz invariant (2,0) theory of the M5-brane, compactified on a timelike circle with radius R=g^2/4\\pi^2 . Our discussion involves issues of quantization of Euclidean theories without time.

  14. Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    2008-03-05

    Original and dead-time corrected disdrometer results for observations made at SGP and TWP. The correction is based on the technique discussed in Sheppard and Joe, 1994. In addition, these files contain calculated radar reflectivity factor, mean Doppler velocity and attenuation for every measurement for both the original and dead-time corrected data at the following wavelengths: 0.316, 0.856, 3.2, 5, and 10cm (W,K,X,C,S bands). Pavlos Kollias provided the code to do these calculations.

  15. Mean Field Variational Approximations in Continuous-Time Markov Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Nir

    Mean Field Variational Approximations in Continuous-Time Markov Processes A thesis submitted Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.3 Continuous Time Markov Processes-component Representation - Continuous Time Bayesian Networks . 24 2.3.3 Inference in Continuous Time Markov Processes

  16. AN EFFICIENT SECOND ORDER IN TIME SCHEME FOR APPROXIMATING LONG TIME STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN EFFICIENT SECOND ORDER IN TIME SCHEME FOR APPROXIMATING LONG TIME STATISTICAL PROPERTIES of the following efficient second order in time scheme for the 2D Navier-Stokes equation in a periodic box: 3n+1 - 4n + n-1 2k + (2n - n-1 ) · (2n - n-1 ) - n+1 = fn+1 , -n = n . The scheme is a combination of a 2

  17. Timing Verification of Adaptive Integrated Circuits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Rohit

    2014-08-01

    timing analysis (SSTA). The proposed method is validated on benchmark circuits including the recent ISPD'13 suite, which has circuit as large as 150K gates. The results show that our method can achieve orders of magnitude speed-up over Monte Carlo...

  18. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  19. Timely PTS Applications Critical to Staying Navy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timely PTS Applications Critical to Staying Navy Navy Personnel Command (NPC) is reminding commands and Sailors that submitting Perform to Serve (PTS) applications is the key to being able to stay Navy/10 explains how PTS is used to shape the Navy, and includes all business rules concerning. Commands must

  20. Time-Frequency Analysis as Probabilistic Inference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Richard E.

    2014-11-06

    ) and (19) yields: (21) 6176 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 62, NO. 23, DECEMBER 1, 2014 Fig. 1. Relationships between classical and probabilistic time-frequency anal- ysis. A complex filter bank (cFB, ) is formed from a set of filters...

  1. Does Daylight Savings Time Affect Traffic Accidents? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deen, Sophia 1988-

    2012-04-20

    This paper studies the effect of changes in accident pattern due to Daylight Savings Time (DST). The extension of the DST in 2007 provides a natural experiment to determine whether the number of traffic accidents is affected by shifts in hours...

  2. Name: Section Number: TA Name: Section Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzl, Hans

    carefully, answer each question completely, and show all of your work. Write your solutions clearly for the red light to turn green. The probability density function for x is given by p(x) = 1 40 if 0 x 40, 0 to turn green? (b) What is the median wait time for the red light to turn green? (c) What is the mean wait

  3. PRELIMINARY TIME ESTIMATES FOR CORING OPERATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRELIMINARY TIME ESTIMATES FOR CORING OPERATIONS Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University portion requires the written consent of the Director, Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3469, as well as appropriate acknowledgment of this source. Technical Note 1

  4. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laabs, Gary W.; Funk, David J.; Asay, Blaine W.

    1996-12-01

    A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved by pneumatic means and free the projectile.

  5. TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (PSI) DDA Meeting Mt. Hood clusters. #12;Work we have done involves ... ­ UV photo-evaporation from massive stars ­ Interaction; Moeckel & Throop 2009; Throop & Bally 2010; Pichardo et al 2010; Throop 2011. #12;Photo

  6. Nonlinear time-series analysis revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elizabeth Bradley; Holger Kantz

    2015-03-25

    In 1980 and 1981, two pioneering papers laid the foundation for what became known as nonlinear time-series analysis: the analysis of observed data---typically univariate---via dynamical systems theory. Based on the concept of state-space reconstruction, this set of methods allows us to compute characteristic quantities such as Lyapunov exponents and fractal dimensions, to predict the future course of the time series, and even to reconstruct the equations of motion in some cases. In practice, however, there are a number of issues that restrict the power of this approach: whether the signal accurately and thoroughly samples the dynamics, for instance, and whether it contains noise. Moreover, the numerical algorithms that we use to instantiate these ideas are not perfect; they involve approximations, scale parameters, and finite-precision arithmetic, among other things. Even so, nonlinear time-series analysis has been used to great advantage on thousands of real and synthetic data sets from a wide variety of systems ranging from roulette wheels to lasers to the human heart. Even in cases where the data do not meet the mathematical or algorithmic requirements to assure full topological conjugacy, the results of nonlinear time-series analysis can be helpful in understanding, characterizing, and predicting dynamical systems.

