Sample records for receipts average cost

  1. Costs of Generating Electrical Energy 1.0 Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    , 1992 through 2008 Period Coal [1] Petroleum [2] Natural Gas [3] All Fossil Fuels Receipts (Billion BTU) Average Cost Avg. Sulfur Percent by Weight Receipts (billion BTU) Average Cost Avg. Sulfur Percent by Weight Receipts (Billion BTUs) Average Cost (cents/ 10 6 Btu) Average Cost (cents/ 10 6 Btu) ($ per 10 6

  2. Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications Eric M. Wolff Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 Email: ewolff@caltech.edu Ufuk Topcu Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125

  3. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  4. average system cost: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    course that address life cycle costs, particularly the concepts of life cycle assessment (LCA) and design packaging technology, specifically the process of predicting the...

  5. HARVARD UNIVERSITY MISSING RECEIPT AFFIDAVIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    of the car rental agreement. Please reimburse me based on the following information: Dates Rental Company Car agreement receipt · Personal Car Usage ­ receipts for tolls and parking and daily mileage log listing date

  6. Solar Energy Gross Receipts Tax Deduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Mexico has a gross receipts tax structure for businesses instead of a sales tax. Businesses are taxed on the gross amount of their business receipts each year before expenses are deducted....

  7. RG1:aased on receipt but intended for use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RG1:aased on receipt but intended for use March 14, 1928 Science Service Feature P W H Y and portable, is much b e t t e r known t o t h e average citizen., In t h i s instrument a thin-walled metal t s reserved by Science Service, Inc.) SCIENCE SERVICE, 21st mci B sts., .Washington, D. ~ C.. #12;

  8. Net receipts sharing and transfer of federal mineral responsibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCannon, S. (Colorado Dept. of Natural Resources, Denver, CO (United States))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two interrelated issues - the policy of net receipt sharing and the [open quotes]Mineral Royalty Transfer Study[close quotes] that was submitted to Congress in June of this year by the Minerals Management Service of the Department of Interior are discussed. The 1993 Interior Appropriations Act, P.L. 102-381, which was signed by the president on October 5, 1992, includes a provision that, in addition to costing states $37.5 million has a few other problems: It may be illegal, it flies in the face of the Mineral Leasing Act, it sets a frightening precedent, it is bad public policy and it ignores the substantial contribution of states to federal mineral development. This provision is known as net receipt sharing. The advantages and disadvantages of this Act are discussed.

  9. Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) - Receipt of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Receipt of Administrative Order Relative to the Management of Hazardous Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Drums at LANL Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) - Receipt of...

  10. Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1(MillionExtensionsThousandUnderground Storage VolumeperProved

  11. Invoice Approval Process Roadmap (Processing Receipts) May 27, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    Invoice Approval Process Roadmap (Processing Receipts) May 27, 2010 1 Scenario: The Match Exception on the instruction page. #9 #5 #11 #9 #7 Receipt #1 Receipt #2 #12;Invoice Approval Process Roadmap (Processing the PO ID from the Match Exception Report in the ID field. (Use Roadmap) 6. Select, Search 7. Check

  12. A, Science Service Feature Released upon receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A, Science Service Feature Released upon receipt but intended for use July 21, 1933 ? WHY THE J every summer i n the United States and southern Canada. A citizen of South Dakota, where the mercury, i a population Of 120,000. ( A l l rights reserved by Science Service, Inc.) SCIENCE SBVICE Washington, D.C. 21st

  13. A BCience Service Feature Released oil receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A BCience Service Feature Released oil receipt but intended for use September 10, 1929. ? 'WXY TKE Canada, the United States (including Alaska and a West Indian service), Mexico, Costa Rica, Canal Zone there are services for Australia, New Zealand and Samoa& (All rights reserved- by---_Science--- Service, Inc

  14. Advanced Energy Gross Receipts Tax Deduction | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photovoltaics Maximum Rebate 60 million Program Info Start Date 712010 State New Mexico Program Type Sales Tax Incentive Rebate Amount 100% of gross receipts from sale and...

  15. University of Oklahoma Receipt of FMLA Information Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    University of Oklahoma Receipt of FMLA Information Certification This original document is to be returned to the Office of Human Resources / Employee Relations - NEL 259 - Norman, Oklahoma 73019. If you

  16. The WIPP journey to waste receipt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, G.J.; Whatley, M.E.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early 1970s the federal government selected an area in southeastern New Mexico containing large underground salt beds as potentially suitable for radioactive waste disposal. An extensive site characterization program was initiated by the federal government. This site became the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, better known as WIPP. It is now 1997, over two decades after the initial selection of the New Mexico site as a potential radioactive waste repository. Numerous scientific studies, construction activities, and environmental compliance documents have been completed. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has addressed all relevant issues regarding the safety of WIPP and its ability to isolate radioactive waste from the accessible environment. Throughout the last two decades up to the present time, DOE has negotiated through a political, regulatory, and legal maze with regard to WIPP. New regulations have been issued, litigation initiated, and public involvement brought to the forefront of the DOE decision-making process. All of these factors combined to bring WIPP to its present status--at the final stages of working through the licensing requirements for receipt of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal. Throughout its history, the DOE has stayed true to Congress` mandates regarding WIPP. Steps taken have been necessary to demonstrate to Congress, the State of New Mexico, and the public in general, that the nation`s first radioactive waste repository will be safe and environmentally sound. DOE`s compliance demonstrations are presently under consideration by the cognizant regulatory agencies and DOE is closer than ever to waste receipt. This paper explores the DOE`s journey towards implementing a permanent disposal solution for defense-related TRU waste, including major Congressional mandates and other factors that contributed to program changes regarding the WIPP project.

  17. Gross Receipts Tax Exemption for Sales of Wind and Solar Systems to Government Entities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Mexico has a gross receipts tax structure for businesses instead of a sales tax. Businesses are taxed on the gross amount of their business receipts each year before expenses are deducted. ...

  18. Allocating Costs in Ninth Circuit Predatory Pricing Cases: Marsann Co. v. Brammall, Inc. and its Problematic Progeny, Inglis v. Continental Baking and Thales v. Matsushita

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frech, Ted E; Wazzan, C. Paul

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    treatment of prices above average variable cost, but belowaverage total cost varies greatly. In the Sixth and Ninthto be below Average Total Cost, but above Average Variable

  19. On-Line Journal Tips and Refreshers Cash Receipt and Credit Card Journals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Keith

    On-Line Journal Tips and Refreshers Cash Receipt and Credit Card Journals Updated April 2009 Updated 04/30/2010 1 Cash Receipt and Credit Card Journals Source Code 320 and 323 Purpose Cash Receipt more or once a week whichever comes first. 2. Journals should be dated the date they are prepared

  20. Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Erick; Cervero, Robert

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transit exceeded capital cost estimates by 40% duringfound that capital costs exceeded estimates by an averagesystems. We estimate the total capital cost, average weekday

  1. U.S. Natural Gas Interstate Receipts (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb MarFields34Decade Year-0ReceiptsReceipts

  2. Science Service B a t u s Released upon receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science Service B a t u s Released upon receipt but intendod f o r use May 19, 1933 1 PVHYTKF had seen brown quadrupsd with a hump on its a cnmel. Every known optical phencinenon of the atmosph of the Air." (All rights resumed by Science, Service, Inc.) SCIENCE SERVICE 21st and Constitution Ave

  3. THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE FY 2015 Allocation Cost or Classified.2% URI Budget & Financial Planning Office 9.17.14 Office:fringebenefits:office of sponsored projects: FY2015 Allocation #12;

  4. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    selections announced today will deploy innovative technologies such as high-efficiency, fish-friendly turbines, improved water intakes, and advanced control systems in order to...

  5. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  6. IA Science Service Feature Released upon receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and mercantile Property and on automobiles, and should be sold more by the average local agent. The tornado l l purchase both tornado and h a i l insurmce.11 Apropos of insuring automobiles against h a i l i

  7. Tradeoffs and Average-Case Equilibria in Selfish Routing Martin Hoefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    the expected price of anarchy of the game for various social cost functions. For total latency social cost cost in polyno- mial time. Furthermore, our analyses of the expected prices are average-case analyses, 2007 Abstract We consider the price of selfish routing in terms of tradeoffs and from an average

  8. Costing Summaries for Selected Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering News-Record Construction Cost Index Consumer Prices Index Year Index = average of the monthly;Develop Costing Curves for : Construction Operation and Maintenance #12;Small Systems Limited Construction Costs O&M Costs General Design and Operational Information #12;Update The Costs for year 2000

  9. TRANSPORTATION CASK RECEIPT AND RETURN FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Arakali

    2005-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Transportation Cask Receipt and Return Facility (TCRRF) of the repository including the personnel at the security gate and cask staging areas. This calculation is required to support the preclosure safety analysis (PCSA) to ensure that the predicted doses are within the regulatory limits prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Cask Receipt and Return Facility receives NRC licensed transportation casks loaded with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The TCRRF operation starts with the receipt, inspection, and survey of the casks at the security gate and the staging areas, and proceeds to the process facilities. The transportation casks arrive at the site via rail cars or trucks under the guidance of the national transportation system. This calculation was developed by the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering organization and is intended solely for the use of Design and Engineering in work regarding facility design. Environmental and Nuclear Engineering personnel should be consulted before using this calculation for purposes other than those stated herein or for use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering organization.

  10. Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

  11. Operating Costs Estimates Cost Indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    to update costs of specific equipment, raw material or labor or CAPEX and OPEX of entire plants Cost Indices

  12. Complete information below if not found on receipt #2 National Drug Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    Complete information below if not found on receipt #2 National Drug Code Drug Name___________________________Drug Supply 5. National Drug Code (NDC) 6. Name of drug and strength 7. DAW code (if applicable) 8. Amount paid Tape Prescription Receipt #1 Here No Staples DRUG CLAIM FORM 1. Please type or print clearly

  13. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  14. The Frame Potential, on Average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingemar Bengtsson; Helena Granstrom

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A SIC consists of N^2 equiangular unit vectors in an N dimensional Hilbert space. The frame potential is a function of N^2 unit vectors. It has a unique global minimum if the vectors form a SIC, and this property has been made use of in numerical searches for SICs. When the vectors form an orbit of the Heisenberg group the frame potential becomes a function of a single fiducial vector. We analytically compute the average of this function over Hilbert space. We also compute averages when the fiducial vector is placed in certain special subspaces defined by the Clifford group.

  15. U.S. Natural Gas International Receipts (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb MarFields34Decade Year-0Receipts (Million

  16. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    shown for U.S. Energy Information Administration | Levelized Costs AEO 2012 3 solar, wind, and hydroelectric resources are simple averages of the capacity factor for the...

  17. Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34...

  18. 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ACPD 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration U. Platt et al. Title Page U. Platt1 , W. Allen2 , and D. Lowe2 1 Institut fur Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, INF 229 February 2004 Accepted: 9 March 2004 Published: 4 May 2004 Correspondence to: U. Platt (ulrich.platt

  19. Average cost optimal threshold strategies for remote estimation with communication cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Aditya

    - municate these measurements to an aggregator which will use this information for demand response etc

  20. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    the chance of winds high enough to pose dangers for boats or aircraft. In situations calling for a cost/loss analysis, the probabilities of different outcomes need to be known. For wind speed, this issue often arisesProbabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc

  1. Turfgrass: Maintenance Costs in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holt, Ethan C.; Allen, W. Wayne; Ferguson, Marvin H.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . These regions also have high water costs. The Gulf Coast, where water is a minor item, has an average expenditure only slightly greater than half that in West Texas. Average lawn sizes in these two regions are almost identical. Use of com- post, commercial.... Individuals with grasses other than bermuda and St. Augustine spend on the average about 53 percent TARLE 2. TOTALS OF VARIOUS HOME LAWN MAINTENANCE EXPENDITURES WITHIN REGIONS AND FOR THE STATE1 Number of Maintenance items Region households Commercial...

  2. 30 TAC, part 1, chapter 39, rule 39.418 Notice of Receipt of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Notice of Receipt of Application and Intent to Obtain Permit Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 30 TAC, part...

  3. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  4. Seasonal Average Temperature - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook TwitterSearch-Comments Sign In About | CareersAverage Temperature

  5. December 17, 2008 Robert Almgren / Encyclopedia of Quantitative Finance Execution Costs 1 Execution Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almgren, Robert F.

    December 17, 2008 Robert Almgren / Encyclopedia of Quantitative Finance Execution Costs 1 Execution Costs Execution costs are the difference in value between an ideal trade and what was actually done. The execution cost of a single completed trade is typically the difference between the final average trade price

  6. Contracting with reading costs and renegotiation costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, James R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reading Costs, Competition, and ContractReading Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. EquilibriumUnconscionability A?ect Reading Costs . . . . . . . . . .

  7. The Economic Cost of Instructional Coaching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, David Stephen

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , this cost framework is applied to three schools with instructional coaching programs during the 2009-10 school year. The average cost per teacher was found to range from approximately $3,260 to $5,220, while model developers suggest a cost of $2,298 per...

  8. TRANSPORTATION CASK RECEIPT/RETURN FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this design calculation is to demonstrate that the handling operations of transportation casks performed in the Transportation Cask Receipt and Return Facility (TCRRF) and Buffer Area meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''Transportation Cask Receipt/Return Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170217], Section 3.2.3). Specific scope of work contained in this activity consists of the following items: (1) Evaluate criticality effects for both dry and fully flooded conditions pertaining to TCRRF and Buffer Area operations for defense in depth. (2) Evaluate Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the TCRRF as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7). This evaluation includes credible fuel reconfiguration conditions. In addition to the scope of work listed above, an evaluation was also performed of modeling assumptions for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) regarding inclusion of plenum and end regions of the active fuel. This calculation is limited to CSNF and US Department of Energy (DOE) SNF. it should be mentioned that the latter waste form is evaluated more in depth in the ''Canister Handling Facility Criticality Safety Calculations (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167614]). Further, the design and safety analyses of the naval SNF canisters are the responsibility of the US Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. In addition, this calculation is valid for the current design of the TCRRF and Buffer Area and may not reflect the ongoing design evolution of the facility. However, it is anticipated that design changes to the facility layout will have little or no impact on the criticality results and/or conclusions presented in this document. This calculation is subject to the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2004 [DIRS 171539]) because the TCRRF is included in the Q-List (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168361], p. A-3) as an item important to safety. This calculation is prepared in accordance with AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses'' [DIRS 168413].

  9. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining% accuracy. 2-5% of pre-production capital Types of Cost Estimates #12;3. Definitive Based on definitive-even $ Production Level Fixed Cost Break-even $ Production Level Cost-Revenue Relationships Capital Costs (or

  10. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

  11. Coking Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 48.67 46.59 49.25 78.98...

  12. STATE OF CALIFORNIA NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor NOTICE OF RECEIPT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA ­ NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor NOTICE OF RECEIPT PETITION TO AMEND the CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION DECISION for the SACRAMENTO POWER AUTHORITY CAMPBELL with the California Energy Commission requesting to amend Condition of Certification EFF-1 for the Campbell

  13. Optimization Online - Dual Averaging Methods for Regularized ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Xiao

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 15, 2010 ... ... simple minimization problem that involves the running average of all past subgradients of the loss function and the whole regularization term,...

  14. Costing of Joining Methods -Arc Welding Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    Costing of Joining Methods - Arc Welding Costs ver. 1 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 1 #12;OverviewOverview Cost components Estimation of costsEstimation of costs Examples ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 2 #12;Cost

  15. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    05-1 Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408-Revenue Relationships Capital Costs (or first cost or capital investment): Expenditures made to acquire or develop capital assets Three main classes of capital costs: 1. Depreciable Investment: Investment allocated

  16. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  17. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Martin

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  18. Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends: 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FERC Form 1, avoided cost data filed by utilities (in theby weighted-average capital cost data, provided elsewhere indata to compile capital cost data for a large number of U.S.

  19. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  20. Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    sharing using various data fields (bin, fund, PI, index, etc.) x Create a Bin Generate a bin where cost;3 Cost Sharing Steps Search for & Create a Bin Search Results Display Select AWARD Type the correct data1 Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing? x Cost sharing is a commitment to use university resources

  1. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  2. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  3. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor History of sales procedures Manufacturer Driven Procedures What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." It should

  4. Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Kyomin

    Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...

