National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for reciprocating engines fuel

  1. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program is designed to promote separate but parallel engine development between the major stationary, gaseous fueled engine manufacturers in the...

  2. Energy Conservation Potential in Natural Gas Fueled Reciprocating Engines - A Preliminary Market Evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A study was undertaken of the usage rates of both fuel and lubricants in reciprocating engines fueled with natural gas. The study was conducted to determine the potential for energy conservation, if use is made of more fuel efficient natural gas...

  3. Gas-Fired Reciprocating Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The reciprocating, or piston-driven, engine is a widespread and well-known technology. Also called internal combustion engines, reciprocating engines require fuel, air, compression, and a combustion source to function. Depending on the ignition source, they generally fall into two categories: (1) spark-ignited engines, typically fueled by gasoline or natural gas, and (2) compression-ignited engines, typically fueled by diesel oil fuel.

  4. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines Increase Efficiency and Reduce Emissions for Distributed Power Generation Applications

  5. Rotary reciprocating internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, W.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes a rotary reciprocating internal combustion engine. It comprises a housing which comprises a cylindrical head with two end and frame plates mounted on both ends of the head enclose the head, the head including a pair of fuel into ports and a pair of exhaust ports, a pair of ring gears; a rotor axially aligned in the cylindrical head and comprising a set of four radially extending cylinders and pistons reciprocable in the cylinders; a power take off shaft fixed to the crank support plates and axially aligned with the rotor; oiling means for oiling the rotary engine; and a set of eight crank gears.

  6. A cycle simulation of coal particle fueled reciprocating internal-combustion engines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosegay, Kenneth Harold

    1982-01-01

    - Summary of Experimental Diesel Engine Operation on Solid Coal Fuels Page Table 2 - Property Data for Coal (Char) Particles . . 23 Table 3 - Summary of the Combustion Model and Reaction Constants 40 Table 4 ? Specifications of the Base Case Engine... Efforts The first attempt to operate a solid particle fueled piston engine was performed nearly a century ago by Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the compression-ignition engine. Since then, at least a dozen separate attempts to oper- ate diesel engines...

  7. Direct fired reciprocating engine and bottoming high temperature fuel cell hybrid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A. (New Alexandria, PA); Holcombe, Norman T. (McMurray, PA)

    2006-02-07

    A system of a fuel cell bottoming an internal combustion engine. The engine exhaust gas may be combined in varying degrees with air and fed as input to a fuel cell. Reformer and oxidizers may be combined with heat exchangers to accommodate rich and lean burn conditions in the engine in peaking and base load conditions without producing high concentrations of harmful emissions.

  8. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins, Inc., June 2011 Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Cummins, Inc., June 2011 Presentation on Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines...

  9. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Caterpillar, Inc., June 2011 Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Caterpillar,...

  10. Rotary-reciprocal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, D.H.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine of the rotary-reciprocal type. It comprises a housing formed with a peripheral wall; a rotor; and a shaft for the rotor.

  11. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratapas, John; Zelepouga, Serguei; Gnatenko, Vitaliy; Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas; Li, Hailin; Getz, Timothy; Mather, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  12. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Caterpillar, Inc., June 2011 Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Caterpillar, Inc., June 2011 Presentation on Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating...

  13. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  14. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new “opportunity fuel” deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar partnered with a local dealer to deploy an ARES class engine using syngas from a biomass gasifier as

  15. Application of Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation to Natural Gas-Fueled Reciprocating Engines (HALO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Smutzer

    2006-01-01

    Two key challenges facing Natural Gas Engines used for cogeneration purposes are spark plug life and high NOx emissions. Using Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation (HALO), these two keys issues are simultaneously addressed. HALO operation, as demonstrated in this project, allows stable engine operation to be achieved at ultra-lean (relative air/fuel ratios of 2) conditions, which virtually eliminates NOx production. NOx values of 10 ppm (0.07 g/bhp-hr NO) for 8% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) supplementation at an exhaust O2 level of 10% were demonstrated, which is a 98% NOx emissions reduction compared to the leanest unsupplemented operating condition. Spark ignition energy reduction (which will increase ignition system life) was carried out at an oxygen level of 9%, leading to a NOx emission level of 28 ppm (0.13 g/bhp-hr NO). The spark ignition energy reduction testing found that spark energy could be reduced 22% (from 151 mJ supplied to the coil) with 13% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) hydrogen supplementation, and even further reduced 27% with 17% hydrogen supplementation, with no reportable effect on NOx emissions for these conditions and with stable engine torque output. Another important result is that the combustion duration was shown to be only a function of hydrogen supplementation, not a function of ignition energy (until the ignitability limit was reached). The next logical step leading from these promising results is to see how much the spark energy reduction translates into increase in spark plug life, which may be accomplished by durability testing.

  16. A reciprocating rotating-block engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, L.

    1995-06-01

    This article describes the Newbold power plant, a lightweight, clean burning, and efficient engine that is designed to be used in a variety of small-engine applications, from ultralight planes to wheelchairs. A new turbo rotary-power engine brings together different design concepts from engine technology, including the rotary motion of a block, which is applied in a rotary engine, and the reciprocating motion of pistons. The new power plant also uses an air delivery system that operates similar to a turbojet engine. The turbo rotary-power engine, developed by Vernon Newbold, founder of Newbold and Associates, in Lyons, CO, produces power from the heat generated by combustion of most liquid or gaseous fuels. Production engines, expected to be built in August, will be optimized to operate using diesel fuel.

  17. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on June 1-2, 2011. areszurlo.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP - Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011...

  18. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in owning and operating costs thereby improving the economics of distributed power generation using reciprocating gas engines. Market impact: *Phase I technologies...

  19. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) Contract: DE-FC26-01CH11080 GE Energy, Dresser Inc. 102010 - 122013 Jim Zurlo, Principal Investigator james.zurlo@ge.com Tel....

  20. Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONY PROJECTRecord4 Advance Patent| Department

  1. Integrated CHP/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to meet local air quality authority emissions restrictions. Integrated Combined Heat and PowerAdvanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to...

  2. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) R&D- Presentation by Argonne National Laboratory, June 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Technologies for Gaseous Fueled Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES), given by Sreenath Gupta at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

  3. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  4. E-Alerts: Combustion, engines, and propellants (reciprocation and rotating combustion engines). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    Design, performance, and testing of reciprocating and rotating engines of various configurations for all types of propulsion. Includes internal and external combustion engines; engine exhaust systems; engine air systems components; engine structures; stirling and diesel engines.

  5. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES): Raising the Bar on Engine Technology with Increased Efficiency and Reduced Emissions, at Attractive Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    This is a fact sheet on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems program (ARES), which is designed to promote separate, but parallel engine development between the major stationary, gaseous fueled engine manufacturers in the United States.

  6. Combustion characterization of methylal in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    Methylal, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}, also known as dimethoxy-methane, is unique among oxygenates in that it has a low autoignition temperature, no carbon-carbon bonds, and is soluble in middle distillate fuels. Because of these properties, methylal has been shown to be a favorable fuel additive for reducing smoke in diesel engines. Recent measurements of ignition delay times indicate that methylal has a cetane number in the range of 45-50, which is compatible with diesel fuels. Engine tests have shown that adding methylal to diesel fuel significantly reduces smoke emissions. Gaseous emissions and combustion efficiencies obtained with methylal/diesel fuel blends remain essentially the same as those measured using neat diesel fuel. Lubricity measurements of methylal/diesel fuel blends with a ball on cylinder lubrication evaluator (BOCLE) show that methylal improves the lubricity of diesel fuel. Even though additions of methylal lower the fuel viscosity, the results of the BOCLE tests indicate that the methylal/diesel fuel blends cause less pump wear than neat diesel fuel. The one drawback is that methylal has a low boiling point (42{degrees}C) and a relatively high vapor pressure. As a result, it lowers the flash point of diesel fuel and causes a potential fuel tank flammability hazard. One solution to this increased volatility is to make polyoxymethylenes with the general formula of CH{sub 3}O(CH{sub 2}O){sub x}CH{sub 3} where x > 2. The molecules are similar to methylal, but have higher molecular weights and thus higher viscosities and substantially lower vapor pressures. Therefore, their flash points will be compatible with regular diesel fuel. The polyoxymethylenes are expected to have combustion properties similar to methylal. It is theorized that by analogy with hydrocarbons, the ignition quality (i.e., cetane number) of the polyoxymethylenes will be better than that of methylal.

  7. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONY PROJECTRecord ForDepartmentPike, Cummins Inc.

  8. Organic rankine cycle system for use with a reciprocating engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; McCormick, Duane; Brasz, Joost J.

    2006-01-17

    In a waste heat recovery system wherein an organic rankine cycle system uses waste heat from the fluids of a reciprocating engine, provision is made to continue operation of the engine even during periods when the organic rankine cycle system is inoperative, by providing an auxiliary pump and a bypass for the refrigerant flow around the turbine. Provision is also made to divert the engine exhaust gases from the evaporator during such periods of operation. In one embodiment, the auxiliary pump is made to operate simultaneously with the primary pump during normal operations, thereby allowing the primary pump to operate at lower speeds with less likelihood of cavitation.

  9. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% ARES engine efficiency. The design strategies developed in this study have promising potential for application in all modern reciprocating engines as they represent simple, low-cost methods to extract significant fuel savings. The current program has possible spinoffs and applications in other industries as well, including transportation, CHP, and diesel power generation. The progress made in this program has wide engine efficiency implications, and potential deployment of low-friction engine components or lubricants in the near term is possible as current investigations continue.

  10. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  11. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  12. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  13. Low-Engine-Friction Technology for Advanced Natural-Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; G. Smedley; L. Moughon; Rosalind Takata; J. Jocsak

    2006-11-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis has been followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. In this program, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been adapted and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed ring-pack friction reduction of 30-40%, which translates to total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. The study on surface textures, including roughness characteristics, cross hatch patterns, dimples and grooves have shown that even relatively small-scale changes can have a large effect on ring/liner friction, in some cases reducing FMEP by as much as 30% from a smooth surface case. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Testing of low-friction lubricants showed that total engine FMEP reduced by up to {approx}16.5% from the commercial reference oil without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% ARES engine efficiency. The design strategies developed in this study have promising potential for application in all modern reciprocating engines as they represent simple, low-cost methods to extract significant fuel savings. The current program has possible spinoffs and applications in other industries as well, including transportation, CHP, and diesel power generation. The progress made in this program has wide engine efficiency implications, and potential deployment of low-friction engine components or lubricants in the near term is quite possible.

  14. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-02-01

    Gas Technology Institute will collaborate with Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, West Virginia University, Vronay Engineering Services, KAR Engineering Associates, Pioneer Air Systems, and Energy Concepts Company to recover waste heat from reciprocating engines. The project will integrate waste heat recovery along with gas clean-up technology system improvements. This will address fuel quality issues that have hampered expanded use of opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester biogas, and coal mine methane. This will enable increased application of CHP using renewable and domestically derived opportunity fuels.

  15. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)- Presentation by Caterpillar, Inc., June 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation on Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES), given by Martin Willi at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

  16. Effects of piston design and lubricant selection on reciprocating engine friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moughon, Luke (Luke Frank)

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between the piston and the liner in a reciprocating engine is of much interest because it affects reliability, noise, and efficiency. This study evaluated various changes to the piston skirt with the specific ...

  17. NOISE CONTROL METHODS FOR A RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR USED IN FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    NOISE CONTROL METHODS FOR A RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR USED IN FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNIT What is Fuel Cell APU? Why use APU? To reduce overall noise levels in a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) Main Components Foundation Power source Microphones Spectrum analyzer Stack of fuel cells

  18. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley

    2003-08-28

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. A detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and concepts have been explored, and engine experiments will validate these concepts. An iterative process of experimentation, simulation and analysis, will be followed with the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. As planned, MIT has developed guidelines for an initial set of low-friction piston-ring-pack designs. Current recommendations focus on subtle top-piston-ring and oil-control-ring characteristics. A full-scale Waukesha F18 engine has been installed at Colorado State University and testing of the baseline configuration is in progress. Components for the first design iteration are being procured. Subsequent work includes examining the friction and engine performance data and extending the analyses to other areas to evaluate opportunities for further friction improvement and the impact on oil consumption/emission and wear, towards demonstrating an optimized reduced-friction engine system.

  19. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2005-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

  20. Gaseous-fuel engine technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains three distinct groups of papers covering gaseous-fuel injection and control, gaseous-fuel engine projects, and gaseous-fuel engine/vehicle applications. Contents include: ultra rapid natural gas port injection; a CNG specific fuel injector using latching solenoid technology; development of an electronically-controlled natural gas-fueled John Deere PowerTech 8.1L engine; adapting a Geo Metro to run on natural gas using fuel-injection technology; behavior of a closed loop controlled air valve type mixer on a natural gas fueled engine under transient operation; and a turbocharged lean-burn 4.3 liter natural gas engine.

  1. Engineered fuel: Renewable fuel of the future?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomczyk, L.

    1997-01-01

    The power generation and municipal solid waste management industries share an interest in the use of process engineered fuel (PEF) comprised mainly of paper and plastics as a supplement to conventional fuels. PEF is often burned in existing boilers, making PEF an alternative to traditional refuse derived fuels (RDF). This paper describes PEF facilities and makes a comparison of PEF and RDF fuels.

  2. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONY PROJECTRecord ForDepartmentPike, Cummins

  3. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Dresser

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONY PROJECTRecord ForDepartmentPike,

  4. Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment| DepartmentAL/FAL 99-01Energy

  5. Fuels, Engines & Emissions | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels, Engines, Emissions SHARE Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Fuels, Engines, and Emissions research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is helping identify ways to increase...

  6. Modeling of reciprocating internal combustion engines for power generation and heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a power generation and heat recovery model for reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICEs). The purpose of the proposed model is to provide realistic estimates of performance/efficiency maps for both electrical power output and useful thermal output for various capacities of engines for use in a preliminary CHP design/simulation process. The proposed model will serve as an alternative to constant engine efficiencies or empirical efficiency curves commonly used in the current literature for simulations of CHP systems. The engine performance/efficiency calculation algorithm has been coded to a publicly distributed FORTRAN Dynamic Link Library (DLL), and a user friendly tool has been developed using Visual Basic programming. Simulation results using the proposed model are validated against manufacturer’s technical data.

  7. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) Research at Argonne National Laboratory – A Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Sreenath; Biruduganti, Muni; Bihari, Bipin; Sekar, Raj

    2014-08-01

    The goals of these experiments were to determine the potential of employing spectral measurements to deduce combustion metrics such as HRR, combustion temperatures, and equivalence ratios in a natural gas-fired reciprocating engine. A laser-ignited, natural gas-fired single-cylinder research engine was operated at various equivalence ratios between 0.6 and 1.0, while varying the EGR levels between 0% and maximum to thereby ensure steady combustion. Crank angle-resolved spectral signatures were collected over 266–795 nm, encompassing chemiluminescence emissions from OH*, CH*, and predominantly by CO2* species. Further, laser-induced gas breakdown spectra were recorded under various engine operating conditions.

  8. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine: Parasitic Loss Control through Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farshid Sadeghi; Chin-Pei Wang

    2008-12-31

    This report presents results of our investigation on parasitic loss control through surface modification in reciprocating engine. In order to achieve the objectives several experimental and corresponding analytical models were designed and developed to corroborate our results. Four different test rigs were designed and developed to simulate the contact between the piston ring and cylinder liner (PRCL) contact. The Reciprocating Piston Test Rig (RPTR) is a novel suspended liner test apparatus which can be used to accurately measure the friction force and side load at the piston-cylinder interface. A mixed lubrication model for the complete ring-pack and piston skirt was developed to correlate with the experimental measurements. Comparisons between the experimental and analytical results showed good agreement. The results revealed that in the reciprocating engines higher friction occur near TDC and BDC of the stroke due to the extremely low piston speed resulting in boundary lubrication. A Small Engine Dynamometer Test Rig was also designed and developed to enable testing of cylinder liner under motored and fired conditions. Results of this study provide a baseline from which to measure the effect of surface modifications. The Pin on Disk Test Rig (POD) was used in a flat-on-flat configuration to study the friction effect of CNC machining circular pockets and laser micro-dimples. The results show that large and shallow circular pockets resulted in significant friction reduction. Deep circular pockets did not provide much load support. The Reciprocating Liner Test Rig (RLTR) was designed to simplifying the contact at the PRCL interface. Accurate measurement of friction was obtained using 3-axis piezoelectric force transducer. Two fiber optic sensors were used to measure the film thickness precisely. The results show that the friction force is reduced through the use of modified surfaces. The Shear Driven Test Rig (SDTR) was designed to simulate the mechanism of the piston ring pass through the liner. Micro PIV system was provided to observing the flow of lubricant in the cavity (pocket). The Vorticity-Stream Function Code was developed to simulate the incompressible fluid flow in the rectangular cavity.

  9. Small-Scale Industrial Cogeneration: Design Using Reciprocating Engines and Absorption Chillers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    electricity and the price of the fuel used by the cogeneration system. The greater this differ ence, the greater the savings potential. Generally speaking, this dictates using the cheapest fuel, on a $/MMBtu basis, that the system can reasonably accom... (i.e., situations where a user wants a maximum of 1 MW of cogenerated electricity). The design employs reci procating engines fueled with natural gas or liquid fuels. Waste heat from the engine exhaust and jacket water is used to drive...

  10. Diesel engine fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

  11. Diesel engine fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

  12. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly reports 1 through 15. Results for each of the tasks in Phase 1 are presented.

  13. Internal combustion engine fuel feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochard, P.; Guicherd, C.

    1980-02-19

    In a method and apparatus for controlling the fuel feed to a stratified-charge internal combustion engine, from idle up to the position corresponding with the maximum flow of air, the overall richness (Rg) of the combustible mixture is reduced by acting simultaneously upon the flow of fuel feeding the main chamber and upon the flow of fuel injected into the auxiliary chamber. For higher loads the maximum flow of air is kept constant and rg is increased by continuing to act upon both fuel flows. By keeping the richness of the mixture in the auxiliary chamber substantially constant, it is possible to obtain the best compromise between the performance of the engine and the emission of pollutant gases.

  14. Fuel quantity modulation in pilot ignited engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    May, Andrew

    2006-05-16

    An engine system includes a first fuel regulator adapted to control an amount of a first fuel supplied to the engine, a second fuel regulator adapted to control an amount of a second fuel supplied to the engine concurrently with the first fuel being supplied to the engine, and a controller coupled to at least the second fuel regulator. The controller is adapted to determine the amount of the second fuel supplied to the engine in a relationship to the amount of the first fuel supplied to the engine to operate in igniting the first fuel at a specified time in steady state engine operation and adapted to determine the amount of the second fuel supplied to the engine in a manner different from the relationship at steady state engine operation in transient engine operation.

  15. Multicylinder compound engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1990-10-23

    This patent describes a compound, rotary-reciprocal engine. It comprises: a two-cycle reciprocator having cylinders, each cylinder having at least one piston arranged for reciprocation in the cylinder in a cycled operation with a timed air input to the cylinder and a timed exhaust from the cylinder; a compressed air intake and combustion gas exit in each cylinder of the reciprocator; fuel injection means for injecting fuel into the cylinders at appropriate times in the cycled operation; and, a rotocharger.

  16. On use of CO{sub 2} chemiluminescence for combustion metrics in natural gas fired reciprocating engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, S. B.; Bihari, B.; Biruduganti, M.; Sekar, R.; Zigan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Flame chemiluminescence is widely acknowledged to be an indicator of heat release rate in premixed turbulent flames that are representative of gas turbine combustion. Though heat release rate is an important metric for evaluating combustion strategies in reciprocating engine systems, its correlation with flame chemiluminescence is not well studied. To address this gap an experimental study was carried out in a single-cylinder natural gas fired reciprocating engine that could simulate turbocharged conditions with exhaust gas recirculation. Crank angle resolved spectra (266-795 nm) of flame luminosity were measured for various operational conditions by varying the ignition timing for MBT conditions and by holding the speed at 1800 rpm and Brake Mean effective Pressure (BMEP) at 12 bar. The effect of dilution on CO*{sub 2}chemiluminescence intensities was studied, by varying the global equivalence ratio (0.6-1.0) and by varying the exhaust gas recirculation rate. It was attempted to relate the measured chemiluminescence intensities to thermodynamic metrics of importance to engine research -- in-cylinder bulk gas temperature and heat release rate (HRR) calculated from measured cylinder pressure signals. The peak of the measured CO*{sub 2} chemiluminescence intensities coincided with peak pressures within {+-}2 CAD for all test conditions. For each combustion cycle, the peaks of heat release rate, spectral intensity and temperature occurred in that sequence, well separated temporally. The peak heat release rates preceded the peak chemiluminescent emissions by 3.8-9.5 CAD, whereas the peak temperatures trailed by 5.8-15.6 CAD. Such a temporal separation precludes correlations on a crank-angle resolved basis. However, the peak cycle heat release rates and to a lesser extent the peak cycle temperatures correlated well with the chemiluminescent emission from CO*{sub 2}. Such observations point towards the potential use of flame chemiluminescence to monitor peak bulk gas temperatures as well as peak heat release rates in natural gas fired reciprocating engines.

  17. Hydrogen as a Supplemental Fuel in Diesel Engines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as a Supplemental Fuel in Diesel Engines Hydrogen as a Supplemental Fuel in Diesel Engines Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research...

  18. How Exhaust Emissions Drive Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How Exhaust Emissions Drive Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency How Exhaust Emissions Drive Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  19. Fuel injector nozzle for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klomp, E.D.; Peters, B.D.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a fuel injection nozzle for a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a nozzle body with at least one fuel flow opening therethrough for feed fuel to the chamber, a resilient diaphragm normally sealing the opening and having orifice means therein for further atomizing and directing the pulses into the chamber, fastening means for fixing the diaphragm to the body so that diaphragm can deflect by a predetermined amount under low engine load operating conditions so that a wide angle cone of atomized fuel is injected into and generally at one end of the combustion chamber for the stratified charge thereof and deflect by an amount greater than the first amount of deflection under high engine load operating conditions. A narrow spray cone of atomized fuel is injected in a deeper pattern into and throughout the combustion chamber for optimizing the charge thereof and fuel burns under the low and high load engine operating conditions.

  20. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  1. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bertrand D. (Erie, PA); Confer, Gregory L. (Erie, PA); Shen, Zujing (Erie, PA); Hapeman, Martin J. (Edinboro, PA); Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA)

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  2. Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin

    2014-01-01

    Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines

  3. Fuel Performance Experiments on the Atomistic Level, Studying Fuel Through Engineered Single Crystal UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgett, Eric; Deo, Chaitanya; Phillpot, Simon

    2015-05-08

    Fuel Performance Experiments on the Atomistic Level, Studying Fuel Through Engineered Single Crystal UO2

  4. The effect of surface finish on piston ring-pack performance in advanced reciprocating engine systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jocsak, Jeffrey (Jeffrey Alan)

    2005-01-01

    Frictional losses in the piston ring-pack of an engine account for approximately 20% of the total frictional losses within an engine. Methods of surface texture optimization were investigated to reduce piston ring-pack ...

  5. Fuels and Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology Fuels and Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  6. Optima: Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optima: Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Optima: Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines doeoptimainitiativeoverview.pdf More Documents & Publications Optima Program Overview...

  7. Bachelor of Science Engineering Technology Hydrogen and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bachelor of Science Engineering Technology Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Education Program Concentration Bachelor of Science Engineering Technology Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Education...

  8. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel This study presents full quantification of...

  9. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur (Marietta, GA)

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  10. Improving the Thermal Output Availability of Reciprocating Engine Cogeneration Systems by Mechanical Vapor Compression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, F. E.; DiBella, F. A.; Lamphere, F.

    1986-01-01

    ) a single engine-generator set; (2) a cogenera tion system where only high-pressure steam is avail able from the engine's exhaust gas boiler; and (3;~'~ cogeneration system where all the waste heat is made available as high-pressure steam from... . Cogeneration Vapor Compression System TABLE 1 PROTOTYPE IMVRS-COGEN DESIGN POINT SPECIFICATIONS GAS BOILER l / 'n~~ . : '. LOW PRESSURE " ~ ~';'" STEAM SEPARATOR Prime Mover...

  11. Sandia Energy - Engineering Alternative Fuel with Cyanobacteria

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis ofSample SULIColin HumphreysDETLECSupplyEngineering Alternative

  12. Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) R&D - Cross-Cutting Technologies Enable Efficient manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONY PROJECTRecord4 Advance Patent|

  13. Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for CHP- Presentation by Dresser Waukesha, June 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Ultra Clean 1.1 MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered CHP System, given by Jim Zurlo at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

  14. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Allen J. Adriani

    2004-01-01

    For the period of the 8th reporting period high-impact control technologies were identified during the meeting at Cooper in Oklahoma City. The technologies that were identified will be tested on the Ajax DP-115 engine and are capable of being widely utilized by the E&P industry. Two major areas where engine controls and ignition systems, but still included were other alternatives to reduce emissions. The most exhilarating item for this quarter was when Ajax engine was delivered to the test bed at the NGML.

  15. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories and now a geophysical consultant ) and Dr. Chester J. Weiss (recently rejoined with Sandia National Laboratories) for many stimulating (and reciprocal!) discussions regar ding the topic at hand.

  16. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman

    2004-01-01

    During the fourth reporting period, the project team investigated the Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction technologies that are in use on rich-burn four-stroke cycle engines. Several engines were instrumented and data collected to obtain a rich set of engine emissions and performance data. During the data collection, the performance of the catalyst under a variety of operating conditions was measured. This information will be necessary to specify a set of sensors that can then be used to reliably implement NSCRs as plausible technologies to reduce NOx emissions for four-stroke cycle engines used in the E&P industry. A complete summary all the technologies investigated to data is included in the report. For each technology, the summary includes a description of the process, the emission reduction that is to be expected, information on the cost of the technology, development status, practical considerations, compatibility with other air pollutant control technologies, and any references used to obtain the information.