  7. Stream Temperatu Timing of Coho Sa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, Thomas E.

    and the ini- tiation of feeding involves leaving secure?low energy environ- ments in the interstices of stream bed gravels and entering the high energy environment of the stream, Among populationssf coho salmon (0Stream Temperatu Timing of Coho Sa from Carnation Creek, British L. Blair Holtby, Thomas E. Mc

  8. It's About Time: Realtime Logics Reviewed ? ??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    ­time verification problem in polynomial space, or even decidable. 1 Introduction The execution of a reactive system in (linear) temporal logic. 3 The model­checking problem asks, given a reactive system and a temporal for of temporal logic is not dominant: if a reactive system is given as a product of B¨uchi automata, the model

  9. Segmenting Time Series for Weather Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Ehud

    summarisation. We found three alternative ways in which we could model data summarisation. One approach is based turbines. In the domain of meteorology, time series data produced by numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is summarised as weather forecast texts. In the domain of gas turbines, sensor data from

  10. Research Article Human Brain Activity Time-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    Research Article Human Brain Activity Time- Locked to Narrative Event Boundaries Nicole K. Speer to or reading descriptions of everyday activities (e.g., reading about a person making cookies; Speer & Zacks, 2005; Speer, Zacks, & Reynolds, 2006). These findings are not altogether surprising given theories

  11. Hybrid Abstractions that Preserve Timed Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappas, George J.

    Hybrid Abstractions that Preserve Timed Languages Paulo Tabuada1 and George J. Pappas2 1 Instituto@ee.upenn.edu Abstract. In this paper we consider the problem of extracting an ab- straction from a hybrid control system that determine when trajectories of the original hybrid system can be generated by the abstracted hybrid system

  12. Protist Web Alert Memories of Times Past

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Larry

    Protist Web Alert Memories of Times Past The Euglenoid Project (http that the Euglenoids have always fascinated me and so did this site. Micro*scope Astrobiology Institute Web Site from reviewed this site in a previous Web Alert, but it has been revised and updated and so is worth another

  13. Berlin Heart Excor: Date and time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Berlin Heart Excor: Date and time 2015 8 29 1600 1700 Saturday, 29 August 2015, 4:00 pm -5 Professor, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Tokyo Hospital Points Berlin Heart Heart Excor". Excellent results in trials with nine patients have prompted governmental approval

  14. Precision-Timed (PRET) Stephen A. Edwards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007. (Source: Reuters) Precision-Timed (PRET) Machines ­ p. 6/1 #12;Certification in Avionics · Rather { actfreq 1 do leftJet(leftMotor); actfreq 1 do rightJet(rightMotor); exitfreq 1 do point(goPoint); exitfreq

  15. Heating programmer Controls the times the system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carletta, Jean

    #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Heating programmer Controls the times the system that will do that for you. #12;Boiler thermostat Controls the temperature of the water in the system -- which? #12;Why don't we already have room thermostats? Because the building regs only specify the controls

  16. Signature Search Time Evaluation in Flat File

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertazzi, Thomas G.

    for the aerospace industry are discussed in Sripada [32]. B. Divisible Load Modeling The novelty of this paper, IEEE Stony Brook University For the first time, divisible load scheduling theory is used to solve level tree networks with single and multiple installment load distribution. The use of divisible load

  17. General Information 1. Indicate time spent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    General Information 1. Indicate time spent: On a computer at work: ____ hours per day On a computer at home: ____ hours per day On a handheld computer (e.g., Blackberry): ____ hours per day 2. Desktop or laptop computer Use: (circle applicable) My work computer is a: desktop laptop My home computer is a

  18. Network With Costs: Timing and Flow Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tracey

    Network With Costs: Timing and Flow Decomposition Shreeshankar Bodas, Jared Grubb, Sriram Sridharan-- This paper analyzes a capacitated network with costs from an information theoretic point of view. Determines a flow decomposition for a network with costs starting from an information theoretic point of view