  5. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  6. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Braun; Fritz Haake

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  7. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samuel Schenker, The Costs of Hir- u ing Skilled Workers,Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andof employee replacement costs, using a panel survey of

  8. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andproperties of employee replacement costs, using a panel2008. We establish that replacement costs are sub- stantial

  9. Released upon receipt but intended f o r use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    space, 911: an average, every twonty-four hours. bodies3 mostly very small. bigger than a boy's marble into space o r fall t o tho earth, but the vast majority are complately dissipated. They glow f o r a brief

  10. A, Sc.ience Service Feature Released on receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -handling structures when the force of the wind reaches the danger point, (All rights reserved by Science Service, IncYFROhl WIND The cooperative organization known as t h e Associatoed Factory Mutual Fire Insurance Companies i wrecked by wind, These equipments are costly and t h e i r loss may seriously cripple plant operations

  11. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  12. Operating Costs for Trucks David Levinson*, Michael Corbett, Maryam Hashami

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Operating Costs for Trucks David Levinson*, Michael Corbett, Maryam Hashami David Levinson Author Abstract This study estimates the operating costs for commercial vehicle operators in Minnesota. A survey of firms that undertake commercial truck road movements was performed. The average operating cost

  13. Resource Portfolio Model's Determination of Conservation's Cost-Effectiveness1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,008 average megawatts of conservation8. The electricity price forecast used for this initial estimResource Portfolio Model's Determination of Conservation's Cost- Effectiveness1 The regional Resource Portfolio Model (RPM) finds large amounts of conservation cost effective. The cost of some

  14. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2007 File A1-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2007 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn sources. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs for farms in Iowa. Very large or small

  15. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2009 File A1-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2009 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn sources. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs for farms in Iowa. Very large or small

  16. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2008 File A1-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2008 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn sources. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs for farms in Iowa. Very large or small

  17. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Taekoon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  18. SAMPLE AVERAGE APPROXIMATION METHOD FOR COMPOUND ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 30, 2013 ... bounds from (10) are much sharper than estimates obtained from (11), ..... X a vector of resources allocated at objects i = 1, ..., n to protect them from the .... and cost functions, IE denotes mathematical expectation over ?. ...... [29] H. Markowitz, Mean-Variance Analysis in Portfolio Choice and Capital Markets,...

  19. The Cost-Effectiveness of Continuous Commissioning Over the Past Ten Years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bynum, J.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Wei, G.

    for the data set is $0.51/(ft2a) ($5.52/(m2a)) with an average annual energy cost savings of 14%. The average cost of commissioning is $0.43/(ft2a) ($4.60/(m2a)) resulting in an average simple payback of 1.6 years. Just over half of the measures implemented...

  20. The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, al-falfa, and pasture maintenance in this report are based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, al- falfa, and pasture maintenance record summaries, production and costs data from the Departments of Economics, Agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs estimates are representative of average

  1. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of todays CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  2. REQUEST FOR SERVICES --- DOCUMENT RECEIPT No | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - TProcuring SolarNo. 195Department

  3. Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) - Receipt of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T en Y earEnergy T H E D IinEffortDepartmentAdministrative

  4. Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis for the reduction of total power and power fluctuation dur- ing behavioral synthesis. We consider resources of dual component library which is then used during behavioral synthesis. The formulated multi-objective cost

  5. Minimizing the Average Cost of Paging on the Air Interface An Approach Considering Privacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Technology, Computer Science Department IV, D-52056 Aachen, Germany Abstract Location Management of mobile for a mobile user in a cellular network, for efficient location management it is desirable to know the current of Technology, Institute of Theoretical Computer Science, D-01062 Dresden, Germany Aachen University

  6. Decreasing Average Cost and Competition: A New Look at the Addyston Pipe Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bittlingmayer, George

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can arise in an industry; once plants in an industry exist, will competition allow them to operate harmoniously? A related problem is whether firms can be induced to enter an industry with competitive pric ing. The simplest case to analyze... of electricity, for examplestoring output is nearly impossible. Now, while this conclusion concerning the feasibility of competition and the function of market collusion may appear to be out of step with much of economic thinking, the analysis is in fact...

  7. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov.Energy02.pdf7 OPAM Flash2011-37EnergySubmit a FreedomResearch

  8. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND DTechnologies |cents per kWh - Without New

  9. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  10. Is dark energy an effect of averaging?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

  11. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  12. U.S. Natural Gas International & Interstate Receipts (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb MarFields34Decade Year-0 Year-1Receipts

  13. Brush Busters: How to Estimate Costs for Controlling Small Cedar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ueckert, Darrell; McGinty, Allan

    2001-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    method. Figure 3 is for the top-removal method). In Figures 1 and 2, the upper graph shows the cost for the spray only. The center graph shows total cost for spray + labor at $6 per hour. The bottom graph shows total cost for spray + labor at $12 per... hour. Figure 3 shows the costs for the top-removal method, with labor at $6 per hour in the upper graph and $12 per hour in the lower graph. ? Locate your average cedar density (the average calculated in Step #1) on the lower, horizontal axis (density...

  14. Brush Busters: How to Estimate Costs for Controlling Small Mesquite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ueckert, Darrell; McGinty, Allan

    1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , then calculate the average mesquite density for your pasture. Step 2. Use the graphs to estimate cost per acre. ? Find the appropriate figure in this brochure for the Brush Busters method you will use. (Figure 1 estimates costs for the leaf spray method...) on the left side of the chart. Make a mark on the cost axis. This point is an estimate of what your cost per acre should be in $/acre. Example: If you have an average of 100 small mesquite plants per acre, you?re using the Brush Busters leaf spray method...

  15. Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    For a particular class of supermodular cost cooperative games that arises from a scheduling ... the costs collectively incurred by a group of cooperating agents.

  16. Operations Cost Allocation Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project (OCP) Cost Allocation Presentation - September 20, 2011 OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation List of Acronyms...

  17. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel...

  18. Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boer

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  19. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The...

  20. average atom model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave-functions and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The...

  1. The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, alfalfa, and pasture maintenance in this report are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, alfalfa, and pasture maintenance in this report summaries, production and costs data from the Depart- ments of Economics, Agricultural and Biosystems and other input suppliers around the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs

  2. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  3. Systems Engineering Cost Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    on project, human capital impact. 7 How to estimate Cost? Difficult to know what we are building early on1 Systems Engineering Lecture 3 Cost Estimation Dr. Joanna Bryson Dr. Leon Watts University of Bath: Contrast approaches for estimating software project cost, and identify the main sources of cost

  4. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  5. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  6. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elec Del Cali: Del Investment Cost Delivery Cost OperatingCost Feedstock Cost Investment Cost Delivery Cost Operatingcosts Annualized investment cost, 1000$/yr Total annualized

  7. APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    for solar energy and climatic applications. Click on the buttons on the left to find out more about the lab for preliminary estimates of solar system performance. This section provides a summary of monthly averaged data for all sites in watt hours/meter2 per hour or day. For each site and each solar measurement the data

  8. UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol By Sandi Alswager Karstens, IANR News Service On-farm cost of producing switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol averages about $60 per ethanol from switchgrass because that industry is not really born yet." Researchers offered a speculative

  9. PAX Newsletter No 3.2.1, 13 February 2006 DoD AREA COST FACTORS (ACF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    per state in CONUS) average construction costs. In general, the ACF index is developed based of the current Army Technical Manual TM 5-800-4, Programming Cost Estimates for Military Construction (MILCON of construction costs at that location to the National average as 1, determined from 96 Base Cities (two cities

  10. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  11. About Cost Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the university, fee-for-service contracts, as well as establishing CAMD as a cost center. We know that our users are reluctant to see CAMD become a cost center, however...

  12. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  13. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Bgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    notes that comparisons of cost data remain difficult becausethese resources into cost data, and a description of themigrations), the cost of processing the data may rise

  14. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact 624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final...

  15. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file...

  16. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due...

  17. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Costs Annualized Investment Cost, 1000$/yr Total AnnualizedH2 Fueling Stations Investment Cost Cost ($/yr) OperatingH2 Fueling Stations Investment Cost Cost ($/kg) Operating

  18. Factors Affecting Auction Market Operating Costs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wootan, Charley V.; McNeely, John G.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors Affecting Auction Market Operating Costs Texas Summary and Conclusions T THE TIME THE DATA for this study were collected A there were 178 livestock auctions operating in Texas; 140 were included in this analysis. They ranyed in size... from just over 5,000 animal units per year to alinost 350,000. It has been sl~own that opera- - tional efficiency, measured in terms of average cost per unit marketed, increases directly with firm size and that efficiency gains were most marked...

  19. Calculator program optimizes bit weight, rotary speed, reducing drilling cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.A.

    1984-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Bit selection, bit weight, and rotary speed have repeatedly proven to be the most important and commonly overlooked alterable factors which control penetration rate, footage, and overall drilling cost. This is particularly true in offshore operations where drilling costs are highest and the greatest cost savings stand to be achieved through implementation of proven optimization techniques. The myth that bit weights and rotary speeds cannot be optimized in directional holes has hindered the industry from using this virtually cost-free method for reducing drilling cost. The use of optimized bit weights and rotary speeds in conjunction with minimum cost bit programs based on cost per foot analysis of previous bit runs in the area was implemented on a five-well platform in the Grand Isle Block 20 field, offshore Louisiana. Each of the directional wells was drilled substantially faster and cheaper than the discovery well, which was a straight hole. Average reductions in footage cost of 31.3%, based on daily operating cost of $30,000/day, and increase in average daily footage drilled of 45.2% were effected by ''collectively optimizing'' drilling performance. The ''Optimizer'' program is an HP-41CV adaptation of the Bourgoyne and Young drilling model. It was used to calculate the optimum bit weights and rotary speeds based on field drilling tests; historical bit and bearing wear data; and current operating conditions, cost, and constraints.

  20. Re-roofing slashes chain's cooling costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1984-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A re-roofing program to install single-ply synthetic rubber coated with hypalon, a white synthetic rubber, will save each Hardee restaurant an average of $25,000 over a 10-year period. The savings will come from reduced air conditioning costs, which will vary by location. The new roof system tolerates temperatures from -40 to over 150/sup 0/F. Reflection from the white surface makes the material more energy efficient than conventional hot asphalt.

  1. Pension costs and liabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtney, Harley Macon

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be to charge the cost over the current and subsequent years on the assumption that the cost, even though measured by past services, is incurred in contemplation of present and future 1 services. 1'he development of accounting thought concerning retire...? present liabilities are under- stated and owner's equity is overstated by a corresponding amount. It seems, however, that charging retained earnings with the past service cost does not, represent the true picture. Pension payments based solely on past...

  2. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  3. Implementation Shortfall One Objective, Many Algorithms VWAP (Volume Weighted Average Price) has ruled the algorithmic trading world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearns, Michael

    in the fact that it does not require such cost predictions. VWAP vs. Arrival Price So how does arrival priceImplementation Shortfall ­ One Objective, Many Algorithms VWAP (Volume Weighted Average Price) has year toward using decision price, or implementation shortfall, algorithms. ITG®'s Hitesh Mittal

  4. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    experience - as needed - in project management, scheduling, cost estimatingcost engineering, risk management, as well as subject matter experts (SMEs) with knowledge of...

  5. Target Cost Management Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okano, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Target cost management (TCM) is an innovation of Japanese management accounting system and by common sense has been considered with great interest by practitioners. Nowadays, TCM related

  6. Cost-Delay Trade Off of Network Coding in Asymmetric Two-Way Relay Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cost-Delay Trade Off of Network Coding in Asymmetric Two-Way Relay Networks Lianghui Ding, Feng.wu@angstrom.uu.se Abstract--In this paper, we analyze and evaluate the cost- delay trade off of opportunistic network coding the average power cost and delay, formulate the optimal power-delay trade off, and propose a heuristic

  7. Volume 6, Number 1 January 2009 Morgantown's Housing Costs Make It The Most Expensive Place To

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Volume 6, Number 1 January 2009 Morgantown's Housing Costs Make It The Most Expensive Place To Live In The State By Amy Higginbotham For the third quarter of 2008, Morgantown's cost of living was found to be 0.7 percent above the national average, according to the ACCRA Cost of Living Survey. While close

  8. PAX Newsletter No 3.2.1, 5 March 2009 DOD AREA COST FACTORS (ACF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    . In general, the ACF index is developed based on the local construction costs for a market basket of 8 Labor of the current Army Technical Manual TM 5-800-4, Programming Cost Estimates for Military Construction (MILCON location reflects the relative relationship of construction costs at that location to the National average

  9. PAX Newsletter No 3.2.1, 2 March 2010 DOD AREA COST FACTORS (ACF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    to determine the average construction costs for those locations. In general, the ACF index is developed based Army Technical Manual TM 5-800-4, Programming Cost Estimates for Military Construction (MILCON), dated-13 Military Construction Army (MCA) and Army Family Housing (AFH) projects' DD Forms 1391 and budget cost

  10. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING COST MODEL: SIMULATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE, MANUFACTURING, AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric J. Carlson; Yong Yang; Chandler Fulton

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earlier model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin goals.

  11. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

  12. average power femtosecond: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 52 On the Peak-to-Average...

  13. average power ratio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 60 High average power,...

  14. average power semiconductor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 56 High average power,...

  15. average resonance neutron: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nader Haghighipour 1999-02-03 4 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  16. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  17. average daily traffic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 April 2014 Annual Average DailyTraffic (AADT) is a key input in operations and transportation planning Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  18. average wind shear: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by uncompensated voids. Maria Mattsson; Teppo Mattsson 2010-07-17 7 Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging Mathematics Websites Summary:...

  19. average state iq: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA...

  20. average high energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  1. average kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy by kinetic averaging Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin Ecole Normale Sup-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields ap- pearing in the gradient theory of...

  2. average beta energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  3. average power high: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: conversion 6....

  4. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    identify particularly useful cost data and cost models thatcontaining hydrogen cost data for production, storage,Volume Validates cost data with Industry Operating Costs

  5. Receipt of Guideline-Concordant Treatment in Elderly Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: Ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Carpenter, William R. [Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Bainbridge, John [Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Andrew Z. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Nielsen, Matthew E. [Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Department of Urology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); and others

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To examine the proportion of elderly prostate cancer patients receiving guideline-concordant treatment, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: A total of 29,001 men diagnosed in 2004-2007 with localized prostate cancer, aged 66 to 79 years, were included. We characterized the proportion of men who received treatment concordant with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, stratified by risk group and age. Logistic regression was used to examine covariates associated with receipt of guideline-concordant management. Results: Guideline concordance was 79%-89% for patients with low- or intermediate-risk disease. Among high-risk patients, 66.6% of those aged 66-69 years received guideline-concordant management, compared with 51.9% of those aged 75-79 years. Discordance was mainly due to conservative managementno treatment or hormone therapy alone. Among the subgroup of patients aged ?76 years with no measured comorbidity, findings were similar. On multivariable analysis, older age (75-79 vs 66-69 years, odds ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.50-0.57) was associated with a lower likelihood of guideline concordance for high-risk prostate cancer, but comorbidity was not. Conclusions: There is undertreatment of elderly but healthy patients with high-risk prostate cancer, the most aggressive form of this disease.

  6. On average sampling restoration of Piranashvilitype harmonizable processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ; time shifted sam- pling; Piranashvili, Lo`eve, Karhunen harmonizable stochastic process; weakly.olenko@latrobe.edu.au, poganj@pfri.hr Abstract: The harmonizable Piranashvili type stochastic pro- cesses are approximated stationary stochastic process; local averages; average sampling reconstruction. 1. Introduction

  7. averaged energy minimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged energy minimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Averaged Energy...

  8. THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    , control systems, small control, optimal control, Finsler geometry. AMS subject classifications. 34C29, 34H used for design. The use of averaging in optimal control of oscillating systems [10, 13, 14, 7THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS ALEX BOMBRUN AND JEAN

  9. Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, Jos

    Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures Soummya Kar Department: soummyakgandrew.cmu.edu Abstract We study the impact of the topology of a sensor network on distributed average in terms of a moment of the distribution of the norm of a function of the network graph Laplacian matrix L

  10. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    , uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signalThe global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes

  11. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  12. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  13. Investments of uncertain cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I study irreversible investment decisions when projects take time to complete, and are subject to two types of uncertainty over the cost of completion. The first is technical uncertainty, i.e., uncertainty over the amount ...

  14. Standard costs for labor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammed Nurul Absar

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STANDARD COSTS FOR LABOR A Thesis By MD. NURUL ABSAR KHAN Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texms in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... January 1960 Ma/or Sub)acts Accounting STANOAHD COSTS FOR LABOR ND, NURUL ABSAR KHAN Approved as t style and content bys Chairman of Committee Head of Hepartment January 1960 The author acknowledges his indebtedness to Mr. T. M. Leland, Mr. T. D...

  15. Muddy Water? Variation in Reporting Receipt of Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy by Population-Based Tumor Registries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Gary V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Williams, Melanie [Texas Cancer Registry, Department of State Health Services, Austin, Texas (United States)] [Texas Cancer Registry, Department of State Health Services, Austin, Texas (United States); Jiang, Jing [Division of Quantitative Sciences, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Division of Quantitative Sciences, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Niu, Jiangong [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); MacKinnon, Jill; Anderson, Patricia; Wohler, Brad [Florida Cancer Data System, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)] [Florida Cancer Data System, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Sinclair, Amber H.; Boscoe, Francis P.; Schymura, Maria J. [New York State Cancer Registry, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York (United States)] [New York State Cancer Registry, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: BSmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate, in the setting of breast cancer, the accuracy of registry radiation therapy (RT) coding compared with the gold standard of Medicare claims. Methods and Materials: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)Medicare data, we identified 73,077 patients aged ?66 years diagnosed with breast cancer in the period 2001-2007. Underascertainment (1 - sensitivity), sensitivity, specificity, ?, and ?{sup 2} were calculated for RT receipt determined by registry data versus claims. Multivariate logistic regression characterized patient, treatment, and geographic factors associated with underascertainment of RT. Findings in the SEERMedicare registries were compared with three non-SEER registries (Florida, New York, and Texas). Results: In the SEERMedicare registries, 41.6% (n=30,386) of patients received RT according to registry coding, versus 49.3% (n=36,047) according to Medicare claims (P<.001). Underascertainment of RT was more likely if patients resided in a newer SEER registry (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-1.80; P<.001), rural county (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.48; P<.001), or if RT was delayed (OR 1.006/day, 95% CI 1.006-1.007; P<.001). Underascertainment of RT receipt in SEER registries was 18.7% (95% CI 18.6-18.8%), compared with 44.3% (95% CI 44.0-44.5%) in non-SEER registries. Conclusions: Population-based tumor registries are highly variable in ascertainment of RT receipt and should be augmented with other data sources when evaluating quality of breast cancer care. Future work should identify opportunities for the radiation oncology community to partner with registries to improve accuracy of treatment data.