  17. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - DEWALT RECIPROCATING SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-01, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-31

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The DeWalt reciprocating saw was assessed on August 13, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The DeWalt reciprocating saw is a hand-held industrial tool used for cutting numerous materials, including wood and various types of metals depending upon the chosen blade. Its design allows for cutting close to floors, corners, and other difficult areas. An adjustable shoe sets the cut at three separate depths. During the demonstration for the dismantling of the fiberglass-reinforced plywood crate, the saw was used for extended continuous cutting, over a period of approximately two hours. The dismantling operation involved vertical and horizontal cuts, saw blade changes, and material handling. During this process, operators experienced vibration to the hand and arm in addition to a temperature rise on the handgrip. The blade of the saw is partially exposed during handling and fully exposed during blade changes. Administrative controls, such as duty time of the operators and the machine, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, should be considered when using the saw in this application. Personal noise sampling indicated that both workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 88.3 and 90.6 dBA. Normally, a worker would be placed in a hearing conservation program if his TWA was greater than the Action Level. In this case, however, monitoring was conducted during a simulation, not during the actual work conducted at the worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted at the worksite to determine the actual noise levels for the workers. Until it is determined that the actual TWA's are less than the Action Level, the workers should use PPE. A training program on the proper use and wearing of the selected PPE should be provided to each worker. Nuisance dust monitoring yielded a concentration of 10.69 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}). Although this is less than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3}, it is above the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Fiberglass dust monitoring yielded a fiber count of 1.7 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc). This is above the PEL and the TLV of 1.0 f/cc. Therefore, controls should be implemented (engineering or PPE) to reduce the workers' exposure to the dust. Respirators should be used if engineering controls do not sufficiently control the dust or fiberglass generated. Respirators should be equipped with an organic vapor and acid gas cartridge with a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been from the breakdown of the fiberglass.

  18. October 2015 Highlights ORNL Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    October 2015 Highlights ORNL Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center TECHNICAL HIGHLIGHTS is important not only for fundamental understanding but also for technology implementation. The Fuels, Engines for the science and engineering students to succinctly describe their work to our fuels, engines, and emissions

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies Course Manual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines and Related Technologies Course Manual Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies Course Manual This course manual features technical information on the use of...

  20. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Shankar; Frazier, Timothy R.; Stanton, Donald W.; Xu, Yi; Bunting, Bruce G.; Wolf, Leslie R.

    2014-08-26

    A technique for engine control to account for fuel effects including providing an internal combustion engine and a controller to regulate operation thereof, the engine being operable to combust a fuel to produce an exhaust gas; establishing a plurality of fuel property inputs; establishing a plurality of engine performance inputs; generating engine control information as a function of the fuel property inputs and the engine performance inputs; and accessing the engine control information with the controller to regulate at least one engine operating parameter.

  1. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2015-07-14

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  2. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  3. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  4. Fuel effects in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelos, John P. (John Phillip)

    2009-01-01

    Homogenous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion is a new method of burning fuel in internal combustion (IC) engines. In an HCCI engine, the fuel and air are premixed prior to combustion, like in a spark-ignition ...

  5. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  6. Diesel engine experiments with oxygen enrichment, water addition and lower-grade fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. ); Schaus, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The concept of oxygen enriched air applied to reciprocating engines is getting renewed attention in the context of the progress made in the enrichment methods and the tougher emissions regulations imposed on diesel and gasoline engines. An experimental project was completed in which a direct injection diesel engine was tested with intake oxygen levels of 21% -- 35%. Since an earlier study indicated that it is necessary to use a cheaper fuel to make the concept economically attractive, a less refined fuel was included in the test series. Since a major objection to the use of oxygen enriched combustion air had been the increase in NO{sub x} emissions, a method must be found to reduce NO{sub x}. Introduction of water into the engine combustion process was included in the tests for this purpose. Fuel emulsification with water was the means used here even though other methods could also be used. The teat data indicated a large increase in engine power density, slight improvement in thermal efficiency, significant reductions in smoke and particulate emissions and NO{sub x} emissions controllable with the addition of water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Fuel-tolerance tests with the Ford PROCO engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choma, M.A.; Havstad, P.H.; Simko, A.O.; Stockhausen, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of fuel tolerance tests were conducted utilizing Ford's PROCO engine, a direct fuel injection stratified charge engine developed for light duty vehicles. These engine tests were run on the dynamometer and in vehicles. Data indicate an 89 RON octane requirement, relatively low sensitivity to volatility characteristics and good fuel economy, emission control and operability on a certain range of petroleum fuel and alcohol mixes including 100% methanol. Fuels such as JP-4 and Diesel fuel are not at present suitable for this engine. There were no engine modifications tested that might improve the match between the engine and a particular fuel. The 100% methanol test was conducted with a modified fuel injection pump. Durability aspects including compatibility of various fuels with the materials in the fuel system were not addressed.

  8. Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels and Fuel Additives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A bench-top engine testing system was used to fast screen the efficiency of fuel additives or fuel blends on NOx reduction

  9. Fuels of the Future: Accelerating the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary IV: Fuels of the Future: Accelerating the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Fuels of the Future: Accelerating the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines John Eichberger, Vice President of Government Relations, National Association of Convenience Stores/Executive Director, The Fuels Institute

  10. Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly Reduced Emissions and Improved Fuel Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An advanced engine design that is 15 percent more efficient than diesel, pollution free, and uses any fuel.

  11. Investigation of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Engine Technology: Improving Engine Efficiency and Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, Vi Hai

    2011-01-01

    Souder. HCCI operation of a dual-fuel natural gas engine fordual spark ignition improved efficiency by 1%, the unburned air-fuel

  12. Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Optima)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Optima) initiative seeks to transform the fuels and vehicles that provide mobility for our country’s people, goods, and services. This collaboration between industry stakeholders and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories builds on decades of advances in both fuels and engines.

  13. Dual fuel control of a high speed turbocharged diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Few, P.C.; Sardari, P.

    1987-01-01

    The modification of a Ford 7600 turbocharged diesel engine to a dual fuel engine using methane as the supplementary fuel has been carried out. The paper describes the preliminary work of dual fuel control. Two systems are examined and their behaviour is presented.

  14. Future Directions in Engines and Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Future directions in engines and fuels, powertrains and vehicle system review. deer10tatur.pdf More Documents & Publications A View from the Bridge Boosting Small Engines to High...

  15. Future Directions in Engines and Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The vision of the VW group for the future of diesel engines and future fuels is presented. deer10sjohnson.pdf More Documents & Publications The Diesel Engine Powering Light-Duty...

  16. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  17. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leto, Anthony (Franklin Lakes, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  18. Improving combustion stability in a bi-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how a new strategy for ignition timing control can reduce NOx emissions from engines using CNG and gasoline. Until a proper fueling infrastructure is established, a certain fraction of vehicles powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) must have bi-fuel capability. A bi-fuel engine, enjoying the longer range of gasoline and the cleaner emissions of CNG, can overcome the problem of having few CNG fueling stations. However, bi-fuel engines must be optimized to run on both fuels since low CNG volumetric efficiency causes power losses compared to gasoline.

  19. Dual fuel combustion in a turbocharged diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Few, P.C.; Newlyn, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The modification of a turbocharged diesel engine to a dual-fuel engine using methane as the supplementary fuel has been carried out. The effect of the gaseous fuel in a turbo-charged diesel engine has been investigated by means of a heat release study and a computer program already developed at Leicester Polytechnic. It is used in order to examine the rate of heat released under any operational condition.

  20. Future Directions in Engines and Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research on improving the efficiency of HDMDLD diesel engines with alternative fuels is presented deer10eckerle.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office...

  1. Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    direct - - injection HECC injection HECC Establish fundamental understanding of fuel effects necessary Establish fundamental understanding of fuel effects necessary for...

  2. Pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary combustion engine and fuel injector therefor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loyd, R. W.

    1980-02-12

    For a pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary, internal combustion engine, the fuel injection system and a fuel injector therefor comprises a fuel injector having plural discharge ports with at least one of the discharge ports located to emit a ''pilot'' fuel charge (relatively rich fuel-air mixture) into a passage in the engine housing, which passage communicates with the engine combustion chambers. An ignition element is located in the passage to ignite the ''pilot'' fuel (a relatively rich fuel-air mixture) flowing through the passage. At least one other discharge port of the fuel injector is in substantially direct communication with the combustion chambers of the engine to emit a main fuel charge into the latter. The ignited ''pilot'' fuelair mixture, when ignited, flashes into the combustion chambers to ignite the main, relatively lean, fuel-air mixture which is in the combustion chambers.

  3. Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency An advanced engine design that is 15 percent more efficient than diesel, pollution free, and uses any fuel. deer08zajac.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact...

  4. Reciprocity Checklist

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudget ||DepartmentReadout ofRecapping theRecent| Department

  5. Compounded turbocharged rotary internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, P.E.

    1992-10-15

    This patent describes a compounded engine. It comprises: a first Wankel engine having a housing with a trochoidal inner surface containing a generally triangular shaped rotor, the engine containing a fuel supply system suitable for operating the engine with natural gas as a fuel; a turbocharge compressing air for combustion by the engine, the turbocharger being driven by the exhaust gases which exit from the engine; a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust from the engine after that exhaust has passed through the turbocharger, the chamber having an ignition device suitable for igniting hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust, whereby the engine timing, and the air and fuel mixture of the engine are controlled so that when the engine exhaust reaches the combustion chamber the exhaust contains a sufficient amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons to enable ignition and combustion of the engine exhaust in the combustion chamber without the addition of fuel or air, and whereby the engine operating conditions are controlled to vary the performance of the secondary combustor; and a controllable ignition device to ignite the exhaust gases in the combustion chamber at predetermined times.

  6. Recycled waste oil: A fuel for medium speed diesel engines?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A.B.L.; Poynton, W.A.; Howard, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the exploratory engine trials that Mirrlees Blackstone has undertaken to investigate the effect of fueling an engine using waste oil derived from used lubricants. The effect on the engine`s mechanical components, and thermal performance are examined, and the steps taken to overcome problems are discussed. The proposed engine is sited within the Research and Development facilities, housed separately from the manufacturing plant. The unit is already capable of operating on two different types of fuel with single engine set up. It is a 3 cylinder, 4-stroke turbocharged direct injection engine mounted on an underbase and it operates at 600 rpm, 15.0 bar B.M.E.P. (Brake Mean Effective Pressure). It is a mature engine, built {approximately} 20 years previously, and used for emergency stand-by duties in the company`s powerhouse. The test engine is coupled to an alternator and the electricity generated is fed to the national grid. Initial samples of treated fuel oil, analyzed by an independent oil analysis consultant, indicated that the fuel oil does not correspond to a normal fuel oil. They contained high concentrations of trace elements (i.e. calcium, phosphorus, lead, aluminum and silicon) which was consistent with sourcing from waste lubricating oils. The fuel oil was considered to be too severe for use in an engine.

  7. Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  8. Analysis of NOx Formation in a Hydrogen-Fueled Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelsen, GS; Therkelsen, P; Werts, T; McDonell, V

    2009-01-01

    A HYDROGEN FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE Peter Therkelsen, Tavisnatural gas fueled gas turbine engine was operated ongas. INTRODUCTION Gas turbine engines designed to operate on

  9. Engine control system having fuel-based adjustment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willi, Martin L. (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott B. (Metamora, IL); Montgomery, David T. (Edelstein, IL); Gong, Weidong (Dunlap, IL)

    2011-03-15

    A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve configured to affect a fluid flow of the cylinder, an actuator configured to move the engine valve, and an in-cylinder sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of a characteristic of fuel entering the cylinder. The control system also has a controller in communication with the actuator and the sensor. The controller is configured to determine the characteristic of the fuel based on the signal and selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve based on the characteristic of the fuel.

  10. Fundamental Models for Fuel Cell Engineering Chao-Yang Wang*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cell Dynamics Fuel cell science and technology cuts across mul- tiple disciplines, including materials and Materials Science and Engineering, Electrochemical Engine Center (ECEC), The Pennsylvania State University and Parallel Computing 4730 2.3. Material Property Characterization 4730 3. Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells 4732

  11. Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung as an alternative fuel to petroleum-based gasoline and diesel derivatives. Currently available flexible fuel the closed-loop air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) control which maintains automatically operation around

  12. Vaporizer design criteria for ethanol fueled internal combustion engines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyaratne, Arachchi Rallage

    1985-01-01

    to gasoline. Rogowski and Taylor (1941) showed that alcohol could be used as an anti-knock agent for gasoline, but that alcohol could not compete economically with petroleum fuels as an engine fuel. These and many other studies show the potential... been identified in conversion of diesel engines of farm tractors for using alcohol fuels. Distillation at atmospheric pressure does not yield 200 proof ethanol, (Winston, 1981), so with present technology, ethanol produced on farms is aqueous. A...

  13. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and PowerAdvanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications Development of an Improved Modular Landfill Gas Cleanup and...

  14. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. Effect of engine operating parameters and fuel characteristics on diesel engine emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acar, Joseph, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    To examine the effects of using synthetic Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel in a modern compression ignition engine, experiments were conducted on a MY 2002 Cummins 5.9 L diesel engine outfitted with high pressure, common ...

  16. Use of an Engine Cycle Simulation to Study a Biodiesel Fueled Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Junnian

    2010-01-14

    Based on the GT-Power software, an engine cycle simulation for a biodiesel fueled direct injection compression ignition engine was developed and used to study its performance and emission characteristics. The major objectives were to establish...

  17. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Guoming; Schock, Harold; Yang, Xiaojian; Huisjen, Andrew; Stuecken, Tom; Moran, Kevin; Zhen, Ron; Zhang, Shupeng

    2013-09-30

    The central objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate an HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) capable SI (spark ignited) engine that is capable of fast and smooth mode transition between SI and HCCI combustion modes. The model-based control technique was used to develop and validate the proposed control strategy for the fast and smooth combustion mode transition based upon the developed control-oriented engine; and an HCCI capable SI engine was designed and constructed using production ready two-step valve-train with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. Finally, smooth combustion mode transition was demonstrated on a metal engine within eight engine cycles. The Chrysler turbocharged 2.0L I4 direct injection engine was selected as the base engine for the project and the engine was modified to fit the two-step valve with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. To develop the model-based control strategy for stable HCCI combustion and smooth combustion mode transition between SI and HCCI combustion, a control-oriented real-time engine model was developed and implemented into the MSU HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) simulation environment. The developed model was used to study the engine actuating system requirement for the smooth and fast combustion mode transition and to develop the proposed mode transition control strategy. Finally, a single cylinder optical engine was designed and fabricated for studying the HCCI combustion characteristics. Optical engine combustion tests were conducted in both SI and HCCI combustion modes and the test results were used to calibrate the developed control-oriented engine model. Intensive GT-Power simulations were conducted to determine the optimal valve lift (high and low) and the cam phasing range. Delphi was selected to be the supplier for the two-step valve-train and Denso to be the electrical variable valve timing system supplier. A test bench was constructed to develop control strategies for the electrical variable valve timing (VVT) actuating system and satisfactory electrical VVT responses were obtained. Target engine control system was designed and fabricated at MSU for both single-cylinder optical and multi-cylinder metal engines. Finally, the developed control-oriented engine model was successfully implemented into the HIL simulation environment. The Chrysler 2.0L I4 DI engine was modified to fit the two-step vale with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. A used prototype engine was used as the base engine and the cylinder head was modified for the two-step valve with electrical VVT actuating system. Engine validation tests indicated that cylinder #3 has very high blow-by and it cannot be reduced with new pistons and rings. Due to the time constraint, it was decided to convert the four-cylinder engine into a single cylinder engine by blocking both intake and exhaust ports of the unused cylinders. The model-based combustion mode transition control algorithm was developed in the MSU HIL simulation environment and the Simulink based control strategy was implemented into the target engine controller. With both single-cylinder metal engine and control strategy ready, stable HCCI combustion was achived with COV of 2.1% Motoring tests were conducted to validate the actuator transient operations including valve lift, electrical variable valve timing, electronic throttle, multiple spark and injection controls. After the actuator operations were confirmed, 15-cycle smooth combustion mode transition from SI to HCCI combustion was achieved; and fast 8-cycle smooth combustion mode transition followed. With a fast electrical variable valve timing actuator, the number of engine cycles required for mode transition can be reduced down to five. It was also found that the combustion mode transition is sensitive to the charge air and engine coolant temperatures and regulating the corresponding temperatures to the target levels during the combustion mode transition is the key for a smooth combustion mode transition. As a summary, the proposed combust

  18. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  19. Microbial fuel cells: novel microbial physiologies and engineering approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Microbial fuel cells: novel microbial physiologies and engineering approaches Derek R Lovley The possibility of generating electricity with microbial fuel cells has been recognized for some time, but practical applications have been slow to develop. The recent development of a microbial fuel cell that can

  20. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Microbial Fuel Cell Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Microbial Fuel Cell Reactor Overview A relatively new technology, many microbial fuel cells that have been created are very expensive or too small. So our sponsor tasked us with creating a fuel cell that was at a larger scale and as low cost

  1. Proceedings of FuelCell2008 Sixth International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    optimization study. For a new technology, such as fuel cells, it is also important to include uncertaintiesProceedings of FuelCell2008 Sixth International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference June 16-18, 2008, Denver, Colorado, USA FUELCELL2008-65111 OPTIMAL DESIGN OF HYBRID ELECTRIC FUEL

  2. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  3. Sandia Energy - Optimizing Engines for Alternative Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput AnalysisSinkhole Officials Turn to Sandia National Labs for

  4. ORNL Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    This video highlights the Vehicle Research Laboratory's capabilities at the Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC). FEERC is a Department of Energy user facility located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  5. Reciprocating pellet press

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Charles W. (Seminole, FL)

    1981-04-07

    A machine for pressing loose powder into pellets using a series of reciprocating motions has an interchangeable punch and die as its only accurately machines parts. The machine reciprocates horizontally between powder receiving and pressing positions. It reciprocates vertically to press, strip and release a pellet.

  6. Development of an engine fuel and spark controller 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suter, William Gregory

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop an engine control unit (ECU) for a four cylinder engine to be used in a Formula SAE racers. The ECU must provide effective fuel injection and spark ignition control and provide for easy adjustment...

  7. Development of a high-output dual-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, P.R. . Fairbanks Morse Engineering Division)

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a new dual-fuel engine development program. The engine is the largest commercially available in terms of power output (650 hp/cyl) and features very low emissions (1 g/hp-hr NO[sub x]) and excellent fuel consumption (43 percent thermal efficiency). A two-cylinder turbocharged prototype was designed and built for the initial development. Results from testing on 18-cylinder production versions are also reported.

  8. Innovative coal-fueled diesel engine injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this research investigation was to develop an electronic coal water slurry injection system in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of CWS at various engine load and speed conditions without external ignition sources. The combination of the new injection system and the TICS is designed to reduce injector nozzle spray orifice wear by lowering the peak injection pressure requirements. (VC)

  9. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Fuel, Engines, and Emissions Research Center

  10. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steve; Moore, D.

    2013-04-05

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  11. Emissions characteristics of Military Helicopter Engines Fueled with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Klingshirn, Christopher D; Striebich, Richard; Cheng, Mengdawn

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in aviation activities and more stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations have increased concerns regarding aircraft emissions, due to their harmful health and environmental impacts, especially in the vicinity of airports and military bases. In this study, the gaseous and particulate-matter emissions of two General Electric T701C engines and one T700 engine were evaluated. The T700 series engines power the U.S. Army's Black Hawk and Apache helicopters. The engines were fueled with standard military JP-8 fuel and were tested at three power settings. In addition, one of the T701C engines was operated on a natural-gas-derived Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene jet fuel. Test results show that the T701C engine emits significantly lower particulate-matter emissions than the T700 for all conditions tested. Particulate-matter mass emission indices ranged from 0.2-1.4 g/kg fuel for the T700 and 0.2-0.6 g/kg fuel for the T701C. Slightly higher NOx and lower CO emissions were observed for the T701C compared with the T700. Operation of the T701C with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel rendered dramatic reductions in soot emissions relative to operation on JP-8, due primarily to the lack of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuel. The Fischer-Tropsch fuel also produced smaller particles and slight reductions in CO emissions.

  12. Engine control system having fuel-based timing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willi, Martin L. (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott B. (Metamora, IL); Montgomery, David T. (Edelstein, IL); Gong, Weidong (Dunlap, IL)

    2012-04-03

    A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the cylinder and an actuator associated with the engine valve. The control system also has a sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of an amount of an air/fuel mixture remaining within the cylinder after completion of a first combustion event and a controller in communication with the actuator and the sensor. The controller may be configured to compare the amount with a desired amount, and to selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve associated with a subsequent combustion event based on the comparison.

  13. Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    for the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are its high manufacturing and material costs expressed in termsUday Pal Mechanical Engineering Manufacturing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Improved Electro- chemical of the SOFC system cost per unit power ($/kW). In this work, anode-supported planar SOFCs were fabricated

  14. 40 kW Stirling engine for solid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsen, H.; Ammundsen, N.; Traerup, J.

    1996-12-31

    The external combustion in a Stirling engine makes it very attractive for utilization of solid fuels in decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Only few projects have concentrated on the development of Stirling engines specifically for biomass. In this project a Stirling engine has been designed primarily for utilization of wood chips. Maximum shaft power is 40 kW corresponding to an electric output of 36 kW. Biomass needs more space in the combustion chamber compared to gas and liquid fuels, and a large heat transfer area is necessary. The design of the new Stirling engine has been adapted to the special demands of combustion of wood chips, resulting in a large engine compared to engines for gas or liquid fuels. The engine has four-cylinders arranged in a square. The design is made as a hermetic unit, where the alternator is built into the pressurized crankcase so that dynamic seals are avoided. Grease lubricated bearings are used in a special designed crank mechanism, which eliminates guiding forces on the pistons Helium is used as working gas at 4 MPa mean pressure. The first test of the 40 kW engine with natural gas as fuel has been made in the laboratory, and the results are in agreement with predicted results from simulation programs. The wood chips combustion system has been tested for some time with very promising results. When the laboratory test of the engine is finished, the test of the complete system will be initiated. The paper describes the engine and results from the test program. Expectations to maintenance and operation problems are also discussed.

  15. Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Presentation given at the...

  16. Fuel from Bacteria, CO2, Water, and Solar Energy: Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Harvard is engineering a self-contained, scalable Electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuel—making them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once they’re pumped out of the tank.

  17. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Landfill gas (LFG), composed largely of methane and carbon dioxide, is used in over 450 operational projects in 43 states. These projects convert a large source of greenhouse gases into a fuel that...

  18. Effect of fuel properties on the first cycle fuel delivery in a Port Fuel Injected Spark Ignition Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Kevin R., 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Achieving robust combustion while also yielding low hydrocarbon (HC) emissions is difficult for the first cycle of cranking during the cold start of a Port Fuel Injected (PFI) Spark Ignition (SI) engine. Cold intake port ...

  19. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for today’s engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  20. Dual fueling of a Caterpillar 3406 diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, S.R.; Midkiff, K.C.; Doughty, G.; Brett, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    A Caterpillar 3406 turbocharged diesel engine was converted to operate in a dual-fuel mode and was evaluated for performance and emission characteristics for both diesel and natural gas operation. Full load power was achieved with dual fueling without knock. Similar fuel efficiencies were obtained with dual fueling a high loads, but efficiencies were lower for low loads. Bosch smoke numbers were reduced by over 50% with dual fueling for all cases investigated. NO{sub x} emissions were found to be lower at low loads and at high speeds under high load. CO emissions were significantly increased for dual fueling while CO{sub 2} concentrations in the exhaust were reduced for dual fueling.

  1. Aldehyde and unburned fuel emission measurements from a methanol-fueled Texaco stratified charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C.; Foster, D.E.

    1985-04-01

    A Texaco L-163S TCCS (Texaco Controlled Combustion System) engine was operated with pure methanol to investigate the origin of unburned fuel (UBF) and formaldehyde emissions. Both continuous and time-resolved exhaust gas sampling methods were used to measure UBF and formaldehyde concentrations. Fuel impingement is believed to be an additional source of UBF emissions from this methanol-fueled TCCS engine. At increased load we believe that it is the primary source of the UBF emissions. Formaldehyde emissions were found to originate in the cylinder gases, especially at low load. However the formation of aldehydes in the exhaust port after leaving the cylinder does occur and becomes more important as the load increases. Increasing the engine load resulted in a decrease in UBF emissions but in most cases increased the formaldehyde emissions. Increased engine speed resulted in slightly increased UBF and formaldehyde emissions.

  2. Rotary engine with dual spark plugs and fuel injectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Bracco, F.V.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes a stratified charge rotary combustion engine having a housing having a running surface surrounding a working chamber, the running surface having a two-lobed profile, the lobes forming a junction in a top-dead-center region of the housing, a rotor mounted for rotation in the working chamber, a fuel injection and ignition system placed in the top-dead center region. It includes a pilot fuel injector fuel into the working chamber; a first spark plug located upstream of the pilot fuel injector for igniting fuel injected by the pilot fuel injector, the pilot fuel injector and the first spark plug being located on a downstream side of the junction; a main fuel injector for injecting fuel into the working chamber, the ignited pilot fuel acting to ignite fuel injected by the main injector; and a second spark plug located upstream of the main fuel injector and located upstream of the junction for igniting fuel/air mixture in the working chamber.