  19. SPONTANEOUS AND EXPLICIT ESTIMATION OF TIME DELAYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    So, Hing-Cheung

    , called the explicit time delay estimator (ETDE), is rst developed to nd the di erential delay of a signal through only one propagation path. Basically, the ETDE is an adaptive FIR lter whose coe cients it can provide direct delay measurements on a sample-by-sample basis. The ETDE performance surface

  20. APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION Part-time Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeff

    ) related to this program area: Professional designation(s): 275 Portage Avenue | Winnipeg | Manitoba | R3B research into program enrolment and related statistical profiling activities. If you have any questionsAPPLICATION FOR ADMISSION Part-time Program ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS: To qualify for admission

  1. Performance Prediction through Time Measurements Roman Iakymchuk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of predicting performance of linear algebra algorithms for small matrices. This approach is based on reducing linear algebra operations such as the BLAS subroutines. As the time measurements confirmed, the execution is built on top of two BLAS subroutines, with the separately measured one. The applicability

  2. Real-time control over networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji, Kun

    2007-09-17

    issues regarding control over networks and can be the guidelines of NCS design. A single actuator ball magnetic-levitation (maglev) system is implemented as a test bed for the real-time control over networks to illustrate and verify the theoretical...

  3. Time interleaved counter analog to digital converters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danesh, Seyed Amir Ali

    2011-11-22

    The work explores extending time interleaving in A/D converters, by applying a high-level of parallelism to one of the slowest and simplest types of data-converters, the counter ADC. The motivation for the work is to ...

  4. Multiple ``time step'' Monte Carlo Balazs Hetenyia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berne, Bruce J.

    and nuclear degrees of free- dom respectively. ANES­MC was particularly designed to treat polarizable systems in CPU time can be achieved. Common criteria of separation into rapidly and slowly varying parts6 procedure is similar in spirit but different in signifi- cant ways from the adiabatic nuclear and electronic

  5. Space-time attributes of physical objects and the laws of space-time physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. H. Field

    2008-09-24

    Physical time intervals are attributes of single physical object whereas physical space intervals are a relational attribute of two physical objects. Some consequences of the breaking of the space-time exchange symmetry inherent in the Lorentz transformation following from the above distinction are investigated. In particular, it is shown that the relativity of simultaneity and length contraction effects which naively follow from space-time symmetry of the Lorentz transformation do not occur. Seven laws describing the relation between observations of space intervals, time intervals and velocities in different reference frames are given. Only two of these laws are respected by conventional special relativity theory.

  6. Practical Timing Analysis of Asynchronous Systems Using Time Separation of Events \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Supratik

    separations between appropriate events. Separations between all rele­ vant pairs of events are computed between appropriate events in the timing constraint graph. Separations between all rele­ vant pairs

  7. Time-stretch microscopy based on time-wavelength sequence reconstruction from wideband incoherent source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chi Xu, Yiqing; Wei, Xiaoming; Tsia, Kevin K.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-07-28

    Time-stretch microscopy has emerged as an ultrafast optical imaging concept offering the unprecedented combination of the imaging speed and sensitivity. However, dedicated wideband and coherence optical pulse source with high shot-to-shot stability has been mandated for time-wavelength mapping—the enabling process for ultrahigh speed wavelength-encoded image retrieval. From the practical point of view, exploiting methods to relax the stringent requirements (e.g., temporal stability and coherence) for the source of time-stretch microscopy is thus of great value. In this paper, we demonstrated time-stretch microscopy by reconstructing the time-wavelength mapping sequence from a wideband incoherent source. Utilizing the time-lens focusing mechanism mediated by a narrow-band pulse source, this approach allows generation of a wideband incoherent source, with the spectral efficiency enhanced by a factor of 18. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, time-stretch imaging with the scan rate as high as MHz and diffraction-limited resolution is achieved based on the wideband incoherent source. We note that the concept of time-wavelength sequence reconstruction from wideband incoherent source can also be generalized to any high-speed optical real-time measurements, where wavelength is acted as the information carrier.

  8. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Straka, M. (Halliburton NUS, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin burnup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PF1/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design burnup. Using peaking factors commensurate with actual burnups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document provides appendices K and L of this report which provide plots for the timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures for Oconee and Seabrook respectively.