  16. Volume 6, Number 2 June 2009 Cost Of Living: How Does Morgantown Compare In The First Quarter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    of Business and Economic Research percent above national average. The price of electricity, natural gas was balanced by high housing and transportation costs and low utility and miscellaneous good and services ranking it 64th highest of the 309 urban areas. Transportation costs were also above average in Morgantown

  17. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Bgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Monitor Technology functions each consists of two costinfluence, the fewer costs. Monitor Technology depends onCost Critical Activities Monitor community Report on monitoring Monitor technology

  18. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  19. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arizona Corporation Commission requires electric utilities to conduct a cost/benefit analysis to compare the cost of line extension with the cost of installing a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)...

  20. average glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

  1. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  2. areally averaged heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner 2014-02-18 56 The Fallacy of Averages University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: of component variables as well, we found that ignoring...

  3. STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a building feature, material, or construction assembly occur in a building, a weighted average there is more than one level of floor, wall, or ceiling insulation in a building, or more than one type

  4. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  5. From average case complexity to improper learning [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linial, Nathan "Nati"

    is that the standard reduc- tions from NP-hard problems do not seem to apply in this context. There is essentially only.1145/2591796.2591820. Keywords Hardness of improper learning, DNFs, Halfspaces, Average Case complexity, CSP problems, Resolution

  6. average neutronic properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. H. van Kerkwijk 2004-03-20 2 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  7. average power optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems, Multiple Subcarrier Strohmer, Thomas 3 June 1, 2000 Vol. 25, No. 11 OPTICS LETTERS 859 16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped Materials Science Websites...

  8. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Report 2013 Response to several FOIA...

  9. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  10. average neck flexion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profiles including the singular isothermal sphere, the Navarro-Frenk-White... Retana-Montenegro, E; Baes, M 2012-01-01 13 Fast Averaging MIT - DSpace Summary: We are interested in...

  11. averaged cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  12. averaged cross section: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  13. average cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  14. average effective dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field theory, Chern-Simons theory is discussed in detail. M. Reuter 1996-02-04 2 Is dark energy an effect of averaging? CERN Preprints Summary: The present standard model of...

  15. OPTIONS - ALLOCATION FUNDS - TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Admin

    2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    One first problem to overcome is the impact of transaction costs. ... They entail a reduction of transaction costs and improve the investor's economic welfare.

  16. Optimization Online - Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas S. Schulz

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Aug 28, 2007 ... Abstract: We study cooperative games with supermodular costs. We show that supermodular costs arise in a variety of situations: in particular,...

  17. Preemptive scheduling with position costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In most scheduling models presented in the literature [3, 10], the cost for ... Preemptive scheduling in order to minimize the total position costs also stems.

  18. Price/Cost Proposal Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS PriceCost Proposal: Provide complete, current, and accurate cost or pricing data in accordance with Federal and Department of Energy Acquisition...

  19. Cost-effective Design Options for IsoDAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Adelmann; J. R. Alonso; W. Barletta; R. Barlow; L. Bartoszek; A. Bungau; L. Calabretta; A. Calanna; D. Campo; J. M. Conrad; Z. Djurcic; Y. Kamyshkov; H. Owen; M. H. Shaevitz; I. Shimizu; T. Smidt; J. Spitz; M. Toups; M. Wascko; L. A. Winslow; J. J. Yang

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This whitepaper reviews design options for the IsoDAR electron antineutrino source. IsoDAR is designed to produce $2.6 \\times 10^{22}$ electron antineutrinos per year with an average energy of 6.4 MeV, using isotope decay-at-rest. Aspects which must be balanced for cost-effectiveness include: overall cost; rate and energy distribution of the electron antineutrino flux and backgrounds; low technical risk; compactness; simplicity of underground construction and operation; reliability; value to future neutrino physics programs; and value to industry. We show that the baseline design outlined here is the most cost effective.

  20. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  1. Partial Averaging Near a Resonance in Planetary Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nader Haghighipour

    1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the general numerical analysis of Melita and Woolfson (1996), I showed in a recent paper that a restricted, planar, circular planetary system consisting of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn would be captured in a near (2:1) resonance when one would allow for frictional dissipation due to interplanetary medium (Haghighipour, 1998). In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance was utilized and the dynamics of the first-order partially averaged system at resonance was studied. Although in this manner, the finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn was confirmed, the first-order partially averaged system at resonance did not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system held only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is extended to the second order of perturbation in this paper and a complete picture of dynamical behavior of the system at resonance is presented. I show in this study that the dynamics of the second-order partially averaged system at resonance resembles the dynamical evolution of the main system during the resonance lock in general, and I present analytical explanations for the evolution of the orbital elements of the main system while captured in resonance.

  2. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MGD)Weighted Average Total Use Treatment electricity costelectricity cost Units kWh kW kWh kW Source Water (by MGD)Weighted Averagecosts are for electricity (EPRI, 2002). ? Groundwater systems use an average

  3. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  4. SEPARATION/TERMINATION CHECKLIST PROCEDURES This checklist should be initiated only by the home department and upon receipt of a written notice of resignation or termination.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    SEPARATION/TERMINATION CHECKLIST PROCEDURES This checklist should be initiated only by the home department and upon receipt of a written notice of resignation or termination. The following procedures must be completed for all separating/terminating employees except students, grads and temporary hourly employees

  5. Cost Type Examples Salary costs for staff working

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    . Equipment access charges Service contracts, running costs, materials and consumables and staff time

  6. FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs direct costs and facilities and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs direct costs and facilities and administrative costs (F&A), also known as indirect costs. Direct

  7. Risk management: Reducing brownfield cleanup costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, N.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Balancing environmental protection with economic vitality is crucial to maintaining competitiveness in world markets. One key initiative that has been identified as important to both environmental protection and the economy is the redevelopment of brownfields. Brownfield redevelopment can stimulate local economies that have been devastated by lost jobs and can recycle industrial land use, thereby preserving undeveloped lands. Many existing brownfield sites appear on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) National Priority List (NPL), which designates over 1200 sites and is expected to grow to more than 2000 by the end of the decade. EPA estimates the cost of remediating the sites on the current list will approach $30 billion, with the average cost of remediating a site close to $25 million. Thousands of additional brownfield sites that do not appear on the NPL are listed under state cleanup programs.

  8. TheEffectsofWindandSolarPower InducedCyclingonWear-and-TearCosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and key assumptions, including an average natural gas price of $4.60/MMBtu, significant balancing authority area cooperation, and least-cost economic dispatch and transmission usage. Key

  9. Where do the default values for the cost of system breakdowns...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in SAM, for direct and indirect costs, such as 0.63 per DC watt for panels. 0.18 for inverters. Are these base on a recent survey, known industry averages, totally random?...

  10. ELECTRIFIED VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS, INFRASTRUCTURE IMPLICATIONS, AND COST COMPARISONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    .S. Long term average U.S. gasoline prices have generally stayed under $3 per gallon, and do not reflect. These include spot fuel shortages in 2005 from Hurricane Katrina, substantial oil and gasoline price spikes prices and EPA standardized test data are used (where available) to increase the accuracy of cost

  11. Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers Rahul Urgaonkar, Bhuvan Urgaonkar of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This rep- resents a deviation from the usual average electric utility bill in a data center. Us- ing the technique of Lyapunov optimization, we develop

  12. Optimal habits can develop spontaneously through sensitivity to local cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Dezhe

    --person, animal, or robot--toward optimal- ity (1). RL algorithms have been widely applied in neuroscience, these contin- ued to morph for months, long after session-averaged reward and cost (eye movement distance to characterize neural activity in animals and human subjects, most famously for the dopamine-containing systems

  13. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  14. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  15. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development *

  16. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

  17. Millions of children have allergies. In fact, in the U.S., allergies cost children an average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    million missed school days each year. Does your child suffer from frequent sneezing, coughing, nasal

  18. Allocable costs What are they?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Allocable costs What are they? The A-21 circular definition: a. A cost is allocable to a particular cost objective (i.e., a specific function, project, sponsored agreement, department, or the like) if the goods or services involved are chargeable or assignable to such cost objective in accordance

  19. The Costs and Revenues of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Costs and Revenues of Transformation to Continuous Cover Forestry Owen Davies & Gary Kerr March 2011 #12;2 | Costs and Revenues of CCF | Owen Davies & Gary Kerr | March 2011 Costs and Revenues of CCF The costs and revenues of transformation to continuous cover forestry: Modelling silvicultural options

  20. Hay Harvesting Costs $$$$$ in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, James T.; Taylor, Wayne D.

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hay is an important crop in Ta 1 Harvesting costs constitute the major5 pense of hay production in many M Mg and Wayne D . Taylor INTRODUCTION .................................................... 2 Fixed Costs or Ownership Costs... ............................................. 10 Totarl Cost .............................................................. 10 HAY HARVESTING ALTERNATIVES COMPARED ...................... 11 HOW TO MAKE WISE DECISIONS CONCERNING INVESTMENTS IN MACHINERY...

  1. Construction Cost March 6, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    ...................................................................................................................................... 14 3.3 UMass Historical Cost Trends-- John Mathews, P.E., MPA, UMass Amherst............. 17 4 PartConstruction Cost Symposium March 6, 2007 University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;Construction Cost .......................................................... 22 4.3.2 The need for summer construction schedules and the impact on project cost......... 23 4

  2. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  3. Tracking the Sun: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    while the German and U.S. cost data are for 3-5 kW systems.B for average annual cost data for each of the 16 PVon an analysis of installed cost data from nearly 37,000

  4. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  5. Lower Cost Energy Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maze, M. E.

    the last f1ve years we have saved over $177 m11110n. 0= o u.vncGS AlIOTT DOMUTtC ENERGY COST & SAVINGS 11(000) uxm llOOOO lDXD ""'"lIXlIl ,..,.., 6CIlOll DlOO :om om a L--=.lLol.uLJULl:LJJU11.Lil:Ll..L<.LLLJ..lLo 7374.75'71i771BNlIJ nAIl F...

  6. Controlling landfill closure costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millspaugh, M.P.; Ammerman, T.A. [Spectra Engineering, Latham, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill closure projects are significant undertakings typically costing well over $100,000/acre. Innovative designs, use of alternative grading and cover materials, and strong project management will substantially reduce the financial impact of a landfill closure project. This paper examines and evaluates the various elements of landfill closure projects and presents various measures which can be employed to reduce costs. Control measures evaluated include: the beneficial utilization of alternative materials such as coal ash, cement kiln dust, paper mill by-product, construction surplus soils, construction debris, and waste water treatment sludge; the appropriate application of Mandate Relief Variances to municipal landfill closures for reduced cover system requirements and reduced long-term post closure monitoring requirements; equivalent design opportunities; procurement of consulting and contractor services to maximize project value; long-term monitoring strategies; and grant loan programs. An analysis of closure costs under differing assumed closure designs based upon recently obtained bid data in New York State, is also provided as a means for presenting the potential savings which can be realized.

  7. Levelized cost of coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Pacheco, James Edward

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

  8. averaged lorentz dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged lorentz dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds...

  9. average energy losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average energy losses First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Comparing energy loss...

  10. HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

  11. The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages The Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    /8/2009 7:02:24 PM] #12;The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages "Single-cell genomics appears to be the most straightforward, and at the moment the only way we can assemble the genomes of the uncultured and pushing technological limitations to bring their studies of genomics, genetics, RNA transcription

  12. Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW) MONTH HE1 HE2 HE3 HE4 HE5 HE6 HE7 HE8 HE9 HE10 HE11 HE12 HE13 HE14 HE15 HE16 HE17 HE18 HE19 HE20 HE21 HE22 HE23 HE24...

  13. Paleosecular variation and the average geomagnetic field at 20 latitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Catherine Louise

    -averaged field (TAF) for a two-parameter longitudinally symmetric (zonal) model. Values for our model parameters rocks, and oceanic sediments, but consistent with that from reversed polarity continental and igneous to paleosecular variation (PSV). We examine PSV at 20 using virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) dispersion

  14. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    February 24, 2006 1J. McLean Sloughter is Graduate Research Assistant, Adrian E. Raftery is BlumsteinProbabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. McLean Sloughter, Adrian E. Raftery and Tilmann Gneiting 1 Department of Statistics, University of Washington

  15. Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    : J. McLean Sloughter, Department of Mathematics, Seattle University, 901 12th Ave., P.O. Box 222000Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER Seattle University, Seattle, Washington TILMANN GNEITING Heidelberg University, Heidelberg

  16. average specific absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average specific absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original Research Specific...

  17. Technology advances keeping LNG cost-competitive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellow, E.J. Jr.; Ghazal, F.P.; Silverman, A.J. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Myers, S.D. [Mobil Oil Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    LNG plants, often very expensive in the past, will in the future need to cost less to build and operate and yet maintain high safety and reliability standards, both during construction and operation. Technical advancements, both in the process and in equipment scaling, manufacturing, and metallurgy, will provide much of the impetus for the improved economics. Although world energy demand is predicted to grow on average of about 2% annually over the next decade, LNG is expected to contribute an increasing portion of this growth with annual growth rates averaging about 7%. This steep growth increase will be propelled mainly by the environmentally friendlier burning characteristics of natural gas and the strong industrial growth in Asian and pacific Rim countries. While LNG is emerging as the fuel of choice for developing economies, its delivered cost to consumers will need to stay competitive with alternate energy supplies if it is to remain in front. The paper discusses LNG process development, treating process, equipment developments (man heat exchanger, compressors, drivers, and pressure vessels), and economy of scale.

  18. Monitoring System Used to Identify, Track and Allocate Peak Demand Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, W. A.

    leasing space on the site. The most common way to distribute monthly electric costs within a facility when consumption by area or department is available through submetering or other means, is to apply the average cost per KWH from the utility bill...

  19. Department of Energy Geo-Environmental Engineering Spring 2012 Diesel Engine Cost and Quality Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    a cost saving workshop, production line evaluation, and research to save an average of $150 per engine. The team is to also determine ways to generate more cost saving ideas within the company. Approach business and finance major Outcomes The sponsor will save approximately $22 per engine as a result

  20. Minimizing Data Center Cooling and Server Power Costs Ehsan Pakbaznia and Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    consumption, for a total electricity cost of about $4.5 billion [1]. This level of electricity consumptionMinimizing Data Center Cooling and Server Power Costs Ehsan Pakbaznia and Massoud Pedram University an average of 13% power saving for different data center utilization rates compared to a baseline task

  1. Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

    Electric Utility companies charge industrial clients for two things: demand and usage. Depending on type of business and hours operation, demand cost could be very high. Most of the operations scheduling in a plant is achieved considering labor cost...

  2. Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ELEcrRIC DEMAND COST Versus LABOR COST: A CASE STUDY Sanjay Agrawal Richard Jensen Assistant Director Director Industrial Assessment Center Department of Engineering Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 11549 ABSTRAcr Electric Utility companies...

  3. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  4. Establishing a Cost Basis for Converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from High Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Guida, Tracey [University of Pittsburgh

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the auspices of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program, the National Nuclear Security Administration /Department of Energy (NNSA/DOE) has, as a goal, to convert research reactors worldwide from weapons grade to non-weapons grade uranium. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is one of the candidates for conversion of fuel from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A well documented business model, including tasks, costs, and schedules was developed to plan the conversion of HFIR. Using Microsoft Project, a detailed outline of the conversion program was established and consists of LEU fuel design activities, a fresh fuel shipping cask, improvements to the HFIR reactor building, and spent fuel operations. Current-value costs total $76 million dollars, include over 100 subtasks, and will take over 10 years to complete. The model and schedule follows the path of the fuel from receipt from fuel fabricator to delivery to spent fuel storage and illustrates the duration, start, and completion dates of each subtask to be completed. Assumptions that form the basis of the cost estimate have significant impact on cost and schedule.

  5. Report on Audit of Architect and Engineering Costs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1990 the Office of Inspector General (OIG) issued the Department-wide Audit of Architect and Engineering Design Costs (DOE/IG-0289) which concluded that the Department`s A/E costs averaged more than twice that of private industry. The primary cause of the higher costs was the lack of Departmental A/E cost standards that would provide measurement criteria for controlling costs. Consistent with our prior Department-wide audit, the purpose of this audit was to determine whether A/E services performed at the Laboratory were economical. Specifically, we determined whether the costs for A/E services at the Laboratory were comparable to the cost standards for A/E services in industry and the State; and, whether A/E costs were reasonable.