  3. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  4. Annual Report FY2014 Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2015-01-01

    Due to concerns about future petroleum supply and accelerating climate change, increased engine efficiency and alternative fuels are of interest. This project contributes to the science-base needed by industry to develop highly efficient DISI engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Lean operation is studied since it can provide higher efficiencies than traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation. Since lean operation can lead to issues with ignition stability, slow flame propagation and low combustion efficiency, focus is on techniques that can overcome these challenges. Specifically, fuel stratification can be used to ensure ignition and completeness of combustion, but may lead to soot and NOx emissions challenges. Advanced ignition system and intake air preheating both promote ignition stability. Controlled end-gas autoignition can be used maintain high combustion efficiency for ultra-lean well-mixed conditions. However, the response of both combustion and exhaust emission to these techniques depends on the fuel properties. Therefore, to achieve optimal fuel-economy gains, the combustion-control strategies of the engine must adopt to the fuel being utilized.

  5. Stratified charge injection for gas-fueled rotary engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, S.R.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes a stratified charge injection for gas-fueled rotary engines having an air intake stroke, a compression stroke, a power stroke, and an exhaust stroke. It comprises a rotor housing, the housing including an air intake port and an exhaust port, and an outer perimeter, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a gaseous fuel injector supplying all of the fuel is connected to the housing between 270{degrees} and 360{degrees} of the rotor rotation after compression top dead center and downstream of the air intake port, the injector providing gaseous fuel at a pressure less than peak compression pressure, the injector located in the middle of the width of the outer perimeter of the housing, spark ignition means in the housing downstream of the injector, and means connected to the fuel injector responsive to the compression pressure for controlling the rate and duration of fuel injection.

  6. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallant, Tom; Franz, Jim; Alnajjar, Mikhail; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Scott; Cannella, William C; Fairbridge, Craig; Hager, Darcy; Dettman, Heather; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Brad

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  7. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  8. Reducing fuel consumption on the field, by continuously measuring fuel quality on electronically fuel injected engines.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  9. The Prospective Role of JAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojima, Hisao; Dojiri, Shigeru; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Seiichiro; Nomura, Shigeo

    2007-07-01

    JAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories was established in 2005 to take over the activities of the JNC Tokai Works. Many kinds of development activities have been carried out since 1959. Among these, the results on the centrifuge for U enrichment, LWR spent fuel reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication have already provided the foundation of the fuel cycle industry in Japan. R and D on the treatment and disposal of high-level waste and FBR fuel reprocessing has also been carried out. Through such activities, radioactive material release to the environment has been appropriately controlled and all nuclear materials have been placed under IAEA safeguards. The Laboratories has sufficient experience and ability to establish the next generation closed cycle and strives to become a world-class Center Of Excellence (COE). (authors)

  10. Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presents a next generation model-based engine controller that incorporates real-time fuel efficiency optimization and tested under fully transient engine and vehicle operating conditions.

  11. Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient HD Engine (DOE SuperTruck Program)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses engine efficiency contributions of enhanced fuel injection rematched to new piston geometry, improved charge air system, revised base engine components reduce friction and turbocompounding

  12. Engineered Nanostructured MEA Technology for Low Temperature Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yimin

    2009-07-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalyst support technology based on unique engineered nanostructures for low temperature fuel cells which: (1) Achieves high catalyst activity and performance; (2) Improves catalyst durability over current technologies; and (3) Reduces catalyst cost. This project is directed at the development of durable catalysts supported by novel support that improves the catalyst utilization and hence reduce the catalyst loading. This project will develop a solid fundamental knowledge base necessary for the synthetic effort while at the same time demonstrating the catalyst advantages in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs).

  13. Proceedings of FuelCell2009 Seventh International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    of Engineering & Natural Sciences Sabanci University Istanbul, Turkey ABSTRACT In a PEMFC, feeding dry hydrogen nearest the outlet as shown in the neutron imaging of a 53 cm2 PEMFC. This method allows in Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) reduces the overall system cost, weight and volume due to reduced need

  14. BPA files reciprocity tariff

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 12 BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Friday, March 30, 2012 CONTACT: Doug Johnson, 503-230-5840 or 503-230-5131 BPA files reciprocity tariff Portland, Ore. -...

  15. Electrometallurgical treatment of oxide spent fuel - engineering-scale development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karell, E. J.

    1998-04-22

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed the electrometallurgical treatment process for conditioning various Department of Energy (DOE) spent fuel types for long-term storage or disposal. This process uses electrorefining to separate the constituents of spent fuel into three product streams: metallic uranium, a metal waste form containing the cladding and noble metal fission products, and a ceramic waste form containing the transuranics, and rare earth, alkali, and alkaline earth fission products. While metallic fuels can be directly introduced into the electrorefiner, the actinide components of oxide fuels must first be reduced to the metallic form. The Chemical Technology Division of AFT has developed a process to reduce the actinide oxides that uses lithium at 650 C in the presence of molten LiCl, yielding the actinide metals and Li{sub 2}O. A significant amount of work has already been accomplished to investigate the basic chemistry of the lithium reduction process and to demonstrate its applicability to the treatment of light-water reactor- (LWR-) type spent fuel. The success of this work has led to conceptual plans to construct a pilot-scale oxide reduction facility at ANL's Idaho site. In support of the design effort, a series of laboratory- and engineering-scale experiments is being conducted using simulated fuel. These experiments have focused on the engineering issues associated with scaling-up the process and proving compatibility between the reduction and electrorefining steps. Specific areas of investigation included reduction reaction kinetics, evaluation of various fuel basket designs, and issues related to electrorefining the reduced product. This paper summarizes the results of these experiments and outlines plans for future work.

  16. A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A single-cylinder engine was used to study how selected oxygenated fuels affect combustion and emissions in a modern diesel engine during conventional combustion and low-temperature combustion (LTC).

  17. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2014-10-07

    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  18. Analysis of NOx Formation in a Hydrogen-Fueled Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelsen, GS; Therkelsen, P; Werts, T; McDonell, V

    2009-01-01

    to altitude. The hydrogen engines were better able to15% O2] Early Radial Hydrogen engine must be fuel staged. Asof NO produced in the hydrogen engine is 2.3 times higher

  19. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies ftp01lee.pdf More...

  20. Injection Timing Effects on Brake Fuel Conversion Efficiency and Engine System's Respones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLean, James Elliott

    2011-10-21

    Societal concerns on combustion-based fuel consumption are ever-increasing. With respect to internal combustion engines, this translates to a need to increase brake fuel conversion efficiency (BFCE). Diesel engines are a relatively efficient...

  1. Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review Merit review of DOE FCVT combustion, emission...

  2. Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Six different fuels were investigated to study the influence of fuel properties on engine out emissions and performance of low temperature premixed compression ignition combustion light-duty HSDI engines

  3. Efficient Use of Natural Gas Based Fuels in Heavy-Duty Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Natural gas and other liquid feedstocks for transportation fuels are compared for use in a dual-fuel engine. Benefits include economic stability, national security, environment, and cost.

  4. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

  5. "Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xibin Wang "Performance, Emission and Particle distribution of Diesel Engines Fueled with Diesel-Dimethoxymethane (DMM) Blends" Abstract : Combustion, performance and emission were studied for DI diesel engine fuelled with DMM/diesel fuel blends for DMM content from 0 to 50%. Results showed that, for diesel engine with fuel

  6. Characteristics of isopentanol as a fuel for HCCI engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Dronniou, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over the currently used ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. The rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C{sub 4}-C{sub 5} alcohols cost effectively. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially substitute ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C{sub 5} alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for HCCI engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. Results are presented in comparison with gasoline or ethanol data previously reported. For a given combustion phasing, isopentanol requires lower intake temperatures than gasoline or ethanol at all tested speeds, indicating a higher HCCI reactivity. Similar to ethanol but unlike gasoline, isopentanol does not show two-stage ignition even at very low engine speed (350 rpm) or with considerable intake pressure boost (200 kPa abs.). However, isopentanol does show considerable intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) that is comparable to gasoline. Our previous work has found that ITHR is critical for maintaining combustion stability at the retarded combustion phasings required to achieve high loads without knock. The stronger ITHR causes the combustion phasing of isopentanol to be less sensitive to intake temperature variations than ethanol. With the capability to retard combustion phasing, a maximum IMEP{sub g} of 5.4 and 11.6 bar was achieved with isopentanol at 100 and 200 kPa intake pressure, respectively. These loads are even slightly higher than those achieved with gasoline. The ITHR of isopentanol depends on operating conditions and is enhanced by simultaneously increasing pressures and reducing temperatures. However, increasing the temperature seems to have little effect on ITHR at atmospheric pressure, but it does promote hot ignition. Finally, the dependence of ignition timing on equivalence ratio, here called {phi}-sensitivity, is measured at atmospheric intake pressure, showing that the ignition of isopentanol is nearly insensitive to equivalence ratio when thermal effects are removed. This suggests that partial fuel stratification, which has been found effective to control the HRR with two-stage ignition fuels, may not work well with isopentanol at these conditions. Overall, these results indicate that isopentanol has a good potential as a HCCI fuel, either in neat form or in blend with gasoline.

  7. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  8. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  9. Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr.; Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2006-04-25

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  10. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-11-06

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  11. Engineering metabolic systems for production of advanced fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Yajun; Liao, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Liao JC (2008) Metabolic engineering for advanced biofuelsorganisms using metabolic engineering techniques. Recently,Connor MR, Liao JC (2008) Engineering of an Escherichia coli

  12. Fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J.

    2012-10-09

    A fuel injector in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer wall of the injector defines an interior volume in which an intermediate wall is disposed. A first gap is formed between the outer wall and the intermediate wall. The intermediate wall defines an internal volume in which an inner wall is disposed. A second gap is formed between the intermediate wall and the inner wall. The second gap receives cooling fluid that cools the injector. The cooling fluid provides convective cooling to the intermediate wall as it flows within the second gap. The cooling fluid also flows through apertures in the intermediate wall into the first gap where it provides impingement cooling to the outer wall and provides convective cooling to the outer wall. The inner wall defines a passageway that delivers fuel into a liner downstream from a main combustion zone.

  13. Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data from ORNL

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results show single fuel model could not represent all fuels studied but engine performance could be predicted with a grouped approach using cetane with secondary effects from volatility or heavy fuel components

  14. Tumor Engineering: The Other Face of Tissue Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Cyrus M

    2010-01-01

    Vacanti, J.P. Tissue engineering. Science 260, 920, 1993. 2.dynamic reciprocity: engineering three-dimensional cultureRonnov-Jessen, L. TUMOR ENGINEERING: OTHER FACE OF TISSUE

  15. LWRS Fuels Pathway: Engineering Design and Fuels Pathway Initial Testing of the Hot Water Corrosion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. John Garnier; Dr. Kevin McHugh

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development R&D pathway performs strategic research focused on cladding designs leading to improved reactor core economics and safety margins. The research performed is to demonstrate the nuclear fuel technology advancements while satisfying safety and regulatory limits. These goals are met through rigorous testing and analysis. The nuclear fuel technology developed will assist in moving existing nuclear fuel technology to an improved level that would not be practical by industry acting independently. Strategic mission goals are to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental nuclear fuel and cladding performance in nuclear power plants, and to apply this information in the development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels. These will result in improved safety, cladding, integrity, and nuclear fuel cycle economics. To achieve these goals various methods for non-irradiated characterization testing of advanced cladding systems are needed. One such new test system is the Hot Water Corrosion System (HWCS) designed to develop new data for cladding performance assessment and material behavior under simulated off-normal reactor conditions. The HWCS is capable of exposing prototype rodlets to heated, high velocity water at elevated pressure for long periods of time (days, weeks, months). Water chemistry (dissolved oxygen, conductivity and pH) is continuously monitored. In addition, internal rodlet heaters inserted into cladding tubes are used to evaluate repeated thermal stressing and heat transfer characteristics of the prototype rodlets. In summary, the HWCS provides rapid ex-reactor evaluation of cladding designs in normal (flowing hot water) and off-normal (induced cladding stress), enabling engineering and manufacturing improvements to cladding designs before initiation of the more expensive and time consuming in-reactor irradiation testing.

  16. Summary engineering description of underwater fuel storage facility for foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlke, H.J.; Johnson, D.A.; Rawlins, J.K.; Searle, D.K.; Wachs, G.W.

    1994-10-01

    This document is a summary description for an Underwater Fuel Storage Facility (UFSF) for foreign research reactor (FRR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). A FRR SNF environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared and will include both wet and dry storage facilities as storage alternatives. For the UFSF presented in this document, a specific site is not chosen. This facility can be sited at any one of the five locations under consideration in the EIS. These locations are the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Nevada Test Site. Generic facility environmental impacts and emissions are provided in this report. A baseline fuel element is defined in Section 2.2, and the results of a fission product analysis are presented. Requirements for a storage facility have been researched and are summarized in Section 3. Section 4 describes three facility options: (1) the Centralized-UFSF, which would store the entire fuel element quantity in a single facility at a single location, (2) the Regionalized Large-UFSF, which would store 75% of the fuel element quantity in some region of the country, and (3) the Regionalized Small-UFSF, which would store 25% of the fuel element quantity, with the possibility of a number of these facilities in various regions throughout the country. The operational philosophy is presented in Section 5, and Section 6 contains a description of the equipment. Section 7 defines the utilities required for the facility. Cost estimates are discussed in Section 8, and detailed cost estimates are included. Impacts to worker safety, public safety, and the environment are discussed in Section 9. Accidental releases are presented in Section 10. Standard Environmental Impact Forms are included in Section 11.

  17. Proceedings of FUELCELL2006 The 4th International Conference on FUEL CELL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING and TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Proceedings of FUELCELL2006 The 4th International Conference on FUEL CELL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING and TECHNOLOGY June 19-21, 2006, Irvine, CA, USA FUELCELL2006-97161 OPTIMAL DESIGN OF HYBRID FUEL CELL VEHICLES Engineering, University of Michigan G.G. Brown Bldg., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 ABSTRACT Fuel cells are being

  18. ENCH 473 Electrochemical Energy Engineering ENCH 648K Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    ENCH 473 Electrochemical Energy Engineering ENCH 648K Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells Spring 2014 Syllabus Course: ENCH 473 Electrochemical Energy Engineering ENCH: 648K Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells, with emphasis on the principle and performance of batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells. The objective

  19. TRISO-Fuel Element Performance Modeling for the Hybrid LIFE Engine with Pu Fuel Blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMange, P; Marian, J; Caro, M; Caro, A

    2010-02-18

    A TRISO-coated fuel thermo-mechanical performance study is performed for the hybrid LIFE engine to test the viability of TRISO particles to achieve ultra-high burnup of a weapons-grade Pu blanket. Our methodology includes full elastic anisotropy, time and temperature varying material properties for all TRISO layers, and a procedure to remap the elastic solutions in order to achieve fast fluences up to 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2} (E > 0.18 MeV). In order to model fast fluences in the range of {approx} 7 {approx} 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2}, for which no data exist, careful scalings and extrapolations of the known TRISO material properties are carried out under a number of potential scenarios. A number of findings can be extracted from our study. First, failure of the internal pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layer occurs within the first two months of operation. Then, the particles behave as BISO-coated particles, with the internal pressure being withstood directly by the SiC layer. Later, after 1.6 years, the remaining PyC crumbles due to void swelling and the fuel particle becomes a single-SiC-layer particle. Unrestrained by the PyC layers, and at the temperatures and fluences in the LIFE engine, the SiC layer maintains reasonably-low tensile stresses until the end-of-life. Second, the PyC creep constant, K, has a striking influence on the fuel performance of TRISO-coated particles, whose stresses scale almost inversely proportional to K. Obtaining more reliable measurements, especially at higher fluences, is an imperative for the fidelity of our models. Finally, varying the geometry of the TRISO-coated fuel particles results in little differences in the scope of fuel performance. The mechanical integrity of 2-cm graphite pebbles that act as fuel matrix has also been studied and it is concluded that they can reliable serve the entire LIFE burnup cycle without failure.

  20. Development of Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Highlights roadmap towards 55% brake thermal efficiency and progress to meet engine development goals

  1. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  2. Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: DaimlerChrysler Research and Technology

  3. Fuel mixture stratification as a method for improving homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dec, John E. (Livermore, CA); Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-10-31

    A method for slowing the heat-release rate in homogeneous charge compression ignition ("HCCI") engines that allows operation without excessive knock at higher engine loads than are possible with conventional HCCI. This method comprises injecting a fuel charge in a manner that creates a stratified fuel charge in the engine cylinder to provide a range of fuel concentrations in the in-cylinder gases (typically with enough oxygen for complete combustion) using a fuel with two-stage ignition fuel having appropriate cool-flame chemistry so that regions of different fuel concentrations autoignite sequentially.

  4. Kalman Filtering for Real-Time Individual Cylinder Air Fuel Ratio Observer on a Diesel Engine Test Bench

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    propose an estimator of the individual cylinder air fuel ratios in a turbocharged Diesel Engine using

  5. Turbocharged engine operations using knock resistant fuel blends for engine efficiency improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Young Suk

    2013-01-01

    Engine downsizing with a turbocharger has become popular these days in automotive industries. Downsizing the engine lets the engine operate in a more efficient region, and the engine boosting compensates for the power loss ...

  6. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  7. Impact of Fuel Properties on Light-Duty Engine Performance and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    effects of seven fuels with significantly different fuel properties on a state-of-the-art light-duty diesel engine. Cetane numbers range between 26 and 76 for the investigated...

  8. Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center 2 Managed by UT-Battelle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and fuel sciences. · Emissions characterization · Nonlinear dynamics and controls · Combustion · Fuel Cells in transportation efficiency and emissions. · Research and development to achieve key DOE milestones in transportation efficiency and emissions. Engine Cells Chassis Dyno Lab Models and Controls Analytical Labs

  9. Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion: Heavy-Duty Optical-Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Washington D.C. ft004mueller2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Advanced...

  10. Effects of different fuels on a turbocharged, direct injection, spark ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negrete, Justin E

    2010-01-01

    The following pages describe the experimentation and analysis of two different fuels in GM's high compression ratio, turbocharged direct injection (TDI) engine. The focus is on a burn rate analysis for the fuels - gasoline ...

  11. Evaluation of the hydrogen-fueled rotary engine for hybrid vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salanki, P.A.; Wallace, J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The hydrogen-fueled engine has been identified as a viable power unit for ultra-low emission series-hybrid vehicles. The Wankel engine is particularly well suited to the use of hydrogen fuel, since its design minimizes most of the combustion difficulties. In order to evaluate the possibilities offered by the hydrogen fueled rotary engine, dynamometer tests were conducted with a small (2.2 kW) Wankel engine fueled with hydrogen. Preliminary results show an absence of the combustion difficulties present with hydrogen-fueled homogeneous charge piston engines. The engine was operated unthrottled and power output was controlled by quality governing, i.e. by varying the fuel-air equivalence ratio on the lean side of stoichiometric. The ability to operate with quality governing is made possible by the wide flammability limits of hydrogen-air mixtures. NO{sub x} emissions are on the order of 5 ppm for power outputs up to 70% of the maximum attainable on hydrogen fuel. Thus, by operating with very lean mixtures, which effectively derates the engine, very low NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved. Since the rotary engine has a characteristically high power to weight ratio and a small volume per unit power compared to the piston engine, operating a rotary engine on hydrogen and derating the power output could yield an engine with extremely low emissions which still has weight and volume characteristics comparable to a gasoline-fueled piston engine. Finally, since engine weight and volume affect vehicle design, and consequently in-use vehicle power requirements, those factors, as well as engine efficiency, must be taken into account in evaluating overall hybrid vehicle efficiency.

  12. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.

    2003-09-02

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  13. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W. (Lake Matthews, CA); Scott, Paul B. (Northridge, CA); Park, Chan Seung (Yorba Linda, CA)

    2011-11-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  14. Performance and emissions characteristics of alternative fuels in spark ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, M.R.; Maxwell, R.L.; Swain, M.N.; Bedsworth, K.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A formal ongoing program to characterize the performance and exhaust characteristics of automotive-type powerplants fueled by conventional and alternative fuels is reported. This report contains the information obtained during the past three years when four alternative fuels and two baseline fuels were evaluated in three engines. The four alternative fuels were a simulated gasoline made to represent coal derived gasoline, methyl aryl ethers blended at the 10% level in an unleaded gasoline, gasoline made from methanol, and a blend of Indolene plus methanol and higher alcohols. The two baseline fuels were, Indolene and Gulf unleaded regular gasoline. The engines tested were a pre-mixed carbureted SI (spark ignition) engine, a carbureted three-valve stratified-charge SI engine and a pre-mixed carbureted SI engine with a closed-loop three-way catalyst emission control system.

  15. Effect of in-cylinder liquid fuel films on engine-out unburned hydrocarbon emissions for SI engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costanzo, Vincent S. (Vincent Stanley), 1979-

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all of the hydrocarbon emissions from a modern gasoline-fueled vehicle occur when the engine is first started. One important contributing factor to this is the fact that, during this time, temperatures throughout ...

  16. Proceedings of FUELCELL2006 Fourth International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    of water within the fuel cell stack is crit- ical for optimal stack performance. A balance must be struckProceedings of FUELCELL2006 Fourth International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering-ORIENTED MODEL OF THE WATER DYNAMICS IN FUEL CELLS B. A. McCain Fuel Cell Control Laboratory Department

  17. Bachelor of Science Engineering Technology Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Education

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy and Forest Service Consider$

  18. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographiclighbulbs - high-resolution2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

  19. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographiclighbulbs - high-resolution2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells1 DOE

  20. Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel and...

  1. Series 50 propane-fueled Nova bus: Engine development, installation, and field trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.

    1999-01-01

    The report describes a project to develop the Detroit Diesel series 50 liquefied propane gas (LPG) heavy-duty engine and to conduct demonstrations of LPG-fuelled buses at selected sites (Halifax Regional Municipality and three sites in the United States). The project included five main elements: Engine development and certification, chassis re-engineering and engine installation, field demonstration, LPG fuel testing, and LPG fuel variability testing. Lessons learned with regard to engine design and other issues are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development and testing.

  2. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, G.C.; Beck, D.F.; Harmon, C.D.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. 2 refs.

  3. Lean-Burn Stationary Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine Operation with a Prototype Miniature Diode Side Pumped Passively Q-switched Laser Spark Plug

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, D.L.; Woodruff, S.D.; McMillian, M.H.; Richardson, S.W.; Gautam, Mridul

    2008-04-01

    To meet the ignition system needs of large bore lean burn stationary natural gas engines a laser diode side pumped passively Q-switched laser igniter was developed and used to ignite lean mixtures in a single cylinder research engine. The laser design was produced from previous work. The in-cylinder conditions and exhaust emissions produced by the miniaturized laser were compared to that produced by a laboratory scale commercial laser system used in prior engine testing. The miniaturized laser design as well as the combustion and emissions data for both laser systems was compared and discussed. It was determined that the two laser systems produced virtually identical combustion and emissions data.

  4. Operating temperature effects on nozzle coking in a cottonseed oil fueled diesel engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarbrough, Charles Michael

    1984-01-01

    OPERATING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE COKING IN A COTTONSEED OIL FUELED DIESEL ENGINE A Thesis CHARLES MICHAEL YARBROUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree cf... MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering OPERATING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE CORING IN A COTTONSEED OIL FUELED DIESEL ENGINE A Thesis by CHARLES MICHAEL YARBROUGH Approved as to style and content by: ayne A. Le...

  5. Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient HD Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Approach to selection of technologies and their contribution to enhance heavy-duty truck fuel efficiency.

  6. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies Course Manual |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls -Hydro-Pac Inc., AEquipment Certification

  7. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,EnergyFinancingWIPPFixed Monthly

  8. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies Course | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the Bill FinancingDepartment ofPowerScenario AnalysisFuel Cell BasicsEnergy

  9. Fuels For Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy gdr.openei.org Geothermal DataFuels &For

  10. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy gdr.openei.org Geothermal DataFuels|2 DOE

  11. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy gdr.openei.org Geothermal DataFuels|2 DOE1

  12. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy gdr.openei.org Geothermal DataFuels|2 DOE10

  13. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study presents full quantification of biodiesel's impact on emissions and fuel economy with the inclusion of DPF regeneration events.

  14. Investigation and demonstration of a rich combustor cold-start device for alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, J.W.; Irick, D.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors have completed a study in which they investigated the use of a rich combustor to aid in cold starting spark-ignition engines fueled with either neat ethanol or neat methanol. The rich combustor burns the alcohol fuel outside the engine under fuel-rich conditions to produce a combustible product stream that is fed to the engine for cold starting. The rich combustor approach significantly extends the cold starting capability of alcohol-fueled engines. A design tool was developed that simulates the operation of the combustor and couples it to an engine/vehicle model. This tool allows the user to determine the fuel requirements of the rich combustor as the vehicle executes a given driving mission. The design tool was used to design and fabricate a rich combustor for use on a 2.8 L automotive engine. The system was tested using a unique cold room that allows the engine to be coupled to an electric dynamometer. The engine was fitted with an aftermarket engine control system that permitted the fuel flow to the rich combustor to be programmed as a function of engine speed and intake manifold pressure. Testing indicated that reliable cold starts were achieved on both neat methanol and neat ethanol at temperatures as low as {minus}20 C. Although starts were experienced at temperatures as low as {minus}30 C, these were erratic. They believe that an important factor at the very low temperatures is the balance between the high mechanical friction of the engine and the low energy density of the combustible mixture fed to the engine from the rich combustor.