  9. The growth of New Guinea impatiens with controlled-release fertilizer in a recirculating subirrigation system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Daphne Ladean

    1999-01-01

    the effects of CRF prill removal from growing media prior to extraction for EC and pH. CRF drills were either removed or not, prior to extraction of the media. No significant differences in EC or pH were found between pots which had drills removed and those...

  10. Method and apparatus for affecting a recirculation zone in a cross flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bathina, Mahesh (Andhra Pradesh, IN); Singh, Ramanand (Uttar Pradesh, IN)

    2012-07-17

    Disclosed is a cross flow apparatus including a surface and at least one outlet located at the surface. The cross flow apparatus further includes at least one guide at the surface configured to direct an intersecting flow flowing across the surface and increase a velocity of a cross flow being expelled from the at least one outlet downstream from the at least one outlet.

  11. A mathematical model for a parallel plate electrochemical reactor, CSTR, and associated recirculation system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Trung Van

    1985-01-01

    to be reference concentrations) 12 S a = L into Eq. j9j the material balance equation of each species i can be written as follows: S ct8, Drr re, cl 8, cl 8, ? ? = ? 3Pea ? (n ? ri ) ? + a ? +- D; Bt D, Bf Bfg Brls s, F I , ase a8, ag as& a8, aC 1 + ?a'(8... s ctrts ;, F I . , ase de, ee ase ae, ae) ~as(e, ?, ?, ? ' ? ) ? 8, ?, ~ ? ' ? ~ a(s a( d; es a a] ~) Q ;. . . ?, e, = o For n=0 and 0- (&1 (Anode) and, t, )0 snr. ref fj (8 )s, , ;oct Dc, ?, fnF I ' '- RT s g ( a) e&P~ ( a @ea j, ref) i 4) Q Sacr...

  12. Suction recirculation and its effects upon axial-flow pump power consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prince, Tony M.

    1983-01-01

    1 Test Procedure Outline 2 Section and Pump Critical Flowrates and Speeds. 63 91 3 Power Coefficient and Reynolds Number Based on Cone Radius. 100 4 Power Coefficient and Reynolds Number Based on Surface Area. 101 5 Power Coefficient... Variation with NPSH with Q rl 54 Head Variation with NPSH with Q 2 . r2 55 Head Variation with NPSH with Q 3. r3' 120 128 129 130 131 134 135 136 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Pumps of different types are used to displace liquids from one location...

  13. Culture of selected organisms in recirculating and flow-through systems using thermal effluent 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Terri Layne

    1978-01-01

    lower in the recircula- ting svst m than in the flow-through system. Decrease in mear length was probably the result of the death of a large oystez rather than an actual decrease in shell length. The meat of oysters opened at the termination... for all species and condition, food conversion and percent efficiency of feed utilization of fish were computed at each sampling period. Polyculture of oysters with fish in the flow- through system did not adversely affect growth or survival...

  14. Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    2011-07-26

    Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

  15. Prediction of Damage to Structure resulting from Recirculation of Particles from a Magnetoplasma Spacecraft Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Michael William

    2014-12-17

    A magnetoplasma spacecraft engine, such as the Variable Area Specific Inpulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR®), uses magnetic fields and a magnetic nozzle to constrict and accelerate plasma to produce thrust. Most of the ejected plasma particles...

  16. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

  17. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Produced water is generated nationally as a byproduct of oil and gas production. Seven states generate 90 percent of the produced water in the continental US. About 37 percent of the sources documented in the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Produced Waters Database have a TDS of less than 30,000 mg/l. This is significant because produced water treatment for reuse in power plants was found to be very costly above 30,000 mg/l TDS. For the purposes of this report, produced water treatment was assessed using the technologies evaluated for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) in Deliverable 3, Treatment and Disposal Analysis. Also, a methodology was developed to readily estimate capital and operating costs for produced water treatment. Two examples are presented to show how the cost estimating methodology can be used to evaluate the cost of treatment of produced water at power plants close to oil and gas production.

  18. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

  19. The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

    2004-09-30

    Chloride is a deleterious ionic species in cooling water systems because it is important in promoting corrosion. Chloride can be removed from cooling water by precipitation as calcium chloroaluminate using ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA...

  20. Ocean thermal energy conversion plants : experimental and analytical study of mixing and recirculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jirka, Gerhard H.

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a method of generating power using the vertical temperature gradient of the tropical ocean as an energy source. Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to determine ...