  6. Final Report - Gas Retention and Release Tests Supporting the Concentrate Receipt Vessel (CRV-VSL-00002A/2B) Configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUERRERO, HECTOR

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Retention and Release (GR and R) tests were performed in the scaled Concentrate Receipt Vessel (CRV) Test Stand at the Savannah River National Laboratory to validate the capability of candidate Hybrid-Mixing systems for the CRV to safely release hydrogen during normal and upset conditions. Hydrogen is generated in the radioactive waste as a result of natural and plant processes and must not be allowed to accumulate above flammability limits. Two types of tests were conducted. Gas holdup tests determined the steady state amount of gas accumulated in the simulant under normal PJM only or PJM plus sparging conditions. Gas release tests determined what operating conditions are necessary to fully release gas after a steady state gas fraction of 4 per cent tank volume or more was reached in the simulant.

  7. FINAL REPORT - HYBRID-MIXING TESTS SUPPORTING THE CONCENTRATE RECEIPT VESSEL (CRV-VSL-00002A/2B) CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUERRERO, HECTORN.

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed scaled physical modeling of Pulse Jet Mixing Systems applicable to the Concentrate Receipt Vessel (CRV) of Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) as part of the overall effort to validate pulse jet mixer (PJM) mixing in WTP vessels containing non-Newtonian fluids. The strategy developed by the Pulse Jet Mixing Task Team was to construct a quarter-scale model of the CRV, use a clear simulant to understand PJM mixing behavior, and down-select from a number of PJM configurations to a ''best design'' configuration. This ''best design'' would undergo final validation testing using a particulate simulant that has rheological properties closely similar to WTP waste streams. The scaled PJM mixing tests were to provide information on the operating parameters critical for the uniform movement (total mobilization) of these non-Newtonian slurries. Overall, 107 tests were performed during Phase I and Phase II testing.

  8. Looking at Resource Sharing Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leon, Lars; Kress, Nancy

    2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose This paper is the result of a small cost study of resource sharing services in 23 North American libraries. Trends that have affected resource sharing costs since the last comprehensive study are discussed. Design/methodology approach...

  9. User cost in oil production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The assumption of an initial fixed mineral stock is superfluous and wrong. User cost (resource rent) in mineral production is the present value of expected increases in development cost. It can be measured as the difference ...

  10. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentationname CARBON FIBER OVERVIEW Materials LM002 Task FY 2010 Budget Industry Cost Share FY 2011 Budget Industry Cost Share...

  11. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartmentOutreachDepartment ofProgram49,PHEV Battery Cost

  12. Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present report describes installed cost trends for grid-connected PV projects installed from 1998 through 2010 (with some limited and preliminary results presented for projects installed in the first six months of 2011). The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 116,500 residential, non-residential, and utility-sector PV systems in the United States. The inclusion of utility-sector PV is a new element in this years report. The combined capacity of all systems in the data sample totals 1,685 MW, equal to 79% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2010 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. Based on this dataset, the report describes historical installed cost trends over time, and by location, market segment, technology type, and component. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan, and describes trends in customer incentives for PV installations and net installed costs after receipt of such incentives. The analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form.

  13. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  14. Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, O.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . An Enterprise of the Ebert-Consulting Group 1004 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE Washington, D.C. 20003, USA 00 12 02/ 6 08 - 13 34 o.baumann@eb-engineers.com Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects Green Building..., green building rating systems focus on sustainability for the entire life-cycle of buildings and therefore offer great opportunities for enhancing building operation, when applied and used appropriately. This presentation gives an overview...

  15. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  16. Estimate of average freeze-out volume in multifragmentation events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piantelli, S; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galchet, E; Guinet, D; Lanzalone, G; Lautesse, P; Le Neindre, N; Lpez, O; Prlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An estimate of the average freeze-out volume for multifragmentation events is presented. Values of volumes are obtained by means of a simulation using the experimental charged product partitions measured by the 4pi multidetector INDRA for 129Xe central collisions on Sn at 32 AMeV incident energy. The input parameters of the simulation are tuned by means of the comparison between the experimental and simulated velocity (or energy) spectra of particles and fragments.

  17. RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    intended to recover a more significant share of fixed costs solely from solar PV customer- generators rooftop solar PV development at limited to no cost to taxpayers and non-solar utility customers. StandbyPage | i RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES: REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR

  18. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  19. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  20. Determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Lam, G.M.; Theriault, P.A.; Delmolino, P.M.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized water reactors maintain records of the assembly average burnup for each fuel assembly at the plant. The reactor records are currently used by commercial reactor operators and vendors for (a) special nuclear accountability, (b) placement of spent fuel in storage pools, and (c) dry storage cask design and analysis. A burnup credit methodology has been submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the US Department of Energy. In order to support this application, utilities are requested to provide burnup uncertainty as part of their reactor records. The collected burnup data are used for the development of a plant correction to the cask vendor supplied burnup credit loading curve. The objective of this work is to identify a feasible methodology for determining the 95/95 uncertainty in the assembly average burnup. Reactor records are based on the core neutronic analysis coupled with measured in-core detector data. The uncertainty of particular burnup records depends mainly on the uncertainty associated with the methods used to develop the records. The methodology adopted for this analysis utilizes current neutronic codes for the determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup.

  1. Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

  2. Hydrogen demand, production, and cost by region to 2050.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Moore, J.; Shadis, W.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering, Inc.

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an analysis of potential hydrogen (H{sub 2}) demand, production, and cost by region to 2050. The analysis was conducted to (1) address the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) request for regional H{sub 2} cost estimates that will be input to its energy modeling system and (2) identify key regional issues associated with the use of H{sub 2} that need further study. Hydrogen costs may vary substantially by region. Many feedstocks may be used to produce H{sub 2}, and the use of these feedstocks is likely to vary by region. For the same feedstock, regional variation exists in capital and energy costs. Furthermore, delivery costs are likely to vary by region: some regions are more rural than others, and so delivery costs will be higher. However, to date, efforts to comprehensively and consistently estimate future H{sub 2} costs have not yet assessed regional variation in these costs. To develop the regional cost estimates and identify regional issues requiring further study, we developed a H{sub 2} demand scenario (called 'Go Your Own Way' [GYOW]) that reflects fuel cell vehicle (FCV) market success to 2050 and allocated H{sub 2} demand by region and within regions by metropolitan versus non-metropolitan areas. Because we lacked regional resource supply curves to develop our H{sub 2} production estimates, we instead developed regional H{sub 2} production estimates by feedstock by (1) evaluating region-specific resource availability for centralized production of H{sub 2} and (2) estimating the amount of FCV travel in the nonmetropolitan areas of each region that might need to be served by distributed production of H{sub 2}. Using a comprehensive H{sub 2} cost analysis developed by SFA Pacific, Inc., as a starting point, we then developed cost estimates for each H{sub 2} production and delivery method by region and over time (SFA Pacific, Inc. 2002). We assumed technological improvements over time to 2050 and regional variation in energy and capital costs. Although we estimate substantial reductions in H{sub 2} costs over time, our cost estimates are generally higher than the cost goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) hydrogen program. The result of our analysis, in particular, demonstrates that there may be substantial variation in H{sub 2} costs between regions: as much as $2.04/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE) by the time FCVs make up one-half of all light-vehicle sales in the GYOW scenario (2035-2040) and $1.85/GGE by 2050 (excluding Alaska). Given the assumptions we have made, our analysis also shows that there could be as much as a $4.82/GGE difference in H{sub 2} cost between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas by 2050 (national average). Our national average cost estimate by 2050 is $3.68/GGE, but the average H{sub 2} cost in metropolitan areas in that year is $2.55/GGE and that in non-metropolitan areas is $7.37/GGE. For these estimates, we assume that the use of natural gas to produce H{sub 2} is phased out. This phase-out reflects the desire of DOE's Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (OHFCIT) to eliminate reliance on natural gas for H{sub 2} production. We conducted a sensitivity run in which we allowed natural gas to continue to be used through 2050 for distributed production of H{sub 2} to see what effect changing that assumption had on costs. In effect, natural gas is used for 66% of all distributed production of H{sub 2} in this run. The national average cost is reduced to $3.10/GGE, and the cost in non-metropolitan areas is reduced from $7.37/GGE to $4.90, thereby reducing the difference between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas to $2.35/GGE. Although the cost difference is reduced, it is still substantial. Regional differences are similarly reduced, but they also remain substantial. We also conducted a sensitivity run in which we cut in half our estimate of the cost of distributed production of H{sub 2} from electrolysis (our highest-cost production method). In this run, our national average cost estimate is reduced even further, to

  3. Renewable build-up pathways for the US: Generation costs are not system costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to a future electricity system based primarily on wind and solar PV is examined for all regions in the contiguous US. We present optimized pathways for the build-up of wind and solar power for least backup energy needs as well as for least cost obtained with a simplified, lightweight model based on long-term high resolution weather-determined generation data. In the absence of storage, the pathway which achieves the best match of generation and load, thus resulting in the least backup energy requirements, generally favors a combination of both technologies, with a wind/solar PV energy mix of about 80/20 in a fully renewable scenario. The least cost development is seen to start with 100% of the technology with the lowest average generation costs first, but with increasing renewable installations, economically unfavorable excess generation pushes it toward the minimal backup pathway. Surplus generation and the entailed costs can be reduced significantly by combining wind and solar power, and/or a...

  4. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

  5. The Texas Cattle Feeding Industry - Operations, Management, and Costs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietrich, R.A.; Thomas, P.J.; Farris, D.E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    per pound of gain. The largest decrease in annual fixed costs per pound of gain occurred as feedlot size increased from less than 1,0.0.0. head capacity to 4,0.0.0. head capacity. Results revealed generally more variability in costs among smaller... almost 1,0.50. lb while heifers averaged about 865 lb. Almost 70.% of the fed steers marketed from Texas feedlots graded U.S. Choice or higher compared to 50% for fed heifers. Fed cattle marketed from Panhandle Plains feedlots were predominantly U...

  6. Nevada Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Nevada homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Nevada homeowners will save $4,736 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $360 for the 2012 IECC.

  7. Idaho Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Idaho homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Idaho homeowners will save $4,057 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $285 for the 2012 IECC.

  8. Pennsylvania Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Pennsylvania homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from Chapter 11 of the 2009 International Residential Code (IRC) is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Pennsylvania homeowners will save $8,632 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $515 for the 2012 IECC.

  9. Ohio Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Ohio homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Ohio homeowners will save $5,151 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $330 for the 2012 IECC.

  10. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Corral; M. J. Page; F. J. Carrera; X. Barcons; S. Mateos; J. Ebrero; M. Krumpe; A. Schwope; J. A. Tedds; M. G. Watson

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, and a significance for the detection of any feature over an underlying continuum was derived. We detect with a 99.9% significance an unresolved Fe K-alpha emission line around 6.4 keV with an EW ~ 90 eV, but we find no compelling evidence of any significant broad relativistic emission line in the final average spectrum. Deviations from a power law around the narrow line are best represented by a reflection component arising from cold or low-ionization material. We estimate an upper limit for the EW of any relativistic line of 400 eV at a 3 sigma confidence level. We also marginally detect the so-called Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect on the EW for the unresolved emission line, which appears weaker for higher luminosity AGN.

  11. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricity

  12. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricityb.

  13. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average

  14. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average3.5.6.7.

  15. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average Price

  16. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average1.2.

  17. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    04 Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.voltage connections) Capital costs for this equipment must

  18. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kingdom; 2004. [8] Amos W. Costs of storing and transportingcon- nections). Capital costs for this equipment must bein an analysis of station costs. Total station construction

  19. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fueling stations; Cost; Shanghai; Fuel cell vehicles 1.and the delivery cost for fuel cell vehicles, however, itthus hydrogen cost therefore depend on the ?eet of fuel cell

  20. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems in China, particularly for the cost of hydrogenthe capital cost for equipment imported to China. Hydrogenestate costs in Shanghai are among the highest in China. $

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  2. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  3. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  4. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software. g4301-1chp22.pdf -- PDF Document, 190 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration...

  5. Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek A. Szalek

    2005-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

  6. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral, A; Carrera, F J; Barcons, X; Mateos, S; Ebrero, J; Krumpe, M; Schwope, A; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, a...

  7. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  8. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Average Retail Electricity Rates.. 14 Projected RPS Electricity Rate Impacts by RPS Costaverage residential consumers monthly electricity bill. Figure 9 presents projected costaverage residential monthly electricity consumption figures from EIA (2004). 95 We converted annual cost

  9. Development of the household sample for furnace and boilerlife-cycle cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, Jim

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated. The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

  10. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Processing (IT) Lignin-Based Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors * Structural Materials for Vehicles (VT) * Graphite Electrodes for Arc Furnaces (IT) * Nanoporous CF for...

  11. Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    production and conversion parameters must be optimized. Lower cost fiber enable CF composite applications. Approach: 1. Complete previous effort by scaling to the CF production...

  12. HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

  13. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Slattery, Bob S [ORNL; Atkin, Erica [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy's Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 134 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For 133 of the 134 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $95.7 million, total reported cost savings were $96.8 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $92.1 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 96% of the estimated cost savings, projects reported achieving 101% of the estimated cost savings, and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 129 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 5.371 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 5.374 million MMBtu, just over 100% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 129 projects were 10.400 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 10.405 million MMBtu, again, just over 100.0% of the estimated energy savings.

  14. Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2009, approximately 7,500 megawatts (MW) of PV were installed globally, up from approximately 6,000 MW in 2008, consisting primarily of grid-connected applications. With 335 MW of grid-connected PV capacity added in 2009, the United States was the world's fourth largest PV market in 2009, behind Germany, Italy, and Japan. The market for PV in the United States is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the possible deployment of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States. The present report, the third in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2009, and provides preliminary cost data for systems installed in 2010. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 78,000 residential and non-residential PV systems in the U.S., all of which are installed at end-use customer facilities (herein referred to as 'customer-sited' systems). The combined capacity of systems in the data sample totals 874 MW, equal to 70% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the United States through 2009 and representing one of the most comprehensive sources of installed PV cost data for the U.S. The report also briefly compares recent PV installed costs in the United States to those in Germany and Japan. Finally, it should be noted that the analysis presented here focuses on descriptive trends in the underlying data, serving primarily to summarize the data in tabular and graphical form; later analysis may explore some of these trends with more-sophisticated statistical techniques. The report begins with a summary of the data collection methodology and resultant dataset (Section 2). The primary findings of the analysis are presented in Section 3, which describes trends in installed costs prior to receipt of any financial incentives: over time and by system size, component, state, system ownership type (customer-owned vs. third party-owned), host customer segment (residential vs. commercial vs. public-sector vs. non-profit), application (new construction vs. retrofit), and technology type (building-integrated vs. rack-mounted, crystalline silicon vs. thin-film, and tracking vs. fixed-axis). Section 4 presents additional findings related to trends in PV incentive levels over time and among states (focusing specifically on state and utility incentive programs as well as state and federal tax credits), and trends in the net installed cost paid by system owners after receipt of such incentives. Brief conclusions are offered in the final section, and several appendices provide additional details on the analysis methodology and additional tabular summaries of the data.

  15. Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct program costs for detailed audits of 13.5 million square feet of institutional building space in the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program were $0.047/SF. The building area was 63 percent simple (offices, schools, and universities...

  16. JUMP DIFFUSION OPTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mocioalca, Oana

    JUMP DIFFUSION OPTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS "non-systematic" risk, inclusive of transaction costs. We compute the total transac- tion costs and the turnover for different options, transaction costs, and revision intervals

  17. REVISITING THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE: AVERAGE PROPERTIES AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, Sarbani, E-mail: antia@tifr.res.in, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The tachocline is believed to be the region where the solar dynamo operates. With over a solar cycle's worth of data available from the Michelson Doppler Imager and Global Oscillation Network Group instruments, we are in a position to investigate not merely the average structure of the solar tachocline, but also its time variations. We determine the properties of the tachocline as a function of time by fitting a two-dimensional model that takes latitudinal variations of the tachocline properties into account. We confirm that if we consider the central position of the tachocline, it is prolate. Our results show that the tachocline is thicker at latitudes higher than the equator, making the overall shape of the tachocline more complex. Of the tachocline properties examined, the transition of the rotation rate across the tachocline, and to some extent the position of the tachocline, show some temporal variations.

  18. Measurement strategies for estimating long-term average wind speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Houston, S.; Wegley, H.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainty and bias in estimates of long-term average wind speeds inherent in continuous and intermittent measurement strategies are examined by simulating the application of the strategies to 40 data sets. Continuous strategies have smaller uncertainties for fixed duration measurement programs, but intermittent strategies make more efficient use of instruments and have smaller uncertainties for a fixed amount of instrument use. Continuous strategies tend to give biased estimates of the long-term annual mean speed unless an integral number of years' data is collected or the measurement program exceeds 3 years in duration. Intermittent strategies with three or more month-long measurement periods per year do not show any tendency toward bias.

  19. An Explanation of F&A Costs What are F&A Costs?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Explanation of F&A Costs What are F&A Costs? Costs involved in conducting sponsored projects are categorized in two ways: direct costs or indirect costs. The federal government refers officially to indirect costs as facilities and administrative (F&A) costs, sometimes simply called "overhead" costs. Direct

  20. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Document states additional...