  15. Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubesh, John Thomas (San Antonio, TX); Dodge, Lee Gene (San Antonio, TX); Podnar, Daniel James (San Antonio, TX)

    1998-04-07

    The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

  16. EIS-0203: Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And StatisticsProgramof Energy12-98SouthDetailedDon0:Laboratory Environmental Restoration and

  17. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial ToolkitSMARTSWorking With Us NRELVehicleResearchFleetFuel

  18. Sandia Optical Hydrogen-fueled Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 -RobSSL INDepartment of Energy San10 DOE Vehicle

  19. Sandia Optical Hydrogen-fueled Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 -RobSSL INDepartment of Energy San10 DOE Vehicle09 DOE

  20. Achieving and Demonstrating Vehicle Technologies Engine Fuel Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice |4-01r2.pdfATVMAccess to Capitalthe WasteMilestones |

  1. Achieving and Demonstrating Vehicle Technologies Engine Fuel Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice |4-01r2.pdfATVMAccess to Capitalthe WasteMilestones

  2. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,EnergyFinancingWIPPFixed Monthly1 DOE Hydrogen and

  3. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,EnergyFinancingWIPPFixed Monthly1 DOE Hydrogen and0

  4. Wankel rotary engine development status and research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, M.K.

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes the status of Wankel rotary engine technology, particularly as applicable to highway vehicles. The Wankel engine was invented over 25 years ago, and has undergone continual evolutionary design refinement. The engine's perceived advantages of less weight, volume, and complexity than reciprocating engines sparked keen interest, and Wankel-powered automobiles have now been in production for almost 20 years. However, in the early 1970s interest in the Wankel engine greatly subsided because of two problems with the engine at that time: poor fuel economy and high hydrocarbon emissions. The bulk of current Wankel engine development work applicable to highway vehicles is being conducted by Toyo Kogyo (TK) and Curtiss-Wright (C-W). TK has manufactured over 1.2 million rotary engines to date, and markets them in the Mazda Luce and Cosmo in Japan and the Mazda RX-7 worldwide. State-of-the-art production rotary-powered vehicles from TK now exhibit fuel economy which appears to be competitive with many equal-performance, reciprocating-engine vehicles. C-W is focusing its efforts on direct-injection, stratified-charge designs for military and aircraft applications. The company is developing a 750-hp dual-rotor engine for the US Marine Corps, and has completed a design study for a 320-hp general aviation engine. Based on typical reciprocating engines of 1975 to 1977 vintage, and with final drive ratios adjusted to give roughly equal vehicle performance, calculated Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) city fuel economy with the C-W rotary averages 25% higher than with the reciprocating engine. The highway gain is 13%. Use of diesel fuel or a middle distillate instead of gasoline allows an additional 11% gain to be projected on a per-gallon basis. In addition, further gains of 14 to 38% are projected to result from use of a smaller turbocharged version of the engine.

  5. Development of a bench scale test to evaluate lubricants for use with methanol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, R.; Klaus, E.; Duda, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    In methanol-fueled diesel engines, the crankcase lubricant is used to lubricate both the engine and the fuel injector system. Crankcase lubricants including some designed for methanol-fueled engines are not completely compatible with the methanol fuel. In order to test the effect of methanol extraction on diesel engine lubricant performance, two extraction protocols were developed: one to simulate the fuel injector (1000 parts of methanol to one part of lubricant) and the other to simulate an extreme case of methanol contamination in the crank-case (one part of methanol to five parts of lubricant). The extracted samples of the lubricant were stripped to remove the methanol. The samples were then evaluated for changes in oxidative stability and lubricity. 12 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Methanol with dimethyl ether ignition promotor as fuel for compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brook, D.L.; Cipolat, D.; Rallis, C.J.

    1984-08-01

    Reduction of the world dependence upon crude oil necessitates the use of long term alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Alcohols appear to offer a solution as in the short term they can be manufactured from natural gas and coal, while ultimately they may be produced from agricultural products. A fair measure of success has been achieved in using alcohols in spark ignition engines. However the more widely used compression ignition engines cannot utilize unmodified pure alcohols. The current techniques for using alcohol fuels in compression ignition engines all have a number of shortcomings. This paper describes a novel technique where an ignition promotor, dimethyl ether (DME), is used to increase the cetane rating of methanol. The systems particular advantage is that the DME can be catalyzed from the methanol base fuel, in situ. This fuel system matches the performance characteristics of diesel oil fuel.

  7. Proceedings of FUELCELL2006 The 4th International Conference on FUEL CELL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING and TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    Proceedings of FUELCELL2006 The 4th International Conference on FUEL CELL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING and TECHNOLOGY June 19-21, 2006, Irvine, CA FUELCELL2006-97067 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A MODERN PEM FUEL CELL and advances in hydrogen/air Proton Ex- change Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are incorporated into a dynamic

  8. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  9. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project goals. Several flex-fuel demonstration vehicles were designed and built for carrying out calibration development and final testing to quantify the technology merits. Based on the extensive test results collected from dynamometer and vehicle testing, the fuel economy benefits of cooled EGR from the intended level of turbocharger technology were quantified. When combined with turbo downsizing, the FE benefits are considered large enough for E0 fuel as well as for E85 fuel to warrant further development of the technology beyond the current proof-of-concept level to a level that can meet production driveability quality and durability requirements in order to meet customers’ expectations. Cold-start cart test results from the emissions segment of the project were positive, confirming the assumption of faster thermal response of turbo exhaust system for emissions reductions for both E0 and E85 fuels. Vehicle emissions test results directionally correlated to the cold-start cart findings. The limited number of test runs did demonstrate the potentials of meeting stringent emission standards, however, they did not comprehend the factors such as hardware variability and long-term durability, 3 which are essential for mass production to satisfy customers’ expectations. It is therefore recommended, moving forward, durability concerns over turbocharger, EGR system and aftertreatment system, which would likely impact production viability, should be addressed. The data moreover suggested that further FE increase is likely with turbocharger technology advancement.

  10. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled ``Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,`` describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  11. Road to Fuel Savings: GM Technology Ramps Up Engine Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    With support from the Energy Department, General Motors researchers developed a new technology -- the Intake Valve Lift Control -- that is helping save fuel and lower emissions in...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: College Students Engineer Efficient Vehicles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I NLoans TheCountyCities Make thePetroleumDeliveryin

  13. Comments on: Optima: Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibility Mode ClusterProteinReactions | Argonne

  14. Sandia Energy - Optima: Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygenLaboratory Fellows Jerry Simmons

  15. Engineered Biosynthesis of Alternative Biodiesel Fuel - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOEEnergyEnforcementPortal Biomass and

  16. Sandia Energy - More Efficient Fuel Cells under Development by Engineers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &Water Power&GridMonitoring Systems Home

  17. Design and development of the Waukesha Custom Engine Control Air/Fuel Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    The Waukesha Custom Engine Control Air/Fuel Module (AFM) is designed to control the air-fuel ratio for all Waukesha carbureted, gaseous fueled, industrial engine. The AFM is programmed with a personal computer to run in one of four control modes: catalyst, best power, best economy, or lean-burn. One system can control naturally aspirated, turbocharged, in-line or vee engines. The basic system consists of an oxygen sensing system, intake manifold pressure transducer, electronic control module, actuator and exhaust thermocouple. The system permits correct operation of Waukesha engines in spite of changes in fuel pressure or temperature, engine load or speed, and fuel composition. The system utilizes closed loop control and is centered about oxygen sensing technology. An innovative approach to applying oxygen sensors to industrial engines provides very good performance, greatly prolongs sensor life, and maintains sensor accuracy. Design considerations and operating results are given for application of the system to stationary, industrial engines operating on fuel gases of greatly varying composition.

  18. Potential Benefits of Utilizing Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units in Lieu of Heavy-Duty Truck Engine Idling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    truck fuel and lubricant consumption through elimination offuel consumption, lubricant consumption, and engine wear,fuel consumption, lubricant consumption, and maintenance

  19. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  20. A Comparison of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling Results over a Wide Rangeof Gasoline Range Surrogate Fuel Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kinetic models of fuels are needed to allow the simulation of engine performance for research, design, or verification purposes.

  1. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  2. Dual-fuel engine conversions evaluated by U.S. Navy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    In seeking ways to reduce emissions from two-stroke locomotive type engines, the Navy has evaluated dual-fuel conversions operating on a compression ignition cycle, using up to 94% natural gas and 6% diesel pilot fuel. The Navy has conducted an evaluation and test program under the direction of Dr. Normnn L. Helgeson, at the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center in Port Hueneme, California. Of the Navy`s many diesel engines, those installed in its MUSE (mobile utility support equipment) units for temporary electrical power were the first Navy off-road engines to be affected by emissions regulations. Most of the units are powered by the EMD 645 engine, and when burning diesel fuel do not meet the emission requirements in many areas of the country. This paper discusses the changes and results of the conversion and shakedown tests.

  3. Review of alternate automotive engine fuel economy. Final report January-October 78

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, D.; Bolt, J.A.; Huber, P.; Taylor, T. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    This study assessed the potential of alternate automotive engines to meet the fuel economy goals and emission levels of the 1980-1990 period. As part of NHTSA's continuing research in support of the Department of Transportation fuel economy activities, this study reviewed those developments offering viable substitutes for the current spark ignition engine systems. Categories assessed included stratified charge, diesels, turbo charging, rotary/Wankel engines, and the developmental gas turbine and Stirling cycle engines. Results of past and on-going research through 1978 were reviewed along with the development and production status of various alternate engine technologies proposed for automobiles and light trucks through the 1980s. Assessment was then made of the potential fuel economy improvement as a percentage of 1978 baseline data.

  4. Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions in Engines Using CFD Simulations With Detailed Fuel Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Accurate fuel models with hundreds of species in advanced CFD with reasonable simulation times. Reaction workbench used for surrogate blend formulation and model reduction. FORTE CFD used for HCCI and LTC diesel engine and validated for PRF-ethanol and diesel

  5. The effect of fuel and engine design on diesel exhaust particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgard, K.J.; Johnson, J.H. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain diesel particle size distributions from a 1988 and a 1991 diesel engine using three different fuels and two exhaust control technologies (a ceramic particle trap and an oxidation catalytic converter). The particle size distributions from both engines were used to develop models to estimate the composition of the individual size particles. Nucleation theory of the H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} vapor is used to predict when nuclei-mode particles will form in the dilution tunnel. Combining the theory with the experimental data, the conditions necessary in the dilution tunnel for particle formation are predicted. The paper also contains a discussion on the differences between the 1988 and 1991 engine`s particle size distributions. The results indicated that nuclei mode particles (0.0075--0.046 {micro}m) are formed in the dilution tunnel and consist of more than 80% H{sub 2}O-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles when using the 1988 engine and 0.29 wt% sulfur fuel. Nucleation theory indicated that H{sub 2}O-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles may form during dilution at 0.03 wt% fuel sulfur levels and above. The 1991 engine was designed for lower particulate emissions than the 1988 engine and the 1991 engine`s accumulation mode particles (0.046-1.0 {micro}m) were reduced more than 80% by volume compared to the 1988 engine using the same low sulfur fuel. The particle size composition model indicated that using low sulfur fuel and the 1991 engine, the nuclei mode contained more than 45% of the total solid particles and over 85% of the soluble organic fraction.

  6. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  7. Effect of market fuel variation and cetane improvers on CAI combustion in a GDI engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cedrone, Kevin David

    2010-01-01

    There is continued interest in improving the fuel conversion efficiency of internal combustion engines and simultaneously reducing their emissions. One promising technology is that of Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) combustion. ...

  8. Enhanced air/fuel mixing for automotive stirling engine turbulator-type combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riecke, George T. (Ballston Spa, NY); Stotts, Robert E. (Newark, NY)

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to the improved combustion of fuel in a combustion chamber of a stirling engine and the like by dividing combustion into primary and secondary combustion zones through the use of a diverter plate.

  9. An automotive engine model for air-fuel ratio control using cylinder pressure information 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nana, Emmanuel Tomdio

    1997-01-01

    Increasingly strict emission standards require very accurate and fast air-fuel ratio (AFR) control in combustion engines. This thesis addresses the design methodology currently used for synthesizing a control system for an automotive internal...

  10. Knock mitigation on boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition engines with fuel stratification and Exhaust Gas Recycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang, Wen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This research is carried out to understand the mechanism of using fuel stratification and Exhaust Gas Recycling (EGR) for knock mitigation on boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAl) engines. Experiments were first conducted ...

  11. Cycle simulation of coal-fueled engines utilizing low heat rejection concepts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, John M.

    1988-01-01

    variation of cylinder wall temperatures. The heat transfer model was coupled to an engine cycle simulation capable of predicting engine performance for either diesel or coal-water slurry fuels. This coupling enabled investigation of insulation strategies... conclusions of this work were: 1) Under full load conditions, the effec of reducing heat rejection on engine performance was small for both diesel and coal-water slurry. For reductions in heat transfer which are possible in practice, a relative (to...

  12. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  13. E-Alerts: Energy (engine studies (energy related)). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    Operation and design of engines when related to energy conservation and energy use. Covers turbine, rotary, and reciprocating engines.

  14. Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells: 2000 Annual Progress Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy gdr.openei.org Geothermal DataFuels|

  15. New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuel Diesel Engine Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  16. New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuel Diesel Engine Challenges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006deerfulton.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  17. A Model Fuels Consortium to Promote Engine Modeling | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006deerdeur.pdf More Documents & Publications Kinetics,...

  18. Innovative coal-fueled diesel engine injector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this research investigation was to develop an electronic coal water slurry injection system in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of CWS at various engine load and speed conditions without external ignition sources. The combination of the new injection system and the TICS is designed to reduce injector nozzle spray orifice wear by lowering the peak injection pressure requirements. (VC)

  19. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-15

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  20. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.

    1991-10-01

    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  1. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  2. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  3. Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Nigel N. Clark; Donald W. Lyons; Mridul Gautam; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

    1999-05-03

    Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also economically competitive with California diesel fuel if .roduced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel, because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. The buses were equipped with unmodified Detroit Diesel 6V92 2-stroke diesel engines. Six 40-foot buses were tested. Three of the buses had recently rebuilt engines and were equipped with an oxidation catalytic converter. Vehicle emissions measurements were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The emissions were measured over the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses performed well on both neat and blended MGSD fuel. Three buses without catalytic converters were tested. Compared to their emissions when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel, these buses emitted an average of 5% lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 20% lower particulate matter (PM) when operating on neat MGSD fuel. Catalyst equipped buses emitted an average of 8% lower NOx and 31% lower PM when operating on MGSD than when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel.

  4. Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells: 2000 Annual Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    achieved during FY 2000. 13.pdf More Documents & Publications Cleaner Vehicles, Cleaner Fuel & Cleaner Air Durability of NOx Absorbers Review of Diesel Emission Control Technology...

  5. BPA files reciprocity tariff

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomassBudgetAugust 19, 2009 In reply6 12 BONNEVILLE

  6. Simultaneous Efficiency, NOx, and Smoke Improvements through Diesel/Gasoline Dual-Fuel Operation in a Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Jiafeng

    2014-08-05

    Diesel/gasoline dual-fuel combustion uses both gasoline and diesel fuel in diesel engines to exploit their different reactivities. This operation combines the advantages of diesel fuel and gasoline while avoiding their disadvantages, attains...

  7. Fuel injection characteristics and combustion behavior of a direct-injection stratified-charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balles, E.N.; Ekchian, J.A.; Heywood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    High levels of hydrocarbon emissions during light load operation keep the direct injection stratified charge engine from commercial application. Previous analytical work has identified several possible hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms which can result from poor in-cylinder fuel distribution. Poor fuel distribution can be caused by erratic fuel injection. Experiments conducted on a single cylinder disc engine show a dramatic increase in the cycle to cycle variation in injection characteristics as engine load decreases. This is accompanied by an increase in cycle to cycle variation in combustion behavior suggesting that degradation in combustion results from the degradation in the quality of the injection event. Examination of combustion and injection characteristics on a cycle by cycle basis shows that, at light load, IMEP and heat release do not correlate with the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder. There are strong indications that individual cycles undergo partial or complete misfire.

  8. Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

    2005-04-08

    Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

  9. Proceedings of FuelCell2008 Sixth International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    structure of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a dead-ended anode is observed using for differentiating between anode and cathode water flooding. The rate of accumulation of anode liquid water, and its generation of a popular category of fuel cells depends on the proton-conducting properties of their polymer

  10. Comparison of unburned fuel and aldehyde emissions from a methanol-fueled stratified charge and homogeneous charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scull, N.; Kim, C.; Foster, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental program in which a Texaco L-163S engine was fueled with methanol and operated in its traditional stratified charge mode and then modified to run as a homogenous charge spark ignited engine. The primary data taken were the aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions (UBF). These data were taken using a continuous time-averaging sampling probe at the exhaust tank and at the exhaust port and with a rotary time-resolving sampling valve located at the exhaust port. The data indicate that for both the stratified charge and the homogeneous charge modes of operation formaldehyde was the only aldehyde detected in the exhaust and it primarily originated in the cylinder.

  11. A comparison of unburned fuel and aldehyde emissions from a methanol-fueled stratified charge and homogeneous charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, D.E.; Kim, C.; Scull, N.

    1987-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental program in which a Texaco L-163S engine was fueled with methanol and operated in its traditional stratified charge mode and then modified to run as a homogeneous charge spark ignited engine. The primary data taken were the aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions (UBF). Those data were taken using a continuous time-averaging sampling probe at the exhaust tank and at the exhaust port and with a rotary time-resolving sampling valve located at the exhaust port. The data are for two loads, 138.1 kPa (20 psi) and 207.1 kPa (30 psi) BMEP and three speeds, 1000, 1400 and 1800 rpm. The data indicate that both the stratified charge and the homogeneous charge modes of operation formaldehyde was the only aldehyde detected in the exhaust and it primarily originated in the exhaust and it primarily originated in the cylinder. Over the load and speed ranges tested, the unburned fuel emission were higher and the formaldehyde emission lower when comparing the stratified charge to the homogeneous charge operation. Time resolved data at the exhaust port for the two modes of operation are compared. The homogeneous charge operation had a uniform concentration of both unburned fuel and formaldehyde over the exhaust stroke. The stratified charge data shows large changes in the unburned fuel and moderate changes in the aldehyde concentrations during the exhaust stroke.

  12. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Task 7, Extended wear testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakenell, J.F.; Fritz, S.G.; Schwalb, J.A.

    1991-07-01

    Over the past several years, interest has arisen in the development of coal-fired diesel engines for the purpose of efficiently utilizing the extensive coal reserves in the United States, and therefore reducing dependence on foreign oil. One process, which is being considered for use in producing clean coal fuel products involves mild gasification. This process produces by-products which can be further refined and, when blended with neat diesel fuel, used as an engine fuel. The purpose of this task was to test a blend of this coal liquid and diesel fuel (referred to as coal-lite) in an engine, and determine if any detrimental results were observed. This was done by performing a back-to-back performance and emission test of neat diesel fuel and the coal-lite fuel, followed by a 500-hour test of the coal-lite fuel, and completed by a back-to-back performance and emission test of the coal-lite fuel and neat diesel fuel.

  13. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakenell, J.F.; Fritz, S.G.; Schwalb, J.A.

    1991-07-01

    Over the past several years, interest has arisen in the development of coal-fired diesel engines for the purpose of efficiently utilizing the extensive coal reserves in the United States, and therefore reducing dependence on foreign oil. One process, which is being considered for use in producing clean coal fuel products involves mild gasification. This process produces by-products which can be further refined and, when blended with neat diesel fuel, used as an engine fuel. The purpose of this task was to test a blend of this coal liquid and diesel fuel (referred to as coal-lite) in an engine, and determine if any detrimental results were observed. This was done by performing a back-to-back performance and emission test of neat diesel fuel and the coal-lite fuel, followed by a 500-hour test of the coal-lite fuel, and completed by a back-to-back performance and emission test of the coal-lite fuel and neat diesel fuel.

  14. Simulation of turbulent flames relevant to spark-ignition engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Irufan

    2014-04-29

    in 2010 being based on fossil fuels and it is predicted to account for 83% share in 2035 (IEA, 2011). Most motor vehicles today use reciprocating internal combustion (IC) engines, which burn fossil fuels to convert chemical energy stored in the fuel... and oxidiser are transported sep- arately into the reaction zones by diffusion. Aero-engine gas turbines and diesel engines are typical examples of non-premixed combustion. It is often the case in practical systems that fuel and air is not completely mixed...

  15. Lean-burn hydrogen spark-ignited engines: the mechanical equivalent to the fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Fuel cells are considered as the ideal power source for future vehicles, due to their high efficiency and low emissions. However, extensive use of fuel cells in light-duty vehicles is likely to be years away, due to their high manufacturing cost. Hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited, homogeneous-charge engines offer a near-term alternative to fuel cells. Hydrogen in a spark-ignited engine can be burned at very low equivalence ratios, so that NO[sub x] emissions can be reduced to less than 10 ppm without catalyst. HC and CO emissions may result from oxidation of engine oil, but by proper design are negligible (a few ppm). Lean operation also results in increased indicated efficiency due to the thermodynamic properties of the gaseous mixture contained in the cylinder. The high effective octane number of hydrogen allows the use of a high compression ratio, further increasing engine efficiency. In this paper, a simplified engine model is used for predicting hydrogen engine efficiency and emissions. The model uses basic thermodynamic equations for the compression and expansion processes, along with an empirical correlation for heat transfer, to predict engine indicated efficiency. A friction correlation and a supercharger/turbocharger model are then used to calculate brake thermal efficiency. The model is validated with many 1345 experimental points obtained in a recent evaluation of a hydrogen research engine. The experimental data are used to adjust the empirical constants in the heat release rate and heat transfer correlation. The adjusted engine model predicts pressure traces, indicated efficiency and NO,, emissions with good accuracy over the range of speed, equivalence ratio and manifold pressure experimentally covered.

  16. KINETIC MODELING OF A SURROGATE DIESEL FUEL APPLIED TO 3D AUTO-IGNITION IN HCCI ENGINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    KINETIC MODELING OF A SURROGATE DIESEL FUEL APPLIED TO 3D AUTO-IGNITION IN HCCI ENGINES R OF A SURROGATE DIESEL FUEL APPLIED TO 3D AUTO-IGNITION IN HCCI ENGINES INTRODUCTION Engines running on HCCI combustion mode (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) have the potential to provide both diesel

  17. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Pitz, W J; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J E; Orme, J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-07

    Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1214 species and 5401 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Experimental data are available for both how the combustion phasing changes with fueling at a constant intake temperature, and also how the intake temperature has to be changed with pressure in order to maintain combustion phasing for a fixed equivalence ratio. Three different surrogate fuel mixtures are used for the modeling. Predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the engine data. In addition, the heat release rate is calculated and compared to the data from experiments. The model predicts less low-temperature heat release than that measured. It is found that the low temperature heat-release rate depends strongly on engine speed, reactions of RO{sub 2}+HO{sub 2}, fuel composition, and pressure boost.

  18. Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors. Since the combustion event is a strong function of the fuel spray, full characterization of the spray is a necessity for successful engine design and for modeling of the combustion process. Two experimental facilities were used at TAMU to study the injection of coal slurry fuels. The first experimental facility incorporates General Electric locomotive engine components (injection pump, fuel line, and nozzle) and a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the moving parts of the pump. The second experimental facility is based on an accumulator injector from General Electric. Instrumentation includes instantaneous needle lift and fuel line pressure. A pressurized visualization chamber was used to provide a spray environment which simulated the engine gas density and permitted the use of spray diagnostic techniques. The study was divided into two phases: (1) overall characterization of the spray, and (2) detailed droplet size and size distribution characterization. In addition to this overall characterization of the spray, the second phase of this study characterized the details of the atomization quality.

  19. Hydraulic analysis of reciprocating pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.D.; Miller, .E. [White Rock Engineering, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A general discussion is given of the factors affecting reciprocating pump hydraulics and methods of reducing the magnitude of the hydraulic pressure disturbances on the pump and the system. Pump type, speed, design, pump valves, suction conditions, and fluid being pumped affect volumetric efficiency and magnitude of hydraulic pressure disturbances. Total Cylinder Pressure (TCP) as a method of specifying minimum suction operating pressure versus Net Positive Suction Head required (NPSHR) is discussed. Diagnostic method of analyzing reciprocating pump performance is presented along with methods of controlling the hydraulic pressure disturbances with pulsation control devices. A review of types of pump pulsation dampeners is presented.

  20. Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-15

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

  1. Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

    1999-05-05

    Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

  2. Recent Accomplishments in the Irradiation Testing of Engineering-Scale Monolithic Fuel Specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; D.M. Wachs; M.K. Meyer; H.W. Glunz; R.B. Nielson

    2012-10-01

    The US fuel development team is focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum monolithic fuel including irradiation testing of engineering-scale specimens. The team has recently accomplished the successful irradiation of the first monolithic multi-plate fuel element assembly within the AFIP-7 campaign. The AFIP-6 MKII campaign, while somewhat truncated by hardware challenges, exhibited successful irradiation of a large-scale monolithic specimen under extreme irradiation conditions. The channel gap and ultrasonic data are presented for AFIP-7 and AFIP-6 MKII, respectively. Finally, design concepts are summarized for future irradiations such as the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiment campaigns.

  3. Fuel-air mixing and combustion in a two-dimensional Wankel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, T.I.P.; Schock, H.J.; Ramos, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of mixture stratification at the intake port and gaseous fuel injection on the flow field and fuel-air mixing in a two-dimensional rotary engine model have been investigated by means of a two-equation model of turbulence, an algebraic grid generation method and an approximate factorization time-linearized numerical technique. It is shown that the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber is a function of the air-fuel mixture fluctuations at the intake port. The fuel is advected by the flow field induced by the rotor and is concentrated near the leading apex during the intake stroke. During compression, the fuel concentration is highest near the trailing apex and lowest near the rotor. The penetration of gaseous fuel injected into the combustion chamber during the compression stroke increases with the injection velocity.

  4. BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) have released a request for information (RFI) titled “Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines” (Optima). BETO and VTO are seeking input from industry, academia, and other stakeholders on the Optima initiative, which is focused on the development of new fuels and engine architectures that are co-optimized—designed in tandem to maximize performance and carbon efficiency.

  5. Air-fuel ratio controller for a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serve, J.V.; Eckard, D.W.

    1988-09-13

    This patent describes an air-fuel ratio controller for a gaseous-fueled, turbo-charged engine having an air manifold, a gas manifold, and a turbine inlet. The controller consists of: means for controlling air manifold pressure, comprising means for providing an air manifold pressure set point signal based on gas manifold pressure and engine RPM's and at least one constant input; and means for controlling turbine inlet temperature, the means comprising means for modulating the slope of the set point signal for the air manifold pressure controller.

  6. Compression ignition engine having fuel system for non-sooting combustion and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazyn, Timothy; Gehrke, Christopher

    2014-10-28

    A direct injection compression ignition internal combustion engine includes a fuel system having a nozzle extending into a cylinder of the engine and a plurality of spray orifices formed in the nozzle. Each of the spray orifices has an inner diameter dimension of about 0.09 mm or less, and define inter-orifice angles between adjacent spray orifice center axes of about 36.degree. or greater such that spray plumes of injected fuel from each of the spray orifices combust within the cylinder according to a non-sooting lifted flame and gas entrainment combustion pattern. Related methodology is also disclosed.

  7. Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-04-20

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  8. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  9. Health and Safety Training Reciprocity

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-04-14

    Establishes a policy for reciprocity of employee health and safety training among DOE entities responsible for employee health and safety at DOE sites and facilities to increase efficiency and effectiveness of Departmental operations while meeting established health and safety requirements. Does not cancel other directives.

  10. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  11. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  12. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increased utilization of natural gas produced in the USA Increases benefits of shale gas production Lower cost of ownership shortens payback period and broadens the...

  13. Integrating Gasifiers and Reciprocating Engine Generators to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    benefit industries that generate organic waste streams, such as food processing plants, pulp and paper factories, and large farms. Project Description This project optimized the...

  14. Impact of Real Field Diesel Quality Variability on Engine Emissions and Fuel Consumption Solutions for Onboard Optimisation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A matrix of 10 diesel fuels was prepared and tested to establish an optimized ECU setting and a compensating algorithm for the engine.

  15. Design and prototype of dual loop lubricant system to improve engine fuel economy, emissions, and oil drain interval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plumley, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Regulations aimed at improving fuel economy and reducing harmful emissions from internal combustion engines place constraints on lubricant formulations necessary for controlling wear and reducing friction. Viscosity reduction ...

  16. Monovalve with integrated fuel injector and port control valve, and engine using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milam, David M. (Metamora, IL)

    2002-01-01

    Each cylinder of an internal combustion engine includes a combined gas exchange valve and fuel injector with a port control valve. The port control valve operates to open either an intake passage or an exhaust passage. The operation of the combined device is controlled by a pair of electrical actuators. The device is hydraulically actuated.

  17. Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  18. Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-10-05

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (���© pilot �¢���¼ 0.2-0.6 and ���© overall �¢���¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant ���© pilot (> 0.5), increasing ���© overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing ���© overall (at constant ���© pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  19. Performance and emissions of non-petroleum fuels in a direct-injection stratified charge Sl engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, L.E.; Chui, G.K.; Roby, R.J.

    1982-10-01

    Seven fuels derived from coal and shale resources were evaluated using a direct-injection stratified charge engine. The fuels were refined to different degrees which ranged from those typical of gasoline blending components to those similar to current gasoline. Results showed that fuels refined to have properties similar to gasoline performed like gasoline. The less refined fuels were limited in performance. The total carbon monoxide and the hydrocarbon emissions varied with the volatility of the fuels. Most fuels with a higher overall distillation curve generally gave higher hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. The NOx emissions increased with the percent aromatics in the fuels. The hydrocarbon emissions were found to increase with fuel viscosity. Within the range of engine operation, nearly all the fuels evaluated gave satisfactory performance. With some modifications, even the less refined fuels can be potentially suitable for use in this engine.

  20. Fuel supply and control for turbocharged engines. (Latest citations from the Patent Bibliographic Database with Exemplary Claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning means for supplying a fuel air charge to turbocharged internal combustion engines. Adjustments and control techniques vary the fuel supply with changes in charge pressure and operating conditions. The citations generally refer to diesel and gasoline engines, but a few reference multi-fuels, such as alcohol and hydrogen additions to the primary fuel. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J; Ponnusamy, Senthil; Ferguson, Harley Douglas; Williams, Aaron M; Tassitano, James B

    2007-09-01

    Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation

  2. Diesel engine combustion and emissions from fuel to exhaust aftertreatment. SP-1113

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    There are many dimensions involved in any study of Diesel Engine Emissions. These dimensions include: the fuel used, how the fuel is presented into the combustion chamber, how the air is presented into the combustion chamber, the actual process of combustion and emissions formation, the treatment of the emissions after combustion, and the test methods used to quantify the emissions. All of these dimensions are covered in this publication. The fuel topics include: plant oil based fuels and gas dissolved in fuel oil. The air delivery to the combustion chamber is effected by both port performance and geometry and ambient conditions and these topics are included. The thermodynamics of the combustion process and modeling are included in this publication. Aftertreatment is included with a paper on particulate filters. A correlation study using the ISO8178 testing method is also included. All nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  3. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2015-12-15

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes an end cover, an endcap assembly, a fluid supply chamber, and a plurality of tube assemblies positioned at the endcap assembly. Each of the tube assemblies includes housing having a fuel plenum and a cooling fluid plenum. The cooling fluid plenum is positioned downstream from the fuel plenum and separated from the fuel plenum by an intermediate wall. The plurality of tube assemblies also include a plurality of tubes that extends through the housing. Each of the plurality of tubes is coupled in flow communication with the fluid supply chamber and a combustion chamber positioned downstream from the tube assembly. The plurality of tube assemblies further includes an aft plate at a downstream end of the cooling fluid plenum. The plate includes at least one aperture.

  4. Quantum Fuel with Multilevel Atomic Coherence for Ultrahigh Specific Work in a Photonic Carnot Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deniz Türkpençe; Özgür E. Müstecapl?o?lu

    2015-03-05

    We investigate scaling of work output and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with the number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by [M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther, Science {\\bf 299}, 862 (2003)], to the case of $N+1$ level atoms with $N$ coherent lower levels. Deriving a multilevel mesoscopic master equation for the system, we evaluate the harvested work by the engine, and its efficiency. We find that efficiency and extracted work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. Besides, we examine the dependence of cavity loss on the number of atomic levels and find that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to beat the decoherence due to cavity loss. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.

  5. Quantum Fuel with Multilevel Atomic Coherence for Ultrahigh Specific Work in a Photonic Carnot Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deniz Türkpençe; Özgür E. Müstecapl?o?lu

    2015-08-28

    We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with the number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by [M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther, Science 299, 862 (2003)], to the case of N+1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency, analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.

  6. Quantum Fuel with Multilevel Atomic Coherence for Ultrahigh Specific Work in a Photonic Carnot Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deniz Türkpençe; Özgür E. Müstecapl?o?lu

    2015-10-08

    We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with the number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by [M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther, Science {\\bf 299}, 862 (2003)], to the case of $N+1$ level atoms with $N$ coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency, analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.

  7. Assessment of gas engine drives for CNG compressors at NGV fueling stations. Final technical report, June 1993-April 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keder, J.; Darrow, K.G.

    1995-06-01

    This report assesses the technical and economic issues associated with the use of gas engine drives for gas compressors at natural gas vehicle (NGV) fueling stations. The use of gas engine drives and electric motor drives is compared for typical time fill, fast fill, and combined fill applications. NGV fueling station equipment is described with an emphasis on gas engine and electric motor drives, their installation, operation, and maintenance. The economic benefits of gas engine drives and electric motor drives are compared using sensitivity and operating cost analyses. A perspective of the current market for gas engine drives is also presented, as well as several case histories.

  8. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  9. Assessment of a multi-stage underwater vehicle concept using a fossil-fuel Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Stirling Engine because of its inherent closed-cycle operation can be readily modified to work in an airless environment even if the primary source of energy is a fossil fuel. Thus, Stirling engines are well suited for use in the underwater environment and have been operated successfully in manned military submarines since the early 1980s. In recent years fossil fueled Stirling systems have been also proposed for use in small unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). However, in this case the need to carry an onboard oxygen supply in a very confined space has presented a number of design difficulties. These are identified in the paper. However, if the oxidant supply to the engine is provided by the membrane extraction of dissolved oxygen from seawater and/or disposable fuel/oxidant pods are used then the UUV Stirling system becomes more attractive. If this latter concept is extended to include multi-stage vehicles then it can be shown that fossil fueled Stirlings could also be put to effective use in long range-long endurance underwater vehicular operations.

  10. A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2011-01-15

    Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach to that used to develop the reduced PRF mechanism, reduced mechanisms for the oxidation of n-tetradecane, toluene, cyclohexane, dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and methyl butanoate (MB) were built and combined with the PRF mechanism to form a multi-surrogate fuel chemistry (MultiChem) mechanism. The final version of the MultiChem mechanism consists of 113 species and 487 reactions. Validation of the present MultiChem mechanism was performed with ignition delay time measurements from shock tube tests and predictions by comprehensive mechanisms available in the literature. A combustion model was developed to simulate engine combustion with multi-component fuels using the present MultiChem mechanism, and the model was applied to simulate HCCI and DI engine combustion. The results show that the present multi-component combustion model gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements through the use of reduced mechanism for multi-dimensional CFD simulations. (author)

  11. The determination of performance characteristics of a small two-stroke-cycle engine operated with various fuel-lubricant mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doolittle, James Harold

    1968-01-01

    THE DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMALL TWO-STROKE-CYCLE ENGINE OPERATED WITH VARIOUS FUEL-LUBRICANT MIXTURES A Thesis by JAMES HAROLD DOOLITTLE III Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AFM University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1968 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMALL TWO-STROKE-CYCLE ENGINE OPERATED WITH VARIOUS FUEL-LUBRICANT MIXTURES A...

  12. Maintaining low exhaust emissions with turbocharged gas engines using a feedback air-fuel ratio control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckard, D.W.; Serve, J.V.

    1987-10-01

    Maintaining low exhaust emissions on a turbocharged, natural gas engine through the speed and load range requires precise control of the air-fuel ratio. Changes in ambient conditions or fuel heating value will cause the air-fuel ratio to change substantially. By combining air-gas pressure with preturbine temperature control, the air-fuel ratio can be maintained regardless of changes in the ambient conditions or the fuel's heating value. Design conditions and operating results are presented for an air-fuel controller for a turbocharged engine.

  13. Investigation of Fuel Quality Impact on the Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of a Turbo-Charged SI Engine Operated on Low BTU Gases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Research results validate an engine simulation model and provide guidelines for the improved control of combustion stability of SI engines operated on low-BTU gaseous fuels.

  14. An Analysis of the Impact of Selected Fuel Thermochemical Properties on Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Chakravathy, Kalyana; Daw, C Stuart

    2012-01-01

    In this study we model the effects of 23 different fuels on First and Second Law thermodynamic efficiency of an adiabatic internal combustion engine. First Law efficiency is calculated using lower heating value (LHV) while Second Law efficiency is calculated with exergy, which represents the inherent chemical energy available to produce propulsion. We find that First Law efficiency can deviate by as much as nine percentage points between fuels while Second Law efficiency exhibits a much smaller degree of variability. We also find that First and Second Law efficiency can be nearly the same for some fuels (methane and ethane) but differ substantially for other fuels (hydrogen and ethanol). The differences in First and Second Law efficiency are due to differences in LHV and exergy for a given fuel. In order to explain First Law efficiency differences between fuels as well as the differences between LHV and exergy, we introduce a new term: the molar expansion ratio (MER), defined as the ratio of product moles to reactant moles for complete stoichiometric combustion. We find that the MER is a useful expression for providing a physical explanation for fuel-specific efficiency differences as well as differences between First and Second Law efficiency. First and Second Law efficiency are affected by a number of other fuel-specific thermochemical properties, such as the ratio of specific heat and dissociation of combustion products.

  15. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  16. Methanol as a fuel for a lean turbocharged spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannone, G.M.; Johnson, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    Lean turbocharged operation with methanol was characterized using a single-cylinder spark, ignition engine. Efficiency, exhaust emissions, and combustion properties were measured over a range of air/fuel ratios at two naturally-aspirated and three turbocharged conditions. When compared to stoichiometric, naturally-aspirated operation, the lean turbocharged conditions improved efficiency while reducing carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions. However, unburned fuel and aldehyde emissions increased. If used in conjunction with an oxidizing catalyst and appropriate feedback controls, lean turbocharged operation has the potential of improving efficiency and exhaust emissions performance over a stoichiometric, three-way catalyst system.

  17. Development of a test facility for the experimental evaluation of liquid and gaseous automotive engine fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCanlies, John Michael

    1983-01-01

    Checkout 126 Uncertainty Analysis 131 APPENDIX F: DETAILED PROCEDURES AND ADDITIONAL BASELINE RESULTS 141 F. I F. 2 Test Procedures Additional Baseline Results 141 144 161 LIST OF TAGLES PAGE Table I: Variables to be Investigated in Original...quid methanol as a fuel for multi-cylinder automotive eng1nes. This investigation was conducted in two phases. During the first phase, the experimental test system was designed and constructed, and baseline engine performance with liquid methanol...

  18. Effects of a platinum-based fuel additive on the performance of a single cylinder research diesel engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruemmele, Warren Pietro

    1990-01-01

    lift sensor in the fuel injector body. In this way, the start and duration of fuel injection were better identified. The brake torque of the engine was measured using a calibrated strain gauge load cell. Engine RPN was measured using a digital... Description AVL BQP 500C Piezoelectric cell Fuel injector needle lift PCB 462A Wolf f Charge amplifier Hall effect needle lift sensor Crank angle position AVL 360-C-72 Optical crank angle marker Cylinder TDC Bruel & Kjaer MM-0002 Magnetic...

  19. Stratified charge combustion system and method for gaseous fuel internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoades, W.A. Jr.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a stratified charge combustion system for use in a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine. This system consists of: (a) a combustion chamber; (b) an ignition; (c) a gaseous fuel injection valve assembly in communication with the combustion chamber and in spaced relationship from the ignition source with a portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The fuel valve assembly defines an entry port for the entrance of gaseous fuel, the entry port is recessed outside of a fixed inside surface. (d) means for pressuring the gaseous fuel prior to injection; and (e) a curved transitional surface extending from the entry port toward the portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port. The curved transitional surface has a curvature for the particular direction and configuration of the entry port. The particular configuration of the portion of the inside surfaces extends between the injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The particular arrangment of the fuel injection valve assembly in the combustion chamber, and for the particular pressure of the gaseous fuel is to produce the Coanda Effect in the injected gaseous fuel flow after it passes through the entry port and follows the curved transitional surface under the Coanda Effect. As the curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port, a flow is produced of the gaseous fuel that clings to and follows the particular configuration of the inside surfaces to the ignition source.

  20. Reciprocal Recognition of Existing Personnel Security Clearances

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-07-20

    Provides direction for implementing actions required by the Office of Management and Budget memorandum, Reciprocal Recognition of Existing Personnel Security Clearances.

  1. Memorandum, Health and Safety Training Reciprocity Program -...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    significant cost savings and other efficiencies across the Department. Memorandum, Health and Safety Training Reciprocity Program - July 12, 2013 More Documents & Publications...

  2. Durability testing of a diesel fuel, methyl tallowate, and ethanol blend in a Cummins N14-410 diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Y.; Hanna, M.A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A Cummins N14-410 diesel engine was operated on an 80:13:7% (v/v) blend of diesel fuel: methyl tallowate: ethanol. The standard 200-h Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) test procedure was followed to test engine durability. Engine performance was evaluated in terms of power produced at rated speed, peak torque produced at a speed of 1200 rpm, and brake specific fuel consumption at both speeds. Engine exhaust emissions analyses were performed, and the engine oil was analyzed for accumulation of heavy metals at 45 h intervals. It was observed that engine performance was satisfactory for 148 h at which time the injector in cylinder 2 failed. The injector was changed, and after an additional 11 h (159 h total) of operation the injector in cylinder 5 failed. That injector was also replaced, and the 200-h procedure was continued. The test was discontinued after 197 h when the supply of the fuel blend was exhausted. The injectors were removed and the injector in cylinder 1 was observed to be coked. This injector was sent to the Cummins Engine Co. for analysis. It was found that failure of this injector was not because of the fuel used, but because of a crack had developed across the tip due to an excessively tight overhead adjustment. Engine oil analyses performed for accumulation of wear metals did not reveal any excessive wear on the engine parts. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Comparison of emissions and efficiency of a turbocharged lean-burn natural gas and Hythane-fueled engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, J.F.; Wallace, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential for reduced exhaust emissions and improved efficiency, by way of lean-burn engine fueling with hydrogen supplemented natural gas (Hythane). The emissions and efficiency of the Hythane fuel (15% hydrogen, 85% natural gas by volume), were compared to the emissions and efficiency of pure natural gas using a turbocharged, spark ignition, 3.1 L, V-6 engine. The feasibility of heavy duty engine fueling with Hythane was assessed through testing conducted at engine speed and load combinations typical of heavy-duty engine operation. Comparison of the efficiency and emissions at MBT spark timing revealed that Hythane fueling of the test engine resulted in consistently lower brake specific energy consumption and emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), at a given equivalence ratio. There was no clear trend with respect to MBT oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. It was also discovered that an improved NO{sub x}-THC tradeoff resulted when Hythane was used to fuel the test engine. Consequently, Hythane engine operating parameters can be adjusted to achieve a concurrent reduction in NO{sub x} and THC emissions relative to natural gas fueling.

  4. ENGINEERING

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear Profile 2010 KansasMarketsHanford TankENGINEERING the Future

  5. Fuel Composition Effects at Constant RON and MON in an HCCI Engine Operated with Negative Valve Overlap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G; Farrell, John T

    2006-01-01

    The effects of fuel properties on gasoline HCCI operation have been investigated in a single cylinder, 500 cc, 11.3 CR port fuel injected research engine, operated at lambda=1 and equipped with hydraulic valve actuation. HCCI is promoted by early exhaust valve closing to retain hot exhaust in the cylinder, thereby increasing the cylinder gas temperature. Test fuels were formulated with pure components to have the same RON, MON, and octane sensitivity as an indolene reference fuel, but with a wide range of fuel composition differences. Experiments have been carried out to determine if fuel composition plays a role in HCCI combustion properties, independent of octane numbers. Fuel economy, emissions, and combustion parameters have been measured at several fixed speed/load conditions over a range of exhaust valve closing angles. When the data are compared at constant combustion phasing, fuel effects on emissions and other combustion properties are small. However, when compared at constant exhaust valve closing angle, fuel composition effects are more pronounced, specifically regarding ignition. Operability range differences are also related to fuel composition. An all-paraffinic (normal, iso, and cycloparaffins) fuel exhibited distinctly earlier combustion phasing, increased rate of cylinder pressure rise, and increased rate of maximum heat release compared to the indolene reference fuel. Conversely, olefin-containing fuels exhibited retarded combustion phasing. The fuels with the most advanced ignition showed a wider operating range in terms of engine speed and load, irrespective of exhaust closing angle. These ignition differences reflect contributions from both fuel and EGR kinetics, the effects of which are discussed. The fuel composition variables are somewhat inter-correlated, which makes the experimental separation their effects imprecise with this small set of fuels, though clear trends are evident. The overall effects of fuel composition on engine performance and emissions are small. However, the results suggest that the effects on combustion phasing and engine operability range may need to be considered in the practical implementation of HCCI for fuels with large compositional variations.

  6. Heavy-Duty Truck Engine: 2007 Emissions with Excellent Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Cummins Inc. Heavy-Duty Truck Engine Program

  7. Reciprocal-space solvent flattening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    A procedure is described for improvement of crystallographic phases by reciprocal-space maximization of a likelihood function including experimental phases and characteristics of the electron-density map. Solvent flattening is a powerful tool for improving crystallographic phases for macromolecular structures obtained at moderate resolution, but uncertainties in the optimal weighting of experimental phases and modified phases make it difficult to extract all the phase information possible. Solvent flattening is essentially an iterative method for maximizing a likelihood function which consists of (i) experimental phase information and (ii) information on the likelihood of various arrangements of electron density in a map, but the likelihood function is generally not explicitly defined. In this work, a procedure is described for reciprocal-space maximization of a likelihood function based on experimental phases and characteristics of the electron-density map. The procedure can readily be applied to phase improvement based on solvent flattening and can potentially incorporate information on a wide variety of other characteristics of the electron-density map.

  8. Reciprocal Space Mapping for Dummies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuele Lilliu; Thomas Dane

    2015-12-28

    Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXD) is a surface sensitive X-ray investigation technique (or geometry configuration) that can reveal the structural properties of a film deposited on a flat substrate. The term grazing indicates that the angle between the incident beam and the film is small (typically below 0.5 degrees). This essential technique has been employed on liquid crystals, nanoparticles and colloids, nanostructures, corrosion processes, polymers, bio-materials, interfaces, materials for solar cells, photodiodes, and transistors, etc. Diffraction patterns in GIXD geometry are typically captured with a 2D detector, which outputs images in pixel coordinates. A step required to perform analyses such as grain size estimation, disorder, preferred orientation, quantitative phase analysis of the probed film surface, etc., consists in converting the diffraction image from pixel coordinates to the momentum transfer or scattering vector in sample coordinates (the reciprocal space mapping). This momentum transfer embeds information on the crystal or polycrystal and its intrinsic rotation with respect to the substrate. In this work we derive, in a rigorous way, the reciprocal space mapping equations for a 3D+1S diffractometer in a way that is understandable to anyone with basic notions of linear algebra, geometry, and X-ray diffraction.

  9. Reciprocal Space Mapping for Dummies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuele Lilliu; Thomas Dane

    2015-11-18

    Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXD) is a surface sensitive X-ray investigation technique (or geometry configuration) that can reveal the structural properties of a film deposited on a flat substrate. The term grazing indicates that the angle between the incident beam and the film is small (typically below 0.5 degrees). This essential technique has been employed on liquid crystals, nanoparticles and colloids, nanostructures, corrosion processes, polymers, bio-materials, interfaces, materials for solar cells, photodiodes, and transistors, etc. Diffraction patterns in GIXD geometry are typically captured with a 2D detector, which outputs images in pixel coordinates. A step required to perform analyses such as grain size estimation, disorder, preferred orientation, quantitative phase analysis of the probed film surface, etc., consists in converting the diffraction image from pixel coordinates to the momentum transfer or scattering vector in sample coordinates (the reciprocal space mapping). This momentum transfer embeds information on the crystal or polycrystal and its intrinsic rotation with respect to the substrate. In this work we derive, in a rigorous way, the reciprocal space mapping equations for a 3D+1S diffractometer in a way that is understandable to anyone with basic notions of linear algebra, geometry, and X-ray diffraction.

  10. Cyclic Combustion Variations in Dual Fuel Partially Premixed Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2012-05-09

    Dual fuel pilot ignited natural gas engines are identified as an efficient and viable alternative to conventional diesel engines. This paper examines cyclic combustion fluctuations in conventional dual fuel and in dual fuel partially premixed low temperature combustion (LTC). Conventional dual fueling with 95% (energy basis) natural gas (NG) substitution reduces NOx emissions by almost 90%t relative to straight diesel operation; however, this is accompanied by 98% increase in HC emissions, 10 percentage points reduction in fuel conversion efficiency (FCE) and 12 percentage points increase in COVimep. Dual fuel LTC is achieved by injection of a small amount of diesel fuel (2-3 percent on an energy basis) to ignite a premixed natural gas�������¢����������������air mixture to attain very low NOx emissions (less than 0.2 g/kWh). Cyclic variations in both combustion modes were analyzed by observing the cyclic fluctuations in start of combustion (SOC), peak cylinder pressures (Pmax), combustion phasing (Ca50), and the separation between the diesel injection event and Ca50 (termed �������¢����������������relative combustion phasing�������¢���������������). For conventional dual fueling, as % NG increases, Pmax decreases, SOC and Ca50 are delayed, and cyclic variations increase. For dual fuel LTC, as diesel injection timing is advanced from 20���������������° to 60���������������°BTDC, the relative combustion phasing is identified as an important combustion parameter along with SoC, Pmax, and CaPmax. For both combustion modes, cyclic variations were characterized by alternating slow and fast burn cycles, especially at high %NG and advanced injection timings. Finally, heat release return maps were analyzed to demonstrate thermal management strategies as an effective tool to mitigate cyclic combustion variations, especially in dual fuel LTC.

  11. Impact of Fuel Interchangeability on dynamic Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.; Straub, D.L.; Richards, G.A.; Robey, E.H.

    2007-03-01

    Modern, low NOx emitting gas turbines typically utilize lean pre-mixed (LPM) combustion as a means of achieving target emissions goals. As stable combustion in LPM systems is somewhat intolerant to changes in operating conditions, precise engine tuning on a prescribed range of fuel properties is commonly performed to avoid dynamic instabilities. This has raised concerns regarding the use of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquids (NGL’s) to offset a reduction in the domestic natural gas supply, which when introduced into the pipeline could alter the fuel BTU content and subsequently exacerbate problems such as combustion instabilities. The intent of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dynamically unstable test rigs to changes in fuel composition and heat content. Fuel Wobbe number was controlled by blending methane and natural gas with various amounts of ethane, propane and nitrogen. Changes in combustion instabilities were observed, in both atmospheric and pressurized test rigs, for fuels containing high concentrations of propane (> 62% by vol). However, pressure oscillations measured while operating on typical “LNG like” fuels did not appear to deviate significantly from natural gas and methane flame responses. Mechanisms thought to produce changes in the dynamic response are discussed.

  12. Bench wear testing of engine power cylinder components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, D.J.; Hill, S.H.; Tung, S.C.

    1993-02-01

    A need exists for an accurate and repeatable friction and wear bench test for engine power cylinder components that more closely relates to engine test results. Current research and development includes investigation of new engine designs, materials, coatings and surface treatments for reduced weight, longer life, higher operating temperature, and reduced friction. Alternative fuels being examined include alcohols and gaseous fuels, as well as reformulated gasolines and distillate fuels. Concurrently, new lubricants are being formulated for the new engine and fuel combinations. Because of the enormous cost and time of developing commercial engine, fuel and lubricant combinations by means of engine testing alone, much interest is being focused on more representative and repeatable bench tests. This paper examines some known bench testers employing either rotary or reciprocating motion for evaluating the friction, wear, and durability of material couples. Information is presented on experience and practice with one rotary (Falex type) and two reciprocating testers (Cameron-Plint and a new design, the EMA-L59). Some correlation with engine data is given.

  13. Modeling of autoignition and NO sensitization for the oxidation of IC engine surrogate fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderlohr, J.M. |; Bounaceur, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F.; Pires Da Cruz, A.

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents an approach for modeling with one single kinetic mechanism the chemistry of the autoignition and combustion processes inside an internal combustion engine, as well as the chemical kinetics governing the postoxidation of unburned hydrocarbons in engine exhaust gases. Therefore a new kinetic model was developed, valid over a wide range of temperatures including the negative temperature coefficient regime. The model simulates the autoignition and the oxidation of engine surrogate fuels composed of n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene, which are sensitized by the presence of nitric oxides. The new model was obtained from previously published mechanisms for the oxidation of alkanes and toluene where the coupling reactions describing interactions between hydrocarbons and NO{sub x} were added. The mechanism was validated against a wide range of experimental data obtained in jet-stirred reactors, rapid compression machines, shock tubes, and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Flow rate and sensitivity analysis were performed in order to explain the low temperature chemical kinetics, especially the impact of NO{sub x} on hydrocarbon oxidation. (author)

  14. Development of ADECS to Meet 2010 Emission Levels: Optimization of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low Engine-Out NOx Calibrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development and validation of a simple strategy-based technique using four engine parameters to minimize emissions and fuel consumption

  15. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Pastore; L.P. Swiler; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; D.M. Perez; B.W. Spencer; L. Luzzi; P. Van Uffelen; R.L. Williamson

    2014-10-01

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  16. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMillian, Michael H. (Fairmont, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  17. Combustion Phasing Model for Control of a Gasoline-Ethanol Fueled SI Engine with Variable Valve Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laboratories, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA bIFP Energies, France Abstract-- Concern over the availability of fossil fuels and energy usage have produced

  18. On fuel selection in controlled auto-ignition engines : the link between intake conditions, chemical kinetics, and stratification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maria, Amir Gamal

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the impact fuel selection can have on the high-load limit in a stratified Compression Auto-Ignition (CAI) engine. This was accomplished by first studying the validity of the ...

  19. Reducing cold start hydrocarbon emissions from port fuel injected spark ignition engines with improved management of hardware & controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Kevin R., 1980-

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to investigate strategies for reducing cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from port fuel injected (PFI) spark ignition (SI) engines with better use of existing hardware and control ...

  20. Reliability Engineering Approach to Probabilistic Proliferation Resistance Analysis of the Example Sodium Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronholm, Lillian Marie

    2012-10-19

    ENGINEERING APPROACH TO PROBABILISTIC PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE ANALYSIS OF THE EXAMPLE SODIUM FAST REACTOR FUEL CYCLE FACILITY A Thesis by LILLIAN MARIE CRONHOLM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2011 Major Subject: Health Physics RELIABILITY ENGINEERING APPROACH TO PROBABILISTIC PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE ANALYSIS OF THE EXAMPLE SODIUM FAST REACTOR FUEL...

  1. Advanced development of rotary stratified charge 750 and 1500 HP military multi-fuel engines at Curtiss-Wright

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.

    1984-01-01

    During the period from 1977 to 1982, two and four rotor naturally aspirated Stratified Charge Rotary Combustion engines were under development for the U.S. Marine Corps. These engines are described and highlights of work conducted under the government ''Advanced Development'' contracts are discussed. The basic direct injected and spark ignited stratified charge technology was defined during 1973-1976 for automotive engine applications. It was then demonstrated that the unthrottled naturally aspirated Rotary could match indirect injected diesel fuel consumption, without regard to fuel cetane or octane rating. This same technology was scaled from the 60''/sup 3//rotor automotive engine module to the 350''/sup 3//rotor military engine size. In addition, parallel company-sponsored research efforts were undertaken to explore growth directions. Tests showed significant thermal efficiency improvement at lean air-fuel ratios. When turbocharged, high exhaust energy recovery of this ported engine provided induction airflow sufficient for increased output plus excess for operation at the lean mixture strengths of best combustion efficiency. With additive improvements in mechanical efficiency accruing to higher BMEP operation, the potential for fuel economy in the same range as direct injected diesels was demonstrated. These lightweight, compact, multi-fuel engines are believed to open new possiblities for lightweight, reliable, highly mobile and agile military fighting vehicles of the future.

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  3. Soybean and Coconut Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Combustion Characteristics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Manbae [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of soybean- and coconut-derived biodiesel fuels on combustion characteristics in a 1.7-liter direct injection, common rail diesel engine. Five sets of fuels were studied: 2007 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 5% and 20% volumetric blends of soybean biodiesel with ULSD (soybean B5 and B20), and 5% and 20% volumetric blends of coconut biodiesel with ULSD (coconut B5 and B20). In conventional diesel combustion mode, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO/dx) emissions were similar for all fuels studied except soybean B20. Soybean B20 produced the lowest PM but the highest NO/dx emissions. Compared with conventional diesel combustion mode, high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) mode, achieved by increased EGR and combustion phasing, significantly reduced both PM and NO/dx emissions for all fuels studied at the expense of higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and an increase in fuel consumption (less than 4%). ULSD, soybean B5, and coconut B5 showed no difference in exhaust emissions. However, PM emissions increased slightly for soybean B20 and coconut B20. NO/dx emissions increased significantly for soybean B20, while those for coconut B20 were comparable to ULSD. Differences in the chemical and physical properties of soybean and coconut biodiesel fuels compared with ULSD, such as higher fuel-borne oxygen, greater viscosity, and higher boiling temperatures, play a key role in combustion processes and, therefore, exhaust emissions. Furthermore, the highly unsaturated ester composition in soybean biodiesel can be another factor in the increase of NO/dx emissions.

  4. Engineering-Scale Development of Injection Casting Technology for Metal Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogata, Takanari; Tsukada, Takeshi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry - CRIEPI, Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory 2-11-1 Iwado-Kita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Engineering-scale injection casting tests were conducted in order to demonstrate the applicability of injection casting technology to the commercialized fast reactor fuel cycle. The uranium-zirconium alloy slugs produced in the tests were examined with reference to the practical slug specifications: average diameter tolerance {+-} 0.05 mm, local diameter tolerance {+-} 0.1 mm, density range 15.3 to 16.1 g/cm{sup 3}, zirconium content range 10 {+-} 1 wt% and total impurity (C, N, O, Si) <2000 ppm, which were provisionally determined. Most of the slugs satisfied these specifications, except for zirconium content. The impurity level was sufficiently low even though the residual and scrapped alloys were repeatedly recycled. The weight ratio of injected metal to charged metal was sufficiently high for a high process throughput. The injection casting technology will be applicable to the commercialized fuel cycle when the issue of zirconium content variation is resolved. (authors)

  5. Performance of winter rape (Brassica napus) based fuel mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, G.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Winter rape is well adapted to the Palouse region of Northern Idaho and Eastern Washington. Nearly all of the current US production is grown in this region. Yields of 2200 to 2700 kg/ha with 45 percent oil content are common. Even though present production only 2000 to 2500 ha per year, the long history of production and good yields of oil make winter rape the best potential fuel vegetable oil crop for the region. Winter rape oil is more viscous than sunflower oil (50 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for winter rape and 35 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for sunflower oil) and about 17 times more viscous than diesel. The viscosity of the pure oil has been found too high for operation in typical diesel injector systems. Mixtures and/or additives are essential if the oil is to be a satisfactory fuel. Conversely, the fatty acid composition of witer rape oils is such that it is potentially a more favorable fuel because of reduced rates of oxidation and thermal polymerization. This paper will report on results of short and long term engine tests using winter rape, diesel, and commercial additives as the components. Selection of mixtures for long term screening tests was based on laboratory studies which included high temperature oxidation studies and temperature-viscosity data. Fuel temperature has been monitored at the outlet of the injector nozzle on operating engines so that viscosity comparisons at the actual injector temperature can be made. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  6. Kinetic modelling of a surrogate diesel fuel applied to 3D auto-ignition in HCCI engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bounaceur, Roda; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Jay, S; Da Cruz, A Pires

    2007-01-01

    The prediction of auto-ignition delay times in HCCI engines has risen interest on detailed chemical models. This paper described a validated kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of a model Diesel fuel (n-decane and ?-methylnaphthalene). The 3D model for the description of low and high temperature auto-ignition in engines is presented. The behavior of the model fuel is compared with that of n-heptane. Simulations show that the 3D model coupled with the kinetic mechanism can reproduce experimental HCCI and Diesel engine results and that the correct modeling of auto-ignition in the cool flame region is essential in HCCI conditions.

  7. A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, Ronald

    2014-08-31

    FCA US LLC (formally known as Chrysler Group LLC, and hereinafter “Chrysler”) was awarded an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded project by the Department of Energy (DOE) titled “A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency” (hereinafter “project”). This award was issued after Chrysler submitted a proposal for Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA- 0000079, “Systems Level Technology Development, Integration, and Demonstration for Efficient Class 8 Trucks (SuperTruck) and Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD).” Chrysler started work on this project on June 01, 2010 and completed testing activities on August 30, 2014. Overall objectives of this project were: • Demonstrate a 25% improvement in combined Federal Test Procedure (FTP) City and Highway fuel economy over a 2009 Chrysler minivan • Accelerate the development of highly efficient engine and powertrain systems for light-duty vehicles, while meeting future emissions standards • Create and retain jobs in accordance with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

  8. The use of dimethyl ether as a starting aid for methanol-fueled SI engines at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozole, K.H.; Wallace, J.S

    1988-01-01

    Methanol-fueled SI engines have proven to be difficult to start at ambient temperatures below approximately 10/sup 0/C. The use of dimethyl ether (DME) is proposed to improve the cold starting performance of methanol-fueled SI engines. Tests to evaluate this idea were carried out with a modified single-cylinder CFR research engine having a compression ratio of 12:1. The engine was fueled with combinations of gaseous dimethyl ether and liquid methanol having DME mass fractions of 30%, 40%, 60% and 70%. For comparison, tests were also carried out with 100% methanol and with winter grade premium unleaded gasoline. Overall stoichiometric mixtures were used in all tests.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A MultiAir / MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation given by Chrysler at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on its project to research a multi-air and multi-fuel approach to improving engine efficiency.

  10. Emissions From Various Biodiesel Sources Compared to a Range of Diesel Fuels in DPF Equipped Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.; Tester, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NO{sub x} emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NO{sub x} emissions very similar to that caused by blending of biodiesel. Test cycles where an active regeneration of the DPF occurred resulted in a nearly threefold increase in NO{sub x} emissions and a 15% increase in fuel consumption. The full quantification of DPF regeneration events further complicates the accurate calculation of fuel impacts on emissions and fuel consumption.

  11. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity. Retrofit technologies that address the challenges of slow-speed integral compression are: (1) optimum turndown using a combination of speed and clearance with single-acting operation as a last resort; (2) if single-acting is required, implement infinite length nozzles to address nozzle pulsation and tunable side branch absorbers for 1x lateral pulsations; and (3) advanced valves, either the semi-active plate valve or the passive rotary valve, to extend valve life to three years with half the pressure drop. This next generation of slow-speed compression should attain 95% efficiency, a three-year valve life, and expanded turndown. New equipment technologies that address the challenges of large-horsepower, high-speed compression are: (1) optimum turndown with unit speed; (2) tapered nozzles to effectively reduce nozzle pulsation with half the pressure drop and minimization of mechanical cylinder stretch induced vibrations; (3) tunable side branch absorber or higher-order filter bottle to address lateral piping pulsations over the entire extended speed range with minimal pressure drop; and (4) semi-active plate valves or passive rotary valves to extend valve life with half the pressure drop. This next generation of large-horsepower, high-speed compression should attain 90% efficiency, a two-year valve life, 50% turndown, and less than 0.75 IPS vibration. This program has generated proof-of-concept technologies with the potential to meet these ambitious goals. Full development of these identified technologies is underway. The GMRC has committed to pursue the most promising enabling technologies for their industry.

  12. Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Inection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Szymkowicz, Patrick G. [General Motors Corporation; Northrop, William F [General Motors Corporation

    2012-01-01

    It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. It has been shown in previous studies that varying cetane number (CN) of diesel fuel has little effect on ignition delay at high engine load due to the domination of high cylinder temperature on ignition kinetics. The work here experimentally confirms that finding but also shows that emissions and combustion performance vary according to fuel reactivity. Data are examined from a direct-injection single cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR. It is shown in the work that at high engine load where combustion is controlled by mixing processes, CN and other fuel properties have little effect on engine performance, although lower CN fuels produce a small increase in noise, smoke and CO emissions. Biodiesel blends increase NOX emissions and decreases CO and smoke emissions at high load, but otherwise have little effect on performance. At moderate load, higher CN fuels are more tolerant to EGR due to their better chemical reactivity at retarded injection timing, but all fuels produce comparable thermal efficiency at advanced combustion phasing regardless of EGR. In contrast to the high load conditions, there was no increase in NOX emissions for biodiesel at the moderate load condition. It is concluded that although higher CN does not significantly alter ignition delay at moderate to high loads it has a dominant influence on the acceptable injection timing range. Apart from CN effects, fuel oxygen content plays an independent role in reducing some emissions. It is therefore recommended that compensation for fuel ignitability and oxygen content be included in combustion control strategies to optimize emissions and performance of future diesel engines.

  13. Integrated Field Testing of Fuel Cells and Micro-Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerome R. Temchin; Stephen J. Steffel

    2005-11-01

    A technical and economic evaluation of the prospects for the deployment of distributed generation on Long Beach Island, New Jersey concluded that properly sited DG would defer upgrading of the electric power grid for 10 years. This included the deployment of fuel cells or microturbines as well as reciprocating engines. The implementation phase of this project focused on the installation of a 120 kW CHP microturbine system at the Harvey Cedars Bible Conference in Harvey Cedars, NJ. A 1.1 MW generator powered by a gas-fired reciprocating engine for additional grid support was also installed at a local substation. This report contains installation and operation issues as well as the utility perspective on DG deployment.

  14. Study of low-temperature-combustion diesel engines as an on-board reformer for intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Tairin

    2006-01-01

    Fuel cells have been recognized as a feasible alternative to current IC engines. A significant technical problem yet to be resolved is the on bound fuel supply before fuel cells can be practically used for vehicles. Use ...

  15. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development. Final report, September 28, 1990--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakwani, R.M.; Winsor, R.E.; Ryan, T.W. III; Schwalb, J.A.; Wahiduzzaman, S.; Wilson, R.P. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    The goal of this program was to study the feasibility of operating a Detroit Diesel Series 149 engine at high speeds using a Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) fuel. The CWS-fueled 149 engine is proposed for the mine-haul off-highway truck and work boat marine markets. Economic analysis studies indicate that, for these markets, the use of CWS fuel could have sufficient operating cost savings, depending upon the future diesel fuel price, emission control system capital and operating costs, and maintenance and overhaul costs. A major portion of the maintenance costs is expected to be due to lower life and higher cost of the CWS injectors. Injection and combustion systems were specially designed for CWS, and were installed in one cylinder of a Detroit Diesel 8V-149TI engine for testing. The objective was to achieve engine operation for sustained periods at speeds up to 1,900 rpm with reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate. A computer simulation predicted autoignition of coal fuel at 1,900 rpm would require an average droplet size of 18 microns and 19:1 compression ratio, so the injection system, and pistons were designed accordingly. The injection system was capable of supplying the required volume of CWS/injection with a duration of approximately 25 crank angle degrees and peak pressures on the order of 100 mpa. In addition to the high compression ratio, the combustion system also utilized hot residual gases in the cylinder, warm inlet air admission and ceramic insulated engine components to enhance combustion. Autoignition of CWS fuel was achieved at 1900 rpm, at loads ranging from 20--80 percent of the rated load of diesel-fuel powered cylinders. Limited emissions data indicates coal burnout rates in excess of 99 percent. NO{sub x} levels were significantly lower, while unburned hydrocarbon levels were higher for the CWS fueled cylinder than for corresponding diesel-fuel powered cylinders.

  16. Controlling fuel and diluent gas flow for a diesel engine operating in the fuel rich low-temperature-combustion mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, David M

    2007-01-01

    The flow of a diluent gas supplied to a motoring engine was controlled at a diluent to air mass flow ratios of 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. This arrangement was a significant set up for running the engine in the Low-Temperature ...

  17. Endurance testing of a natural-gas-fueled rotary engine. Aannual report, March 1985-February 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, S.R.

    1986-03-01

    Endurance testing was performed on production-type Mazda 13B rotary engines converted for operation on natural gas. Industrial use of the rotary engine is dependent on achieving sufficient durability for the intended application. Current rotary-engine durability was evaluated by operating three engines up to 6000 hours and transferring the advanced technology gained to rotary-engine developers in the USA

  18. Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct-Injection Flex-Fuel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct the fuel vaporization pro- cess for ethanol-gasoline fuel blends and the associated charge cooling effect experimental cylinder pressure for different gasoline-ethanol blends and various speeds and loads on a 2.0 L

  19. Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; DeCicco, J.

    2000-02-01

    Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

  20. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  1. Engineering for Sustainability http://engineering.tufts.edu/ Nanoscale Gold Catalysts for the Upgrade of Hydrogen used in Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tufts University

    for the Upgrade of Hydrogen used in Fuel Cells What is the problem? Fuel processing by steam reforming or partial to protect the Pt- based electrocatalyst on the fuel cell anode. New catalysts must be developed by the current generation fuel cells and their operating conditions. Why is it an important problem? The platinum

  2. Studies on the practical application of producer gas from agricultural residues as supplementary fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, I.E.

    1980-01-01

    Gasification of various agricultural residues in down-draft, fixed bed gas producers and the utilization of the gas in small diesel engines converted for dual-fuel operation were studied at the College of Engineering, University of the Philippines. Such agricultural residues as coconut shells, wood waste, rice hulls and corn cobs were readily gasified in gas producers of simple design. Cleaning of the gas before its use in diesel engines presented some problems. Use of charcoal in the gas producers to provide gas to a 5-brake horsepower single cylinder engine and a 65-brake horsepower six cylinder engine proved satisfactory. With charcoal as fuel, the percentage of the total energy from diesel oil replaced by producer gas and utilized in the single cylinder engine was higher (79%) compared to that in the six cylinder engine (73%). The thermal efficiency of the bigger gas producer, however was significantly better (85%) compared to the smaller gas producer (70%). The total gasification rate of the bigger reactor (20 kg/h) was 8 times that (2.5 kg/h) of the smaller reactor.

  3. Thermal engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

    1984-01-03

    A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

  4. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4)9 Federal RegisterStorm1 3446 YEAR/%2Afissile4/%2A en

  5. Capturing the Impact of Fuel Price on Jet Aircraft Operating Costs with Engineering and Econometric Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirti Ryerson, Megan; Hansen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Capturing the Impact of Fuel Price on Jet Aircraft OperatingCapturing the Impact of Fuel Price on Jet Aircraft Operatingsurges in the price of fuel as regional jets have lower fuel

  6. Harmonic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  7. Effect of directed port air flow on liquid fuel transport in a port fuel injected spark ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaringe, Robert J. (Robert Joseph)

    2007-01-01

    With highly efficient modem catalysts, startup HC emissions have become a significant portion of the trip total. Liquid fuel is a major source of HC emissions during the cold start and fast idle period. Thus the control ...

  8. Proceedings of ASME 2011 5th International Conference on Energy Sustainability & 9th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    internal combustion engines (ICE) [3, 4], e.g., green- house gas and air pollution emissions, beside economical issues associated with petroleum-based fuels [3], e.g., price fluctuations due to increasing side, the batteries are responsible for power supply at low pow

  9. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Appendix B: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to assist its management in making two decisions. The first decision, which is programmatic, is to determine the management program for DOE spent nuclear fuel. The second decision is on the future direction of environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of the EIS, which supports the programmatic decision, considers the effects of spent nuclear fuel management on the quality of the human and natural environment for planning years 1995 through 2035. DOE has derived the information and analysis results in Volume 1 from several site-specific appendixes. Volume 2 of the EIS, which supports the INEL-specific decision, describes environmental impacts for various environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management alternatives for planning years 1995 through 2005. This Appendix B to Volume 1 considers the impacts on the INEL environment of the implementation of various DOE-wide spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, which is a joint Navy/DOE program, is responsible for spent naval nuclear fuel examination at the INEL. For this appendix, naval fuel that has been examined at the Naval Reactors Facility and turned over to DOE for storage is termed naval-type fuel. This appendix evaluates the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel including naval-type fuel.

  10. School of Engineering, University of Connecticut www.engr.uconn.edu Summer 2005 Connecticut Global Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandy, John A.

    School of Engineering, University of Connecticut www.engr.uconn.edu Summer 2005 Connecticut Global Connecticut citizens. The numbers speak volumes: in just six years, the School of Engineering has increased

  11. Power, Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattson, Jonathan Michael Stearns

    2013-08-31

    The increasing dependency of the global economy on mineral fuels necessitates the investigation and future implementation of renewable fuels. Within the spectrum of compression ignition engines, this requires an understanding of the differences...

  12. Optical-Engine Study of a Low-Temperature Combustion Strategy Employing a Dual-Row, Narrow-Included-Angle Nozzle and Early, Direct Injection of Diesel Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Insight into mechanisms causing observed sharp emissions increase with diesel fuel injection is gained through experiments in an optical engine employing a similar low-temperature combustion strategy of early, direct injection of diesel fuel.

  13. Integrating engineering design improvements with exoelectrogen enrichmentprocess to increase power output from microbial fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Leak, David; Andras, Calin; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Keller, Martin; Davison, Brian H

    2009-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) hold promise as a green technology for bioenergy production. The challenge is to improve the engineering design while exploiting the ability of microbes to generate and transfer electrons directly to electrodes. A strategy using a combination of improved anode design and an enrichment processwas formulated to improve power densities. The designwas based on a flow-through anode with minimal dead volume and a high electrode surface area per unit volume. The strategy focused on promoting biofilm formation via a combination of forced flow through the anode, carbon limitation, and step-wise reduction of external resistance. The enrichment process resulted in development of exoelectrogenic biofilm communities dominated by Anaeromusa spp. This is the first report identifying organisms fromthe Veillonellaceae family in MFCs. The power density of the resulting MFC using a ferricyanide cathode reached 300Wm?3 net anode volume (3220mWm?2), which is about a third of what is estimated to be necessary for commercial consideration. The operational stability of the MFC using high specific surface area electrodes was demonstrated by operating the MFC for a period of over four months.

  14. Heater head for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darooka, D.K.

    1988-09-06

    A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

  15. Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    Two subjects are covered in this section. They are: (1) Health effects of possible contamination at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant to be studied; and (2) DOE agrees on test of MOX fuel in Canada.

  16. EERE Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuel CycleFinalEERE Resources for K-12 Educators EERE Resources for

  17. Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographiclighbulbs - high-resolution2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel

  18. Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion: Heavy-Duty Optical-Engine Research |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel

  19. A Correlation of Diesel Engine Performance with Measured NIR Fuel Characteristics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results indicate a strong tradeoff between maximum rate of cylinder pressure rise (which also correlates to NOx and peak cylinder pressure) and fuel economy for 21 tested fuels.

  20. High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilbert, D.

    2011-10-01

    Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deterioration that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.

  1. Performance of a New Lightweight Reciprocating Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, J C

    2005-06-09

    A new four-chamber piston pump design has been fabricated and tested. The small-scale propellant pump is intended to be powered by gas at elevated temperatures, e.g. in a gas-generator cycle rocket propulsion system. Two key features are combined for the first time: leak-tight liquid-cooled seals, and a high throughput per unit hardware mass. Measured performance curves quantify flows, pressures, leakage, volumetric efficiency, and tank pressure requirements. A pair of 300-gram pumps operating with significant margin could deliver fuel and oxidizer at 5 MPa to a compact lightweight 1000-N engine, while tank pressure remains at 0.35 MPa. Pump weight is well below one percent of thrust, as is typical for launch vehicle engines. Applications include small upper stages, aggressive maneuvers in space, and miniature launch vehicles for Mars ascent.

  2. Develop the dual fuel conversion system for high output, medium speed diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-16

    The original plan for the project involved design modifications to an existing system to enhance its performance and increase the limit of power that was achieved by the original design and to apply the higher performance product to the full sized engine and test its performance. The new system would also be applied to a different engine model. The specific work would include the redesign of gas injectors, piston configurations and two types of igniters, engine instrumentation, monitoring and testing.

  3. Effects of Biomass Fuels on Engine & System Out Emissions for Short Term Endurance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results of an investigation into effects of biofuels on engine- and system-out emissions, specifically US 2010 EPA exhaust after-treatment system from Mack Trucks

  4. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  5. Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  6. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuk Lee, Sung

    2010-01-01

    Fuels Maximizing solar energy conversion to chemical storagethat maximize solar energy conversion to chemical storage

  7. Optical-Engine and Surrogate-Fuels Research for an Improved Understanding

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and ReduceNovemberDOE'sManagementOpenEIthe U.S. -- An

  8. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S. Department of

  9. Green Racing Series Revs Engines with Renewable Fuel from INEOS Bio |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive CompensationEnergyGetDepartment of| Department

  10. Internal combustion engine with compound air compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine in combination with a compound air compression system. It comprises: a reciprocator with at least one cylinder, at least one piston reciprocal in the cylinder and a combustion chamber formed in substantial part by portions of the piston and cylinder, the reciprocator having a drive shaft; a rotary compressor having a drive shaft mechanically coupled to the drive shaft of the reciprocator, the rotary compressor having a Wankel-type, three-lobe, epitrochiodal configuration sides having a conduit conjected to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air to the reciprocator; a turbocharged with a gas turbine and a turbocompressor, the turbocompressor having an air conduit connected to the expander side of the rotary compressor; and a bypass conduit with a valve means connecting the turbocharger to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air directly to the reciprocator wherein the drive shaft of the reciprocator and the drive shaft of the compressor have connecting means for transmitting mechanical energy to the reciprocator at mid to high operating speeds of the engine when the turbocharge supplies compressed air to the rotary compressor and, at least in part, drives the rotary compressor.

  11. Effects of piston surface treatments on performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct injection, stratified charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, B.; Green, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of thermal barrier coatings and/or surface treatments on the performance and emissions of a methanol-fueled, direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC) engine. A Ricardo Hydra Mark III engine was used for this work and in previous experiments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary focus of the study was to examine the effects of various piston insert surface treatments on hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. Previous studies have shown that engines of this class have a tendency to perform poorly at low loads and have high unburned fuel emissions. A blank aluminum piston was modified to employ removable piston bowl inserts. Four different inserts were tested in the experiment: aluminum, stainless steel with a 1.27-mm (0.050-in.) air gap (to act as a thermal barrier), and two stainless steel/air-gap inserts with coatings. Two stainless steel inserts were dimensionally modified to account for the coating thickness (1.27-mm) and coated identically with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). One of the coated inserts then had an additional seal-coat applied. The coated inserts were otherwise identical to the stainless steel/air-gap insert (i.e., they employed the same 1.27-mm air gap). Thermal barrier coatings were employed in an attempt to increase combustion chamber surface temperatures, thereby reducing wall quenching and promoting more complete combustion of the fuel in the quench zone. The seal-coat was applied to the zirconia to reduce the surface porosity; previous research suggested that despite the possibly higher surface temperatures obtainable with a ceramic coating, the high surface area of a plasma-sprayed coating may actually allow fuel to adhere to the surface and increase the unburned fuel emissions and fuel consumption.

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  13. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pratapas; Daniel Mather; Anton Kozlovsky

    2007-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen's significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: (1) Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion; (2) Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced; (3) Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine; (4) Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust; (5) Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust; (6) Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust; and (7) Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry. The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: (1) A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. (2) A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen. (3) The benefits of using hydrogen to extend, up to a limit, the stable operating window for HCCI combustion of natural gas at higher intake pressures, leaner air to fuel ratios or lower inlet temperatures was documented.

  14. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.L.

    1993-07-20

    A multi bank power plant is described comprising at least a first and a second rotary internal combustion engine connectable together in series, each of the engines comprising: a housing; a cam track internally disposed within the housing and adapted to receive a cam follower; an engine block disposed within the housing and rotatable about a central axis; an output shaft extending axially from each the engine block, each output shaft being coaxial with the other; means for coupling the output shafts together so that the output shafts rotate together in the same direction at the same speed; at least one radially arranged cylinder assembly on each block, each cylinder assembly including a cylinder having a longitudinal axis extending generally radially outwardly from the rotational axis of the block, the cylinder including means defining an end wall, a piston member disposed within the cylinder and adapted to reciprocate within the cylinder; a combustion chamber, means permitting periodic introduction of air and fuel into the combustion chamber, means for causing combustion of a compressed mixture of air and fuel within the combustion chamber, means permitting periodic exhaust of products of combustion of air and fuel from the combustion chamber, and means for imparting forces and motions of the piston within the cylinder to and from the cam track, the means comprising a cam follower operatively connected to the piston; wherein the cam track includes at least a first segment and at least a second segment thereof, the first segment having a generally positive slope wherein the segment has a generally increasing radial distance from the rotational axis of the engine block whereby as a piston moves outwardly in a cylinder on a power stroke while the cam follower is in radial register with the cam track segment, the reactive force of the respective cam follower against the cam track segment acts in a direction tending to impart rotation to the engine block.

  15. Fully-coupled engineering and mesoscale simulations of thermal conductivity in UO2 fuel using an implicit multiscale approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Chris Newman

    2009-08-01

    Reactor fuel performance is sensitive to microstructure changes during irradiation (such as fission gas and pore formation). This study proposes an approach to capture microstructural changes in the fuel by a two-way coupling of a mesoscale phase field irradiation model to an engineering scale, finite element calculation. This work solves the multiphysics equation system at the engineering-scale in a parallel, fully-coupled, fully-implicit manner using a preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method (JFNK). A sampling of the temperature at the Gauss points of the coarse scale is passed to a parallel sequence of mesoscale calculations within the JFNK function evaluation phase of the calculation. The mesoscale thermal conductivity is calculated in parallel, and the result is passed back to the engineering-scale calculation. As this algorithm is fully contained within the JFNK function evaluation, the mesoscale calculation is nonlinearly consistent with the engineering-scale calculation. Further, the action of the Jacobian is also consistent, so the composite algorithm provides the strong nonlinear convergence properties of Newton's method. The coupled model using INL's \\bison\\ code demonstrates quadratic nonlinear convergence and good parallel scalability. Initial results predict the formation of large pores in the hotter center of the pellet, but few pores on the outer circumference. Thus, the thermal conductivity is is reduced in the center of the pellet, leading to a higher internal temperature than that in an unirradiated pellet.

  16. Influence of fuel variables on the operation of automotive open and pre-chamber diesel and spark ignited stratified charge engines: a literature study covering petroleum and syncrude derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Needham, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    A literature study has been carried out to ascertain the influence of fuels and fuel variables on the operation of automotive diesel and spark ignited stratified charge engines with a view to understanding the impact of future fuels derived from Syncrude. The findings from the search are presented and discussed in detail, conclusions reached and recommendations made.

  17. Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion: Heavy-Duty Optical-Engine Research |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuelDepartment of Energy 09 DOE

  18. Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part IBladeDepartment

  19. A systems engineering methodology for fuel efficiency and its application to a tactical wheeled vehicle demonstrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luskin, Paul (Paul L.)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense faces growing fuel demand, resulting in increasing costs and compromised operational capability. In response to this issue, the Fuel Efficient Ground Vehicle Demonstrator (FED) program was ...

  20. Alumina catalysts for reduction of NOx from methanol fueled diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Toshiro; Noda, Akira; Sakamoto, Takashi; Sato, Yoshio [Ministry of Transport of Japan, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    NOx selective reducing catalysts are expected to be used for lean-burn gasoline engines and diesel engines as an effective NOx reduction measure. The authors are interested in the combination of methanol, as a reducing agent, and alumina catalyst, and have considered the NOx reduction method using effectively much unburned methanol. In this report, in order to investigate the effect of NOx reduction by the alumina catalyst, the experiment was carried out by feeding the actual exhaust gas from the methanol engine into the alumina catalyst. As a result, it was confirmed that, without addition of any other reducing agents into the exhaust gas, the alumina catalyst has activity to reduce NOx.

  1. Design Optimization of Piezoceramic Multilayer Actuators for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Fuel Injectors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  2. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  3. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  4. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal

  5. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: • Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion • Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced, • Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine, • Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust, • Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust, • Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust. • Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. 2. A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen.

  6. Proceedings of the ASME Fuel Cell Division 2000: The 2000 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    Proceedings of the ASME Fuel Cell Division ­ 2000: The 2000 ASME International Mechanical ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AND REACTION IN PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS Sukkee Um and C.Y. Wang exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with a Nafion 117 membrane and an interdigitated flow field

  7. Engineering analysis of low enriched uranium fuel using improved zirconium hydride cross sections 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candalino, Robert Wilcox

    2006-10-30

    for the change out of the existing high enriched uranium fuel to this high-burnup, low enriched uranium fuel design. The codes MCNP and Monteburns were utilized for the neutronic analysis while the code PARET was used to determine fuel and cladding temperatures...

  8. Microelectromechanical reciprocating-tooth indexing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, James J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An indexing apparatus is disclosed that can be used to rotate a gear or move a rack in a precise, controllable manner. The indexing apparatus, based on a reciprocating shuttle driven by one or more actuators, can be formed either as a micromachine, or as a millimachine. The reciprocating shuttle of the indexing apparatus can be driven by a thermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic actuator, with one or more wedge-shaped drive teeth of the shuttle being moveable to engage and slide against indexing teeth on the gear or rack, thereby moving the gear or rack. The indexing apparatus can be formed by either surface micromachining processes or LIGA processes, depending on the size of the apparatus that is to be formed.

  9. Simulation of a novel electromechanical engine valve drive to quantify performance gains in fuel consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Justin (Justin Lee)

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the modeling and simulation of a novel electromechanical valve drive known as the MIT EMV. This valve drive allows an engine to achieve variable valve timing which has been shown to produce improvements ...

  10. Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  11. A MultiAir / MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: Statement ofAEnergyA(May 1983)

  12. A MultiAir / MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: Statement ofAEnergyA(May

  13. High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢HelpHighJian Li,1 DOEFuel Economy

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Characteristics on High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Kukwon; Han, Manbae; Wagner, Robert M; Sluder, Scott

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to understand fuel property effects on low temperature combustion (LTC) processes in a light-duty diesel engine. These types of combustion modes are often collectively referred to as high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A statistically designed set of research fuels, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), were used for this study. Engine conditions consistent with low speed cruise (1500 rpm, 2.6 bar BMEP) were chosen for investigating fuel property effects on HECC operation in a GM 1.9-L common rail diesel engine. The FACE fuel matrix includes nine combinations of fuel properties including cetane number (30 to 55), aromatic contents (20 to 45 %), and 90 % distillation temperature (270 to 340 C). HECC operation was achieved with high levels of EGR and adjusting injection parameters, e.g. higher fuel rail pressure and single injection event, which is also known as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. Engine performance, pollutant emissions, and details of the combustion process are discussed in this paper. Cetane number was found to significantly affect the combustion process with variations in the start of injection (SOI) timing, which revealed that the ranges of SOI timing for HECC operation and the PM emission levels were distinctively different between high cetane number (55) and low cetane number fuels (30). Low cetane number fuels showed comparable levels of regulated gas emissions with high cetane number fuels and had an advantage in PM emissions.

  15. Proceedings of Proceedings of the ASME 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability & 10th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    , San Diego, USA ESFuelCell2012-91307 DRAFT: OPTIMIZATION OF PURGE CYCLE FOR DEAD-ENDED ANODE FUEL CELL the purge interval at given operating conditions can optimize the fuel cell efficiency and hy- drogen loss & 10th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference ESFuelCell2012 July 23-July 26, 2012

  16. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  17. Development and use of an advanced coal-fueled diesel cycle simulation with group effects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branyon, David Pratt

    1989-01-01

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF AN ADVANCED COAL-FUELED DIESEL CYCLE SIMULATION WITH GROUP EFFECTS A Thesis by DAVID PRATT BRANYON Approved ss to style and content by: Jerald A... lower than the price of diesel on an energy basis, coal in its rsw form is not suitable for use in a reciprocating engine. The price of coal is enough lower than the price of diesel, however, to provide for the refinement oi' the coal into a form...

  18. Pulse-actuated fuel-injection spark plug

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Ian (Livermore, CA); Tatro, Clement A. (Livermore, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A replacement spark plug for reciprocating internal combustion engines that functions as a fuel injector and as a spark plug to provide a "stratified-charge" effect. The conventional carburetor is retained to supply the main fuel-air mixture which may be very lean because of the stratified charge. The replacement plug includes a cylindrical piezoelectric ceramic which contracts to act as a pump whenever an ignition pulse is applied to a central rod through the ceramic. The rod is hollow at its upper end for receiving fuel, it is tapered along its lower length to act as a pump, and it is flattened at its lower end to act as a valve for fuel injection from the pump into the cylinder. The rod also acts as the center electrode of the plug, with the spark jumping from the plug base to the lower end of the rod to thereby provide spark ignition that has inherent proper timing with the fuel injection.

  19. Methanol/ethanol/gasoline blend-fuels demonstration with stratified-charge-engine vehicles: Consultant report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pefley, R.; Adelman, H.; Suga, T.

    1980-03-01

    Four 1978 Honda CVCC vehicles have been in regular use by California Energy Commission staff in Sacramento for 12 months. Three of the unmodified vehicles were fueled with alcohol/gasoline blends (5% methanol, 10% methanol, and 10% ethanol) with the fourth remaining on gasoline as a control. The operators did not know which fuels were in the vehicles. At 90-day intervals the cars were returned to the Univerity of Santa Clara for servicing and for emissions and fuel economy testing in accordance with the Federal Test Procedures. The demonstration and testing have established the following: (1) the tested blends cause no significant degradation in exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and driveability; (2) the tested blends cause significant increases in evaporative emissions; (3) analysis of periodic oil samples shows no evidence of accelerated metal wear; and (4) higher than 10% alcohols will require substantial modification to most existing California motor vehicles for acceptable emissions, performance, and fuel economy. Many aspects of using methanol and ethanol fuels, both straight and in blends, in various engine technologies are discussed.

  20. Effect of ambient conditions and fuel properties on homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreae, Morgan M. (Morgan MacKenzie)

    2006-01-01

    Practical application of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion must demonstrate robust responses to variations in environmental conditions. This work examines the impact of ambient conditions and fuel ...

  1. Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory and Heavy-Duty Emissions Testing Center Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Low-Friction Hard Coatings...

  2. A MultiAir / MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace062reese2011...

  3. A MultiAir / MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace062reese2012...

  4. Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    predicted with a grouped approach using cetane with secondary effects from volatility or heavy fuel components deer10bunting.pdf More Documents & Publications Response of Oil...

  5. Constructing and engineering fatty acid metabolic pathways for the production of fuels and chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steen, Eric James

    2010-01-01

    of alternative energy and petroleum sources. Anotherto petroleum-derived fuel may provide energy sustainabilitypetroleum,” being a primary metabolite used by cells for both chemical and energy

  6. Combustion, Control, and Fuel Effects in a Spark Assisted HCCI Engine

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collider Tests of the Little

  7. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal Article)atDiagnosticsFacilityEnergycomplex

  8. Road to Fuel Savings: GM Technology Ramps Up Engine Efficiency | Department

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultiday ProductionDesigningResourcesfeed-imageHanford Advisory|of

  9. Proceedings of the 6th International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering & Technology Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    OF MERESS MODEL ­ DEVELOPING SYSTEM MODELS OF STATIONARY COMBINED HEAT AND POWER (CHP) FUEL CELL SYSTEMS ABSTRACT Stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) can provide electricity and heat) emissions, networks, cogeneration, combined heat and power (CHP), cost, profitability, thermal distribution

  10. Pressure non-uniformity and mixing characteristics in stratified-charge rotary engine combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Wey, M.J.; Bracco, F.V.

    1988-01-01

    Stratified-charge combustion in rotary engines was studied using a three-dimensional model to compute intake, compression, liquid fuel injection, combustion, expansion, and exhaust. The model was applied to two engines of different displacement and at seven operating conditions. Good agreement is found between the measured pressure and the results of previous studies. The main feature of the combustion flowfield in the two engines, the slow and nonuniform mixing of fuel and air which leads to long and incomplete combustion, is attributed at least in part to low turbulent diffusivity within the rotor pocket. The TDC diffusivity in this type of rotary engine is shown to be lower than in corresponding reciprocating engines primarily because of the longer time between intake and TDC. The model also explains pressure nonuniformities that have been experimentally observed within the combustion chamber around TDC. The nonuniformity is due to the large fluid acceleration caused by the motion of the rotor. 34 references.

  11. Direct Visualization of Spray and Combustion Inside a DI-SI Engine and Its Implications to Flex-Fuel VVT Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel, injection timing, and valve deactivation in a DI optical accessible engine with side-mounted, multi-hole injector are investigated using CFD and high-speed imaging of sprays and combustion.

  12. Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Barton, G.; Rumminger, M.; Duggal, V.; Nelson, C.; Ray, M.; Cherrillo, R. A.

    2005-11-01

    A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration.

  13. Development of multiscale models for the performance of the gas and oil seals in rotary engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Picard, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Rotary engines offer higher power density, fewer parts and lower vibrations than conventional reciprocating piston engines. However, rotary engines are more difficult to seal because of the rotor shape which leads to higher ...

  14. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    is reached, the engine operates on propane fuel forpropane- fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition engine:while the engine operates steadily on propane as fuel (

  15. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through July 1999.

  16. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through June 1998.

  17. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through November 1999.

  18. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through February 1999.

  19. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

  20. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through September 1999.

  1. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through January 2000.

  2. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through December 1999.

  3. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through October 1999.

  4. Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  5. Actuation fluid adapter for hydraulically-actuated electronically-controlled fuel injector and engine using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keyster, Eric S. (Peoria, IL); Merchant, Jack A. (Peoria, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector adapter consists of a block defining a pressure communication passage therethrough and an actuation fluid passage. The actuation fluid passage includes three separate branches that open through an outer surface of the block at three separate locations.

  6. Analysis of NOx Formation in a Hydrogen-Fueled Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelsen, GS; Therkelsen, P; Werts, T; McDonell, V

    2009-01-01

    Test in a Small Gas Turbine,” International Journal ofof Hydrogen in a Small Gas Turbine Combustor,” InternationalL. , 2005, “Using Hydrogen as Gas Turbine Fuel” J. Engr. Gas

  7. Fuel Cells: Thermodynamic Engine to a Sustainable Energy Future Richard T. Carlin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    sustainable, reliable electrical grids and micro-grids. Integration of fuel cell systems with renewable electrical generation (wind, photovoltaic, geothermal, etc.) facilitates high-percentage renewable penetration; enhances grid and micro-grid power management; provides efficient electrical power generation

  8. Analysis of NOx Formation in a Hydrogen-Fueled Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelsen, GS; Therkelsen, P; Werts, T; McDonell, V

    2009-01-01

    Turbine Fuel” J. Engr. Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 127, pp,Test in a Small Gas Turbine,” International Journal ofof Hydrogen in a Small Gas Turbine Combustor,” International

  9. Vehicle fuel economy benefit and aftertreatment requirement of an HCCI-SI engine system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, AliciA Jillian Jackson, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    This body of work dimensions the HCCI fuel economy benefits and required aftertreatment performance for compliance with emissions regulations in North America and Europe. The following parameters were identified as key ...

  10. Development of microprocessor control for a V-6 engine fueled by prevaporized methanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Donald F.

    1985-01-01

    on line. The ultimate goal of developing this excess into s broad based alternate fuel source has not materialized due to the reduction of oil prices because of a similar glut. Many options for methanol as a fuel exist such as blends with gasoline..., prevaporized methanol in such a control scheme will more fully take advantage of the potential of the control system because of its physical state and required optimum operating parameters which vary significantly from those currently used for gasoline...

  11. Monovalve with integrated fuel injector and port control valve, and engine using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milam, David M. (Metamora, IL)

    2001-11-06

    An engine includes an engine casing that defines a hollow piston cavity separated from an exhaust passage and an intake passage by a valve seat. A gas exchange valve member is positioned adjacent the valve seat and is moveable between an open position and a closed position. The gas exchange valve member also defines an opening that opens into the hollow piston cavity. A needle valve member is positioned in the gas exchange valve member adjacent a nozzle outlet and is moveable between an inject position and a blocked position. A port control valve member, which has a hydraulic surface, is mounted around the gas exchange valve member and moveable between an intake position and an exhaust position. A pilot valve is moveable between a first position at which the port control hydraulic surface is exposed to a source of high pressure fluid, and a second position at which the port control hydraulic surface is exposed to a source of low pressure fluid.

  12. RECIPROCAL PASSIVE MODE-LOCKING OF A RHODAMINE 6G DYE LASER AND THE Ar+ PUMP LASER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasa, Zafer A.

    2013-01-01

    Letters RECIPROCAL PASSIVE MODE+LOCKING OF A RHODAMINE 6GCalifornia. RECIPROCAL PASSIVE MODE-LOCKING OF A RHODAMINEOctober 1980 RECIPROCAL PASSIVE MODE-LOCKING OF A RHODAMINE

  13. The effect of thermal barrier coated piston crown on engine characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, S.H.; Khor, K.A.

    2000-02-01

    While there have been numerous research papers in recent years describing the theoretical benefits obtained from the use of ceramic components in reciprocating engines, the amount of literature that describes practical results is very limited. Although successes have been reported and ceramic components are now in service in production engines, mainly for reduced in-cylinder heat rejection, many researchers have experienced failures or a drop in engine performance. This article presents the work completed on a low heat rejection engine. Extensive experiments were conducted on a three-cylinder SI Daihatsu engine with piston crowns coated with a layer of ceramic, which consisted of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Measurement and comparison of engine performance, in particular fuel consumption, were made before and after the application of YSZ coatings deposited onto the piston crowns. The details of the cylinder pressures during the combustion process were also investigated.

  14. Optical investigation of the combustion behaviour inside the engine operating in HCCI mode and using alternative diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancaruso, E.; Vaglieco, B.M.

    2010-04-15

    In order to understand the effect of both the new homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process and the use of biofuel, optical measurements were carried out into a transparent CR diesel engine. Rape seed methyl ester was used and tests with several injection pressures were performed. OH and HCO radical were detected and their evolutions were analyzed during the whole combustion. Moreover, soot concentration was measured by means the two colour pyrometry method. The reduction of particulate emission with biodiesel as compared to the diesel fuel was noted. Moreover, this effect resulted higher increasing the injection pressure. In the case of RME the oxidation of soot depends mainly from O{sub 2} content of fuel and OH is responsible of the NO formation in the chamber as it was observed for NO{sub x} exhaust emission. Moreover, it was investigated the evolution of HCO and CO into the cylinder. HCO was detected at the start of combustion. During the combustion, HCO oxidizes due to the increasing temperature and it produces CO. Both fuels have similar trend, the highest concentrations are detected for low injection pressure. This effect is more evident for the RME fuel. (author)

  15. Experimental Studies for CPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, John; Naber, Jeffrey; Parker, Gordon; Yang, Song-Lin; Stevens, Andrews; Pihl, Josh

    2013-04-30

    The research carried out on this project developed experimentally validated Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) high?fidelity models that served as the basis for the reduced order models used for internal state estimation. The high?fidelity and reduced order/estimator codes were evaluated by the industrial partners with feedback to MTU that improved the codes. Ammonia, particulate matter (PM) mass retained, PM concentration, and NOX sensors were evaluated and used in conjunction with the estimator codes. The data collected from PM experiments were used to develop the PM kinetics using the high?fidelity DPF code for both NO2 assisted oxidation and thermal oxidation for Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (ULSF), and B10 and B20 biodiesel fuels. Nine SAE papers were presented and this technology transfer process should provide the basis for industry to improve the OBD and control of urea injection and fuel injection for active regeneration of the PM in the DPF using the computational techniques developed. This knowledge will provide industry the ability to reduce the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles in the field. Four MS and three PhD Mechanical Engineering students were supported on this project and their thesis research provided them with expertise in experimental, modeling, and controls in aftertreatment systems.

  16. Influence of fuel variables on the operation of automotive open and pre-chamber diesel and spark ignited stratified charge engines: a literature study covering petroleum and syncrude derived fuels, executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Needham, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    A literature study was carried out to ascertain the influence of fuels and fuel variables on the operation of automotive diesel and spark ignited stratified charge engines with a view to understanding the impact of future fuels derived from syncrude. The findings from the search were presented and discussed in detail in the main report (Ricardo DP.81/539). In this executive summary, the conclusions and recommendations from the main report are presented.

  17. Engineer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographiclighbulbs - high-resolution2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells1

  18. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Basic Operating Characteristics and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-12

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  19. Gas -Fueled Engine-Driven Air Conditioning Systems for Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    .9 is targeted. A.G.A. Laboratories is wor!cin~ with Thermo King Corporation to develop a 15-ton rooftop package based on Thermo King's truck-trailer refrigeration system. Thermo King has manufactured engine- driven tefrigeration systems for 48 years and has.../kw) Summor, 1985 Rator, Largo Commorclal Bulldlngr. No Taxor or Surchargor Includod L-W3211.08 Ratchet Charger Applicable SENSITIVITY TO GAS PRICE Electric Energy Cost (*/kwh) - - ~pp Sb Boas Cora Aaaumptlona: Fhrt Cort Premlum: S30/Ton Gar Englne...

  20. Ultra Clean and Efficient Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power (CHP) System, given by Jim Zurlo of Dresser Waukesha, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011....

  1. Proceedings of the 6th International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering & Technology Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    OF MERESS MODEL -- DESIGNING, CONTROLLING, AND INSTALLING STATIONARY COMBINED HEAT AND POWER (CHP) FUEL CELL that allows users to evaluate avant-garde strategies for installing and operating combined heat and power (CHP Strategy V: stand alone operation (SA), no load following (NLF), and a fixed heat-to-power ratio (FHP) [SA

  2. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    conditions is selected. It is composed of hydrocarbons (HC: propane and propene), oxygen, carbon monoxide hydrocarbons, pollutant emissions reduction hal-01056363,version1-21Aug2014 #12;1. Introduction Solid oxide. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

  3. Microbial Fuel Cells: Now Let us Talk about Energy Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211, United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microbial Fuel Cells: Now Let us Talk about Energy Zhen He* Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211, United States Microbial fuel cells of journal publications.1 MFCs are attractive as a new platform (e.g., micro-MFCs) to study microbial

  4. Phase Formation and Transformations in Transmutation Fuel Materials for the LIFE Engine Part I - Path Forward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, P E; Kaufman, L; Fluss, M J

    2008-11-10

    The current specifications of the LLNL fusion-fission hybrid proposal, namely LIFE, impose severe constraints on materials, and in particular on the nuclear fissile or fertile nuclear fuel and its immediate environment. This constitutes the focus of the present report with special emphasis on phase formation and phase transformations of the transmutation fuel and their consequences on particle and pebble thermal, chemical and mechanical integrities. We first review the work that has been done in recent years to improve materials properties under the Gen-IV project, and with in particular applications to HTGR and MSR, and also under GNEP and AFCI in the USA. Our goal is to assess the nuclear fuel options that currently exist together with their issues. Among the options, it is worth mentioning TRISO, IMF, and molten salts. The later option will not be discussed in details since an entire report is dedicated to it. Then, in a second part, with the specific LIFE specifications in mind, the various fuel options with their most critical issues are revisited with a path forward for each of them in terms of research, both experimental and theoretical. Since LIFE is applicable to very high burn-up of various fuels, distinctions will be made depending on the mission, i.e., energy production or incineration. Finally a few conclusions are drawn in terms of the specific needs for integrated materials modeling and the in depth knowledge on time-evolution thermochemistry that controls and drastically affects the performance of the nuclear materials and their immediate environment. Although LIFE demands materials that very likely have not yet been fully optimized, the challenge are not insurmountable and a well concerted experimental-modeling effort should lead to dramatic advances that should well serve other fission programs such as Gen-IV, GNEP, AFCI as well as the international fusion program, ITER.

  5. Ignition assist systems for direct-injected, diesel cycle, medium-duty alternative fuel engines: Final report phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, A.K.

    2000-02-23

    This report is a summary of the results of Phase 1 of this contract. The objective was to evaluate the potential of assist technologies for direct-injected alternative fuel engines vs. glow plug ignition assist. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ignition system life of 10,000 hours and a system cost of less than 50% of the glow plug system, while meeting or exceeding the engine thermal efficiency obtained with the glow plug system. There were three tasks in Phase 1. Under Task 1, a comprehensive review of feasible ignition options for DING engines was completed. The most promising options are: (1) AC and the ''SmartFire'' spark, which are both long-duration, low-power (LDLP) spark systems; (2) the short-duration, high-power (SDHP) spark system; (3) the micropilot injection ignition; and (4) the stratified charge plasma ignition. Efforts concentrated on investigating the AC spark, SmartFire spark, and short-duration/high-power spark systems. Using proprietary pricing information, the authors predicted that the commercial costs for the AC spark, the short-duration/high-power spark and SmartFire spark systems will be comparable (if not less) to the glow plug system. Task 2 involved designing and performing bench tests to determine the criteria for the ignition system and the prototype spark plug for Task 3. The two most important design criteria are the high voltage output requirement of the ignition system and the minimum electrical insulation requirement for the spark plug. Under Task 3, all the necessary hardware for the one-cylinder engine test was designed. The hardware includes modified 3126 cylinder heads, specially designed prototype spark plugs, ignition system electronics, and parts for the system installation. Two 3126 cylinder heads and the SmartFire ignition system were procured, and testing will begin in Phase 2 of this subcontract.

  6. ENGINEERING

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ENGINEERING the Future of ENERGY Regional University Alliance National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Research and Development The Future of Energy The time to redraw...

  7. Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Includes Engineering Standards Manual, Master Specifications Index, Drafting Manual, Design Guides, and more. IHS Standards Expert login information Collections include ANSI,...

  8. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  9. Performance and Emission Characteristics of an Aircraft Turbo Diesel Engine using JET-A Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, Sean Christopher

    2008-05-05

    Monoxide CO 2 Carbon Dioxide C # H # Hydrocarbon Molecule D Diameter d Distance d/dt Derivative Respect to Time D p Mass of Pollutant F Fluorine Element or Force F oo Rated Output H Hydrogen Element H 2 O Water HCl Hydrochloric Acid HF... Research Institute TSFC Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle US United States VOC Volatile Organic Compound ix List of Figures Figure 1: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide [ref 3...

  10. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaing for Premium Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank J. Smit; Gene L. Schields; Mehesh C. Jha; Nick Moro

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel? column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications -- Less than 2 pounds of ash per million Btu (860 grams per gigajoule) and

  11. Biosocial reciprocity in environmental communication: a study of giant panda conservation communication in China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Liuqing

    2007-04-25

    This study proposes biosocial reciprocity framework in environmental communication, which suggests the interdependent relationships between mass media, people's attitudes, and the physical environment. Biosocial reciprocity ...

  12. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steindler, M J; Ader, M; Barletta, R E

    1980-01-01

    In the program on pyrochemical and dry processing methods (PDPM) for nuclear fuel, tungsten crucibles were successfully spun for use in laboratory-scale experiments. Corrosion testing of refractory metals and alloys in PDPM environments was done. Ceramic substrates were successfully coated with tungsten. Solubility measurements were made to determine Cd/Mg alloy composition and temperature at which dissolved Th will precipitate. Experiments were started to study the reduction of high-fired ThO/sub 2/ with Ca in a molten metal-molten salt system. Work on the fused salt electrolysis of CaO was started. Equipment for determining phase diagrams for U-Cu-Mg system was set up. The reaction of UO/sub 2/ with molten equimolar NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ was studied as part of a project to identify chemically feasible nonaqueous fuel reprocessing methods. Work was continued on development of a flowsheet for reprocessing actinide oxides by extracting actinides into ammonium chloro-aluminate (and alternative salts) from a bismuth solution. Preparation of Th, U, and Pu nitrides after dissolution of spent fuel elements in molten tin is being studied. Leach rates of glass beads, pulverized beads, and beads encapsulated in a lead matrix with no protective envelope were studied. A method (employing no pressure or vacuum systems) of encapsulating various solid wastes in a lead metal matrix was developed and tested. A preliminary integration was made of earlier data on effects of impacts on metal-matrix waste forms.Leach migration experiments were compared with conventional infiltration experiments as methods of evaluating geologic formations as barriers to nuclide migration. The effect of the streaming potential on the rates of transport of radioactive I/sup -/ and Na/sup +/ through kaolinite columns was measured, as well as adsorption of iodide and iodate by several compounds; implications of the results upon the disposal of radioactive iodine are discussed.

  13. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix D, Part B: Naval spent nuclear fuel management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This volume contains the following attachments: transportation of Naval spent nuclear fuel; description of Naval spent nuclear receipt and handling at the Expended Core Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; comparison of storage in new water pools versus dry container storage; description of storage of Naval spent nuclear fuel at servicing locations; description of receipt, handling, and examination of Naval spent nuclear fuel at alternate DOE facilities; analysis of normal operations and accident conditions; and comparison of the Naval spent nuclear fuel storage environmental assessment and this environmental impact statement.

  14. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinskey, Anthony J.; Worden, Robert Mark; Brigham, Christopher; Lu, Jingnan; Quimby, John Westlake; Gai, Claudia; Speth, Daan; Elliott, Sean; Fei, John Qiang; Bernardi, Amanda; Li, Sophia; Grunwald, Stephan; Grousseau, Estelle; Maiti, Soumen; Liu, Chole

    2013-12-16

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide into complex cellular molecules using the energy from hydrogen. In this research project, engineered strains of R. eutropha redirected the excess carbon from PHB storage into the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can be used directly as substitutes for fossil-based fuels and are seen as alternative biofuels to ethanol and biodiesel. Importantly, these alcohols have approximately 98 % of the energy content of gasoline, 17 % higher than the current gasoline additive ethanol, without impacting corn market production for feed or food. Unlike ethanol, these branched-chain alcohols have low vapor pressure, hygroscopicity, and water solubility, which make them readily compatible with the existing pipelines, gasoline pumps, and engines in our transportation infrastructure. While the use of alternative energies from solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric has spread for stationary power applications, these energy sources cannot be effectively or efficiently employed in current or future transportation systems. With the ongoing concerns of fossil fuel availability and price stability over the long term, alternative biofuels like branched-chain higher alcohols hold promise as a suitable transportation fuel in the future. We showed in our research that various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, would produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol when initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Early on, we isolated one mutant R. eutropha strain which produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture while being more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity. After the targeted elimination of genes encoding several potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer of the improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol.

  15. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel cycle work included hydraulic performance and extraction efficiency of eight-stage centrifugal contactors, flowsheet for the Aralex process, Ru and Zr extraction in a miniature centrifugal contactor, study of Zr aging in the organic phase and its effect on Zr extraction and hydraulic testing of the 9-cm-ID contactor. Work for predicting accident consequences in LWR fuel processing covered the relation between energy input (to subdivide a solid) and the modes of particle size frequency distribution. In the pyrochemical and dry processing program corrosion-testing materials for containment vessels and equipment for studying carbide reactions in bismuth is under way. Analytical studies have been made of salt-transport processes; efforts to spin tungsten crucibles 13 cm dia continue, and other information on tungsten fabrication is being assembled; the process steps of the chloride volatility process have been demonstrated and the thoria powder product used to produce oxide pellets; solubility of UO/sub 2/, PuO/sub 2/, and fission products in molten alkali nitrates is being investigated; work was continued on reprocessing actinide oxides by extracting the actinides into ammonium chloroaluminate from bismuth; the preparation of thorium-uranium carbide from the oxide is being studied as a means of improving the oxide reactivity; studies are in progress on producing uranium metal and decontaminated ThO/sub 2/ by the reaction of (Th,U)O/sub 2/ solid solution in molten salts containing ThCl/sub 4/ and thorium metal chips. In the molten tin process, no basic thermodynamic or kinetic factors have been found that may limit process development.

  16. FUEL CONSERVATION BY THE APPLICATION OF SPILL PREVENTION AND FAILSAFE ENGINEERING (A GUIDELINE MANUAL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodier,, J. L.; Siclari,, R. J.; Garrity,, P. A.

    1980-10-30

    From a series of nationwide plant surveys dedicated to spill prevention, containment and countermeasure evaluation, coupled with spill response action activities, a need was determined for a spill prevention guideline manual. From Federally accumulated statistics for oil and hazardous substance spills, the authors culled information on spills of hydrocarbon products. In 1978, a total of 1456 oil spills were reported compared to 1451 in 1979. The 1978 spills were more severe, however, since 7;289,163 gallons of oil were accident~y discharged. In 1979, the gallons spilled was reduced to 3,663,473. These figures are derived from reported spills; it is highly possible that an equal amount was spilled and not reported. Spills effectively contained within a plant property that do not enter a n~vigational waterway need not be reported. Needless to say, there is a tremendous annual loss of oil products due to accidental spillage during transportation, cargo transfer, bulk storage and processing. As an aid to plant engineers and managers, Fe~eral workers, fire marshalls and fire and casualty insurance inspectors, the documen~ is offered as a spill prevention guide. The'manual defines state-of-the-art spill prevention practices and automation techniques that can reduce spills caused by human error. Whenever practical, the cost of implementation is provided to aid equipment acquisition and installation budgeting. To emphasize the need for spill prevention activities, historic spills are briefly described after which remedial action is defined in an appropriate section of the manual. The section on plant security goes into considerable depth since to date no Federal agency or traqe association has provided industry with guidelines on this important phase of plant operation. The intent of the document is to provide finger-tip reference material that can be used by interested parties in a nationwide effort to reduce loss of oil from preventable spills.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Fuel-Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Mode in a Multi-Cylinder, Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Kukwon; Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Sluder, Scott; Parks, II, James E; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to provide the combustion and emission characteristics resulting from fuel-reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion mode utilizing dual-fuel approach in a light-duty, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline before intake valve opening (IVO) and early-cycle, direct injection of diesel fuel was used as the charge preparation and fuel blending strategy. In order to achieve the desired auto-ignition quality through the stratification of the fuel-air equivalence ratio ( ), blends of commercially available gasoline and diesel fuel were used. Engine experiments were performed at an engine speed of 2300rpm and an engine load of 4.3bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). It was found that significant reduction in both nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was realized successfully through the RCCI combustion mode even without applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were observed. The low combustion gas temperature during the expansion and exhaust processes seemed to be the dominant source of high CO emissions in the RCCI combustion mode. The high HC emissions during the RCCI combustion mode could be due to the increased combustion quenching layer thickness as well as the -stratification at the periphery of the combustion chamber. The slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the RCCI combustion mode was observed than the other combustion modes, such as the conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode, and single-fuel, premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. The parametric study of the RCCI combustion mode revealed that the combustion phasing and/or the peak cylinder pressure rise rate of the RCCI combustion mode could be controlled by several physical parameters premixed ratio (rp), intake swirl intensity, and start of injection (SOI) timing of directly injected fuel unlike other low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies.

  18. Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, John A.

    1988-01-01

    A two piston Stirling engine wherein the pistons are coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means, the pistons include pad means to minimize friction between the pistons and the cylinders during reciprocation of the pistons, means for pressurizing the engine crankcase, and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

  19. Rotary valve internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunk, P.H.

    1989-03-28

    A rotary valve internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder in the engine block; at least one cylinder having a top end; cylinder head means located adjacent the top end of at least one cylinder, the cylinder head means having a cylindrically shaped cavity therein, the cylindrically shaped cavity being oriented in perpendicular relation to at least one cylinder; a piston sealingly mounted in at least one cylinder for reciprocable movement therein, the reciprocable movement including an intake stroke and an exhaust stroke; engine shaft means rotatably mounted to the engine block; means within the engine block for converting the reciprocable movement of the piston into rotary motion of the engine shaft means; a cylinder port located at the top end of at least one cylinder; a rotary valve rotatably mounted in the cylindrically shaped cavity; means connected with the engine shaft means for rotating the rotary valve in a predetermined synchronization with the reciprocable movement of the piston; aspiration means in the rotary valve for selectively aspirating at least one cylinder during the intake an exhaust strokes; and a spark plug removably mounted within the rotary valve and rotatable therewith.

  20. Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steindler, M J; Ader, M; Barletta, R E

    1980-01-01

    In the program on pyrochemical and dry processing methods (PDPM) for nuclear fuel, corrosion testing of refractory metals and alloys, graphite, and SiC in PDPM environments was done. A tungsten-metallized Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-3% Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ crucible was successfully fabricated. Tungsten microstructure of a plasma-sprayed tungsten crucible was stabilized by nickel infiltration and heat treatment. Solubility measurements of Th in Cd and Cd-Mg alloys were continued, as were experiments to study the reduction of high-fired ThO/sub 2/. Work on the fused salt electrolysis of CaO also was continued. The method of coprocessing of U and Pu by a salt transport process was modified. Tungsten-coated molybdenum crucibles were fabricated. The proliferation resistance of chloride volatility processing of thorium-based fuels is being evaluated by studying the behavior of fission product elements during chlorination of U and Th. Thermodynamic analysis of the phase relationships in the U-Pu-Zn system was initiated. The Pyro-Civex reprocessing method is being reviewed. Reactivity of UO/sub 2/ and PuO/sub 2/ with molten equimolar NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ is being studied along with the behavior of selected fission product elements. Work was continued on the reprocessing of actinide oxides by extracting the actinides from a bismuth solution. Rate of dissolution of UO/sub 2/ microspheres in LiCl/AlCl/sub 3/ was measured. Nitriding rates of Th and U dissolved in molten tin were measured. In work on the encapsulation of radioactive waste in metal, leach rates of a simulated waste glass were studied. Rates of dissolution of metals (potential barrier materials) in aqueous media are being studied. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, the adsorption of iodate by hematite as a function of pH and iodate concentration was measured. The migration behavior of cesium in limestone was studied in relation to the cesium concentration and pH of simulated groundwater solutions.

  1. Reciprocity and gyrotropism in magnetic resonance transduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tropp, James

    2006-12-15

    We give formulas for transduction in magnetic resonance - i.e., the appearance of an emf due to Larmor precession of spins - based upon the modified Lorentz reciprocity principle for gyrotropic (also called 'nonreciprocal') media, i.e., in which a susceptibility tensor is carried to its transpose by reversal of an external static field [cf., R. F. Harrington and A. T. Villeneuve IRE Trans. Microwave Theory and Technique MTT6, 308 (1958)]. Prior applications of reciprocity to magnetic resonance, despite much success, have ignored the gyrotropism which necessarily arises due to nuclear and/or unpaired electronic spins. For detection with linearly polarized fields, oscillating at the Larmor frequency, the emf is written in terms of a volume integral containing a product of two factors which we define as the antenna patterns, i.e. (H{sub 1x}{+-}iH{sub 1y}), where, e.g., for a single transceive antenna, the H's are just the spatially dependent oscillatory magnetic field strengths, per the application of some reference current at the antenna terminals, with the negative sign obtaining for transmission, and the positive for reception. Similar expressions hold for separate transmit and receive antennas; expressions are also given for circular polarization of the fields. We then exhibit a receive-only array antenna of two elements for magnetic resonance imaging of protons, which, due an intensity artifact arising from stray reactive coupling of the elements, produces, despite its own bilateral symmetry, asymmetric proton NMR images of a symmetric cylindrical phantom containing aqueous saline solution [J. Tropp and T. Schirmer, J. Magn. Reson. 151, 146 (2001)]. Modification of this two-port antenna, to function in transmit-receive mode, allows us to demonstrate highly nonreciprocal behavior: that is, to record images (of cylindrical test phantoms containing aqueous saline solution) whose appearance dramatically changes, when the roles of transmission and reception are swapped between the two antenna ports--giving in one instance a signal intensity pattern whose form resembles an umbrella (i.e., with a central column of moderate intensity surmounted by a bright canopy), and in the other, a distorted oval with slight concavities at its horizontal extremes, whose outline suggests that of a cat's eye. The relation between image patterns and drive scheme can be shown to reverse if the static polarizing field is reversed. Electromagnetic and circuit calculations, together with the modified reciprocity principle, allow us to reproduce these pattern changes in numerical simulations, closely and convincingly. Although the imaging experiments are performed at a static field of 3.0 T, and consequently a Larmor frequency of 128 MHz, the nonreciprocal effects are not related to the shortness of the wavelength in aqueous medium, but appear equally in simulations based in either the quasistatic or full electromagnetic regimes. Finally, we show that although antenna patterns for transmission and reception are swapped with reversal of the polarizing field, meaning that the receive pattern equals the transmit pattern with the field reversed, this in no way invalidates the familiar rotating wave model of spin dynamics in magnetic resonance.

  2. Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  3. engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  4. Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  5. Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells. Tech Team Meeting Presentaion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, Eric L.; Elbaz Alon, Lior; Henson, Neil J.; Rockward, Tommy; Roy, Aaron; Serov, Alexey; Ward, Timothy

    2012-08-13

    Catalyst support durability is currently a technical barrier for commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, especially for transportation applications. Degradation and corrosion of the conventional carbon supports leads to losses in active catalyst surface area and, consequently, reduced performance. As a result, the goal of this work is to develop support materials that interact strongly with Pt, yet sustain bulk-like catalytic activities with very highly dispersed particles. Ceramic materials that are prepared using conventional solid-state methods have large grain sizes and low surface areas that can only be minimally ameliorated through grinding and ball milling. Other synthesis routes to produce ceramic materials must be investigated and utilized in order to obtain desired surface areas. In this work, several different synthesis methods are being utilized to prepare electronically conductive ceramic boride, nitride, and oxide materials with high surface areas and have the potential for use as PEMFC catalyst supports. Polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) and aerosol-through plasma (A-T-P) torch are among several methods used to obtain ceramic materials with surface areas that are equal to, or exceed Vulcan XC-72R supports. Cubic Mo-based ceramic phases have been prepared with average XRD-determined crystallite sizes as low as 1.6 nm (from full profile, XRD fitting) and a BET surface area exceeding 200 m{sup 2}/g. Additionally, black, sub-stoichiometric TiO{sub 2-x}, have been prepared with an average crystallite size in the 4 nm range and surface areas exceeding 250 m{sup 2}/gr. Pt disposition using an incipient wetness approach produced materials with activity for hydrogen redox reactions and ORR. Cyclic voltammetry data will be shown for a variety of potential Pt/ceramic catalysts. Initial experiments indicate enhanced Pt metal-support interactions as well. Plane wave periodic density functional calculations (VASP) are being used to predict the thermodynamic and activation barriers for fundamental electrode processes occurring at platinum surfaces supported on thin films of the ceramic support materials. The results of this work will be used in order to optimize support properties.

  6. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2006-01-01

    ratio Micro- turbines Reciprocating Engines The 2004 naturalreciprocating engines, gas turbines, and microturbines. Costreciprocating engines, microturbines, gas turbines, and fuel

  7. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty, Constant Speed, Truck Engine Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahman Habibzadeh

    2010-01-31

    The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. The reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.

  8. In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E; Cho, Kukwon; Sluder, Scott; Kokjohn, Sage; Reitz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

  9. Drift stabilizer for reciprocating free-piston devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, William C.; Corey, John A.; Swift, Gregory W.

    2003-05-20

    A free-piston device has a stabilized piston drift. A piston having a frequency of reciprocation over a stroke length and with first and second sides facing first and second variable volumes, respectively, for containing a working fluid defining an acoustic wavelength at the frequency of reciprocation. A bypass tube waveguide connects the first and second variable volumes at all times during reciprocation of the piston. The waveguide has a relatively low impedance for steady flow and a relatively high impedance for oscillating flow at the frequency of reciprocation of the piston, so that steady flow returns fluid leakage from about the piston between the first and second volumes while oscillating flow is not diverted through the waveguide. Thus, net leakage about the piston is returned during each stroke of the piston while oscillating leakage is not allowed and pressure buildup on either the first or second side of the piston is avoided to provide a stable piston location.

  10. Non-intrusive fault detection in reciprocating compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schantz, Christopher James

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a set of techniques for non-intrusive sensing and fault detection in reciprocating compressors driven by induction motors. The procedures developed here are "non-intrusive" because they rely only on ...

  11. Engineering Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Engineering Engineering Technology & A T P E N N S T A T E 2 0 1 0 ­ 2 0 1 1 #12;2 Join us at penn state! Since 1896, Penn State has been a leader in engineering and engineering technology education varieties of engineering and engineering technology majors found anywhere in the United States. This means

  12. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiling, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  13. Pneumatic direct cylinder fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinke, P.E.

    1988-09-20

    This patent describes a pneumatic direct cylinder fuel injection system for use in an internal combustion engine of the type having an engine block means with an air induction means for supplying induction air to cylinders in the engine block means, with each cylinder having a piston reciprocable therein so as to define a combustion chamber which includes a stratified charge chamber as a portion thereof, the system including a plurality of pneumatic injectors, with the pneumatic injector being supported by the engine block means in position to discharge an air/fuel mixture into an associate stratified charge chamber, each of the pneumatic injectors including a body means terminating at one end thereof in a nozzle body, a bore means through the body means and the nozzle body, a valve seat encircling the bore means at the outboard free end of the nozzle body, the opposite end of the bore means being connectable to a source of air at a predetermined pressure, a poppet valve operatively positioned in the bore means. The poppet value includes a head movable between an open position and closed position relative to the valve seat and a stem extending from the head and defining with the bore means an air passage, control means operatively associated with the poppet valve to normally maintain the poppet valve in the closed position and being operative to permit movement of the poppet valve to the open position and, an electromagnetic fuel injector operatively positioned in the body means for injecting pressurized fuel into the air passage upstream of the head of the poppet valve in terms of the direction of air flow through the air passage during a compression stroke of the piston in the associate cylinder, the arrangement being such that when the compression pressure reaches a predetermined pressure the poppet valve will be moved to the valve closed position.

  14. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Optimization Common DG devices are reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines, and fuel cells.

  15. Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve

    2011-08-31

    Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 – 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: • Phase 1 – market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. • Phase 2 – Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

  16. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Part A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  17. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a pregrammatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For pregrammatic spent nuclear fuel management, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  18. Effect of carbon coating on scuffing performance in diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M. F.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2000-06-29

    Low-sulfur and low-aromatic diesel fuels are being introduced in order to reduce various types of emissions in diesel engines to levels in compliance with current and impending US federal regulations. The low lubricity of these fuels, however, poses major reliability and durability problems for fuel injection components that depend on diesel fuel for their lubrication. In the present study, the authors evaluated the scuff resistance of surfaces in regular diesel fuel containing 500 ppm sulfur and in Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel containing no sulfur or aromatics. Tests were conducted with the high frequency reciprocating test rig (HFRR) using 52100 steel balls and H-13 tool-steel flats with and without Argonne's special carbon coatings. Test results showed that the sulfur-containing fuels provide about 20% higher scuffing resistance than does fuel without sulfur. Use of the carbon coating on the flat increased scuffing resistance in both regular and synthetic fuels by about ten times, as measured by the contact severity index at scuffing. Scuffing failure in tests conducted with coated surfaces did not occur until the coating had been removed by the two distinct mechanisms of spalling and wear.

  19. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Lean-burn improves PFI fuel economy by ~3% relative to best stoichiometric VCT/EGR conditions, when used in combination with VCT & EGR.

  20. DOE Training Reciprocity Program | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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