  1. Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Sun, Y.; Bush, B.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions. Total fuel costs per mile for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are, respectively, 21% lower and 13% lower than that for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) under the home-dominant scenario. Including fuel economies and vehicle costs makes FCEVs and BEVs comparable in terms of costs per mile, and PHEVs are about 10% less than FCEVs and BEVs. To account for geographic variability in energy prices and hydrogen delivery costs, we use the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model and confirm the aforementioned estimate of cost per mile, nationally averaged, but see a 15% variability in regional costs of FCEVs and a 5% variability in regional costs for BEVs.

  2. Cost reduction in absorption chillers: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has addressed the possibility of dramatically lowering the first costs of absorption chillers through lowered material intensity and the use of lower cost materials, primarily in the heat exchangers which make up the bulk of the operating components of these systems. This must be done while retaining the best performance characteristics available today, a gross design point coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.3 and a net design (seasonal) average COP of 1.0 (0.90) in a directly fired, double effect unit. We have investigated several possible routes to these goals, and here report on these findings, focusing on the areas that appear most promising. The candidate technologies include the use of polymer film heat exchangers in several applications, the use of thin strips of new, corrosion resistant alloys to replace thicker, less impervious metals in applications exposed to gas flames, and copper or cupro-nickel foils in contact with system water. The use of such materials is only possible in the context of new heat exchanger and system designs, which are also discussed. To lend focus, we have concentrated on a directly fired double effect system providing capacity only. If successful, these techniques will also find wide applicability in heat pumps, cogeneration systems, solar cooling, heat recovery and chemical process heat transfer. 46 refs., 24 figs., 22 tabs.

  3. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  4. ,,"Electricity Receipts(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard Errors for Table9 Relative7

  5. Electric power substation capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

  6. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  7. 5, 14791509, 2008 Staged cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    HESSD 5, 1479­1509, 2008 Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems M. Maharjan et al Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing optimization of urban storm drainage systems M. Maharjan et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  8. Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program W. M. Heffington, S. K. Lum, V. A. Bauer and W. D. Turner Energy Sys tems Group Mechanical Engineering Department Texas ALM University College Station, TX Direct program costs... Science Park of the University of Texas System Cancer Center is treated as one building as it was bv the audit- ing contractor. General Land Office records differ. by more than a factor of four on an area basi,s (Table 4). Figure 1 is a plot...

  9. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013-2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Seif, D.; Margolis, R.; Morris, J.; Davidson, C.; Truitt, S.; Torbert, R.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this analysis is to roadmap the cost reductions and innovations necessary to achieve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's total soft-cost targets by 2020. The roadmap focuses on advances in four soft-cost areas: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII); (3) installation labor; and (4) financing. Financing cost reductions are in terms of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) for financing PV system installations, with real-percent targets of 3.0% (residential) and 3.4% (commercial).

  10. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benevides, Luis A. [Naval Sea Systems Command,1333 Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376 (United States); Hintenlang, David E. [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Sciences Center, P.O. Box 1183, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  11. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  12. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Diks, Cees G H [NON LANL; Clark, Martyn P [NON LANL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  14. Nonlocal effective-average-action approach to crystalline phantom membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselmann, N. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Braghin, F. L. [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, P. B. 131, Campus II, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the properties of crystalline phantom membranes, at the crumpling transition and in the flat phase, using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We avoid a derivative expansion of the effective average action and instead analyze the full momentum dependence of the elastic coupling functions. This leads to a more accurate determination of the critical exponents and further yields the full momentum dependence of the correlation functions of the in-plane and out-of-plane fluctuation. The flow equations are solved numerically for D=2 dimensional membranes embedded in a d=3 dimensional space. Within our approach we find a crumpling transition of second order which is characterized by an anomalous exponent {eta}{sub c}{approx_equal}0.63(8) and the thermal exponent {nu}{approx_equal}0.69. Near the crumpling transition the order parameter of the flat phase vanishes with a critical exponent {beta}{approx_equal}0.22. The flat phase anomalous dimension is {eta}{sub f}{approx_equal}0.85 and the Poisson's ratio inside the flat phase is found to be {sigma}{sub f}{approx_equal}-1/3. At the crumpling transition we find a much larger negative value of the Poisson's ratio {sigma}{sub c}{approx_equal}-0.71(5). We discuss further in detail the different regimes of the momentum dependent fluctuations, both in the flat phase and in the vicinity of the crumpling transition, and extract the crossover momentum scales which separate them.

  15. Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs at NIU F&A costs at NIU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs at NIU #12;F&A costs at NIU What are Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs? F&A Costs (aka "indirect costs" or "overhead") are real institutional costs project, instructional or public service activity. Such costs include utilities, buildings and facilities

  16. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs.

  17. Changes in Investment and Irrigation Water Costs, Texas High Plains, 1950-54.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, A. C.; Hughes, William F.

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    * Changes in Investment and Irrigation Water Costs, * Texas High Plains, 1950 - 54 OKLAHOMA I I DEAF SMITH . RANDALL ARM- DONLEI COLLINGS- I , STRONG i i 'I The principal irrigated cotton production area of the High Plains is the shaded... no improvement in irrigation facilities during 1950-54. Additional capital investment on farms making improvements in irrigation-facilities averaged $7,600 in the sandy-land area, $5,664 in the heavy-land area and $6,642 for all farms surveyed. The average cost...

  18. Costs and benefits from utility-funded commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the costs and savings of commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings. A total of 46 EEMs were commissioned for all 16 buildings and 73 deficiencies were corrected. On average, commissioning was marginally cost effective on energy savings alone, although the results were mixed among all 16 buildings. When considered as a stand-alone measure, the median simple payback time of 6.5 years under the low energy prices in the Pacific Northwest. Under national average prices the median payback time is about three years. In estimating the present value of the energy savings from commissioning we considered low and high lifetimes for the persistence of savings from deficiency corrections. Under the low- lifetime case the average present value of the energy savings ($0. 21/ft{sup 2}) were about equal to the average commissioning costs ($0. 23/ft{sup 2}). Under the high-lifetime case the savings ($0.51/ft{sup 2}) were about twice the costs. Again, the savings would be about twice as large under national average prices. The results are subject to significant uncertainty because of the small sample size and lack of metered data in the evaluation. However, the findings suggest that investments in commissioning pay off. Building owners want buildings that work as intended, and are comfortable, healthy, and efficient. It is likely that the non-energy benefits, which are difficult to quantify, are larger than the energy-savings benefits.

  19. Regional Cost Estimates for Reclamation Practices on Arid and Semiarid Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. K. Ostler

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Army uses the Integrated Training Area Management program for managing training land. One of the major objectives of the Integrated Training Area Management program has been to develop a method for estimating training land carrying capacity in a sustainable manner. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology measures training load in terms of Maneuver Impact Miles. One Maneuver Impact Mile is the equivalent impact of an M1A2 tank traveling one mile while participating in an armor battalion field training exercise. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology is also designed to predict land maintenance costs in terms of dollars per Maneuver Impact Mile. The overall cost factor is calculated using the historical cost of land maintenance practices and the effectiveness of controlling erosion. Because land maintenance costs and effectiveness are influenced by the characteristics of the land, Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity cost factors must be developed for each ecological region of the country. Costs for land maintenance activities are presented here for the semiarid and arid regions of the United States. Five ecoregions are recognized, and average values for reclamation activities are presented. Because there are many variables that can influence costs, ranges for reclamation activities are also presented. Costs are broken down into six major categories: seedbed preparation, fertilization, seeding, planting, mulching, and supplemental erosion control. Costs for most land reclamation practices and materials varied widely within and between ecological provinces. Although regional cost patterns were evident for some practices, the patterns were not consistent between practices. For the purpose of estimating land reclamation costs for the Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology, it may be desirable to use the ''Combined Average'' of all provinces found in the last row of each table to estimate costs for arid lands in general.

  20. QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planning and Analysis (ESPA) Peter Kabatek WorleyParsons Group, Inc. Alexander Zoelle Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. DOE Contract Number DE-FE0004001 iv Cost and Performance Metrics...

  1. Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors P.I. Name: Dave Warren Presenter: Dr. Amit K. Naskar Oak Ridge National Laboratory 05162012 Project ID LM004 This presentation does not...

  2. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the request of a customer or a potential customer, Colorado electric utilities are required to conduct a cost comparison of a photovoltaic (PV) system to any proposed distribution line extension...

  3. Iowa Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Iowa homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Iowa homeowners will save $7,573 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $454 for the 2012 IECC.

  4. Delaware Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Delaware homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Delaware homeowners will save $10,409 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $616 for the 2012 IECC.

  5. Texas Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Texas homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Texas homeowners will save $3,456 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $259 for the 2012 IECC.

  6. Massachusetts Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Massachusetts homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Massachusetts homeowners will save $10,848 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $621 for the 2012 IECC.

  7. Rhode Island Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Rhode Island homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Rhode Island homeowners will save $11,011 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $629 for the 2012 IECC.

  8. Oklahoma Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Oklahoma homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from Chapter 11 of the 2009 International Residential Code (IRC) is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Oklahoma homeowners will save $5,786 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $408 for the 2012 IECC.

  9. CBE UFAD cost analysis tool: Life cycle cost model, issues and assumptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Benedek, Corinne; Bauman, Fred

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Construction Cost Data. RS Means, Kingston MA.schedules Refurbish cost data Tax rate data Maintenance &Maintenance & Repair section, cost data is a combination of

  10. CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the University for common or joint projects and cannot be specifically attributed to an individual project. Some examples of indirect costs include accounting staff

  11. Industrial Heat Pumps--Types and Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, R. N.; Bliem, C. J.; Mills, J. I.; Demuth, O. J.; Plaster, D. S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this categorization, the cost of recovering waste energy with heat pumps was examined. Examples were evaluated in which the cost of energy delivered was calculated based on estimates of capital cost, operating costs, and maintenance costs. Heat pumps from the various...

  12. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and simple cycle costs are the result of a comprehensive survey of actual costs from the power plant developers in California who built power plants between 2001 and 2006. The other costs are based on actual in conjunction with the variable cost information of a production cost market simulation model to produce

  13. Conservation Cost-Effectiveness Determination Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the levelized cost of the aggregate supply curves, the portfolio model does not evaluate each measure's specific of programming constraints, the levelized costs of conservation used in the portfolio model are not adjusted of its costs. May 2005 E-1 #12;include energy and capacity cost savings, local distribution cost savings

  14. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenquist, G.; Levok, A.; Chan, P.; McMahon, J.

    2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a central air conditioner and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers due to modest increases in efficiency are significant. For an efficiency increase of 20percent over the existing minimum standard (i.e., 12 SEER), 35percent of households with central air conditioners experience significant LCC savings, with an average savings of $453, while 25percent show significant LCC losses, with an average loss of $158 compared to apre-standard LCC average of $5,170. The remainder of the population (40percent) are largely unaffected.

  15. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energys Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative Island approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this islands used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an islands cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

  16. Arbitration Costs and Contingent Fee Contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drahozal, Christopher R.

    2005-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A common criticism of arbitration is that its upfront costs (arbitrators' fees and administrative costs) may preclude consumers and employees from asserting their claims. Some commentators have argued further that arbitration costs undercut...

  17. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATIONCann Please use the following citation for this report: Klein, Joel. 2009. Comparative Costs of California............................................................................................................................1 Changes in the Cost of Generation Model

  18. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION and Anitha Rednam, Comparative Costs of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 1: Summary of Technology Costs

  19. USA oilgas production cost : recent changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1984-1989, oil development investment cost in the USA fell, but only because of lower activity. The whole cost curve shifted unfavorably (leftward). In contrast, natural gas cost substantially decreased, the curve ...

  20. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the delivery cost for fuel cell vehicles, however, itfueling stations, cost, Shanghai, fuel cell vehicles 1.0hydrogen cost therefore depend on the fleet of fuel cell

  1. Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, A. M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP) is a Management System designed to reduce operating cost in a continuous operating multi product plant by reviewing all cost factors and selecting plant wide production schedules which are most...

  2. Maintenance cost studies of present aircraft subsystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearlman, Chaim Herman Shalom

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes two detailed studies of actual maintenance costs for present transport aircraft. The first part describes maintenance costs for jet transport aircraft broken down into subsystem costs according to an ...

  3. Final Report What Will Adaptation Cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ..................................................................................................................26 Task 3: Estimate Costs of Implementing Adaptation Strategies ....................................................................34 Task 2: Calculate the Capital and Maintenance CostsFinal Report What Will Adaptation Cost? An Economic Framework for Coastal Community Infrastructure

  4. WVU Personal Rapid Transit Benefit Cost Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    WVU Personal Rapid Transit Benefit Cost Analysis Morgantown, West Virginia Prepared For: West.......................................................................................... 15 Travel Time Value - Understanding Travel Time Costs................................................. 15 Travel Time Value - Understanding Travel Time Costs

  5. Designing for cost In an aerospace company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammar, Elizabeth (Elizabeth Deming)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Companies take different approaches, and achieve different degrees of implementation, in designing products for cost. This thesis discusses Target Costing and its application at The Boeing Company. Target Costing is a ...

  6. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems in China, particularly for the cost of hydrogento the capital cost for equipment imported to China. 2.4.6.estate costs in Shanghai are among the highest in China and

  7. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Enea Romano

    2007-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  8. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, A E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  9. Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) cost study: analysis of first cost tradeoffs in UFAD systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Benedek, Corinne; Bauman, Fred

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Quality: Total HVAC Cost Trend Table 5. Wall Thermal20. Climate: Total HVAC Cost Trend HVAC Category Cost ($/the total perimeter HVAC cost trend for increased density of

  10. Statistical Inference for Costs and Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios with Censored Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shuai

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is widely conducted in the economic evaluation of new treatment options. In many clinical and observational studies of costs, data are often censored. Censoring brings challenges to both medical cost estimation and cost...

  11. Statistical Inference for Costs and Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios with Censored Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shuai

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is widely conducted in the economic evaluation of new treatment options. In many clinical and observational studies of costs, data are often censored. Censoring brings challenges to both medical cost estimation and cost...

  12. Michigan Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the Michigan Uniform Energy Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Michigan homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the Michigan Uniform Energy Code is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Michigan homeowners will save $10,081 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $604 for the 2012 IECC.

  13. Cost objective PLM and CE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Nicolas

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concurrent engineering taking into account product life-cycle factors seems to be one of the industrial challenges of the next years. Cost estimation and management are two main strategic tasks that imply the possibility of managing costs at the earliest stages of product development. This is why it is indispensable to let people from economics and from industrial engineering collaborates in order to find the best solution for enterprise progress for economical factors mastering. The objective of this paper is to present who we try to adapt costing methods in a PLM and CE point of view to the new industrial context and configuration in order to give pertinent decision aid for product and process choices. A very important factor is related to cost management problems when developing new products. A case study is introduced that presents how product development actors have referenced elements to product life-cycle costs and impacts, how they have an idea bout economical indicators when taking decisions during t...

  14. Cost objective PLM and CE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Perry; Alain Bernard

    2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Concurrent engineering taking into account product life-cycle factors seems to be one of the industrial challenges of the next years. Cost estimation and management are two main strategic tasks that imply the possibility of managing costs at the earliest stages of product development. This is why it is indispensable to let people from economics and from industrial engineering collaborates in order to find the best solution for enterprise progress for economical factors mastering. The objective of this paper is to present who we try to adapt costing methods in a PLM and CE point of view to the new industrial context and configuration in order to give pertinent decision aid for product and process choices. A very important factor is related to cost management problems when developing new products. A case study is introduced that presents how product development actors have referenced elements to product life-cycle costs and impacts, how they have an idea bout economical indicators when taking decisions during the progression of the project of product development.

  15. Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence: 2005 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    For thirty years, dependence on oil has been a significant problem for the United States. Oil dependence is not simply a matter of how much oil we import. It is a syndrome, a combination of the vulnerability of the U.S. economy to higher oil prices and oil price shocks and a concentration of world oil supplies in a small group of oil producing states that are willing and able to use their market power to influence world oil prices. Although there are vitally important political and military dimensions to the oil dependence problem, this report focuses on its direct economic costs. These costs are the transfer of wealth from the United States to oil producing countries, the loss of economic potential due to oil prices elevated above competitive market levels, and disruption costs caused by sudden and large oil price movements. Several enhancements have been made to methods used in past studies to estimate these costs, and estimates of key parameters have been updated based on the most recent literature. It is estimated that oil dependence has cost the U.S. economy $3.6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars) since 1970, with the bulk of the losses occurring between 1979 and 1986. However, if oil prices in 2005 average $35-$45/bbl, as recently predicted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, oil dependence costs in 2005 will be in the range of $150-$250 billion. Costs are relatively evenly divided between the three components. A sensitivity analysis reflecting uncertainty about all the key parameters required to estimate oil dependence costs suggests that a reasonable range of uncertainty for the total costs of U.S. oil dependence over the past 30 years is $2-$6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars). Reckoned in terms of present value using a discount rate of 4.5%, the costs of U.S. oil dependence since 1970 are $8 trillion, with a reasonable range of uncertainty of $5 to $13 trillion.

  16. Estimating Specialty Costs - DOE Directives, Delegations, and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects. g4301-1chp20.pdf -- PDF Document, 56 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration Management...

  17. Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posner, Eric; Masur, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Eric A. Posner, Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-effects of environmental regulations for other industries.PaperCollection. Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-

  18. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is the...

  19. Example Cost Codes for Construction Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides an example outline of cost items and their corresponding cost codes that may be used for construction projects.

  20. Driltac (Drilling Time and Cost Evaluation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The users manual for the drill tech model for estimating the costs of geothermal wells. The report indicates lots of technical and cost detail. [DJE-2005

  1. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory Panel, Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification To: Mr. Mark Ruth, NREL, DOE

  2. Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Tables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Calculation Table Updated: March 20, 2015 FY 2016 February 2015 CRC Calculation Table (pdf) Final FY 2015 CRC Letter & Table (pdf) Note: The Cost...

  3. Final environmental assessment for the U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations receipt and storage of uranium materials from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a series of material transfers and sales agreements over the past 6 to 8 years, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has reduced its nuclear material inventory from 14,500 to approximately 6,800 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This effort is part of the US Department of energy`s (DOE`s) decision to change the mission of the FEMP site; it is currently shut down and the site is being remediated. This EA focuses on the receipt and storage of uranium materials at various DOE-ORO sites. The packaging and transportation of FEMP uranium material has been evaluated in previous NEPA and other environmental evaluations. A summary of these evaluation efforts is included as Appendix A. The material would be packaged in US Department of Transportation-approved shipping containers and removed from the FEMP site and transported to another site for storage. The Ohio Field Office will assume responsibility for environmental analyses and documentation for packaging and transport of the material as part of the remediation of the site, and ORO is preparing this EA for receipt and storage at one or more sites.

  4. Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs And a Quick Guide to Patient Care Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janssen, Michel

    Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs And a Quick Guide to Patient Care Costs questions regarding human research patient care costs. Human research patient care costs are the costs. The costs of these services normally are assigned to specific research projects through the development

  5. Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.

  6. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to bond with composite matrix material. It is important that a carbon fiber manufacturing cost model manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able associated with both the manufacture of carbon fibers themselves as well as their composites. Traditional

  7. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Fact 638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to...

  8. Private trucking costs and records

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haning, Charles R

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ccaystieoa of Ls?sl L?hot Rsyoa?s to See-L?hot Rsyoaeo Coot-hHOL? daslyoio xoc?L Disco coot y?~LLL? kaalyoi? lstseoitg Cost-y?~LL? daelgeio LeeaL Co?C~LNLL? ka?LXaie C?eyeeieoa Roteess Looal sad 1atcmoitg %la-Lstcac Coot-SeHNlo 9 9 Ll LX 14 19 Xi... s aired fleet of trucks was 29 seats psr nile. Of this figure& 14 cents was attributable co tho driver expenses whish included ths wages of tha drivers and helpers. Thoro wes epproxinacaly a 51 cent difference becwesa the per nile costs fot...

  9. S86 JUNE 2006| above-average precipitation totals for the year, caus-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but below average for June in Bulgaria. Rainfall totals in April and June

  10. Use of the Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) for Life-Threatening Obstetric Hemorrhage: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Egypt and Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    morbidity,% 7. Mortality,% Nigeria No NASG NASG No NASG NASG1]. Costs Egypt El Galaa Nigeria Assiut Average UCH Katsinaof 2 for Egypt and 78 for Nigeria. 21 Refer to Technical

  11. Cost of Wind Energy in the United States: Trends from 2007 to 2012 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides an overview of recent technology trends observed in the United States including project size, turbine size, rotor diameter, hub height, annual average wind speed, and annual energy production. It also highlights area where system analysis is required to fully understand how these technology trends relate to the cost of wind energy.

  12. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  13. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  14. Pollution prevention cost savings potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celeste, J.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

  15. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

  16. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    EA 4272 On production costs in vertical differentiation models Dorothe BRECARD(*) 2009,version1-1Oct2009 #12;1 On production costs in vertical differentiation models Dorothe Brcard production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product

  17. FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Participant Support Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY Policy on Participant Support Costs Effective: May 15, 2006 Purpose costs are separately accounted for, and expended for appropriate and intended objectives. Background in the conference, workshop or training activity. Participant supports costs are defined as direct costs for items

  18. Falcon 9 Launch Vehicle NAFCOM Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The updated estimates provided both Cost Plus Fee and Firm Fixed Price approaches and included two flight Updated Estimate Cost Plus Fee Cost Plus Fee Firm Fixed Price Cost Plus Fee Total Total Total Total in structure Interstage (composite material) was included in structures (aluminum lithium material) Interstage

  19. Process-Based Cost Modeling to Support Target Value Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Hung Viet

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. (2002). Construction Cost Data Workbook. Conference onas well as process- and cost data. Figure D.2 Product modelscollecting construction cost data, the cost of an installed

  20. LE TARGET COSTING UN ETAT DE L'ART

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    cls . cot cible conception cot objectif concourance analyse de la valeur kaizen costing Keywords. target costing - design to cost concurrent ingineeringg value analysis kaizen costing

  1. Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian Model, a Two-Dimensional Model and a Three-Dimensional Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J A; Molenkamp, C R; Bixler, N E; Morrow, C W; Ramsdell, Jr., J V

    2004-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses MACCS2 (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2) for regulatory purposes such as planning for emergencies and cost-benefit analyses. MACCS2 uses a straight-line Gaussian model for atmospheric transport and dispersion. This model has been criticized as being overly simplistic, although only expected values of metrics of interest are used in the regulatory arena. To test the assumption that averaging numerous weather results adequately compensates for the loss of structure in the meteorology that occurs away from the point of release, average MACCS2 results have been compared with average results from a state-of-the-art, 3-dimensional LODI (Lagrangian Operational Dispersion Integrator)/ADAPT (Atmospheric Data Assimilation and Parameterization Technique) and a Lagrangian trajectory, Gaussian puff transport and dispersion model from RASCAL (Radiological Assessment System for consequence Analysis). The weather sample included 610 weather trials representing conditions for a hypothetical release at the Central Facility of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site. The values compared were average ground concentrations and average surface-level air concentrations at several distances out to 100 miles (160.9 km) from the assumed release site.

  2. Marketing Practices and Costs of Texas Egg Producer-Wholesalers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafer, Carl E.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the ungraded, loose desirable in order to take advantage of both labor wholesale alternative and the gra(lPr,, specialization in egg processing and market out- lets which require large volumes. Producers cartoned retailer-consumer alternative. Groupretail A, B and C's presence in the market may be outlets at wholesale prices and/or directly to explained in part by their accepting low returnc for their labor and investment and/or the receipt consumers at prices...

  3. FY 1997 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellards, J.B.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the end of the cold war, funding for the Environmental Management program increased rapidly as nuclear weapons production facilities were shut down, cleanup responsibilities increased, and facilities were transferred to the cleanup program. As funding for the Environmental Management (EM) program began to level off in response to Administration and Congressional efforts to balance the Federal budget, the program redoubled its efforts to increase efficiency and get more productivity out of every dollar. Cost savings and enhanced performance are an integral pair of Hanford Site operations. FY1997 was the third year of a cost savings program that was initially defined in FY 1995. The definitions and process remained virtually the same as those used in FY 1996.

  4. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  5. Federal Indirect Costs Program Definition of the indirect costs of research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doedel, Eusebius

    Federal Indirect Costs Program Definition of the indirect costs of research Concordia University defines "Indirect Costs" as costs which cannot be associated specifically with a particular research program or other activity. Indirect costs include the provision and maintenance of physical space

  6. 5. ESTIMATING THE COSTS OF DIGITAL PRESERVATION 5.1 Isolating a `preservation cost'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, Leslie

    44 5. ESTIMATING THE COSTS OF DIGITAL PRESERVATION 5.1 Isolating a `preservation cost' Deciding preservation is--how much will it cost? One of the problems encountered in trying to answer this question costs do relate specifically to preservation, but this does not mean that those are the only costs

  7. INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    INDIRECT COST CALCULATION [IN REVERSE] YOU WANT TO CALCULATE THE DIRECT COSTS YOU KNOW WHAT THE TUITION, STIPEND AND EQUIPMENT COSTS ARE YOU KNOW WHAT THE TOTAL COST IS CALCULATION IS USING THE 2010 FED F&A RATE FOR WSU OF 52% (.52) [ DIRECT COST TUITION STIPEND EQUIPMENT] (.52 ) + DIRECT

  8. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost mo

  9. NWEC Comments: Environmental Costs and Benefits 1 Methodology for Determining Quantifiable Environmental Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NWEC Comments: Environmental Costs and Benefits 1 Methodology for Determining Quantifiable Environmental Costs and Benefits Comments of the NW Energy Coalition October 31, 2014 Introduction: Applying (Council) to include a methodology for determining quantifiable environmental costs and benefits in its

  10. Melanoma costs: A dynamic model comparing estimated overall costs of various clinical stages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrescu, Doru Traian

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AL. Trends in treatment costs for localized prostate cancer:R, Elkin EP, et al. Cumulative cost pattern comparison ofAn estimate of the annual direct cost of treating cutaneous

  11. Evaluating cost-reduction alternatives and low-cost sourcing opportunities for aerospace castings and forgings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obermoller, Amber J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As companies continue to outsource large portions of their manufacturing, managing costs in the supply chain is increasingly important in reducing overall costs and remaining competitive. Low-cost sourcing has become an ...

  12. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David, E-mail: dcraft@partners.org; Papp, Dvid; Unkelbach, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  13. High-average-power, diode-pumped solid state lasers for energy and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1994-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress at LLNL in the development high-average-power diode-pumped solid state lasers is summarized, including the development of enabling technologies.

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - area average temperature Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Fisheries Sciences Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 24 The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium Summary: - it is neither heating nor cooling on average....

  15. Study of Possible Applications of Currently Available Building Information Modeling Tools for the Analysis of Initial Costs and Energy Costs for Performing Life Cycle Cost Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukherji, Payal Tapandev

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology BLCC Building Life Cycle Cost DOE Department of Energy BIPV Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems BEES Building for Environmental And Economic Sustainability HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning SMACNA Sheet Metal and Air..., Fee Costs Construction Costs Other Costs Financing Costs Operation Costs (Energy, water, utilities, energy price, energy price projections etc.) Maintenance Costs Initial Costs (Purchase and Acquisition) Owner?s Total Costs Residual...

  16. New Housing Types/Cost Centers effective September 2007 Old Cost Center Name NEW Cost Center Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahriar, Selim

    New Housing Types/Cost Centers effective September 2007 Old Cost Center Name NEW Cost Center Name Bull/Grass Frogs, Tank Housing Frog, Bull/Grass, Tank Housing Cat Cat Deer Mice Peromyscus (Deer Mouse (Pig, Mini-Pig) Pigeons Pigeon SPF, Biocontainment Housing Mouse, Containment SPF, Dog Dog SPF, Hamster

  17. Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Costs to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs. 2004, ITS-Davis:hydrogen. The cost of hydrogen pipeline delivery depends onCosts to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs. 2004, ITS-Davis:

  18. Using Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Costs to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    future estimates of hydrogen pipelines. Construction Cost (does this mean for hydrogen pipelines? The objective of thisinto the cost of hydrogen pipelines. To this end I will

  19. Cost, time, and benefit measures for personal use fuel-wood collection in Colorado. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betters, D.R.; Markstrom, D.C.; Aukerman, R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average fuel-wood collector is willing to pay, beyond current perceived costs, an additional $21 to $29 per cord in order to continue collecting fuel-wood. The difference between willingness-to-pay estimates for fuel-wood collection and for wood purchased from a commercial vendor is assumed to present recreational value of fuel-wood collection. On that basis, the recreation values for the average collection is estimated to be between $6 and $12 per cord.

  20. Sunk Costs and Real Options in Antitrust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Sunk costs play a central role in antitrust economics, but are often misunderstood and mismeasured. I will try to clarify some of the conceptual and empirical issues related to sunk costs, and explain their implications ...

  1. A Manager's Approach to Energy Cost Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, R. J.

    A major responsibility of management is the control and containment of operating costs. Energy costs are a major portion of the industrial budget. GM has developed a 3 phase approach to energy conservation. Phase I -Administrative Controls...

  2. How to Reduce Energy Supply Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rising energy costs have many businesses looking for creative ways to reduce their energy usage and lower the costs of energy delivered to their facilities. This paper explores innovative renewable and alternative energy technologies that can help...

  3. Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To help facility managers make sound decisions, FEMP provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments.

  4. How Much Does That Incinerator Cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Nash, Catherine; Harman, Wyatte; Padia, Reema

    2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Biosecurity on poultry farms includes proper disposal of dead carcasses. In many cases, that means using an incinerator. Calculating the cost of an incinerator means considering long and short-term expenses and the cost of fuel. This publication...

  5. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  6. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  7. Updating MIT's cost estimation model for shipbuilding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Matthew B., Lieutenant, junior grade

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis project will update the MIT ship cost estimation model by combining the two existing models (the Basic Military Training School (BMTS) Cost Model and the MIT Math Model) in order to develop a program that can ...

  8. Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Systems Storage Systems TIAX LLC 15 Acorn Park Cambridge, MA 02140-2390 Tel. 617- 498-5000 Fax 617-498-7200...

  9. Theories on Auctions with Participation Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Xiaoyong

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation I study theories on auctions with participation costs with various information structure. Chapter II studies equilibria of second price auctions with differentiated participation costs. We consider equilibria in independent...

  10. FY 1995 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue. Budgets remain on the decline, even while the expectations increase. Yet we are confident in our ability to keep our commitments and goals by identifying new efficiencies in the Hanford cleanup program. We will also pursue new contracting arrangements that will allow us to foster greater competition and use more commercial practices while maintaining our commitment to the safety and health of the public, our workers, and the environment.

  11. Cost effectiveness of sonic drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masten, D.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sonic drilling (combination of mechanical vibrations and rotary power) is an innovative environmental technology being developed in cooperation with DOE`s Arid-Site Volatile Organic Compounds Integrated Demonstration at Hanford and the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration at Sandia. This report studies the cost effectiveness of sonic drilling compared with cable-tool and mud rotary drilling. Benefit of sonic drilling is its ability to drill in all types of formations without introducing a circulating medium, thus producing little secondary waste at hazardous sites. Progress has been made in addressing the early problems of failures and downtime.

  12. Cost | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationinConcentratingEnergyCoosa ValleyCorsicanaproject (SmartCost Home

  13. COST OF SECURITY: FIREWALL FOCUS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r8.0 - HOISTING30, 2006 16thCOST11-11198

  14. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: A life-cycle costing approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massarutto, Antonio [University of Udine, Udine (Italy); IEFE, Bocconi University, Milan (Italy); Carli, Alessandro de, E-mail: alessandro.decarli@unibocconi.it [IEFE, Bocconi University, Milan (Italy); Graffi, Matteo [University of Udine, Udine (Italy); IEFE, Bocconi University, Milan (Italy)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > The study aims at assessing economic performance of alternative scenarios of MSW. > The approach is the life-cycle costing (LCC). > Waste technologies must be considered as complementary into an integrated strategy. - Abstract: A critical assumption of studies assessing comparatively waste management options concerns the constant average cost for selective collection regardless the source separation level (SSL) reached, and the neglect of the mass constraint. The present study compares alternative waste management scenarios through the development of a desktop model that tries to remove the above assumption. Several alternative scenarios based on different combinations of energy and materials recovery are applied to two imaginary areas modelled in order to represent a typical Northern Italian setting. External costs and benefits implied by scenarios are also considered. Scenarios are compared on the base of the full cost for treating the total waste generated in the area. The model investigates the factors that influence the relative convenience of alternative scenarios.

  15. Geothermal drilling problems and their impact on cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, C.C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historical data are presented that demonstrate the significance of unexpected problems. In extreme cases, trouble costs are the largest component of well costs or severe troubles can lead to abandonment of a hole. Drilling experiences from US geothermal areas are used to analyze the frequency and severity of various problems. In addition, average trouble costs are estimated based on this analysis and the relationship between trouble and depth is discussed. The most frequent drilling and completion problem in geothermal wells is lost circulation. This is especially true for resources in underpressured, fractured formations. Serious loss of circulation can occur during drilling - because of this, the producing portions of many wells are drilled with air or aerated drilling fluid and the resulting corrosion/erosion problems are tolerated - but it can also affect the cementing of well casing. Problems in bonding the casing to the formation result from many other causes as well, and are common in geothermal wells. Good bonds are essential because of the possibility of casing collapse due to thermal cycling during the life of the well. Several other problems are identified and their impacts are quantified and discussed.

  16. Optimal Transportation Theory with Repulsive Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simone Di Marino; Augusto Gerolin; Luca Nenna

    2015-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper intents to present the state of art and recent developments of the optimal transportation theory with many marginals for a class of repulsive cost functions. We introduce some aspects of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) from a mathematical point of view, and revisit the theory of optimal transport from its perspective. Moreover, in the last three sections, we describe some recent and new theoretical and numerical results obtained for the Coulomb cost, the repulsive harmonic cost and the determinant cost.

  17. Evolving Utility Cost-Effectiveness Test Criteria

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an overview of tests done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency program benefits.

  18. Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Green Algae: Milestone Completion Report Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen...

  19. An algorithm for minimization of quantum cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

    2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A new algorithm for minimization of quantum cost of quantum circuits has been designed. The quantum cost of different quantum circuits of particular interest (eg. circuits for EPR, quantum teleportation, shor code and different quantum arithmetic operations) are computed by using the proposed algorithm. The quantum costs obtained using the proposed algorithm is compared with the existing results and it is found that the algorithm has produced minimum quantum cost in all cases.

  20. Virginia Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 Virginia Construction Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Virginia homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the current Virginia Construction Code is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Virginia homeowners will save $5,836 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $388 for the 2012 IECC.

  1. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawai?¢????i and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the predicted economies of scale as technology and efficiency improvements are realized and larger more economical plants deployed. Utilizing global high resolution OTEC resource assessment from the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project (an independent DOE project), Global Energy Supply Curves were generated for Grid Connected and Energy Carrier OTEC plants deployed in 2045 when the predicted technology and efficiencies improvements are fully realized. The Global Energy Supply Curves present the LCOE versus capacity in ascending order with the richest, lowest cost resource locations being harvested first. These curves demonstrate the vast ocean thermal resource and potential OTEC capacity that can be harvested with little change in LCOE.

  2. Costs and business models in scientific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Costs and business models in scientific research publishing A report commissioned by the Wellcome Trust DP-3114.p/100/04-2004/JM #12;Costs and business models in scientific research publishing A report, Cambridgeshire CB4 9ZR, UK Tel: +44 (0)1223 209400 Web: www.sqw.co.uk #12;Costs and business models in scientific

  3. TRANSACTION COSTS AND NONMARKOVIAN DELTA HEDGING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TRANSACTION COSTS AND NONMARKOVIAN DELTA HEDGING Claudio Albanese and Stathis Tompaidis. The underlying security is a stock whose trading involves a small relative transaction cost k . If k = 0 find an optimal trading strategy that minimizes total transaction costs for a given degree of risk

  4. 2014-2015 Projected Aviation Program Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    2014-2015 Projected Aviation Program Costs UND Aerospace offers two aviation degree programs with a total of seven academic majors. Each has its own flight course requirements, which affect the cost of a degree program. BACHELOR of BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ** Flight Costs Airport Management Survey of Flight

  5. Support Vector Machines with Example Dependent Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brefeld, Ulf

    Support Vector Machines with Example Dependent Costs Ulf Brefeld, Peter Geibel, and Fritz Wysotzki neu- ral networks and machine learning, typically, do not take any costs into account or allow only costs depending on the classes of the examples that are used for learning. As an extension of class

  6. Arbitration Costs and Forum Accessibility: Empirical Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drahozal, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evidence suggests the following tentative conclusions on those two questions. First, the upfront costs of arbitration will in many cases be higher than, and at best be the same as, the upfront costs in litigation. Whether arbitration is less costly than...

  7. Memorial University of Newfoundland Indirect Costs Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deYoung, Brad

    Memorial University of Newfoundland Indirect Costs Report 2012-13 The grant provided through the Government of Canada Indirect Costs Program (ICP) is essential to Memorial's research success. Funding and impact can be found in the following section. Total 2013 Indirect Costs Grant: $4,318,814 Management

  8. Prevalence-Dependent Costs of Parasite Virulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevalence-Dependent Costs of Parasite Virulence Stephanie Bedhomme1 , Philip Agnew2 , Yuri Vital2, Canada, 2 Genetique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, Montpellier, France Costs of parasitism control groups. This measure potentially underestimates the cost of parasitism because it ignores indirect

  9. Network With Costs: Timing and Flow Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

    Network With Costs: Timing and Flow Decomposition Shreeshankar Bodas, Jared Grubb, Sriram Sridharan-- This paper analyzes a capacitated network with costs from an information theoretic point of view. Determines a flow decomposition for a network with costs starting from an information theoretic point of view

  10. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Components Feedstock Production Delivery Total Delivered Hydrogen Cost Biomass Central Pipeline Distribution produce hydrogen at 300 psi · Liquefaction or pipeline compression included in delivery · Delivery costsHydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25

  11. Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs Bruce Kelly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs Bruce Kelly Nexant, Inc. Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting May 8 are representative of hydrogen pipeline costs; 10 percent added to unit hydrogen costs as a contingency Better-9, 2007 Columbia, Maryland #12;2 Hydrogen Liquefaction Basic process Compress Cool to temperature

  12. What does a negawatt really cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use data from ten utility conservation programs to calculate the cost per kWh of electricity saved -- the cost of a "negawatthour" -- resulting from these programs. We first compute the life-cycle cost per kWh saved ...

  13. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

  14. Update on the Cost of Nuclear Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, John E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We update the cost of nuclear power as calculated in the MIT (2003) Future of Nuclear Power study. Our main focus is on the changing cost of construction of new plants. The MIT (2003) study provided useful data on the cost ...

  15. Computational Energy Cost of TCP Bokyung Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Suresh

    present results from a detailed energy measurement study of TCP. We focus on the node- level cost have characterized the cost of the primary TCP functions; (3) our node-level energy models canComputational Energy Cost of TCP Bokyung Wang Telecommunications System Division SAMSUNG

  16. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  17. Minimization of Life Cycle Costs Through Optimization of the Validation Program A Test Sample Size and Warranty Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandborn, Peter

    Minimization of Life Cycle Costs Through Optimization of the Validation Program A Test Sample Size and Warranty Cost Approach Andre Kleyner, Delphi Delco Electronics, Kokomo Peter Sandborn, Ph cycle cost, validation program, cost optimization, reliability cost curve, warranty, sample size

  18. GRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    .00 = __________ TOTALS: _________ __________ CREDITS QUALITY PTS. Divide total credits into total quality pointsGRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE A _________ x 4 and the result is the grade point average (GPA). QUALITY PTS. = GPA ____________ = CREDITS

  19. Characterization of the optimal trajectories for the averaged dynamics associated to singularly perturbed control systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    trajectory of the averaged system. Key words: Optimal control, Singular perturbations, occupational measures is to study singularly perturbed control systems. Firstly, we provide linearized formulation version and sufficient conditions in order to identify the optimal trajectory of the averaged system. Linear programming

  20. A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, J. V.

    A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D 1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two years otherwise there are too many parameters to be estimated. As we wish to simulate solar radiation on a network

  1. Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nei, Masatoshi

    Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations the variances of nucleotide diversity within pop- ulations and of nucleotide divergence between populations of the extent of DNA polymorphism is nucleotide diversity (z), which is defined as the average number of either

  2. Volume-averaged macroscopic equation for fluid flow in moving porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liang; Guo, Zhaoli; Mi, Jianchun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation are two main models used for creeping fluid flows inside moving permeable particles. For these two models, the time derivative and the nonlinear convective terms of fluid velocity are neglected in the momentum equation. In this paper, a new momentum equation including these two terms are rigorously derived from the pore-scale microscopic equations by the volume-averaging method, which can reduces to Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation under creeping flow conditions. Using the lattice Boltzmann equation method, the macroscopic equations are solved for the problem of a porous circular cylinder moving along the centerline of a channel. Galilean invariance of the equations are investigated both with the intrinsic phase averaged velocity and the phase averaged velocity. The results demonstrate that the commonly used phase averaged velocity cannot serve as the superficial velocity, while the intrinsic phase averaged velocity should be chosen for porous particulate systems.

  3. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost Effectiveness Investment cost Demonstration in salad2015 Cost Effectiveness Investment cost Type of cost Change2015 Cost Effectiveness Investment cost Type of cost Change

  4. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  5. 2006 Update of Business Downtime Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinrichs, Mr. Doug [Sentech, Inc.; Goggin, Mr. Michael [Sentech, Inc.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to assess the downtime cost of power outages to businesses in the commercial and industrial sectors, updating and improving upon studies that have already been published on this subject. The goal is to produce a study that, relative to existing studies, (1) applies to a wider set of business types (2) reflects more current downtime costs, (3) accounts for the time duration factor of power outages, and (4) includes data on the costs imposed by real outages in a well-defined market. This study examines power outage costs in 11 commercial subsectors and 5 industrial subsectors, using data on downtime costs that was collected in the 1990's. This study also assesses power outage costs for power outages of 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours duration. Finally, this study incorporates data on the costs of real power outages for two business subsectors. However, the current limited state of data availability on the topic of downtime costs means there is room to improve upon this study. Useful next steps would be to generate more recent data on downtime costs, data that covers outages shorter than 20 minutes duration and longer than 4 hours duration, and more data that is based on the costs caused by real-world outages. Nevertheless, with the limited data that is currently available, this study is able to generate a clear and detailed picture of the downtime costs that are faced by different types of businesses.

  6. Enter a Receipt NUFinancials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    or Central Supply Chain SC020 Delivery Report · Under Ship To column, in the Keywords field, search already been partially received) · Fill in other search criteria as necessary · Click Search · From search request, use: · Project Café website http://cafe.northwestern.edu · Click Resources on left side of page

  7. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deokjin-dong 150, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  8. Studying the Cost and Value of Library and Information Services: Applying Functional Cost Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    analysis method, and presents selected data gathered from a larger study on the costs and value of various data on the cost of accessto electronic sourcesvia different accessmodes; on the patterns of useStudying the Cost and Value of Library and Information Services: Applying Functional Cost Analysis

  9. Class Noise Handling for Effective Cost-Sensitive Learning by Cost-Guided

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xindong

    on expensive classes, which makes it attractive in dealing with data sets with a large cost-ratio. Experimental the misclassification cost of a CS classifier in noisy environments. Index Terms--Data mining, classification, cost for effective CS learning from noisy data sources. 2 COST-GUIDED ITERATIVE CLASSIFICATION FILTER Among all

  10. Estimation of cost synergies from mergers without cost data: Application to U.S. radio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    Estimation of cost synergies from mergers without cost data: Application to U.S. radio Przemyslaw without using actual data on cost. The estimator uses a structural model in which companies play a dynamic for cost data. It turns out that between 1996 and 2006 additional ownership concentration generated $2.5b

  11. CALiPER Report 21.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Linear (T8) LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Perrin, Tess E.; Royer, Michael P.

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting performance expectations is important for driving adoption of linear LED lamps, but cost-effectiveness may be an overriding factor in many cases. Linear LED lamps cost more initially than fluorescent lamps, but energy and maintenance savings may mean that the life-cycle cost is lower. This report details a series of life-cycle cost simulations that compared a two-lamp troffer using LED lamps (38 W total power draw) or fluorescent lamps (51 W total power draw) over a 10-year study period. Variables included LED system cost ($40, $80, or $120), annual operating hours (2,000 hours or 4,000 hours), LED installation time (15 minutes or 30 minutes), and melded electricity rate ($0.06/kWh, $0.12/kWh, $0.18/kWh, or $0.24/kWh). A full factorial of simulations allows users to interpolate between these values to aid in making rough estimates of economic feasibility for their own projects. In general, while their initial cost premium remains high, linear LED lamps are more likely to be cost-effective when electric utility rates are higher than average and hours of operation are long, and if their installation time is shorter.

  12. Effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latta, A.F.; Bowyer, J.M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P.H.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study determines the performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. The solar plants are conceptualized to begin commercial operation in the year 2000. It is assumed that major subsystem performance will have improved substantially as compared to that of pilot plants currently operating or under construction. The net average annual system efficiency is therefore roughly twice that of current solar thermal electric power plant designs. Similarly, capital costs reflecting goals based on high-volume mass production that are considered to be appropriate for the year 2000 have been used. These costs, which are approximately an order of magnitude below the costs of current experimental projects, are believed to be achievable as a result of the anticipated sizeable solar penetration into the energy market in the 1990 to 2000 timeframe. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrators comprise the advanced collector concepts studied. All concepts exhibit their best performance when sited in regional areas such as the sunbelt where the annual insolation is high. The regional variation in solar plant performance has been assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems performance and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades are given.

  13. Modelling Dynamic Constraints in Electricity Markets and the Costs of Uncertain Wind Output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musgens, Felix; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    generation to analyse the effects of uncertainty. We find that the costs of balancing wind power were relatively low in the Ger- man system in 2003. They could be reduced even further when a better forecast becomes available, either by implementing a later... . This was to be expected, as start-up and shut-down decisions are the key variables used to balance wind powers volatility. On the other hand, we find that the increase in generation costs is marginal. This is also plausible as average wind generation is held constant...

  14. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  15. Averaged Energy Inequalities for Non-Minimally Coupled Classical Scalar Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz W. Osterbrink

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The stress-energy tensor for the non-minimally coupled scalar field is known not to satisfy the pointwise energy conditions, even on the classical level. We show, however, that local averages of the classical stress-energy tensor satisfy certain inequalities and give bounds for averages along causal geodesics. It is shown that in vacuum background spacetimes, ANEC and AWEC are satisfied. Furthermore we use our result to show that in the classical situation we have an analogue to the so called quantum interest conjecture. These results lay the foundations for averaged energy inequalities for the quantised non-minimally coupled fields.

  16. Wind Power: How Much, How Soon, and At What Cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan H

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performanceaccess the nation's lowest-cost wind resources can be builtpressure on installed wind project costs while the industry

  17. Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    costs to estimate hydrogen pipeline costs. Davis, CA: ITS-hydrogen. The cost of hydrogen pipeline delivery de- pendshydrogen trucks, and hydrogen pipelines, were devel- oped

  18. On EOQ Cost Models with Arbitrary Purchase and Transportation ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birbil

    2014-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    level is negative. Out of pocket holding costs represent real costs of holding inventory, such as; warehouse rental, handling, insurance and refrigeration costs.

  19. Challenging the Cost Effectiveness of Medi-Cal Managed Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riner, R. Myles

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    paper presents data that challenge the cost effectiveness ofcredible data on eligibility, enrollment, networks, cost,without such data they cannot be a cost- effective partner

  20. Life cycle cost report of VHLW cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document, the Life Cycle Cost Report (LCCR) for the VHLW Cask, presents the life cycle costs for acquiring, using, and disposing of the VHLW casks. The VHLW cask consists of a ductile iron cask body, called the shielding insert, which is used for storage and transportation, and ultimately for disposal of Defense High Level Waste which has been vitrified and placed into VHLW canisters. Each ductile iron VHLW shielding insert holds one VHLW canister. For transportation, the shielding insert is placed into a containment overpack. The VHLW cask as configured for transportation is a legal weight truck cask which will be licensed by NRC. The purpose of this LCCR is to present the development of the life cycle costs for using the VHLW cask to transport VHLW canisters from the generating sites to a disposal site. Life cycle costs include the cost of acquiring, operating, maintaining, and ultimately dispositioning the VHLW cask and its associated hardware. This report summarizes costs associated with transportation of the VHLW casks. Costs are developed on the basis of expected usage, anticipated source and destination locations, and expected quantities of VHLW which must be transported. DOE overhead costs, such as the costs associated with source and destination facility handling of the VHLW, are not included. Also not included are costs exclusive to storage or disposal of the VHLW waste.

  1. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  2. User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

  3. Exploring Cost-Effective, High Performance Residential Retrofits for Affordable Housing in the Hot Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIlvaine, Janet; Sutherland, Karen; Schleith, Kevin; Chandra, Subrato

    2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2009, a Department of Energy Building America team led by the Florida Solar Energy Center began working with partners to find cost-effective paths for improving the energy performance of existing homes in the hot humid climate. A test-in energy audit and energy use modeling of the partner's proposed renovation package was performed for 41 affordable and middle income foreclosed homes in Florida and Alabama. HERS1 Indices ranged from 92 to 184 with modeled energy savings ranging from 3% to 50% (average of 26%). Analyses and recommendations were discussed with partners to encourage more efficient retrofits, highlight health and safety issues, and gather feedback on incremental cost of high performance measures. Ten completed renovations have modeled energy savings ranging from 9% to 48% (average 31%.) This paper presents the project's process including our findings thus far and highlights of the first home to meet the target HERS Index of 70.

  4. The averaging process in permeability estimation from well-test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, D.S. (Saudi Aramco (SA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeability estimates from the pressure derivative or the slope of the semilog plot usually are considered to be averages of some large ill-defined reservoir volume. This paper presents results of a study of the averaging process, including identification of the region of the reservoir that influences permeability estimates, and a specification of the relative contribution of the permeability of various regions to the estimate of average permeability. The diffusion equation for the pressure response of a well situated in an infinite reservoir where permeability is an arbitrary function of position was solved for the case of small variations from a mean value. Permeability estimates from the slope of the plot of pressure vs. the logarithm of drawdown time are shown to be weighted averages of the permeabilities within an inner and outer radius of investigation.

  5. average power diode-pumped: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are required for numerous applications such as UV generation for lithography and pumping by a fiber- coupled diode bar1 generated 7-ps pulses with 4.5-W average power and...

  6. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroahaber, James; Kolomenskii, A; Schuessler, Hans

    2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call...

  7. Social comparison test using women's subjective and physiological reactivity to thin and average size models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamez, Jeannine Paola

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The current study examined the subjective and physiological reactivity to body image stimuli among females engaging in a social comparison task. Study I was conducted to select images of thin and average size models and neutral objects for Study...

  8. System average rates of U.S. investor-owned electric utilities : a statistical benchmark study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berndt, Ernst R.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using multiple regression methods, we have undertaken a statistical "benchmark" study comparing system average electricity rates charged by three California utilities with 96 other US utilities over the 1984-93 time period. ...

  9. Evaluation of Low-Level Waste Disposal Receipt Data for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Robert [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational or institutional waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on-site and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The accuracy of the performance assessment and composite analysis depends upon the validity of the data used and assumptions made in conducting the analyses. If changes in these data and assumptions are significant, they may invalidate or call into question certain aspects of the analyses. For example, if the volumes and activities of waste disposed of during the remainder of the disposal facility's lifetime differ significantly from those projected, the doses projected by the analyses may no longer apply. DOE field sites are required to implement a performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program. The purpose of this program is to ensure the continued applicability of the analyses through incremental improvement of the level of understanding of the disposal site and facility. Site personnel are required to conduct field and experimental work to reduce the uncertainty in the data and models used in the assessments. Furthermore, they are required to conduct periodic reviews of waste receipts, comparing them to projected waste disposal rates. The radiological inventory for Area G was updated in conjunction with Revision 4 of the performance assessment and composite analysis (Shuman, 2008). That effort used disposal records and other sources of information to estimate the quantities of radioactive waste that have been disposed of at Area G from 1959, the year the facility started receiving waste on a routine basis, through 2007. It also estimated the quantities of LLW that will require disposal from 2008 through 2044, the year in which it is assumed that disposal operations at Area G will cease. This report documents the fourth review of Area G disposal receipts since the inventory was updated and examines information for waste placed in the ground during fiscal years (FY) 2008 through 2011. The primary objective of the disposal receipt review is to ensure that the future waste inventory projections developed for the performance assessment and composite analysis are consistent with the actual types and quantities of waste being disposed of at Area G. Toward this end, the disposal data that are the subject of this review are used to update the future waste inventory projections for the disposal facility. These projections are compared to the future inventory projections that were develope

  10. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  11. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  13. Nongeneralizability of Tsallis Entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages under pseudo-additivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambedkar Dukkipati; M. Narsimha Murty; Shalabh Bhatnagar

    2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As additivity is a characteristic property of the classical information measure, Shannon entropy, pseudo-additivity is a characteristic property of Tsallis entropy. Renyi generalized Shannon entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, by imposing additivity as a constraint.In this paper we show that there exists no generalization for Tsallis entropy, by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, which preserves the pseudo-additivity.

  14. Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. P. Sushkov

    1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Using semiclassical approximation we consider parity nonconservation (PNC) averaged over compound resonances. We demonstrate that the result of the averaging crucially depends on the properties of residual strong nucleon-nucleon interaction. Natural way to elucidate this problem is to investigate experimentally PNC spin rotation with nonmonachromatic neutron beam: $E \\sim \\Delta E \\sim 1MeV$. Value of the effect can reach $\\psi \\sim 10^{-5}-10^{-4}$ per mean free path.

  15. 100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2005 Simultaneous Peak and Average Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    power, power fluctuation, average power and total energy are equally design constraints. In this work by the average power (energy). The increase in energy and average power consumption, increases the energy bill ( ). As the energy (average power) consumption increases, it necessitates the increase in generation which in turn

  16. Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Erick; Cervero, Robert

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rail transit capital cost study update final. Washington,2005). Managing Capital Costs of Major Federally Fundedin US rail transit project cost overrun. Transportation

  17. Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Erick; Cervero, Robert

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mile. Soaring capital investment costs are today s biggestof riders for the investment costs? If so, what minimumrelationship between investment costs and urban densities

  18. Managing asbestos: Ten costly sins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denson, F.A.; Onderick, W.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. Asbestos management is one of the toughest jobs facing a plant or environmental engineer today; even seasoned engineers can make mistakes. Much confusion exists about how best to manage this issue, especially in plant settings. Whether the company is small, medium, or large, asbestos has the power to steal from profits if not managed properly. To help POWER readers examine their current asbestos management programs, here are 10 common errors that could be stopped or avoided by practicing preventive techniques. The 10 costly sins presented are not mutually exclusive, and they certainly are not all-inclusive. They are offered as a way to stimulate ideas on how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. These include Sin 1: No written policy. Sin 2: Lack of corporate guidance. Sin 3: Not complying with regulations. Sin 4: Not worrying about other respirable fibers. Sin 5: Lawsuits--not culpable. Sin 6: No visible emissions, no problems. Sin 7: Managing asbestos manually.

  19. Delisting -- A cost effective alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, S.C.; Johnson, M.J. [Benchmark Engineering Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Delisting offers a cost-effective disposal option for some solid wastes that are listed as hazardous. Delisting involves treating a waste so that it must not: meet the criteria for which it was listed; exhibit any of the hazardous waste characteristics; and exhibit any additional factors, including other constituents, which may cause it to be a hazardous waste. A listed waste, including Cd, Cr, and Pb, at an abandoned manufacturing site in EPA Region 4 was extensively sampled and analyzed to define the extent and treatability of the waste and the impacted soil. A treatability study was conducted to demonstrate the efficacy of the selected treatment process so that the treated waste met each of the three criteria for exclusion. Complex and elaborate quality control procedures were executed to ensure data integrity throughout the process. The data were subjected to a fate and transport model to evaluate the migration potential of the landfilled treated waste by using EPA`s Composite Model for Landfill (CML) and Organic Leachate Model (OLM). A delisting petition was submitted to the state regulatory authority. After approval of the delisting petition, a work plan was prepared to implement the delisting procedures. The waste and impacted soil were excavated, treated and transported to a Subtitle D landfill for disposals

  20. EUV lithography cost of ownership analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1995-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The cost of fabricating state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) has been increasing and it will likely be economic rather than technical factors that ultimately limit the progress of ICs toward smaller devices. It is estimated that lithography currently accounts for approximately one-third the total cost of fabricating modem ICs({sup 1}). It is expected that this factor will be fairly stable for the forseeable future, and as a result, any lithographic process must be cost-effective before it can be considered for production. Additionally, the capital equipment cost for a new fabrication facility is growing at an exponential rate (2); it will soon require a multibillion dollar investment in capital equipment alone to build a manufacturing facility. In this regard, it is vital that any advanced lithography candidate justify itself on the basis of cost effectiveness. EUV lithography is no exception and close attention to issues of wafer fabrication costs have been a hallmark of its early history. To date, two prior cost analyses have been conducted for EUV lithography (formerly called {open_quotes}Soft X-ray Projection Lithography{close_quotes}). The analysis by Ceglio, et. al., provided a preliminary system design, set performance specifications and identified critical technical issues for cost control. A follow-on analysis by Early, et.al., studied the impact of issues such as step time, stepper overhead, tool utilization, escalating photoresist costs and limited reticle usage on wafer exposure costs. This current study provides updated system designs and specifications and their impact on wafer exposure costs. In addition, it takes a first cut at a preliminary schematic of an EUVL fabrication facility along with an estimate of the capital equipment costs for such a facility.

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Levelized Costs AEO 2013 3 greenhouse gas (GHG) intensive technologies like coal-fired power and coal-to-liquids (CTL) plants without carbon control and sequestration (CCS)....

  2. Questioned, Unresolved, and Potentially Unallowable Costs Incurred...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Special Report Questioned, Unresolved and Potentially Unallowable Costs Incurred by Los Alamos National Laboratory during Fiscal Years 2008 and 2009 OAS-L-12-04 April 2012...

  3. Dynamic Portfolio Optimization with Transaction Costs: Heuristics ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Aug 10, 2010 ... Dynamic Portfolio Optimization with Transaction. Costs: Heuristics and Dual Bounds. David B. Brown and James E. Smith?. Fuqua School of...

  4. Startup Costs - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs. g4301-1chp8.pdf -- PDF Document, 8 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration Management...

  5. Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fingersh, L.; Hand, M.; Laxson, A.

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This model intends to provide projections of the impact on cost from changes in economic indicators such as the Gross Domestic Product and Producer Price Index.

  6. Cost of Fuel to General Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the topic of the cost of fuel to general electricity for the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting, held on November 18-19, 2009.

  7. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    total installed capital cost (TIC) 1% Of TIC 25% Estimate ofcost estimates for six station types SMR 100 a Equipment capital

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: lowering costs associated with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    costs associated with geothermal energy production Sandia and Atlas-Copco Secoroc Advance to Phase 2 in Their Geothermal Energy Project On July 31, 2013, in Energy, Geothermal,...

  9. Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Presentationname Questions for Today Materials How can the cost of carbon fiber suitable for higher performance applications (H 2 Storage) be developed? H 2...

  10. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in planning a new hydrogen infrastructure: 1) the lack ofon the Costs of Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transportstudy. Studies of Hydrogen Infrastructure in China There

  11. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in planning a new hydrogen infrastructure: (1) the lack of1.3.3. Studies of hydrogen infrastructure in China Thereon the costs of hydrogen Infrastructure for transport

  12. Sandia Energy - Water Availability, Cost, and Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Availability, Cost, and Use Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects...

  13. Robust network design with uncertain outsourcing cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    latter is determined by the future cost of telecommunications services, whose ... of telecommunications network design because the historical data necessary to.

  14. Optimization Online - Option - Alloction funds- Transaction costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nader Trabelsi

    2009-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 18, 2009 ... The replication strategy allows reducing transaction cost effects. ... the empirical evidence poses the case of a short-term investment, on CAC40...

  15. Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the federal Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS), businesses may recover investments in certain property through depreciation deductions. The MACRS establishes a set of class l...

  16. Aerogel commercialization: Technology, markets and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, G.; Lewis, D.; McKinley, K.; Richardson, J.; Tillotson, T.

    1994-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercialization of aerogels has been slow due to several factors including cost and manufacturability issues. The technology itself is well enough developed as a result of work over the past decade by an international-community of researchers. Several extensive substantial markets appear to exist for aerogels as thermal and sound insulators, if production costs can keep prices in line with competing established materials. The authors discuss here the elements which they have identified as key cost drivers, and they give a prognosis for the evolution of the technology leading to reduced cost aerogel production.

  17. Costs and benefits of robust optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    result concerning costs for robust linear optimization under convex uncertainty. In ... In [3], a stability analysis of robust optimization for linear problems under...

  18. Expenses as a component of inventory cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lott, Eugene H

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?ocess cost accounting. While it is not necessary to give exhaust1ve t eetment to this sub]ect, a short desc?ip tion of the method' used 1. necessa?y to establish an 1m- portant point Job order cost accounting is us, d in manufactu?ing when p?oduction... of total manufacturing cost applicable to clearly dis tinguishable lots as they pass through various manufacturing processes or depa?tments ~ In this system, it is possible to compute the unit cost of each finished p?oduct by accumulating the total...

  19. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal-to-hydrogen plant capital costs .Capital cost of pulverized coal plant ($/kW) Capital cost ofIGCC coal plant ($/kW) Capital cost of repowering PC plant

  20. Cost Studies of Borrowing & Subscriptions:Chinese Dissertations Theses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doll, Vickie; Bolick, Hsi-chu

    2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    cost data used for the ILL study were October 2012 Chinese Japanese and Korean (CJK) language monographs borrowing costs of the University of Kansas (KU). The elements of cost studied include the cost charged by suppliers, staff handling, equipment...

  1. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  2. External Costs of Transport in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark A.; McCubbin, Donald R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    externalities are the unaccounted for or unpriced costs ofexplicit prices and unaccounted-for costs of those choices.

  3. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy From U.S. Windreducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for onshore

  4. Audit of the cost effectiveness of contracting for headquarters support services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the finding and recommendations on the audit of contractor costs for support services at Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. The objective was to determine whether the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76 requirement for new and existing support services contracts was properly implemented. DOE spends about $229 million on support services annually. The audit found that, on average, the costs to perform the work in-house were 40 percent less than contractor costs. The contracted activities were nevertheless continued because DOE policy did not require a cost comparison analyses as part of the program office request for support services. In addition, program officials were reluctant to perform cost comparisons because of concerns about the time required to complete the cost analysis and the availability of additional Federal positions needed for conversion to in-house performance. For the contracts reviewed, DOE could have saved $16.3 million by performing these services in-house rather than by contract.

  5. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

  6. The Product Oriented Design and Construction (PODAC) Cost Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from one rate year to another 5.2. Product Variations 5.2.1. Modify the Cost Item cost data 5 cost data 5.3.2. Modifying labor-hour estimates, labor costs, or material costs 5.3.3. ChangingThe Product Oriented Design and Construction (PODAC) Cost Model A Proposed Procedure for Product

  7. Design Study and Cost Estimate for an Assurred Isolation Facility in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baird, R. D.; Rogers, B. C.; Chau, N.; Kerr, Thomas A

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optimized assured isolation facility (AIF) consists of waste shipping containers being placed inside steel-reinforced concrete overpacks, which are, in turn, placed in steel-reinforced concrete vaults without an earthen cover system. The concrete vaults are designed to remain in service for hundreds of years, with the aid of ongoing active maintenance. This will be required since the facility will remain under license as long as waste is present in the facility. The estimated present value of life-cycle costs total about $318 million. Of this amount, over 30 percent is attributable to the need to accumulate the financial assurance fund which allows future management options to be implemented. The charge for waste received at the AIF in order to recover all costs and ensure proper facility function following the waste acceptance period was calculated for each year of AIF operation, considering annual variations in the volume received and the costs that must be recovered. The present value of the AID unit charges range for $84 to $420 per cubic foot with a life-cycle average of about $177 per cubic foot. When making decisions on cost factors and comparing alternatives, the lifetime average of $177 per cubic foot is most meaningful.

  8. RESEARCH PATIENT CARE COSTS --NIH(RC)-11 (a) Research patient care costs are the costs of routine and ancillary services provided to patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    RESEARCH PATIENT CARE COSTS -- NIH(RC)-11 (a) Research patient care costs are the costs of routine) Patient care costs shall be computed in a manner consistent with the principles and procedures used by the Medicare Program for determining the part of Medicare reimbursement based on reasonable costs

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Cost Models Used for Estimating Renovation Costs of Universities in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faquih, Yaquta Fakhruddin

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Facility managers use various cost models and techniques to estimate the cost of renovating a building and to secure the required funds needed for building renovation. A literature search indicates that these techniques offer both advantages...

  10. Costs of Growing Broilers Under Cotract.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, A. C. (Aden Combs); Stone, B. H.; Wormeli, B. C. (Ben C.)

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................ Interest 6 ...... Taxes 6 Other Costs of the Broiler Grower . 6 Heat for Brooding 6 . . . . Electr~c~ty for Lighting ......................................................... 6 Labor-Regular Care... .......................................................... 6 Labor-Catching Birds ....................................................... 6 Cleaning Out Manure ......................................................... 6 Costs and Returns-Contract Broiler Production .......................... 6 Part...

  11. Multiperiod Portfolio Optimization with General Transaction Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Management Science and Operations, London Business School, ... For market impact costs, we show that the optimal portfolio policy at each ... Markowitz's analysis are that the investor only cares about single-period ... The case with a single-risky asset and proportional transaction costs is well understood.

  12. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  13. Cost of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Tishchishyna, N.I.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  14. Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  15. 2009 Cost Estimates of Establishing and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    2009 Cost Estimates of Establishing and Producing Gala Apples in Washington WASHINGTON STATE include estimating 1) the costs of the equipment, materials, supplies, and labor required to establish for any particular orchard operation due to case-specific: Capital, labor, and natural resources Crop

  16. 2013 Cost Estimation of Establishing a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    1 2013 Cost Estimation of Establishing a Cider Apple Orchard in Western Washington W A S H I N G factors: Capital, labor, and natural resources Crop yield Cultural practices Input prices Cost estimations in this enterprise budget also vary depending on the budget's intended use. To avoid

  17. Cost Codes and the Work Breakdown Structure

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The chapter discusses the purpose of the work breakdown structure (WBS) and code of account (COA) cost code system, shows the purpose and fundamental structure of both the WBS and the cost code system, and explains the interface between the two systems.

  18. NPR (New Production Reactor) capacity cost evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ORNL Cost Evaluation Technical Support Group (CETSG) has been assigned by DOE-HQ Defense Programs (DP) the task defining, obtaining, and evaluating the capital and life-cycle costs for each of the technology/proponent/site/revenue possibilities envisioned for the New Production Reactor (NPR). The first part of this exercise is largely one of accounting, since all NPR proponents use different accounting methodologies in preparing their costs. In order to address this problem of comparing ''apples and oranges,'' the proponent-provided costs must be partitioned into a framework suitable for all proponents and concepts. If this is done, major cost categories can then be compared between concepts and major cost differences identified. Since the technologies proposed for the NPR and its needed fuel and target support facilities vary considerably in level of technical and operational maturity, considerable care must be taken to evaluate the proponent-derived costs in an equitable manner. The use of cost-risk analysis along with derivation of single point or deterministic estimates allows one to take into account these very real differences in technical and operational maturity. Chapter 2 summarizes the results of this study in tabular and bar graph form. The remaining chapters discuss each generic reactor type as follows: Chapter 3, LWR concepts (SWR and WNP-1); Chapter 4, HWR concepts; Chapter 5, HTGR concept; and Chapter 6, LMR concept. Each of these chapters could be a stand-alone report. 39 refs., 36 figs., 115 tabs.

  19. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternate deposition techniques and engineered nanostructures Supplier qualification, near term cost Qualification · Task 7.0: H2A Model Cost Analysis ­ Input design parameters ­ Assess impact of changes #12% 5 Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Development 06/30/13 0% 6 Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Qualification 09

  20. Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacey, Ph.D, P.E., Ronald E. [Texas A& M University

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks