National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for real-time dynamic simulation

  1. Test Cases for Wind Power Plant Dynamic Models on Real-Time Digital Simulator: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present test cases for wind turbine generator and wind power plant models commonly used during commissioning of wind power plants to ensure grid integration compatibility. In this paper, different types of wind power plant models based on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council Wind Generator Modeling Group's standardization efforts are implemented on a real-time digital simulator, and different test cases are used to gauge their grid integration capability. The low-voltage ride through and reactive power support capability and limitations of wind turbine generators under different grid conditions are explored. Several types of transient events (e.g., symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults, frequency dips) are included in the test cases. The differences in responses from different types of wind turbine are discussed in detail.

  2. Real Time Simulation of Power Grid Disruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinthavali, Supriya; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Fernandez, Steven J; Groer, Christopher S; Nutaro, James J; Olama, Mohammed M; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Spafford, Kyle L; Vacaliuc, Bogdan

    2012-11-01

    DOE-OE and DOE-SC workshops (Reference 1-3) identified the key power grid problem that requires insight addressable by the next generation of exascale computing is coupling of real-time data streams (1-2 TB per hour) as the streams are ingested to dynamic models. These models would then identify predicted disruptions in time (2-4 seconds) to trigger the smart grid s self healing functions. This project attempted to establish the feasibility of this approach and defined the scientific issues, and demonstrated example solutions to important smart grid simulation problems. These objectives were accomplished by 1) using the existing frequency recorders on the national grid to establish a representative and scalable real-time data stream; 2) invoking ORNL signature identification algorithms; 3) modeling dynamically a representative region of the Eastern interconnect using an institutional cluster, measuring the scalability and computational benchmarks for a national capability; and 4) constructing a prototype simulation for the system s concept of smart grid deployment. The delivered ORNL enduring capability included: 1) data processing and simulation metrics to design a national capability justifying exascale applications; 2) Software and intellectual property built around the example solutions; 3) demonstrated dynamic models to design few second self-healing.

  3. Parallel architecture for real-time simulation. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cockrell, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a very fast and highly efficient parallel computer architecture for real-time simulation of continuous systems. Currently, several parallel processing systems exist that may be capable of executing a complex simulation in real-time. These systems are examined and the pros and cons of each system discussed. The thesis then introduced a custom-designed parallel architecture based upon The University of Alabama's OPERA architecture. Each component of this system is discussed and rationale presented for its selection. The problem selected, real-time simulation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine for the test and evaluation of the proposed architecture, is explored, identifying the areas where parallelism can be exploited and parallel processing applied. Results from the test and evaluation phase are presented and compared with the results of the same problem that has been processed on a uniprocessor system.

  4. Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System with Synchronized Phasor Measurements

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System is designed to monitor the dynamics within the power grid and assess the system behavior during normal and disturbance conditions. The RTDMS application was built on the Grid-3P technology platform and takes real-time information collected by Synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMU5) or other collection devices and transmitted to a central Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) for monitoring grid dynamics. The data is sampled 30 times per second and is time-synchronized. Thismore » data is processed to create graphical and geographical displays to provide visualization for frequency/frequency response, voltage magnitudes and angles, voltage angle differences across critical paths as well as real and reactive power-flows on a sub-second and second basis. Software allows for monitoring, tracking, historical data archiving and electric system troubleshooting for reliability management.« less

  5. Capturing Real-Time Power System Dynamics: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Diao, Ruisheng; Wang, Shaobu; Elbert, Stephen T.; Meng, Da; Lu, Shuai

    2015-09-01

    The power grid evolves towards a new mix of generation and consumption that introduces new dynamic and stochastic behaviors. These emerging grid behaviors would invalidate the steady-state assumption in today’s state estimation – an essential function for real-time power grid operation. This paper examines this steady-state assumption and identifies the need for estimating dynamic states. Supporting technologies are presented as well as a proposed formulation for estimating dynamic states. Metrics for evaluating methods for solving the dynamic state estimation problem are proposed, with example results to illustrate the use of these metrics. The overall objective of this paper is to provide a basis that more research on this topic can follow.

  6. Real-Time Bioluminescent Tracking of Cellular Population Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, Dan; Sayler, Gary Steven; Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Cellular population dynamics are routinely monitored across many diverse fields for a variety of purposes. In general, these dynamics are assayed either through the direct counting of cellular aliquots followed by extrapolation to the total population size, or through the monitoring of signal intensity from any number of externally stimulated reporter proteins. While both viable methods, here we describe a novel technique that allows for the automated, non-destructive tracking of cellular population dynamics in real-time. This method, which relies on the detection of a continuous bioluminescent signal produced through expression of the bacterial luciferase gene cassette, provides a low cost, low time-intensive means for generating additional data compared to alternative methods.

  7. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xuyong

    2014-12-15

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  8. SU-E-J-66: Evaluation of a Real-Time Positioning Assistance Simulator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SU-E-J-66: Evaluation of a Real-Time Positioning Assistance Simulator System for Skull Radiography Using the Microsoft Kinect Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SU-E-J-66:...

  9. Can the ring polymer molecular dynamics method be interpreted as real time quantum dynamics?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Seogjoo; Sinitskiy, Anton V.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2014-04-21

    The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) method has gained popularity in recent years as a simple approximation for calculating real time quantum correlation functions in condensed media. However, the extent to which RPMD captures real dynamical quantum effects and why it fails under certain situations have not been clearly understood. Addressing this issue has been difficult in the absence of a genuine justification for the RPMD algorithm starting from the quantum Liouville equation. To this end, a new and exact path integral formalism for the calculation of real time quantum correlation functions is presented in this work, which can serve as a rigorous foundation for the analysis of the RPMD method as well as providing an alternative derivation of the well established centroid molecular dynamics method. The new formalism utilizes the cyclic symmetry of the imaginary time path integral in the most general sense and enables the expression of Kubo-transformed quantum time correlation functions as that of physical observables pre-averaged over the imaginary time path. Upon filtering with a centroid constraint function, the formulation results in the centroid dynamics formalism. Upon filtering with the position representation of the imaginary time path integral, we obtain an exact quantum dynamics formalism involving the same variables as the RPMD method. The analysis of the RPMD approximation based on this approach clarifies that an explicit quantum dynamical justification does not exist for the use of the ring polymer harmonic potential term (imaginary time kinetic energy) as implemented in the RPMD method. It is analyzed why this can cause substantial errors in nonlinear correlation functions of harmonic oscillators. Such errors can be significant for general correlation functions of anharmonic systems. We also demonstrate that the short time accuracy of the exact path integral limit of RPMD is of lower order than those for finite discretization of path. The

  10. Accelerating the Customer-Driven Microgrid Through Real-Time Digital Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Leonard; T. Baldwin; M. Sloderbeck

    2009-07-01

    Comprehensive design and testing of realistic customer-driven microgrids requires a high performance simulation platform capable of incorporating power system and control models with external hardware systems. Traditional non real-time simulation is unable to fully capture the level of detail necessary to expose real-world implementation issues. With a real-time digital simulator as its foundation, a high-fidelity simulation environment that includes a robust electrical power system model, advanced control architecture, and a highly adaptable communication network is introduced. Hardware-in-the-loop implementation approaches for the hardware-based control and communication systems are included. An overview of the existing power system model and its suitability for investigation of autonomous island formation within the microgrid is additionally presented. Further test plans are also documented.

  11. Holographic entropy and real-time dynamics of quarkonium dissociation in non-Abelian plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iatrakis, Ioannis; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2016-04-26

    The peak of the heavy quark pair entropy at the deconfinement transition, observed in lattice QCD, suggests that the transition is effectively driven by the increase of the entropy of bound states. The growth of the entropy with the interquark distance leads to the emergent entropic force that induces dissociation of quarkonium states. Since the quark-gluon plasma around the transition point is a strongly coupled system, we use the gauge-gravity duality to study the entropy of heavy quarkonium and the real-time dynamics of its dissociation. In particular, we employ the improved holographic QCD model as a dual description of largemore » Nc Yang-Mills theory. Studying the dynamics of the fundamental string between the quarks placed on the boundary, we find that the entropy peaks at the transition point. We also study the real-time dynamics of the system by considering the holographic string falling in the black hole horizon where it equilibrates. As a result, in the vicinity of the deconfinement transition, the dissociation time is found to be less than a fermi, suggesting that the entropic destruction is the dominant dissociation mechanism in this temperature region.« less

  12. Modeling fast electron dynamics with real-time time-dependent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lett. 2005, 94, 043002, demonstrating the utility of a real-time approach in capturing charge transfer processes. Authors: Lopata, Kenneth A. ; Govind, Niranjan Publication Date: ...

  13. Modelling and real-time simulation of continuous-discrete systems in mechatronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindow, H.

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a methodology for simulation and modelling of systems with continuous - discrete dynamics. It derives hybrid discrete event models from Lagrange`s equations of motion. This method combines continuous mechanical, electrical and thermodynamical submodels on one hand with discrete event models an the other hand into a hybrid discrete event model. This straight forward software development avoids numeric overhead.

  14. Dynamic keyhole: A novel method to improve MR images in the presence of respiratory motion for real-time MRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Danny; Pollock, Sean; Whelan, Brendan; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors present a novel magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction method to improve the quality of MR images in the presence of respiratory motion for real-time thoracic image-guided radiotherapy. Methods: This new reconstruction method is called dynamic keyhole and utilizes a library of previously acquired, peripheral k-space datasets from the same (or similar) respiratory state in conjunction with central k-space datasets acquired in real-time. Internal or external respiratory signals are utilized to sort, match, and combine the two separate peripheral and central k-space datasets with respect to respiratory displacement, thereby reducing acquisition time and improving image quality without respiratory-related artifacts. In this study, the dynamic keyhole, conventional keyhole, and zero-filling methods were compared to full k-space acquisition (ground truth) for 60 coronal datasets acquired from 15 healthy human subjects. Results: For the same image-quality difference from the ground-truth image, the dynamic keyhole method reused 79% of the prior peripheral phase-encoding lines, while the conventional keyhole reused 73% and zero-filling 63% (p-value < 0.0001), corresponding to faster acquisition speed of dynamic keyhole for real-time imaging applications. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the dynamic keyhole method is a promising technique for clinical applications such as image-guided radiotherapy requiring real-time MR monitoring of the thoracic region. Based on the results from this study, the dynamic keyhole method could increase the temporal resolution by a factor of five compared with full k-space methods.

  15. PhotoVoltaic distributed generation for Lanai power grid real-time simulation and control integration scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Kukolich, Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses the modeling, analysis, and testing in a real-time simulation environment of the Lanai power grid system for the integration and control of PhotoVoltaic (PV) distributed generation. The Lanai Island in Hawaii is part of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) to transition to 30% renewable green energy penetration by 2030. In Lanai the primary loads come from two Castle and Cook Resorts, in addition to residential needs. The total peak load profile is 12470 V, 5.5 MW. Currently there are several diesel generators that meet these loading requirements. As part of the HCEI, Lanai has initially installed 1.2 MW of PV generation. The goal of this study has been to evaluate the impact of the PV with respect to the conventional carbon-based diesel generation in real time simulation. For intermittent PV distributed generation, the overall stability and transient responses are investigated. A simple Lanai 'like' model has been developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment (see Fig. 1) and to accommodate real-time simulation of the hybrid power grid system the Opal-RT Technologies RT-Lab environment is used. The diesel generators have been modelled using the SimPowerSystems toolbox swing equations and a custom Simulink module has been developed for the High level PV generation. All of the loads have been characterized primarily as distribution lines with series resistive load banks with one VAR load bank. Three-phase faults are implemented for each bus. Both conventional and advanced control architectures will be used to evaluate the integration of the PV onto the current power grid system. The baseline numerical results include the stable performance of the power grid during varying cloud cover (PV generation ramping up/down) scenarios. The importance of assessing the real-time scenario is included.

  16. Real time control and numerical simulation of pipeline subjected to landslide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuscuna, S.; Giusti, G.; Gramola, C.

    1984-06-01

    This paper describes SNAM research activity in the study of behaviour and real-time control of pipelines in landslide areas. The subject can be delt considering three different aspects: 1. Geotechnical characterization of unstable soils. The mechanical parameters of soil and the landslide types are defined; 2. Structural analysis of pipe-soil system. By means of a finite element program it's possible to study the pipe-soil interaction; in this numerical code the soil parameters attend by the non-linear elastic behaviour of pipe restraints. The results of this analysis are the location of the expected most stressed sections of pipe and the global behaviour of pipe inside the soil. 3. Instrumental control. The adoption of a suitable appliance of vibrating wire strain gauges allows the strain control of pipe in time. The aim is to make possible timely interventions in order to guarantee the installation safety.

  17. Look-ahead Dynamic Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-10-20

    Look-ahead dynamic simulation software system incorporates the high performance parallel computing technologies, significantly reduces the solution time for each transient simulation case, and brings the dynamic simulation analysis into on-line applications to enable more transparency for better reliability and asset utilization. It takes the snapshot of the current power grid status, functions in parallel computing the system dynamic simulation, and outputs the transient response of the power system in real time.

  18. First Demonstration of Combined kV/MV Image-Guided Real-Time Dynamic Multileaf-Collimator Target Tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Byungchul Poulsen, Per R.; Sloutsky, Alex; Sawant, Amit; Keall, Paul J.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: For intrafraction motion management, a real-time tracking system was developed by combining fiducial marker-based tracking via simultaneous kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imaging and a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) beam-tracking system. Methods and Materials: The integrated tracking system employed a Varian Trilogy system equipped with kV/MV imaging systems and a Millennium 120-leaf MLC. A gold marker in elliptical motion (2-cm superior-inferior, 1-cm left-right, 10 cycles/min) was simultaneously imaged by the kV and MV imagers at 6.7 Hz and segmented in real time. With these two-dimensional projections, the tracking software triangulated the three-dimensional marker position and repositioned the MLC leaves to follow the motion. Phantom studies were performed to evaluate time delay from image acquisition to MLC adjustment, tracking error, and dosimetric impact of target motion with and without tracking. Results: The time delay of the integrated tracking system was {approx}450 ms. The tracking error using a prediction algorithm was 0.9 {+-} 0.5 mm for the elliptical motion. The dose distribution with tracking showed better target coverage and less dose to surrounding region over no tracking. The failure rate of the gamma test (3%/3-mm criteria) was 22.5% without tracking but was reduced to 0.2% with tracking. Conclusion: For the first time, a complete tracking system combining kV/MV image-guided target tracking and DMLC beam tracking was demonstrated. The average geometric error was less than 1 mm, and the dosimetric error was negligible. This system is a promising method for intrafraction motion management.

  19. Electron dynamics in complex environments with real-time time dependent density functional theory in a QM-MM framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morzan, Uriel N.; Ramrez, Francisco F.; Scherlis, Damin A. E-mail: mcgl@qb.ffyb.uba.ar; Lebrero, Mariano C. Gonzlez E-mail: mcgl@qb.ffyb.uba.ar

    2014-04-28

    This article presents a time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) implementation to propagate the Kohn-Sham equations in real time, including the effects of a molecular environment through a Quantum-Mechanics Molecular-Mechanics (QM-MM) hamiltonian. The code delivers an all-electron description employing Gaussian basis functions, and incorporates the Amber force-field in the QM-MM treatment. The most expensive parts of the computation, comprising the commutators between the hamiltonian and the density matrixrequired to propagate the electron dynamics, and the evaluation of the exchange-correlation energy, were migrated to the CUDA platform to run on graphics processing units, which remarkably accelerates the performance of the code. The method was validated by reproducing linear-response TDDFT results for the absorption spectra of several molecular species. Two different schemes were tested to propagate the quantum dynamics: (i) a leap-frog Verlet algorithm, and (ii) the Magnus expansion to first-order. These two approaches were confronted, to find that the Magnus scheme is more efficient by a factor of six in small molecules. Interestingly, the presence of iron was found to seriously limitate the length of the integration time step, due to the high frequencies associated with the core-electrons. This highlights the importance of pseudopotentials to alleviate the cost of the propagation of the inner states when heavy nuclei are present. Finally, the methodology was applied to investigate the shifts induced by the chemical environment on the most intense UV absorption bands of two model systems of general relevance: the formamide molecule in water solution, and the carboxy-heme group in Flavohemoglobin. In both cases, shifts of several nanometers are observed, consistently with the available experimental data.

  20. SU-D-BRF-06: A Brachytherapy Simulator with Realistic Haptic Force Feedback and Real-Time Ultrasounds Image Simulation for Training and Teaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, L; Carette, A; Comtois, S; Lavigueur, M; Cardou, P; Laurendeau, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Surgical procedures require dexterity, expertise and repetition to reach optimal patient outcomes. However, efficient training opportunities are usually limited. This work presents a simulator system with realistic haptic force-feedback and full, real-time ultrasounds image simulation. Methods: The simulator is composed of a custom-made Linear-DELTA force-feedback robotic platform. The needle tip is mounted on a force gauge at the end effector of the robot, which responds to needle insertion by providing reaction forces. 3D geometry of the tissue is using a tetrahedral finite element mesh (FEM) mimicking tissue properties. As the needle is inserted/retracted, tissue deformation is computed using a mass-tensor nonlinear visco-elastic FEM. The real-time deformation is fed to the L-DELTA to take into account the force imparted to the needle, providing feedback to the end-user when crossing tissue boundaries or needle bending. Real-time 2D US image is also generated synchronously showing anatomy, needle insertion and tissue deformation. The simulator is running on an Intel I7 6- core CPU at 3.26 MHz. 3D tissue rendering and ultrasound display are performed on a Windows 7 computer; the FEM computation and L-DELTA control are executed on a similar PC using the Neutrino real-time OS. Both machines communicate through an Ethernet link. Results: The system runs at 500 Hz for a 8333-tetrahedron tissue mesh and a 100-node angular spring needle model. This frame rate ensures a relatively smooth displacement of the needle when pushed or retracted (±20 N in all directions at speeds of up to 2 m/s). Unlike commercially-available haptic platforms, the oblong workspace of the L-DELTA robot complies with that required for brachytherapy needle displacements of 0.1m by 0.1m by 0.25m. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a real-life, realistic brachytherapy simulator developed for prostate implants (LDR/HDR). The platform could be adapted to other sites or training for other

  1. Parallel Implementation of Power System Dynamic Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Huang, Zhenyu; Diao, Ruisheng; Wu, Di; Chen, Yousu

    2013-07-21

    Dynamic simulation of power system transient stability is important for planning, monitoring, operation, and control of electrical power systems. However, modeling the system dynamics and network involves the computationally intensive time-domain solution of numerous differential and algebraic equations (DAE). This results in a transient stability implementation that may not maintain the real-time constraints of an online security assessment. This paper presents a parallel implementation of the dynamic simulation on a high-performance computing (HPC) platform using parallel simulation algorithms and computation architectures. It enables the simulation to run even faster than real time, enabling the look-ahead capability of upcoming stability problems in the power grid.

  2. Proof of Concept Simulations of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near-Real-Time Safeguards Monitor for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-02-11

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will require the development of advanced technologies to effectively safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of nondestructive, near-real-time, autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes recent results from model simulations designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing plants. The MIP monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in near-real-time. Three computer models including ORIGEN-ARP, AMUSE, and SYNTH were used in series to predict spent nuclear fuel composition, estimate element partitioning during separation, and simulate spectra from product and raffinate streams using a variety of gamma detectors, respectively. Simulations were generated for fuel with various irradiation histories and under a variety of plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup, and cooling time. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and partial least squares (PLS) were also used in the analysis. The MIP monitor was found to be sensitive to induced variations of several operating parameters including distinguishing ±2.5% variation from normal process acid concentrations. The ability of PLS to predict burnup levels from simulated spectra was also demonstrated to be within 3.5% of measured values.

  3. Real-Time Target Position Estimation Using Stereoscopic Kilovoltage/Megavoltage Imaging and External Respiratory Monitoring for Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Byungchul; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a real-time target position estimation method using stereoscopic kilovoltage (kV)/megavoltage (MV) imaging and external respiratory monitoring, and to investigate the performance of a dynamic multileaf collimator tracking system using this method. Methods and Materials: The real-time three-dimensional internal target position estimation was established by creating a time-varying correlation model that connected the external respiratory signals with the internal target motion measured intermittently using kV/MV imaging. The method was integrated into a dynamic multileaf collimator tracking system. Tracking experiments were performed for 10 thoracic/abdominal traces. A three-dimensional motion platform carrying a gold marker and a separate one-dimensional motion platform were used to reproduce the target and external respiratory motion, respectively. The target positions were detected by kV (1 Hz) and MV (5.2 Hz) imaging, and external respiratory motion was captured by an optical system (30 Hz). The beam-target alignment error was quantified as the positional difference between the target and circular beam center on the MV images acquired during tracking. The correlation model error was quantified by comparing a model estimate and measured target positions. Results: The root-mean-square errors in the beam-target alignment that had ranged from 3.1 to 7.6 mm without tracking were reduced to <1.5 mm with tracking, except during the model building period (6 s). The root-mean-square error in the correlation model was submillimeters in all directions. Conclusion: A novel real-time target position estimation method was developed and integrated into a dynamic multileaf collimator tracking system and demonstrated an average submillimeter geometric accuracy after initializing the internal/external correlation model. The method used hardware tools available on linear accelerators and therefore shows promise for clinical implementation.

  4. SU-E-J-66: Evaluation of a Real-Time Positioning Assistance Simulator System for Skull Radiography Using the Microsoft Kinect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurata, T; Ono, M; Kozono, K; Fukuyoshi, R; Sato, S [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Toyofuku, F [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a low cost, small size positioning assistance simulator system for skull radiography using the Microsoft Kinect sensor. A conventional radiographic simulator system can only measure the three-dimensional coordinates of an x-ray tube using angle sensors, but not measure the movement of the subject. Therefore, in this study, we developed a real-time simulator system using the Microsoft Kinect to measure both the x-ray tube and the subject, and evaluated its accuracy and feasibility by comparing the simulated and the measured x-ray images. Methods: This system can track a head phantom by using Face Tracking, which is one of the functions of the Kinect. The relative relationship between the Kinect and the head phantom was measured and the projection image was calculated by using the ray casting method, and by using three-dimensional CT head data with 220 slices at 512 512 pixels. X-ray images were thus obtained by using a computed radiography (CR) system. We could then compare the simulated projection images with the measured x-ray images from 0 degrees to 45 degrees at increments of 15 degrees by calculating the cross correlation coefficient C. Results: The calculation time of the simulated projection images was almost real-time (within 1 second) by using the Graphics Processing Unit(GPU). The cross-correlation coefficients C are: 0.916; 0.909; 0.891; and, 0.886 at 0, 15, 30, and 45 degrees, respectively. As a result, there were strong correlations between the simulated and measured images. Conclusion: This system can be used to perform head positioning more easily and accurately. It is expected that this system will be useful for learning radiographic techniques by students. Moreover, it could also be used for predicting the actual x-ray image prior to x-ray exposure in clinical environments.

  5. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E. (Fremont, CA); Struve, Kenneth W. (Albuquerque, NM); Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  6. Real-time observation of dynamic process of oxygen vacancy migration in cerium oxides under electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaomin; Qi, Kuo; Sun, Muhua; Huang, Qianming; Xu, Zhi E-mail: xdbai@iphy.ac.cn; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong E-mail: xdbai@iphy.ac.cn

    2015-11-23

    The dynamic process of oxygen vacancy migration driven by the external electric field is directly observed at atomic scale in the cerium oxides (CeO{sub 2}) thin film by in-situ transmission electron microscopy method. When a bias voltage of a proper value is applied across the CeO{sub 2} film, the oxygen vacancies are formed near the interface of CeO{sub 2}/anode, followed by their migration along the direction of the external electric field. The structural modulation occurs in the [110] zone axis due to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The migration of oxygen vacancies results in the reversible structural transformation, i.e., releasing and storing oxygen processes in CeO{sub 2}, which is of great significance for the ionic and electronic applications of the cerium oxides materials, such as oxygen pump, gas sensor, resistive random access memory, etc.

  7. Real time automated inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.

    1985-05-21

    A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.

  8. Real time automated inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fant, Karl M.; Fundakowski, Richard A.; Levitt, Tod S.; Overland, John E.; Suresh, Bindinganavle R.; Ulrich, Franz W.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges are segmented out by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections.

  9. Massively-parallel electron dynamics calculations in real-time and real-space: Toward applications to nanostructures of more than ten-nanometers in size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noda, Masashi; Ishimura, Kazuya; Nobusada, Katsuyuki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Boku, Taisuke

    2014-05-15

    A highly efficient program of massively parallel calculations for electron dynamics has been developed in an effort to apply the method to optical response of nanostructures of more than ten-nanometers in size. The approach is based on time-dependent density functional theory calculations in real-time and real-space. The computational code is implemented by using simple algorithms with a finite-difference method in space derivative and Taylor expansion in time-propagation. Since the computational program is free from the algorithms of eigenvalue problems and fast-Fourier-transformation, which are usually implemented in conventional quantum chemistry or band structure calculations, it is highly suitable for massively parallel calculations. Benchmark calculations using the K computer at RIKEN demonstrate that the parallel efficiency of the program is very high on more than 60 000 CPU cores. The method is applied to optical response of arrays of C{sub 60} orderly nanostructures of more than 10 nm in size. The computed absorption spectrum is in good agreement with the experimental observation.

  10. RECOVERY ACT: DYNAMIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION MANAGEMENT OF ROUTING TELECOM AND DATA CENTERS THROUGH REAL-TIME OPTIMAL CONTROL (RTOC): Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ron Moon

    2011-06-30

    This final scientific report documents the Industrial Technology Program (ITP) Stage 2 Concept Development effort on Data Center Energy Reduction and Management Through Real-Time Optimal Control (RTOC). Society is becoming increasingly dependent on information technology systems, driving exponential growth in demand for data center processing and an insatiable appetite for energy. David Raths noted, 'A 50,000-square-foot data center uses approximately 4 megawatts of power, or the equivalent of 57 barrels of oil a day1.' The problem has become so severe that in some cases, users are giving up raw performance for a better balance between performance and energy efficiency. Historically, power systems for data centers were crudely sized to meet maximum demand. Since many servers operate at 60%-90% of maximum power while only utilizing an average of 5% to 15% of their capability, there are huge inefficiencies in the consumption and delivery of power in these data centers. The goal of the 'Recovery Act: Decreasing Data Center Energy Use through Network and Infrastructure Control' is to develop a state of the art approach for autonomously and intelligently reducing and managing data center power through real-time optimal control. Advances in microelectronics and software are enabling the opportunity to realize significant data center power savings through the implementation of autonomous power management control algorithms. The first step to realizing these savings was addressed in this study through the successful creation of a flexible and scalable mathematical model (equation) for data center behavior and the formulation of an acceptable low technical risk market introduction strategy leveraging commercial hardware and software familiar to the data center market. Follow-on Stage 3 Concept Development efforts include predictive modeling and simulation of algorithm performance, prototype demonstrations with representative data center equipment to verify requisite

  11. Real-Time Benchmark Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-17

    This software provides a portable benchmark suite for real time kernels. It tests the performance of many of the system calls, as well as the interrupt response time and task response time to interrupts. These numbers provide a baseline for comparing various real-time kernels and hardware platforms.

  12. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  13. Real-time vision systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  14. Radiation Levels in Real Time?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Levels in Real Time? There's an App for That! Gamma radiation levels in the southern Nevada area will soon be accessible around the world at the touch of a finger. Makers of the cell phone application EcoData: Radiation are expanding their global network of radiation monitoring stations to include up-to-date readings from the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) based out of southern Nevada. The CEMP was established in 1981 to monitor manmade and natural radiation levels surrounding

  15. Visualizations for Real-time Pricing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.; Widergren, Steven E.; Dayley, Greg K.

    2014-10-13

    In this paper, the visualization tools created for monitoring the operations of a real-time pricing demonstration system that runs at a distribution feeder level are presented. The information these tools provide gives insights into demand behavior from automated price responsive devices, distribution feeder characteristics, impact of weather on system’s development, and other significant dynamics. Given the large number of devices that bid into a feeder-level real-time electricity market, new techniques are explored to summarize the present state of the system and contrast that with previous trends as well as future projections. To better understand the system behavior and correctly inform decision-making procedures, effective visualization of the data is imperative.

  16. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A.; Reedy, Gerald T.; Kumar, Romesh

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  17. Real time analysis under EDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs.

  18. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Wednesday, 25 August 2010 00:00 Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively,

  19. SU-D-18A-06: Variation of Controlled Breath Hold From CT Simulation to Treatment and Its Dosimetric Impact for Left-Sided Breast Radiotherapy with a Real-Time Optical Tracking System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittauer, K; Deraniyagala, R; Li, J; Lu, B; Liu, C; Lightsey, J; Yan, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Different breath-hold (BH) maneuvers (abdominal breathing vs. chest breathing) during CT simulation and treatment can lead to chest wall positional variation. The purpose of this study is to quantify the variation of active breathing control (ABC)-assisted BH and estimate its dosimetric impact for left-sided whole-breast radiotherapy with a real-time optical tracking system (OTS). Methods: Seven breast cancer patients were included. An in-house OTS tracked an infrared (IR) marker affixed over the xiphoid process of the patient at CT simulation and throughout the treatment course to measure BH variations. Correlation between the IR marker and the breast was studied for dosimetric purposes. The positional variations of 860 BHs were retrospectively incorporated into treatment plans to assess their dosimetric impact on breast and cardiac organs (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD]). Results: The mean intrafraction variations were 2.8 mm, 2.7 mm, and 1.6 mm in the anteroposterior (AP), craniocaudal (CC), and mediolateral (ML) directions, respectively. Mean stability in any direction was within 1.5 mm. A general trend of BH undershoot at treatment relative to CT simulation was observed with an average of 4.4 mm, 3.6 mm, and 0.1 mm in the AP, CC, and ML directions, respectively. Undershoot up to 12.6 mm was observed for individual patients. The difference between the planned and delivered dose to breast targets was negligible. The average planned/delivered mean heart doses, mean LAD doses, and max LAD doses were 1.4/2.1, 7.4/15.7, and 18.6/31.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Systematic undershoot was observed in ABC-assisted BHs from CT simulation to treatment. Its dosimetric impact on breast coverage was minimized with image guidance, but the benefits of cardiac organ sparing were degraded. A real-time tracking system can be used in junction with the ABC device to improve BH reproducibility.

  20. In-Situ, Real Time Measurement of Elemental Constituents | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Situ, Real Time Measurement of Elemental Constituents In-Situ, Real Time Measurement of Elemental Constituents New Laser System Provides Real-Time Measurements for Improved ...

  1. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.; Reeder, Paul L.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body.

  2. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-06

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs.

  3. Utility experience with real time rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabors, R.D.; Schweppe, F.C.; Caramanis, M.C.

    1989-05-01

    The structure of electric utility is undergoing dramatic changes as new and expanded service options are added. The concepts of unbundling or of priority service are expanding the options open to customers. Spot pricing, or real time pricing of electricity provides the economic structure for many of these new service options. It is frequently stated that customers can not adapt to real time prices. This paper identifies the dimensions of real time rates and identifies existing rate structures in the United States and other OECD countries which incorporate these dimensions.

  4. Fast Dynamic Simulation-Based Small Signal Stability Assessment and Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acharya, Naresh; Baone, Chaitanya; Veda, Santosh; Dai, Jing; Chaudhuri, Nilanjan; Leonardi, Bruno; Sanches-Gasca, Juan; Diao, Ruisheng; Wu, Di; Huang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Yu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Yousu

    2014-12-31

    Power grid planning and operation decisions are made based on simulation of the dynamic behavior of the system. Enabling substantial energy savings while increasing the reliability of the aging North American power grid through improved utilization of existing transmission assets hinges on the adoption of wide-area measurement systems (WAMS) for power system stabilization. However, adoption of WAMS alone will not suffice if the power system is to reach its full entitlement in stability and reliability. It is necessary to enhance predictability with "faster than real-time" dynamic simulations that will enable the dynamic stability margins, proactive real-time control, and improve grid resiliency to fast time-scale phenomena such as cascading network failures. Present-day dynamic simulations are performed only during offline planning studies, considering only worst case conditions such as summer peak, winter peak days, etc. With widespread deployment of renewable generation, controllable loads, energy storage devices and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles expected in the near future and greater integration of cyber infrastructure (communications, computation and control), monitoring and controlling the dynamic performance of the grid in real-time would become increasingly important. The state-of-the-art dynamic simulation tools have limited computational speed and are not suitable for real-time applications, given the large set of contingency conditions to be evaluated. These tools are optimized for best performance of single-processor computers, but the simulation is still several times slower than real-time due to its computational complexity. With recent significant advances in numerical methods and computational hardware, the expectations have been rising towards more efficient and faster techniques to be implemented in power system simulators. This is a natural expectation, given that the core solution algorithms of most commercial simulators were developed

  5. Towards real time diagnostics of Hybrid Welding Laser/GMAW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McJunkin, T. R.; Kunerth, D. C.; Nichol, C. I. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3570 (United States); Todorov, E.; Levesque, S. [Edison Welding Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Methods are currently being developed towards a more robust system real time feedback in the high throughput process combining laser welding with gas metal arc welding. A combination of ultrasonic, eddy current, electronic monitoring, and visual techniques are being applied to the welding process. Initial simulation and bench top evaluation of proposed real time techniques on weld samples are presented along with the concepts to apply the techniques concurrently to the weld process. Consideration for the eventual code acceptance of the methods and system are also being researched as a component of this project. The goal is to detect defects or precursors to defects and correct when possible during the weld process.

  6. Towards Real Time Diagnostics of Hybrid Welding Laser/GMAW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Mcjunkin; Dennis C. Kunerth; Corrie Nichol; Evgueni Todorov; Steve Levesque; Feng Yu; Robert Danna Couch

    2013-07-01

    Methods are currently being developed towards a more robust system real time feedback in the high throughput process combining laser welding with gas metal arc welding. A combination of ultrasonic, eddy current, electronic monitoring, and visual techniques are being applied to the welding process. Initial simulation and bench top evaluation of proposed real time techniques on weld samples are presented along with the concepts to apply the techniques concurrently to the weld process. Consideration for the eventual code acceptance of the methods and system are also being researched as a component of this project. The goal is to detect defects or precursors to defects and correct when possible during the weld process.

  7. Simulating the Dynamic Coupling of Market and Physical System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Roop, Joseph M.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2004-06-01

    Abstract-As energy trading products cover shorter time periods and demand response programs move toward real-time pricing, financial market-based activity impacts ever more directly the physical operation of the system. To begin to understand the complex interactions between the market-driven operation signals, the engineered controlled schemes, and the laws of physics, new system modeling and simulation techniques must be explored. This discussion describes requirements for new simulation tools to address such market transaction control interactions and an approach to capture the dynamic coupling between energy markets and the physical operation of the power system appropriate for dispatcher reaction time frames.

  8. The LAA real-time benchmarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, R.K.; Krischer, W.; Lone, S.

    1989-04-01

    In the context of the LAA detector development program a subgroup Real Time Data Processing has tackled the problem of intelligent triggering. The main goal of this group is to show how fast digital devices, implemented as custom-made or commercial processors, can execute some basic algorithms, and how they can be embedded in the data flow between detector readout components and fully programmable commercial processors, which are expected to be the final data processing filter in real time.

  9. Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-09-01

    The Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package is a general library for aerosol modeling to address aerosol general dynamics, including formation from gas phase reactions, surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis with linkage to DSMC studies, and thermal radiative transport. The library is based upon Cantera, a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. The method uses a discontinuous galerkinmore » formulation for the condensation and coagulation operator that conserves particles, elements, and enthalpy up to round-off error. Both O-D and 1-D time dependent applications have been developed with the library. Multiple species in the solid phase are handled as well. The O-D application, called Tdcads (Time Dependent CADS) is distributed with the library. Tdcads can address both constant volume and constant pressure adiabatic homogeneous problems. An extensive set of sample problems for Tdcads is also provided.« less

  10. Toward Real Time Data Analysis for Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Jian; Gorton, Ian; Sharma, Poorva

    2012-11-10

    This paper describes the architecture and design of a novel system for supporting large-scale real-time data analysis for future power grid systems. The widespread deployment of renewable generation, smart grid controls, energy storage, plug-in hybrids, and new conducting materials will require fundamental changes in the operational concepts and principal components of the grid. As a result, the whole system becomes highly dynamic and requires constant adjusting based on real time data. Even though millions of sensors such as phase measurement units (PMU) and smart meters are being widely deployed, a data layer that can analyze this amount of data in real time is needed. Unlike the data fabric in other cloud services, the data layer for smart grids has some unique design requirements. First, this layer must provide real time guarantees. Second, this layer must be scalable to allow a large number of applications to access the data from millions of sensors in real time. Third, reliability is critical and this layer must be able to continue to provide service in face of failures. Fourth, this layer must be secure. We address these challenges though a scalable system architecture that integrates the I/O and data processing capability in a devise set of devices. Data process operations can be placed anywhere from sensors, data storage devices, to control centers. We further employ compression to improve performance. We design a lightweight compression customized for power grid data. Our system can reduce end-to-end response time by reduce I/O overhead through compression and overlap compression operations with I/O. The initial prototype of our system was demonstrated with several use cases from PNNL’s FPGI and show that our system can provide real time guarantees to a diverse set of applications.

  11. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Smatlak, D.L.; Cohn, D.R.; Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Surma, J.E.

    1995-12-26

    Microwave-induced plasma is described for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. 3 figs.

  12. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P.; Smatlak, Donna L.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  13. Solar Real-Time Pricing: Is Real-Time Electricity Pricing Beneficial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Market Analysis Codes, Standards & Utility Policies Subprogram Soft Costs Author Bright Power, Inc. for New York City Economic Development Corporation Solar Real-Time ...

  14. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  15. Real-Time Occupancy Change Analyzer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-03-30

    The Real-Time Occupancy Change Analyzer (ROCA) produces an occupancy grid map of an environment around the robot, scans the environment to generate a current obstacle map relative to a current robot position, and converts the current obstacle map to a current occupancy grid map. Changes in the occupancy grid can be reported in real time to support a number of tracking capabilities. The benefit of ROCA is that rather than only providing a vector tomore » the detected change, it provides the actual x,y position of the change.« less

  16. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  17. Real-time distributed multimedia systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahurkar, S.S.; Bourbakis, N.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a survey on distributed multimedia systems and discusses real-time issues. In particular, different subsystems are reviewed that impact on multimedia networking, the networking for multimedia, the networked multimedia systems, and the leading edge research and developments efforts and issues in networking.

  18. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  19. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  20. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  1. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  2. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  3. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  4. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  5. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial biofilms. Almost all bacteria can form biofilms-dynamic communities of cells enclosed in self-produced matrices of polymers that stick to other bacteria or surfaces in water-containing environments. Coordinated collectively, these bacteria defend against antagonists, break down recalcitrant materials, and produce

  6. Toward Real-time Modeling of Human Heart Ventricles at Cellular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation of Drug-induced Arrhythmias Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward Real-time Modeling of Human Heart Ventricles at Cellular Resolution: Multi-hour Simulation ...

  7. Dynamic Power Grid Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-09-14

    GridDyn is a part of power grid simulation toolkit. The code is designed using modern object oriented C++ methods utilizing C++11 and recent Boost libraries to ensure compatibility with multiple operating systems and environments.

  8. Distributed Real-Time Computing with Harness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Saverio, Emanuele; Cesati, Marco; Di Biagio, Christian; Pennella, Guido; Engelmann, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Modern parallel and distributed computing solutions are often built onto a ''middleware'' software layer providing a higher and common level of service between computational nodes. Harness is an adaptable, plugin-based middleware framework for parallel and distributed computing. This paper reports recent research and development results of using Harness for real-time distributed computing applications in the context of an industrial environment with the needs to perform several safety critical tasks. The presented work exploits the modular architecture of Harness in conjunction with a lightweight threaded implementation to resolve several real-time issues by adding three new Harness plug-ins to provide a prioritized lightweight execution environment, low latency communication facilities, and local timestamped event logging.

  9. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark; Gosnell, Tom B.; Ham, Cheryl; Perkins, Dwight; Wong, James

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  10. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have ... The ability to image the chemical reactions in living cells in real time, especially in ...

  11. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation ... cells, enabling them to follow cellular chemical changes in real time, without bias. ...

  12. Real Time Diagnostics for Algae-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-time Monitoring And Diagnostics Detecting pathogens and predators to quickly recover ... Real-time Monitoring With Online Algal Reflectance Monitor System Researchers have ...

  13. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Thursday, 27 September 2012 00:00 Protein phosphorylation ...

  14. Wireless technology collects real-time information from oil and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wireless technology collects real-time information from oil and gas wells Wireless technology collects real-time information from oil and gas wells The patented system delivers ...

  15. Distributed Intelligence Architecture for Real-Time Control,...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed Intelligence Architecture for Real-Time Control, Protection and Instrumentation Systems Architecture of complex, high-speed, Real-Time Instrumentation, Acquisition, Control ...

  16. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Wednesday, 25 August 2010 00:00 Scientists have ...

  17. Real-time Pricing Demand Response in Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Marinovici, Maria C.; Berliner, Teri; Graves, Alan

    2012-07-26

    Abstract—Dynamic pricing schemes have been implemented in commercial and industrial application settings, and recently they are getting attention for application to residential customers. Time-of-use and critical-peak-pricing rates are in place in various regions and are being piloted in many more. These programs are proving themselves useful for balancing energy during peak periods; however, real-time (5 minute) pricing signals combined with automation in end-use systems have the potential to deliver even more benefits to operators and consumers. Besides system peak shaving, a real-time pricing system can contribute demand response based on the locational marginal price of electricity, reduce load in response to a generator outage, and respond to local distribution system capacity limiting situations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is teaming with a mid-west electricity service provider to run a distribution feeder-based retail electricity market that negotiates with residential automation equipment and clears every 5 minutes, thus providing a signal for lowering or raising electric consumption based on operational objectives of economic efficiency and reliability. This paper outlines the capability of the real-time pricing system and the operational scenarios being tested as the system is rolled-out starting in the first half of 2012.

  18. NSTX power supply real time controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neumeyer, C.; Hatcher, R.; Marsala, R.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    2000-01-06

    The NSTX is a new national facility for the study of plasma confinement, heating, and current drive in a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration. The ST configuration is an alternate magnetic confinement concept which is characterized by high beta (ratio plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure) and low toroidal field compared to conventional tokamaks, and could provide a pathway to the realization of a practical fusion power source. The NSTX depends on a real time, high speed, synchronous, and deterministic control system acting on a system of thyristor rectifier power supplies to (1) establish the initial magnetic field configuration; (2) initiate plasma within the vacuum vessel; (3) inductively drive plasma current; and (4) control plasma position and shape. For the initial ``day 0'' 1st plasma operations (Feb. 1999), the system was limited to closed loop proportional-integral current control of the power supplies based on preprogrammed reference waveforms. For the ``day 1'' phase of operations beginning Sept. 1999 the loop has been closed on plasma current and position. This paper focuses on the Power Supply Real Time Controller (PSRTC).

  19. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, G.E.; Struve, W.S.; Homer, J.F.

    1987-02-03

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user. 19 figs.

  20. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, George E.; Struve, Walter S.; Homer, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  1. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES [11505

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROCK CT

    2011-01-13

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  2. In-line real time air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  3. In-line real time air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, Marcus B.; Thompson, Cyril V.

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  4. Dynamic Simulation Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-03

    DSNP (Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-Plants) is a system of programs and data files by which a nuclear power plant, or part thereof, can be simulated. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, the DSNP libraries, the DSNP precompiler, and the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a special-purpose, block-oriented, digital-simulation language developed to facilitate the preparation of dynamic simulations of a large variety of nuclear power plants. It is amore » user-oriented language that permits the user to prepare simulation programs directly from power plant block diagrams and flow charts by recognizing the symbolic DSNP statements for the appropriate physical components and listing these statements in a logical sequence according to the flow of physical properties in the simulated power plant. Physical components of nuclear power plants are represented by functional blocks, or modules. Many of the more complex components are represented by several modules. The nuclear reactor, for example, has a kinetic module, a power distribution module, a feedback module, a thermodynamic module, a hydraulic module, and a radioactive heat decay module. These modules are stored in DSNP libraries in the form of a DSNP subroutine or function, a block of statements, a macro, or a combination of the above. Basic functional blocks such as integrators, pipes, function generators, connectors, and many auxiliary functions representing properties of materials used in nuclear power plants are also available. The DSNP precompiler analyzes the DSNP simulation program, performs the appropriate translations, inserts the requested modules from the library, links these modules together, searches necessary data files, and produces a simulation program in FORTRAN.« less

  5. Dynamics of Molecular Clouds: Observations, Simulations, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulations, and NIF Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamics of Molecular Clouds: Observations, Simulations, and NIF Experiments You are ...

  6. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is ... Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained real-time oxidation results ...

  7. Real-Time Quantitative Imaging of Failure Events in Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Quantitative Imaging of Failure Events in Materials Under Load at Temperatures Above 1,600 C Real-Time Quantitative Imaging of Failure Events in Materials Under Load at ...

  8. Autonomous global sky monitoring with real-time robotic follow...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Autonomous global sky monitoring with real-time robotic follow-up Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Autonomous global sky monitoring with real-time robotic...

  9. Efficient Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficient Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Method and its Application to a Collision of an Ion with a 2D Material Title: Efficient Real-Time Time-Dependent ...

  10. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zhang, Song

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  11. Optimizing near real time accountability for reprocessing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2010-06-01

    Near Real Time Accountability (NRTA) of actinides at high precision in reprocessing plants has been a long sought-after goal in the safeguards community. Achieving this goal is hampered by the difficulty of making precision measurements in the reprocessing environment, equipment cost, and impact to plant operations. Thus the design of future reprocessing plants requires an optimization of different approaches. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used to evaluate a number of NRTA strategies in a UREX+ reprocessing plant. Strategies examined include the incorporation of additional actinide measurements of internal plant vessels, more use of process monitoring data, and the option of periodic draining of inventory to key tanks. Preliminary results show that the addition of measurement technologies can increase the overall measurement uncertainty due to additional error propagation, so care must be taken when designing an advanced system. Initial results also show that relying on a combination of different NRTA techniques will likely be the best option. The model provides a platform for integrating all the data. The modeling results for the different NRTA options under various material loss conditions will be presented.

  12. Real Time Tailpipe Emission Measurements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Real Time Tailpipe Emission Measurements Real Time Tailpipe Emission Measurements 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Brookhaven National Laboratory 2002_deer_imre.pdf (1.23 MB) More Documents & Publications Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of Single Ultrafine Diesel Tailpipe Particles Microsoft PowerPoint - 4. ORNL- deer.ppt [Read-Only] Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency

  13. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Enabling Extreme Real-Time Grid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration of Solar Energy (ENERGISE) | Department of Energy Enabling Extreme Real-Time Grid Integration of Solar Energy (ENERGISE) Funding Opportunity Announcement: Enabling Extreme Real-Time Grid Integration of Solar Energy (ENERGISE) Funding Opportunity Announcement: Enabling Extreme Real-Time Grid Integration of Solar Energy (ENERGISE) Funding Number: DE-FOA-0001495 Funding Amount: $25,000,000 Description The Enabling Extreme Real-Time Grid Integration of Solar Energy (ENERGISE) funding

  14. Numerical simulation of undersea cable dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ablow, C.M.; Schechter, S.

    1983-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional code has been written to compute the motion of a towed cable. The code is based on a robust and stable finite difference approximation to the differential equations derived from basic dynamics. A 3500-ft cable pulled at 18.5 knots (hr/sup -1/) through a circular turn of 700 yd radius has been computed in about half of the real time of the maneuver. The computed displacements are close to the measured ones; the changes in depth are within 2%.

  15. Real-time individualized training vectors for experiential learning.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willis, Matt; Tucker, Eilish Marie; Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Glickman, Matthew R.; Fabian, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Military training utilizing serious games or virtual worlds potentially generate data that can be mined to better understand how trainees learn in experiential exercises. Few data mining approaches for deployed military training games exist. Opportunities exist to collect and analyze these data, as well as to construct a full-history learner model. Outcomes discussed in the present document include results from a quasi-experimental research study on military game-based experiential learning, the deployment of an online game for training evidence collection, and results from a proof-of-concept pilot study on the development of individualized training vectors. This Lab Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project leveraged products within projects, such as Titan (Network Grand Challenge), Real-Time Feedback and Evaluation System, (America's Army Adaptive Thinking and Leadership, DARWARS Ambush! NK), and Dynamic Bayesian Networks to investigate whether machine learning capabilities could perform real-time, in-game similarity vectors of learner performance, toward adaptation of content delivery, and quantitative measurement of experiential learning.

  16. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  17. In Situ Real-Time Radiographic Study of Thin Film Formation Inside Rotating Hollow Spheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Braun, Tom; Walton, Christopher C.; Dawedeit, Christoph; Biener, Monika M.; Kim, Sung Ho; Willey, Trevor M.; Xiao, Xianghui; van Buuren, Anthony; Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen

    2016-02-03

    The hollow spheres with uniform coatings on the inner surface have applications in optical devices, time- or site-controlled drug release, heat storage devices, and target fabrication for inertial confinement fusion experiments. The fabrication of uniform coatings, which is often critical for the application performance, requires precise understanding and control over the coating process and its parameters. We report on in situ real-time radiography experiments that provide critical spatiotemporal information about the distribution of fluids inside hollow spheres during uniaxial rotation. Furthermore, image analysis and computer fluid dynamics simulations were used to explore the effect of liquid viscosity and rotational velocitymore » on the film uniformity. The data were then used to demonstrate the fabrication of uniform sol–gel chemistry derived porous polymer films inside 2 mm inner diameter diamond shells.« less

  18. Real-time calibration of a feedback trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, Momčilo; Jun, Yonggun; Bechhoefer, John

    2014-09-15

    Feedback traps use closed-loop control to trap or manipulate small particles and molecules in solution. They have been applied to the measurement of physical and chemical properties of particles and to explore fundamental questions in the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of small systems. These applications have been hampered by drifts in the electric forces used to manipulate the particles. Although the drifts are small for measurements on the order of seconds, they dominate on time scales of minutes or slower. Here, we show that a recursive maximum likelihood (RML) algorithm can allow real-time measurement and control of electric and stochastic forces over time scales of hours. Simulations show that the RML algorithm recovers known parameters accurately. Experimental estimates of diffusion coefficients are also consistent with expected physical properties.

  19. Towards More Transmission Asset Utilization through Real-time Path Rating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Huang, Zhenyu; Jin, Chunlian; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Jin, Shuangshuang; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2013-10-21

    Ratings of transmission paths, typically determined in an offline environment, are static and tend to be conservative, leading to underutilization of transmission assets, higher costs of system operation and renewable energy integration, and lower efficiency and savings. With the ever-increasing transmission congestion costs and new challenges from renewable integration, increasing transfer capacity of existing transmission lines is essential. Real-time path rating provides a promising approach to enabling additional power transfer capability and fully utilizing transfer capability. In this paper, the feasibility of real-time path rating is investigated. Several promising technologies to achieve real-time path rating are discussed. Various benefits that can be expected from real-time path rating, such as increased transfer capability and reduced total generation cost, are demonstrated through simulations conducted on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council system model.

  20. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the magnets instead of

  1. Capabilities needed for the next generation of thermo-hydraulic codes for use in real time applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arndt, S.A.

    1997-07-01

    The real-time reactor simulation field is currently at a crossroads in terms of the capability to perform real-time analysis using the most sophisticated computer codes. Current generation safety analysis codes are being modified to replace simplified codes that were specifically designed to meet the competing requirement for real-time applications. The next generation of thermo-hydraulic codes will need to have included in their specifications the specific requirement for use in a real-time environment. Use of the codes in real-time applications imposes much stricter requirements on robustness, reliability and repeatability than do design and analysis applications. In addition, the need for code use by a variety of users is a critical issue for real-time users, trainers and emergency planners who currently use real-time simulation, and PRA practitioners who will increasingly use real-time simulation for evaluating PRA success criteria in near real-time to validate PRA results for specific configurations and plant system unavailabilities.

  2. Simulation and sequential dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, C.M.

    1999-06-01

    Computer simulations have a generic structure. Motivated by this the authors present a new class of discrete dynamical systems that captures this structure in a mathematically precise way. This class of systems consists of (1) a loopfree graph {Upsilon} with vertex set {l_brace}1,2,{hor_ellipsis},n{r_brace} where each vertex has a binary state, (2) a vertex labeled set of functions (F{sub i,{Upsilon}}:F{sub 2}{sup n} {yields} F{sub 2}{sup n}){sub i} and (3) a permutation {pi} {element_of} S{sub n}. The function F{sub i,{Upsilon}} updates the state of vertex i as a function of the states of vertex i and its {Upsilon}-neighbors and leaves the states of all other vertices fixed. The permutation {pi} represents the update ordering, i.e., the order in which the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} are applied. By composing the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} in the order given by {pi} one obtains the dynamical system (equation given in paper), which the authors refer to as a sequential dynamical system, or SDS for short. The authors will present bounds for the number of functionally different systems and for the number of nonisomorphic digraphs {Gamma}[F{sub {Upsilon}},{pi}] that can be obtained by varying the update order and applications of these to specific graphs and graph classes.

  3. Easy and hard testbeds for real-time search algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, S.; Simmons, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Although researchers have studied which factors influence the behavior of traditional search algorithms, currently not much is known about how domain properties influence the performance of real-time search algorithms. In this paper we demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that Eulerian state spaces (a super set of undirected state spaces) are very easy for some existing real-time search algorithms to solve: even real-time search algorithms that can be intractable, in general, are efficient for Eulerian state spaces. Because traditional real-time search testbeds (such as the eight puzzle and gridworlds) are Eulerian, they cannot be used to distinguish between efficient and inefficient real-time search algorithms. It follows that one has to use non-Eulerian domains to demonstrate the general superiority of a given algorithm. To this end, we present two classes of hard-to-search state spaces and demonstrate the performance of various real-time search algorithms on them.

  4. Autonomous global sky monitoring with real-time robotic follow...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    anomalous behavior, selecting targets for detailed investigation, and making real-time anomaly detection to enable rapid recognition and a swift response to transients as...

  5. Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of Single Ultrafine Diesel Tailpipe Particles Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of ...

  6. Real-time condition assessment of RAPTOR telescope systems (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Real-time condition assessment of RAPTOR telescope systems Citation Details In-Document Search ... Publication Date: 2011-09-08 OSTI Identifier: 1095860 Report ...

  7. Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Print Scientists have developed a robust and label-free method to probe the chemical underpinnings of developing bacterial ...

  8. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins...

  9. Optical Method for Automated Real Time Control of Elemental Compositio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optical Method for Automated Real Time Control of Elemental Composition, Distribution, and Film Thickness in CIGS Solar Cell Production National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact ...

  10. Scientists Probe Lithium-Sulfur Batteries in Real Time - Joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2012, Videos Scientists Probe Lithium-Sulfur Batteries in Real Time Lithium-sulfur batteries are a promising technology that could some day power electric vehicles. Scientists ...

  11. Genetically encoded sensors enable real-time observation of metabolite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Genetically encoded sensors enable real-time observation of metabolite production Authors: Rogers, Jameson K. ; Church, George M. Publication Date: 2016-02-08 OSTI ...

  12. Dynamically consistent method for mixed quantum-classical simulations: A semiclassical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antipov, Sergey V.; Ye, Ziyu; Ananth, Nandini

    2015-05-14

    We introduce a new semiclassical (SC) framework, the Mixed Quantum-Classical Initial Value Representation (MQC-IVR), that can be tuned to reproduce existing quantum-limit and classical-limit SC approximations to quantum real-time correlation functions. Applying a modified Filinov transformation to a quantum-limit SC formulation leads to the association of a Filinov parameter with each degree of freedom in the system; varying this parameter from zero to infinity controls the extent of quantization of the corresponding mode. The resulting MQC-IVR expression provides a consistent dynamic framework for mixed quantum-classical simulations and we demonstrate its numerical accuracy in the calculation of real-time correlation functions for a model 1D system and a model 2D system over the full range of quantum- to classical-limit behaviors.

  13. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of confined fluids...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) ... in a single simulation upon compression, whereas fluid molecules in the bulk ... for weak fluid -- wall interactions. ...

  14. Dynamics Simulation in a Wave Environment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    focus: Advanced Naval concepts Also have projects in: Offshore Platforms Wave Energy Converters Wind Power 3 Coupled Dynamics (AEGIR Co-simulation Capability) * Interprocess ...

  15. Communication: Quantum molecular dynamics simulation of liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Communication: Quantum molecular dynamics simulation of liquid para-hydrogen by nuclear and electron wave packet approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Communication:...

  16. Towards a Real-Time Cluster Computing Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui, Peter SY; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Johnston, Mark R.

    2011-11-01

    Real-time computing has traditionally been considered largely in the context of single-processor and embedded systems, and indeed, the terms real-time computing, embedded systems, and control systems are often mentioned in closely related contexts. However, real-time computing in the context of multinode systems, specifically high-performance, cluster-computing systems, remains relatively unexplored, largely due to the fact that until now, there has not been a need for such an environment. In this paper, we motivate the need for a cluster computing infrastructure capable of supporting computation over large datasets in real-time. Our motivating example is an analytical framework to support the next generation North American power grid, which is growing both in size and complexity. With streaming sensor data in the future power grid potentially reaching rates on the order of terabytes per day, the task of analyzing this data subject to real-time guarantees becomes a daunting task which will require the power of high-performance cluster computing capable of functioning under real-time constraints. One specific challenge that such an environment presents is the need for real-time networked communication between cluster nodes. In this paper, we discuss the need for real-time high-performance cluster computation, along with our work-in-progress towards an infrastructure which will ultimately enable such an environment.

  17. Real-time hydro coordination and economic hydro optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dasigenis, A.T.; Garcia-San Pedro, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper addresses the real-time aspects of the Hydro-Thermal Coordination problem. It describes the real-time modeling and monitoring of hydro resources, and the use of the resulting real-time hydraulic data in the on-line Economic Dispatch algorithm. A variable head, hydro loss model is incorporated that allows for on-line changes to the hydro topology. The method presented provides the operator with a current view of the available water resources, enables the validation of the real-time hydro data received from the field, and enables real-time optimization of the Hydro-Thermal Unit Commitment plan. The implementation of this approach on the Iberdrola system in Spain is described.

  18. simulate the dynamic distribution of lithium in the electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulate the dynamic distribution of lithium in the electrode - Sandia Energy Energy ... simulate the dynamic distribution of lithium in the electrode HomeTag:simulate the ...

  19. Advanced Kalman Filter for Real-Time Responsiveness in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, Gregory Francis

    2014-06-10

    Complex engineering systems pose fundamental challenges in real-time operations and control because they are highly dynamic systems consisting of a large number of elements with severe nonlinearities and discontinuities. Today’s tools for real-time complex system operations are mostly based on steady state models, unable to capture the dynamic nature and too slow to prevent system failures. We developed advanced Kalman filtering techniques and the formulation of dynamic state estimation using Kalman filtering techniques to capture complex system dynamics in aiding real-time operations and control. In this work, we looked at complex system issues including severe nonlinearity of system equations, discontinuities caused by system controls and network switches, sparse measurements in space and time, and real-time requirements of power grid operations. We sought to bridge the disciplinary boundaries between Computer Science and Power Systems Engineering, by introducing methods that leverage both existing and new techniques. While our methods were developed in the context of electrical power systems, they should generalize to other large-scale scientific and engineering applications.

  20. Method of modeling transmissions for real-time simulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hebbale, Kumaraswamy V.

    2012-09-25

    A transmission modeling system includes an in-gear module that determines an in-gear acceleration when a vehicle is in gear. A shift module determines a shift acceleration based on a clutch torque when the vehicle is shifting between gears. A shaft acceleration determination module determines a shaft acceleration based on at least one of the in-gear acceleration and the shift acceleration.

  1. Improving Building Performance at Urban Scale with a Framework for Real-time Data Sharing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, Xiufeng; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-06-03

    This paper describes work in progress toward an urban-scale system aiming to reduce energy use in neighboring buildings by providing three components: a database for accessing past and present weather data from high quality weather stations; a network for communicating energy-saving strategies between building owners; and a set of modeling tools for real-time building energy simulation.

  2. New Real-Time Quantum Efficiency Measurement System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Egaas, B.; Pinegar, S.; Stradins, P.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes a newly developed technique for measuring the quantum eficiiency in solar cells in real-time using a unique, electronically controlled, full-spectrum light source.

  3. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 range (1-2...

  4. Towards Near Real-Time Availability With Enhanced Accuracy Turbo...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbo" ARSCL Towards Near Real-Time Availability With Enhanced Accuracy Turbo-ARSCL Project The goal is to speed delivery of the widely-used ARSCL product while improving the ...

  5. Steps to Establish a Real-Time Transmission Monitoring System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Finally, this report acknowledges that a feasibility determination is necessary prior to any action to implement a real-time monitoring system and that the implementation of such a ...

  6. Real-Time Bioluminescent Tracking of Cellular Population Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cellular aliquots followed by extrapolation to the total population size, or through the monitoring of signal intensity from any number of externally stimulated reporter proteins. ...

  7. Real-Time Electrical Engineer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Real-Time Electrical Engineer Real-Time Electrical Engineer Submitted by admin on Mon, 2016-08-08 00:15 Job Summary Organization Name Department Of Energy Agency SubElement Western Area Power Administration Locations Loveland, Colorado Announcement Number WAPA-16-DE-241 Job Summary (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration, Rocky Mountain Region, Power System Operations, Operations Support (J4200), 5555 E. Crossroads Blvd,

  8. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Thursday, 27 September 2012 00:00 Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins responsible for many cell functions ranging from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death. This chemical process has been studied intensively, but until now it has been impossible

  9. Vector processing enhancements for real-time image analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoaf, S.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2008-01-01

    A real-time image analysis system was developed for beam imaging diagnostics. An Apple Power Mac G5 with an Active Silicon LFG frame grabber was used to capture video images that were processed and analyzed. Software routines were created to utilize vector-processing hardware to reduce the time to process images as compared to conventional methods. These improvements allow for more advanced image processing diagnostics to be performed in real time.

  10. High speed, real-time, camera bandwidth converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bower, Dan E; Bloom, David A; Curry, James R

    2014-10-21

    Image data from a CMOS sensor with 10 bit resolution is reformatted in real time to allow the data to stream through communications equipment that is designed to transport data with 8 bit resolution. The incoming image data has 10 bit resolution. The communication equipment can transport image data with 8 bit resolution. Image data with 10 bit resolution is transmitted in real-time, without a frame delay, through the communication equipment by reformatting the image data.

  11. Agent-based Large-Scale Emergency Evacuation Using Real-Time Open Government Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Cheng; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2014-01-01

    The open government initiatives have provided tremendous data resources for the transportation system and emergency services in urban areas. This paper proposes a traffic simulation framework using high temporal resolution demographic data and real time open government data for evacuation planning and operation. A comparison study using real-world data in Seattle, Washington is conducted to evaluate the framework accuracy and evacuation efficiency. The successful simulations of selected area prove the concept to take advantage open government data, open source data, and high resolution demographic data in emergency management domain. There are two aspects of parameters considered in this study: user equilibrium (UE) conditions of traffic assignment model (simple Non-UE vs. iterative UE) and data temporal resolution (Daytime vs. Nighttime). Evacuation arrival rate, average travel time, and computation time are adopted as Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) for evacuation performance analysis. The temporal resolution of demographic data has significant impacts on urban transportation dynamics during evacuation scenarios. Better evacuation performance estimation can be approached by integrating both Non-UE and UE scenarios. The new framework shows flexibility in implementing different evacuation strategies and accuracy in evacuation performance. The use of this framework can be explored to day-to-day traffic assignment to support daily traffic operations.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of electrolytes andelectrolyte...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. es40smith.pdf (4 MB) More Documents & Publications Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of ...

  13. Real-time soft tissue motion estimation for lung tumors during radiotherapy delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rottmann, Joerg; Berbeco, Ross; Keall, Paul

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To provide real-time lung tumor motion estimation during radiotherapy treatment delivery without the need for implanted fiducial markers or additional imaging dose to the patient.Methods: 2D radiographs from the therapy beam's-eye-view (BEV) perspective are captured at a frame rate of 12.8 Hz with a frame grabber allowing direct RAM access to the image buffer. An in-house developed real-time soft tissue localization algorithm is utilized to calculate soft tissue displacement from these images in real-time. The system is tested with a Varian TX linear accelerator and an AS-1000 amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device operating at a resolution of 512 × 384 pixels. The accuracy of the motion estimation is verified with a dynamic motion phantom. Clinical accuracy was tested on lung SBRT images acquired at 2 fps.Results: Real-time lung tumor motion estimation from BEV images without fiducial markers is successfully demonstrated. For the phantom study, a mean tracking error <1.0 mm [root mean square (rms) error of 0.3 mm] was observed. The tracking rms accuracy on BEV images from a lung SBRT patient (≈20 mm tumor motion range) is 1.0 mm.Conclusions: The authors demonstrate for the first time real-time markerless lung tumor motion estimation from BEV images alone. The described system can operate at a frame rate of 12.8 Hz and does not require prior knowledge to establish traceable landmarks for tracking on the fly. The authors show that the geometric accuracy is similar to (or better than) previously published markerless algorithms not operating in real-time.

  14. Real Time Pricing and the Real Live Firm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moezzi, Mithra; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, Osman; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Hopper, Nicole

    2004-05-26

    Energy economists have long argued the benefits of real time pricing (RTP) of electricity. Their basis for modeling customers response to short-term fluctuations in electricity prices are based on theories of rational firm behavior, where management strives to minimize operating costs and optimize profit, and labor, capital and energy are potential substitutes in the firm's production function. How well do private firms and public sector institutions operating conditions, knowledge structures, decision-making practices, and external relationships comport with these assumptions and how might this impact price response? We discuss these issues on the basis of interviews with 29 large (over 2 MW) industrial, commercial, and institutional customers in the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation service territory that have faced day-ahead electricity market prices since 1998. We look at stories interviewees told about why and how they respond to RTP, why some customers report that they can't, and why even if they can, they don't. Some firms respond as theorized, and we describe their load curtailment strategies. About half of our interviewees reported that they were unable to either shift or forego electricity consumption even when prices are high ($0.50/kWh). Reasons customers gave for why they weren't price-responsive include implicit value placed on reliability, pricing structures, lack of flexibility in adjusting production inputs, just-in-time practices, perceived barriers to onsite generation, and insufficient time. We draw these observations into a framework that could help refine economic theory of dynamic pricing by providing real-world descriptions of how firms behave and why.

  15. Sandia Energy - Molecular Dynamics Simulations Predict Fate of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular Dynamics Simulations Predict Fate of Uranium in Sediments Home Highlights - Energy Research Molecular Dynamics Simulations Predict Fate of Uranium in Sediments Previous...

  16. Real-Time SCADA Cyber Protection Using Compression Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle G. Roybal; Gordon H Rueff

    2013-11-01

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) has a critical mission to secure the energy infrastructure from cyber attack. Through DOE-OE’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a method to detect malicious traffic on Supervisory, Control, and Data Acquisition (SCADA) network using a data compression technique. SCADA network traffic is often repetitive with only minor differences between packets. Research performed at the INL showed that SCADA network traffic has traits desirable for using compression analysis to identify abnormal network traffic. An open source implementation of a Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) lossless data compression algorithm was used to compress and analyze surrogate SCADA traffic. Infected SCADA traffic was found to have statistically significant differences in compression when compared against normal SCADA traffic at the packet level. The initial analyses and results are clearly able to identify malicious network traffic from normal traffic at the packet level with a very high confidence level across multiple ports and traffic streams. Statistical differentiation between infected and normal traffic level was possible using a modified data compression technique at the 99% probability level for all data analyzed. However, the conditions tested were rather limited in scope and need to be expanded into more realistic simulations of hacking events using techniques and approaches that are better representative of a real-world attack on a SCADA system. Nonetheless, the use of compression techniques to identify malicious traffic on SCADA networks in real time appears to have significant merit for infrastructure protection.

  17. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  18. High-Performance Computing for Real-Time Grid Analysis and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2013-10-31

    Power grids worldwide are undergoing an unprecedented transition as a result of grid evolution meeting information revolution. The grid evolution is largely driven by the desire for green energy. Emerging grid technologies such as renewable generation, smart loads, plug-in hybrid vehicles, and distributed generation provide opportunities to generate energy from green sources and to manage energy use for better system efficiency. With utility companies actively deploying these technologies, a high level of penetration of these new technologies is expected in the next 5-10 years, bringing in a level of intermittency, uncertainties, and complexity that the grid did not see nor design for. On the other hand, the information infrastructure in the power grid is being revolutionized with large-scale deployment of sensors and meters in both the transmission and distribution networks. The future grid will have two-way flows of both electrons and information. The challenge is how to take advantage of the information revolution: pull the large amount of data in, process it in real time, and put information out to manage grid evolution. Without addressing this challenge, the opportunities in grid evolution will remain unfulfilled. This transition poses grand challenges in grid modeling, simulation, and information presentation. The computational complexity of underlying power grid modeling and simulation will significantly increase in the next decade due to an increased model size and a decreased time window allowed to compute model solutions. High-performance computing is essential to enable this transition. The essential technical barrier is to vastly increase the computational speed so operation response time can be reduced from minutes to seconds and sub-seconds. The speed at which key functions such as state estimation and contingency analysis are conducted (typically every 3-5 minutes) needs to be dramatically increased so that the analysis of contingencies is both

  19. Integrated real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engi, D

    1983-01-01

    The use of an integrated, real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system for the control of the fracturing treatment during massive hydraulic fracturing is proposed. The proposed system consists of four subsystems: an internal-fracture-pressure measurement system, a fluid-flow measurement system, a borehole seismic system, and a surface-electric-potential measurement system. This use of borehole seismic and surface-electric-potential measurements, which are essentially away-from-the-wellbore measurements, in conjunction with the use of the more commonly used types of measurements, i.e., at-the-wellbore pressure and fluid-flow measurements, is a distinctive feature of the composite real-time diagnostics system. Currently, the real-time capabilities of the individual subsystems are being developed, and the problems associated with their integration into a complete, computer-linked instrumentation system are being addressed. 2 figures.

  20. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sieglin, B. Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S.

    2015-11-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  1. Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a “gasification with CO{sub 2} capture” process simulator with a “combined cycle” power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTAR’s IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

  2. Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

    2003-04-16

    The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

  3. Handheld portable real-time tracking and communications device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiseman, James M.; Riblett, Jr., Loren E.; Green, Karl L.; Hunter, John A.; Cook, III, Robert N.; Stevens, James R.

    2012-05-22

    Portable handheld real-time tracking and communications devices include; a controller module, communications module including global positioning and mesh network radio module, data transfer and storage module, and a user interface module enclosed in a water-resistant enclosure. Real-time tracking and communications devices can be used by protective force, security and first responder personnel to provide situational awareness allowing for enhance coordination and effectiveness in rapid response situations. Such devices communicate to other authorized devices via mobile ad-hoc wireless networks, and do not require fixed infrastructure for their operation.

  4. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print Wednesday, 25 June 2008 00:00 The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under

  5. A heterogeneous hierarchical architecture for real-time computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skroch, D.A.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The need for high-speed data acquisition and control algorithms has prompted continued research in the area of multiprocessor systems and related programming techniques. The result presented here is a unique hardware and software architecture for high-speed real-time computer systems. The implementation of a prototype of this architecture has required the integration of architecture, operating systems and programming languages into a cohesive unit. This report describes a Heterogeneous Hierarchial Architecture for Real-Time (H{sup 2} ART) and system software for program loading and interprocessor communication.

  6. Two-electron Rabi oscillations in real-time time-dependent density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habenicht, Bradley F.; Tani, Noriyuki P.; Provorse, Makenzie R.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2014-11-14

    We investigate the Rabi oscillations of electrons excited by an applied electric field in several simple molecular systems using time-dependent configuration interaction (TDCI) and real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) dynamics. While the TDCI simulations exhibit the expected single-electron Rabi oscillations at a single resonant electric field frequency, Rabi oscillations in the RT-TDDFT simulations are a two-electron process. The existence of two-electron Rabi oscillations is determined both by full population inversion between field-free molecular orbitals and the behavior of the instantaneous dipole moment during the simulations. Furthermore, the Rabi oscillations in RT-TDDFT are subject to an intensity threshold of the electric field, below which Rabi oscillations do not occur and above which the two-electron Rabi oscillations occur at a broad range of frequencies. It is also shown that at field intensities near the threshold intensity, the field frequency predicted to induce Rabi oscillations by linear response TDDFT only produces detuned Rabi oscillations. Instead, the field frequency that yields the full two-electron population inversion and Rabi oscillation behavior is shown to be the average of single-electron transition frequencies from the ground S{sub 0} state and the doubly-excited S{sub 2} state. The behavior of the two-electron Rabi oscillations is rationalized via two possible models. The first model is a multi-photon process that results from the electric field interacting with the three level system such that three level Rabi oscillations may occur. The second model suggests that the mean-field nature of RT-TDDFT induces paired electron propagation.

  7. Real-time graphic displays in Mars. [AVLIS process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treadway, T.

    1985-12-01

    Real-time diagnostic data of the AVLIS process is displayed in the form of a two-dimensional plot on selected monitors in the Mars Control Room. Each Mars workstation contains a HP2622 terminal for computer interface to the experiment and a Raster Technologies graphic controller driving a Conrac high resolution color monitor for graphics output.

  8. Method and apparatus for real time imaging and monitoring of radiotherapy beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James; Macey, Daniel J.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2011-11-01

    A method and apparatus for real time imaging and monitoring of radiation therapy beams is designed to preferentially distinguish and image low energy radiation from high energy secondary radiation emitted from a target as the result of therapeutic beam deposition. A detector having low sensitivity to high energy photons combined with a collimator designed to dynamically image in the region of the therapeutic beam target is used.

  9. Dynamic procedure for filtered gyrokinetic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morel, P.; Banon Navarro, A.; Albrecht-Marc, M.; Carati, D.; Merz, F.; Goerler, T.; Jenko, F.

    2012-01-15

    Large eddy simulations (LES) of gyrokinetic plasma turbulence are investigated as interesting candidates to decrease the computational cost. A dynamic procedure is implemented in the gene code, allowing for dynamic optimization of the free parameters of the LES models (setting the amplitudes of dissipative terms). Employing such LES methods, one recovers the free energy and heat flux spectra obtained from highly resolved direct numerical simulations. Systematic comparisons are performed for different values of the temperature gradient and magnetic shear, parameters which are of prime importance in ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. Moreover, the degree of anisotropy of the problem, which can vary with parameters, can be adapted dynamically by the method that shows gyrokinetic large eddy simulation to be a serious candidate to reduce numerical cost of gyrokinetic solvers.

  10. Dynamic Fracture Simulations of Explosively Loaded Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur, Carly W.; Goto, D. M.

    2015-11-30

    This report documents the modeling results of high explosive experiments investigating dynamic fracture of steel (AerMet® 100 alloy) cylinders. The experiments were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during 2007 to 2008 [10]. A principal objective of this study was to gain an understanding of dynamic material failure through the analysis of hydrodynamic computer code simulations. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational cylinder models were analyzed using the ALE3D multi-physics computer code.

  11. Dynamic simulation gives 20-20 foresight

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womack, J.W.

    1986-04-07

    Dynamic simulation is being increasingly recognized as a viable tool for system analysis and design. Its use by Mobil Research and Development Corp. (MRDC) has grown steadily. Applications fall into three major categories: Support of major capital projects, mostly in the form of high-fidelity models capable of answering many of the ''what-if'' questions which arise during the engineering design, construction, and commissioning phases of a project; Simulators for operator training, which have been acquired for an increasing fraction of both new and existing facilities over the past 10 years; Solution of operational problems, evaluate process changes, and in debottlenecking studies of existing facilities. A number of dynamic simulations have been done by contractors or system vendors. MRDC involvement was limited to review and/or acceptance of the work. MRDC did not write any of the training simulator programs, for example, although its inputs often influenced their development.

  12. Real-time multiplexed digital cavity-enhanced spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boyson, Toby K.; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Pavey, Karl D.; Fitzgerald, Nicholas J.; Spence, Thomas G.; Moore, David S.; Harb, Charles C.

    2015-10-01

    Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy is a sensitive optical absorption technique but one where the practical applications have been limited to studying small wavelength ranges. In addition, this Letter shows that wideband operation can be achieved by combining techniques usually reserved for the communications community with that of cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, producing a multiplexed real-time cavity-enhanced spectrometer. We use multiple collinear laser sources operating asynchronously and simultaneously while being detected on a single photodetector. This is synonymous with radio frequency (RF) cellular systems in which signals are detected on a single antenna but decoded uniquely. Here, we demonstrate results with spectra of methyl salicylatemore » and show parts-per-billion per root hertz sensitivity measured in real-time.« less

  13. Real-time multiplexed digital cavity-enhanced spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyson, Toby K.; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Pavey, Karl D.; Fitzgerald, Nicholas J.; Spence, Thomas G.; Moore, David S.; Harb, Charles C.

    2015-10-01

    Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy is a sensitive optical absorption technique but one where the practical applications have been limited to studying small wavelength ranges. In addition, this Letter shows that wideband operation can be achieved by combining techniques usually reserved for the communications community with that of cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, producing a multiplexed real-time cavity-enhanced spectrometer. We use multiple collinear laser sources operating asynchronously and simultaneously while being detected on a single photodetector. This is synonymous with radio frequency (RF) cellular systems in which signals are detected on a single antenna but decoded uniquely. Here, we demonstrate results with spectra of methyl salicylate and show parts-per-billion per root hertz sensitivity measured in real-time.

  14. Wide-area, real-time monitoring and visualization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram S.; Dyer, James D.; Martinez Morales, Carlos A.

    2011-11-15

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  15. Real time markerless motion tracking using linked kinematic chains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luck, Jason P.; Small, Daniel E.

    2007-08-14

    A markerless method is described for tracking the motion of subjects in a three dimensional environment using a model based on linked kinematic chains. The invention is suitable for tracking robotic, animal or human subjects in real-time using a single computer with inexpensive video equipment, and does not require the use of markers or specialized clothing. A simple model of rigid linked segments is constructed of the subject and tracked using three dimensional volumetric data collected by a multiple camera video imaging system. A physics based method is then used to compute forces to align the model with subsequent volumetric data sets in real-time. The method is able to handle occlusion of segments and accommodates joint limits, velocity constraints, and collision constraints and provides for error recovery. The method further provides for elimination of singularities in Jacobian based calculations, which has been problematic in alternative methods.

  16. Wide-area, real-time monitoring and visualization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram S.; Dyer, James D.; Martinez Morales, Carlos A.

    2013-03-19

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  17. Real-time performance monitoring and management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram S.; Dyer, James D.; Martinez Morales, Carlos A.

    2007-06-19

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  18. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins responsible for many cell functions ranging from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death. This chemical process has been studied intensively, but until now it has been impossible to watch phosphorylation at the molecular level without damaging cells or interfering with

  19. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins responsible for many cell functions ranging from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death. This chemical process has been studied intensively, but until now it has been impossible to watch phosphorylation at the molecular level without damaging cells or interfering with

  20. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins responsible for many cell functions ranging from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death. This chemical process has been studied intensively, but until now it has been impossible to watch phosphorylation at the molecular level without damaging cells or interfering with

  1. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins responsible for many cell functions ranging from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death. This chemical process has been studied intensively, but until now it has been impossible to watch phosphorylation at the molecular level without damaging cells or interfering with

  2. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins responsible for many cell functions ranging from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death. This chemical process has been studied intensively, but until now it has been impossible to watch phosphorylation at the molecular level without damaging cells or interfering with

  3. Development of Real-Time, Gas Quality Sensor Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Real-Time, Gas Quality Sensor Technology Introduction Landfll gas (LFG), composed largely of methane and carbon dioxide, is used in over 645 operational projects in 48 states. These projects convert a large source of greenhouse gases into a fuel that currently provides approximately 51 trillion Btu of electricity and supplies 108 billion cubic feet of LFG annually to direct use applications and natural gas pipelines. However, there is still a signifcant resource base for new projects, with over

  4. Real Time Diagnostics for Algae-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Real-time Monitoring And Diagnostics Detecting pathogens and predators to quickly recover from pond crashes Algal Pond Crash Detection Sandia National Laboratories is developing a suite of complementary technologies to help the emerging algae industry detect and quickly recover from algal pond crashes, an obstacle to large-scale algae cultivation for biofuels. Because of the way algae is grown and produced in most algal ponds, they are prone to attack by fungi, rotifers, viruses or other

  5. Real-Time Airborne Particle Analyzer - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Real-Time Airborne Particle Analyzer Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Particle analysis is useful for determining chemical compositions in a wide range of disciplines, from ascertaining the source of a petroleum sample to duplicating a fragrance. The technique is appealing to a broad cross section of analytical sciences, but its applications are limited because, for existing equipment, sample size

  6. Measuring Real-time Biological and Abiotic Manganese Oxide Reduction |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Measuring Real-time Biological and Abiotic Manganese Oxide Reduction Tuesday, May 31, 2016 Manganese(IV) oxides are powerful scavengers of toxins and trace metals, but they are also strong oxidants in the environment (1). Certain common microbes can also 'breathe' manganese oxides, in a process known as anaerobic respiration (2). During these environmental -commonly with sulfur or iron species- and biological interactions, manganese oxides are often

  7. Managing high-bandwidth real-time data storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, David D.; Brandt, Scott A; Bent, John M; Chen, Hsing-Bung

    2009-09-23

    There exist certain systems which generate real-time data at high bandwidth, but do not necessarily require the long-term retention of that data in normal conditions. In some cases, the data may not actually be useful, and in others, there may be too much data to permanently retain in long-term storage whether it is useful or not. However, certain portions of the data may be identified as being vitally important from time to time, and must therefore be retained for further analysis or permanent storage without interrupting the ongoing collection of new data. We have developed a system, Mahanaxar, intended to address this problem. It provides quality of service guarantees for incoming real-time data streams and simultaneous access to already-recorded data on a best-effort basis utilizing any spare bandwidth. It has built in mechanisms for reliability and indexing, can scale upwards to meet increasing bandwidth requirements, and handles both small and large data elements equally well. We will show that a prototype version of this system provides better performance than a flat file (traditional filesystem) based version, particularly with regard to quality of service guarantees and hard real-time requirements.

  8. Real time 3D and heterogeneous data fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, C.Q.; Small, D.E.

    1998-03-01

    This project visualizes characterization data in a 3D setting, in real time. Real time in this sense means collecting the data and presenting it before it delays the user, and processing faster than the acquisition systems so no bottlenecks occur. The goals have been to build a volumetric viewer to display 3D data, demonstrate projecting other data, such as images, onto the 3D data, and display both the 3D and projected images as fast as the data became available. The authors have examined several ways to display 3D surface data. The most effective was generating polygonal surface meshes. They have created surface maps form a continuous stream of 3D range data, fused image data onto the geometry, and displayed the data with a standard 3D rendering package. In parallel with this, they have developed a method to project real-time images onto the surface created. A key component is mapping the data on the correct surfaces, which requires a-priori positional information along with accurate calibration of the camera and lens system.

  9. Real-time sub- Å ngstrom imaging of reversible and irreversible...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Real-time sub- ngstrom imaging of reversible and irreversible conformations in rhodium catalysts and graphene Title: Real-time sub- ngstrom imaging of reversible and ...

  10. TU-F-17A-07: Real-Time Personalized Margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rottmann, J; Berbeco, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To maximize normal tissue sparing for treatments requiring motion encompassing margins. Motion mitigation techniques including DMLC or couch tracking can freeze tumor motion within the treatment aperture potentially allowing for smaller treatment margins and thus better sparing of normal tissue. To enable for a safe application of this concept in the clinic we propose adapting margins dynamically in real-time during radiotherapy delivery based on personalized tumor localization confidence. To demonstrate technical feasibility we present a phantom study. Methods: We utilize a realistic anthropomorphic dynamic thorax phantom with a lung tumor model embedded close to the spine. The tumor, a 3D-printout of a patient's GTV, is moved 15mm peak-to-peak by diaphragm compression and monitored by continuous EPID imaging in real-time. Two treatment apertures are created for each beam, one representing ITV -based and the other GTV-based margin expansion. A soft tissue localization (STiL) algorithm utilizing the continuous EPID images is employed to freeze tumor motion within the treatment aperture by means of DMLC tracking. Depending on a tracking confidence measure (TCM), the treatment aperture is adjusted between the ITV and the GTV leaf. Results: We successfully demonstrate real-time personalized margin adjustment in a phantom study. We measured a system latency of about 250 ms which we compensated by utilizing a respiratory motion prediction algorithm (ridge regression). With prediction in place we observe tracking accuracies better than 1mm. For TCM=0 (as during startup) an ITV-based treatment aperture is chosen, for TCM=1 a GTV-based aperture and for 0real-time. Normal tissue sparing is maximized. The worst case scenario results in delivering a plan

  11. Imaging gene expression in real-time using aptamers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Il Chung

    2011-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways are usually activated by external stimuli and are transient. The downstream changes such as transcription of the activated genes are also transient. Real-time detection of promoter activity is useful for understanding changes in gene expression, especially during cell differentiation and in development. A simple and reliable method for viewing gene expression in real time is not yet available. Reporter proteins such as fluorescent proteins and luciferase allow for non-invasive detection of the products of gene expression in living cells. However, current reporter systems do not provide for real-time imaging of promoter activity in living cells. This is because of the long time period after transcription required for fluorescent protein synthesis and maturation. We have developed an RNA reporter system for imaging in real-time to detect changes in promoter activity as they occur. The RNA reporter uses strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags), which can be expressed from a promoter of choice. The tobramycin, neomycin and PDC RNA aptamers have been utilized for this system and expressed in yeast from the GAL1 promoter. The IMAGEtag RNA kinetics were quantified by RT-qPCR. In yeast precultured in raffinose containing media the GAL1 promoter responded faster than in yeast precultured in glucose containing media. IMAGEtag RNA has relatively short half-life (5.5 min) in yeast. For imaging, the yeast cells are incubated with their ligands that are labeled with fluorescent dyes. To increase signal to noise, ligands have been separately conjugated with the FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) pairs, Cy3 and Cy5. With these constructs, the transcribed aptamers can be imaged after activation of the promoter by galactose. FRET was confirmed with three different approaches, which were sensitized emission, acceptor photobleaching and donor lifetime by FLIM (fluorescence lifetime imaging

  12. Evolution of titanium arc weldment macro and microstructures -- Modeling and real time mapping of phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Z.; Elmer, J.W.; Wong, J.; Debroy, T.

    2000-04-01

    Macro and microstructural features in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welded titanium were modeled for the first time based on a combination of transport phenomena and phase transformation theory. A transient, three-dimensional, turbulent heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to calculate the temperature and velocity fields, thermal cycles, and the shape and size of the fusion zone. The kinetics of the {alpha}{r_arrow}{beta} allotropic transformation during continuous heating and the corresponding ({alpha}+{beta})/{beta} phase boundary were calculated using a modified Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation and the calculated thermal cycles. The modeling results were compared with the real-time phase mapping data obtained using a unique spatially resolved X-ray diffraction technique with synchrotron radiation. The real-time evolution of grain structure within the entire weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) was modeled in three dimensions using a Monte Carlo technique. The following are the major findings. First, the rates of heat transfer and fluid flow in the titanium weld pool during gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) are significantly enhanced by turbulence, and previous calculations of laminar fluid flow and heat transfer in arc-melted pools need to be re-examined. The fusion zone geometry, and the {alpha}/({alpha}+{beta})/{beta} phase boundaries in the HAZ could be satisfactorily predicted. Second, comparison of real-time {alpha}{r_arrow}{beta} transformation kinetics with the rates computed assuming various alternative reaction mechanisms indicates the transition was most likely controlled by the transport of Ti atoms across the {alpha}/{beta} interface. Third, comparison of the experimental data with the simulated results indicates the real-time evolution of the grain structure around the weld pool could be simulated by the Monte Carlo technique. Finally, the insight developed in this research could not have been achieved without concomitant modeling and experiments.

  13. Real-time Molecular Study of Bystander Effects of Low dose Low LET radiation Using Living Cell Imaging and Nanoparticale Optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, Mohan; Xu, Nancy R; Mohan, Sumathy

    2013-06-03

    In this study two novel approaches are proposed to investigate precisely the low dose low LET radiation damage and its effect on bystander cells in real time. First, a flow shear model system, which would provide us a near in vivo situation where endothelial cells in the presence of extra cellular matrix experiencing continuous flow shear stress, will be used. Endothelial cells on matri-gel (simulated extra cellular matrix) will be subjected to physiological flow shear (that occurs in normal blood vessels). Second, a unique tool (Single nano particle/single live cell/single molecule microscopy and spectroscopy; Figure A) will be used to track the molecular trafficking by single live cell imaging. Single molecule chemical microscopy allows one to single out and study rare events that otherwise might be lost in assembled average measurement, and monitor many target single molecules simultaneously in real-time. Multi color single novel metal nanoparticle probes allow one to prepare multicolor probes (Figure B) to monitor many single components (events) simultaneously and perform multi-complex analysis in real-time. These nano-particles resist to photo bleaching and hence serve as probes for unlimited timeframe of analysis. Single live cell microscopy allows one to image many single cells simultaneously in real-time. With the combination of these unique tools, we will be able to study under near-physiological conditions the cellular and sub-cellular responses (even subtle changes at one molecule level) to low and very low doses of low LET radiation in real time (milli-second or nano-second) at sub-10 nanometer spatial resolution. This would allow us to precisely identify, at least in part, the molecular mediators that are responsible of radiation damage in the irradiated cells and the mediators that are responsible for initiating the signaling in the neighboring cells. Endothelial cells subjected to flow shear (2 dynes/cm2 or 16 dynes/cm2) and exposed to 0.1, 1 and 10

  14. Real-time x-ray studies of indium island growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demasi, Alexander; Rainville, Meliha G.; Ludwig, Karl F.

    2015-03-15

    The authors have investigated the early stages of indium island formation and growth by vapor phase deposition on room temperature sapphire using real-time grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS), followed by ex-situ atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results are consistent with the formation and coalescence of hemispherical islands, as described by Family and Meakin. Monte Carlo simulations of systems of coalescing islands were used to supplement and quantify the results of GISAXS, and a good agreement is seen between the data and the simulations.

  15. Real-time characterization of partially observed epidemics using surrogate models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safta, Cosmin; Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia; Crary, David; Sargsyan, Khachik; Cheng, Karen

    2011-09-01

    We present a statistical method, predicated on the use of surrogate models, for the 'real-time' characterization of partially observed epidemics. Observations consist of counts of symptomatic patients, diagnosed with the disease, that may be available in the early epoch of an ongoing outbreak. Characterization, in this context, refers to estimation of epidemiological parameters that can be used to provide short-term forecasts of the ongoing epidemic, as well as to provide gross information on the dynamics of the etiologic agent in the affected population e.g., the time-dependent infection rate. The characterization problem is formulated as a Bayesian inverse problem, and epidemiological parameters are estimated as distributions using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, thus quantifying the uncertainty in the estimates. In some cases, the inverse problem can be computationally expensive, primarily due to the epidemic simulator used inside the inversion algorithm. We present a method, based on replacing the epidemiological model with computationally inexpensive surrogates, that can reduce the computational time to minutes, without a significant loss of accuracy. The surrogates are created by projecting the output of an epidemiological model on a set of polynomial chaos bases; thereafter, computations involving the surrogate model reduce to evaluations of a polynomial. We find that the epidemic characterizations obtained with the surrogate models is very close to that obtained with the original model. We also find that the number of projections required to construct a surrogate model is O(10)-O(10{sup 2}) less than the number of samples required by the MCMC to construct a stationary posterior distribution; thus, depending upon the epidemiological models in question, it may be possible to omit the offline creation and caching of surrogate models, prior to their use in an inverse problem. The technique is demonstrated on synthetic data as well as observations from

  16. On Extended-Term Dynamic Simulations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extended-Term Dynamic Simulations with High Penetrations of Photovoltaic Generation Ricky Concepcion, Ryan Elliott Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185 {rconcep, rtellio}@sandia.gov Matt Donnelly Montana Tech Butte, MT 59701 mdonnelly@mtech.edu Juan Sanchez-Gasca GE Energy Schenectady, NY 12345 juan1.sanchez@ge.com Abstract-The uncontrolled intermittent availability of renew- able energy sources makes integration of such devices into today's grid a challenge. Thus, it is imperative

  17. Real-time human collaboration monitoring and intervention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merkle, Peter B.; Johnson, Curtis M.; Jones, Wendell B.; Yonas, Gerold; Doser, Adele B.; Warner, David J.

    2010-07-13

    A method of and apparatus for monitoring and intervening in, in real time, a collaboration between a plurality of subjects comprising measuring indicia of physiological and cognitive states of each of the plurality of subjects, communicating the indicia to a monitoring computer system, with the monitoring computer system, comparing the indicia with one or more models of previous collaborative performance of one or more of the plurality of subjects, and with the monitoring computer system, employing the results of the comparison to communicate commands or suggestions to one or more of the plurality of subjects.

  18. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  19. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1999-01-01

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  20. Continuous real-time measurement of aqueous cyanide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2007-03-06

    This invention provides a method and system capable of the continuous, real-time measurement of low concentrations of aqueous free cyanide (CN) using an on-line, flow through system. The system is based on the selective reactivity of cyanide anions and the characteristically nonreactive nature of metallic gold films, wherein this selective reactivity is exploited as an indirect measurement for aqueous cyanide. In the present invention the dissolution of gold, due to the solubilization reaction with the analyte cyanide anion, is monitored using a piezoelectric microbalance contained within a flow cell.

  1. Real-time nonlinear optimization as a generalized equation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavala, V. M.; Anitescu, M. (Mathematics and Computer Science)

    2010-11-11

    We establish results for the problem of tracking a time-dependent manifold arising in real-time optimization by casting this as a parametric generalized equation. We demonstrate that if points along a solution manifold are consistently strongly regular, it is possible to track the manifold approximately by solving a single linear complementarity problem (LCP) at each time step. We derive sufficient conditions guaranteeing that the tracking error remains bounded to second order with the size of the time step even if the LCP is solved only approximately. We use these results to derive a fast, augmented Lagrangian tracking algorithm and demonstrate the developments through a numerical case study.

  2. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  3. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  4. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  5. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  6. Real Time Technology Application Demonstration Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volpe, John; Hampson, Steve; Johnson, Robert L

    2008-09-01

    The work and results described in this final report pertain to the demonstration of real-time characterization technologies applied to potentially contaminated surface soils in and around Area of Concern (AOC) 492 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The work was conducted under the auspices of Kentucky Research Consortium for Energy and Environment (KRCEE). KRCEE was created to support the Department of Energy's (DOE) efforts to complete the expeditious and economically viable environmental restoration of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the Western Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA), and surrounding areas.

  7. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  8. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  9. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time Print The oxide gate layer is critical to every transistor, and present-day layer thicknesses are in the 10-20 Å range (1-2 nm). However, little information exists on the oxidation process at this thickness. Available results are either for thicker layers grown under high-pressure conditions or for only the first couple of monolayers studied under high-vacuum conditions. Now, for the first time, a group of researchers has obtained

  10. Integrated computer simulation on FIR FEL dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furukawa, H.; Kuruma, S.; Imasaki, K.

    1995-12-31

    An integrated computer simulation code has been developed to analyze the RF-Linac FEL dynamics. First, the simulation code on the electron beam acceleration and transport processes in RF-Linac: (LUNA) has been developed to analyze the characteristics of the electron beam in RF-Linac and to optimize the parameters of RF-Linac. Second, a space-time dependent 3D FEL simulation code (Shipout) has been developed. The RF-Linac FEL total simulations have been performed by using the electron beam data from LUNA in Shipout. The number of particles using in a RF-Linac FEL total simulation is approximately 1000. The CPU time for the simulation of 1 round trip is about 1.5 minutes. At ILT/ILE, Osaka, a 8.5MeV RF-Linac with a photo-cathode RF-gun is used for FEL oscillation experiments. By using 2 cm wiggler, the FEL oscillation in the wavelength approximately 46 {mu}m are investigated. By the simulations using LUNA with the parameters of an ILT/ILE experiment, the pulse shape and the energy spectra of the electron beam at the end of the linac are estimated. The pulse shape of the electron beam at the end of the linac has sharp rise-up and it slowly decays as a function of time. By the RF-linac FEL total simulations with the parameters of an ILT/ILE experiment, the dependencies of the start up of the FEL oscillations on the pulse shape of the electron beam at the end of the linac are estimated. The coherent spontaneous emission effects and the quick start up of FEL oscillations have been observed by the RF-Linac FEL total simulations.

  11. Sci—Thur PM: Planning and Delivery — 06: Real-Time Interactive Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Q; Mestrovic, A; Otto, K

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To describe and evaluate a novel system for generalized Real-Time Interactive Planning (RTIP) applied to head and neck (H and N) VMAT. Methods: The clinician interactively manipulates dose distributions using DVHs, isodoses, or rate of dose fall-off, which may be subjected to user-defined constraints. Dose is calculated using a fast Achievable Dose Estimate (ADE) algorithm, which simulates the limits of what can be achieved during treatment. After each manipulation contributing fluence elements are modified and the dose distribution updates in effectively real-time. For H and N VMAT planning, structure sets for 11 patients were imported into RTIP. Each dose distribution was interactively modified to minimize OAR dose while constraining target DVHs. The resulting RTIP DVHs were transferred to the Eclipse™ VMAT optimizer, and conventional VMAT optimization was performed. Results: Dose calculation and update times for the ADE algorithm ranged from 2.4 to 22.6 milliseconds, thus facilitating effectively real-time manipulation of dose distributions. For each of the 11 H and N VMAT cases, the RTIP process took ∼2–10 minutes. All RTIP plans exhibited acceptable PTV coverage, mean dose, and max dose. 10 of 11 RTIP plans achieved substantially improved sparing of one or more OARs without compromising dose to targets or other OARs. Importantly, 10 of the 11 RTIP plans required only one or two post-RTIP optimizations. Conclusions: RTIP is a novel system for manipulating and updating achievable dose distributions in real-time. H and N VMAT plans generated using RTIP demonstrate improved OAR sparing and planning efficiency. Disclosures: One author has a commercial interest in the presented materials.

  12. Monitoring external beam radiotherapy using real-time beam visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, Cesare H.; Naczynski, Dominik J.; Yu, Shu-Jung S.; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: To characterize the performance of a novel radiation therapy monitoring technique that utilizes a flexible scintillating film, common optical detectors, and image processing algorithms for real-time beam visualization (RT-BV). Methods: Scintillating films were formed by mixing Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb (GOS) with silicone and casting the mixture at room temperature. The films were placed in the path of therapeutic beams generated by medical linear accelerators (LINAC). The emitted light was subsequently captured using a CMOS digital camera. Image processing algorithms were used to extract the intensity, shape, and location of the radiation field at various beam energies, dose rates, and collimator locations. The measurement results were compared with known collimator settings to validate the performance of the imaging system. Results: The RT-BV system achieved a sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio to enable real-time monitoring of the LINAC beam at 20 fps with normal ambient lighting in the LINAC room. The RT-BV system successfully identified collimator movements with sub-millimeter resolution. Conclusions: The RT-BV system is capable of localizing radiation therapy beams with sub-millimeter precision and tracking beam movement at video-rate exposure.

  13. Quantitative real-time single particle analysis of virions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heider, Susanne; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-08-15

    Providing information about single virus particles has for a long time been mainly the domain of electron microscopy. More recently, technologies have been developed—or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology—to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. These technologies have progressed to the stage of commercialization increasing the speed of viral titer measurements from hours to minutes, thus providing a significant advantage for many aspects of virology research and biotechnology applications. Additional advantages lie in the broad spectrum of virus species that may be measured and the possibility to determine the ratio of infectious to total particles. A series of disadvantages remain associated with these technologies, such as a low specificity for viral particles. In this review we will discuss these technologies by comparing four systems for real-time single virus particle analysis and quantification. - Highlights: • We introduce four methods for virus particle-based quantification of viruses. • They allow for quantification of a wide range of samples in under an hour time. • The additional measurement of size and zeta potential is possible for some.

  14. REAL TIME ULTRASONIC ALUMINUM SPOT WELD MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regalado, W. Perez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2010-02-22

    Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

  15. Managing a Real-Time Embedded Linux Platform with Buildroot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, J.; Martin, K.

    2015-01-01

    Developers of real-time embedded software often need to build the operating system, kernel, tools and supporting applications from source to work with the differences in their hardware configuration. The first attempts to introduce Linux-based real-time embedded systems into the Fermilab accelerator controls system used this approach but it was found to be time-consuming, difficult to maintain and difficult to adapt to different hardware configurations. Buildroot is an open source build system with a menu-driven configuration tool (similar to the Linux kernel build system) that automates this process. A customized Buildroot [1] system has been developed for use in the Fermilab accelerator controls system that includes several hardware configuration profiles (including Intel, ARM and PowerPC) and packages for Fermilab support software. A bootable image file is produced containing the Linux kernel, shell and supporting software suite that varies from 3 to 20 megabytes large – ideal for network booting. The result is a platform that is easier to maintain and deploy in diverse hardware configurations

  16. Induced fission of Pu240 within a real-time microscopic framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth J.; Stetcu, Ionel

    2016-03-25

    Here, we describe the fissioning dynamics of 240Pu from a configuration in the proximity of the outer fission barrier to full scission and the formation of the fragments within an implementation of density functional theory extended to superfluid systems and real-time dynamics. The fission fragments emerge with properties similar to those determined experimentally, while the fission dynamics appears to be quite complex, with many excited shape and pairing modes. The evolution is found to be much slower than previously expected, and the ultimate role of the collective inertia is found to be negligible in this fully nonadiabatic treatment of nuclearmore » dynamics, where all collective degrees of freedom (CDOF) are included (unlike adiabatic treatments with a small number of CDOF).« less

  17. Computational simulation of dynamic impact problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muenz, T.W.; Rix, K.S.; Willam, K.J.

    1996-12-31

    Recent advances of computing methods make it possible to examine dynamic failure and complicated contact-impact load scenarios in time and space. The response simulation for these extreme load conditions needs to capture dynamic contact between the impactor and the deformable target and progressive failure in the target. Independently from the impact scenario, two basic approaches may be used to describe the failure process in an appropriate manner, namely the Discrete Failure Approach and the Smeared Failure Approach. In the contribution the dynamic impact of a pendulum test and the failure scenario in notched cylindrical specimens (Charpy-type IZOD test) are examined using the explicit dynamic finite element code DYNA3D. The study focuses on the question, whether the smeared crack approach is able to capture the dynamic failure process using von Mises plasticity with a plastic strain-based failure limiter. The computational results indicate that upon consistent mesh refinement the overall energy dissipation approaches the value observed in laboratory experiments.

  18. Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Protein Solutions: Structural and Dynamical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mereghetti, Paolo; Gabdoulline, Razif; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2010-12-01

    The study of solutions of biomacromolecules provides an important basis for understanding the behavior of many fundamental cellular processes, such as protein folding, self-assembly, biochemical reactions, and signal transduction. Here, we describe a Brownian dynamics simulation procedure and its validation for the study of the dynamic and structural properties of protein solutions. In the model used, the proteins are treated as atomically detailed rigid bodies moving in a continuum solvent. The protein-protein interaction forces are described by the sum of electrostatic interaction, electrostatic desolvation, nonpolar desolvation, and soft-core repulsion terms. The linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation is solved to compute electrostatic terms. Simulations of homogeneous solutions of three different proteins with varying concentrations, pH, and ionic strength were performed. The results were compared to experimental data and theoretical values in terms of long-time self-diffusion coefficients, second virial coefficients, and structure factors. The results agree with the experimental trends and, in many cases, experimental values are reproduced quantitatively. There are no parameters specific to certain protein types in the interaction model, and hence the model should be applicable to the simulation of the behavior of mixtures of macromolecules in cell-like crowded environments.

  19. Task 1. Monitoring real time materials degradation. NRC extended In-situ and real-time Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakhtiari, Sasan

    2012-03-01

    The overall objective of this project was to perform a scoping study to identify, in concert with the nuclear industry, those sensors and techniques that have the most promising commercial viability and fill a critical inspection or monitoring need. Candidates to be considered include sensors to monitor real-time material degradation, characterize residual stress, monitor and inspect component fabrication, assess radionuclide and associated chemical species concentrations in ground water and soil, characterize fuel properties, and monitor severe accident conditions. Under Task 1—Monitoring Real-Time Materials Degradation—scoping studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of potential inspection and monitoring technologies (i.e., a combination of sensors, advanced signal processing techniques, and data analysis methods) that could be utilized in LWR and/or advanced reactor applications for continuous monitoring of degradation in-situ. The goal was to identify those techniques that appear to be the most promising, i.e., those that are closest to being both technically and commercially viable and that the nuclear industry is most likely to pursue. Current limitations and associated issues that must be overcome before commercial application of certain techniques have also been addressed.

  20. Real-time Feynman path integral with Picard–Lefschetz theory and its applications to quantum tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanizaki, Yuya; Koike, Takayuki

    2014-12-15

    Picard–Lefschetz theory is applied to path integrals of quantum mechanics, in order to compute real-time dynamics directly. After discussing basic properties of real-time path integrals on Lefschetz thimbles, we demonstrate its computational method in a concrete way by solving three simple examples of quantum mechanics. It is applied to quantum mechanics of a double-well potential, and quantum tunneling is discussed. We identify all of the complex saddle points of the classical action, and their properties are discussed in detail. However a big theoretical difficulty turns out to appear in rewriting the original path integral into a sum of path integrals on Lefschetz thimbles. We discuss generality of that problem and mention its importance. Real-time tunneling processes are shown to be described by those complex saddle points, and thus semi-classical description of real-time quantum tunneling becomes possible on solid ground if we could solve that problem. - Highlights: • Real-time path integral is studied based on Picard–Lefschetz theory. • Lucid demonstration is given through simple examples of quantum mechanics. • This technique is applied to quantum mechanics of the double-well potential. • Difficulty for practical applications is revealed, and we discuss its generality. • Quantum tunneling is shown to be closely related to complex classical solutions.

  1. RTDB: A memory resident real-time object database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerzy M. Nogiec; Eugene Desavouret

    2003-06-04

    RTDB is a fast, memory-resident object database with built-in support for distribution. It constitutes an attractive alternative for architecting real-time solutions with multiple, possibly distributed, processes or agents sharing data. RTDB offers both direct and navigational access to stored objects, with local and remote random access by object identifiers, and immediate direct access via object indices. The database supports transparent access to objects stored in multiple collaborating dispersed databases and includes a built-in cache mechanism that allows for keeping local copies of remote objects, with specifiable invalidation deadlines. Additional features of RTDB include a trigger mechanism on objects that allows for issuing events or activating handlers when objects are accessed or modified and a very fast, attribute based search/query mechanism. The overall architecture and application of RTDB in a control and monitoring system is presented.

  2. Development of real time detector for fluorescent particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevost, C.; Vendel, J.; Seigneur, A.

    1997-08-01

    Aerosols tagged by a fluorescent dye are a worthwhile tool within the framework of ventilation and filtration studies. The detection in real time of a specific particulate tracer allows characterization of ventilation behaviour such as air change rate, the determination of a good or bad mixing zone and transfer coefficient, or the determination of the decontamination factor for High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters. Generally, these tests require specific aerosols in order to get rid of the atmospheric aerosol background. Until now the principle of fluorescent aerosol concentration measuring has only allowed an integral response with a time lag by means of sampling on filters and a fluorimetric analysis after specific conditioning of these filters. 5 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Smart preamplifier for real-time turbine meter diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breter, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new, dual-purpose device for turbine meters, which functions as a traditional signal preamplifier and accomplishes real-time performance diagnostics, is now available. This smart preamplifier (patent pending) utilizes high speed microprocessor technology to continuously monitor and analyze the rotation of a turbine meter rotor. Continuous monitoring allows the device to detect rotational anomalies that can lead to erroneous measurements as they occur. The smart preamplifier works on liquid or gas turbine meters that use a variable reluctance pickup coil for signal generation. This paper will discuss the technology and capabilities of the smart preamplifier. To simplify this discussion, it is assumed that the signal generated will be via a non-rimmed rotor. Thus, the term ``blade`` is used throughout. However, all discussions relevant to signal generation are also true for a rimmed rotor using either buttons or slots for signal generation.

  4. Real-time neural network earthquake profile predictor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leach, R.R.; Dowla, F.U.

    1996-02-06

    A neural network has been developed that uses first-arrival energy to predict the characteristics of impending earthquake seismograph signals. The propagation of ground motion energy through the earth is a highly nonlinear function. This is due to different forms of ground motion as well as to changes in the elastic properties of the media throughout the propagation path. The neural network is trained using seismogram data from earthquakes. Presented with a previously unseen earthquake, the neural network produces a profile of the complete earthquake signal using data from the first seconds of the signal. This offers a significant advance in the real-time monitoring, warning, and subsequent hazard minimization of catastrophic ground motion. 17 figs.

  5. Method and apparatus for real time weld monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leong, Keng H.; Hunter, Boyd V.

    1997-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for real time weld monitoring. An infrared signature emitted by a hot weld surface during welding is detected and this signature is compared with an infrared signature emitted by the weld surface during steady state conditions. The result is correlated with weld penetration. The signal processing is simpler than for either UV or acoustic techniques. Changes in the weld process, such as changes in the transmitted laser beam power, quality or positioning of the laser beam, change the resulting weld surface features and temperature of the weld surface, thereby resulting in a change in the direction and amount of infrared emissions. This change in emissions is monitored by an IR sensitive detecting apparatus that is sensitive to the appropriate wavelength region for the hot weld surface.

  6. Real time bunch length measurements in the SLC linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, J.C.; Clendenin, J.E.; James, M.B.; Miller, R.H.; Ross, M.C.

    1985-02-01

    The longitudinal charge distribution of bunches accelerated in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) linac will strongly affect the performance of the Collider. Bunch lengths are chosen in a balance between the deleterious effects of longitudinal and transverse wakefields. The former impacts on the beam energy spread whereas the latter is important to the transverse emittance. Two bunch length measurement ports have been installed in the SLC linac: one in the injector region and one after the emittance damping ring to linac reinjection point. These ports utilize a fused quartz Cerenkov radiator in conjunction with an electrooptic streak camera to permit real time monitoring of single s-band buckets with a resolution of several picoseconds. The design of the radiators and light collection optics is discussed with an emphasis on those issues important to high resolution. Experimental results are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Real-time neural network earthquake profile predictor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leach, Richard R.; Dowla, Farid U.

    1996-01-01

    A neural network has been developed that uses first-arrival energy to predict the characteristics of impending earthquake seismograph signals. The propagation of ground motion energy through the earth is a highly nonlinear function. This is due to different forms of ground motion as well as to changes in the elastic properties of the media throughout the propagation path. The neural network is trained using seismogram data from earthquakes. Presented with a previously unseen earthquake, the neural network produces a profile of the complete earthquake signal using data from the first seconds of the signal. This offers a significant advance in the real-time monitoring, warning, and subsequent hazard minimization of catastrophic ground motion.

  8. Development of Real-Time Coal Monitoring Instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan Gurjar, Ph.D.

    2010-06-17

    Relying on coal for energy requires optimizing the extraction of heat content from various blends of coal fuel and reducing harmful constituents and byproducts. Having a real-time measurement instrument provides relevant information about toxic constituents released in the atmosphere from burning coal and optimizes the performance of a power plant. A few commercial instruments exist and have been in operation for more than a decade. However, most of these instruments are based on radioactive sources and are bulky, expensive and time-consuming. The proposed instrument is based on the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The advantage of LIBS is that it is a standoff instrument, does not require sample preparation and provides precise information about sample constituents.

  9. Radiotherapy beyond cancer: Target localization in real-time MRI and treatment planning for cardiac radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ipsen, S.; Blanck, O.; Rades, D.; Oborn, B.; Bode, F.; Liney, G.; Hunold, P.; Schweikard, A.; Keall, P. J.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia that affects millions of patients world-wide. AFib is usually treated with minimally invasive, time consuming catheter ablation techniques. While recently noninvasive radiosurgery to the pulmonary vein antrum (PVA) in the left atrium has been proposed for AFib treatment, precise target location during treatment is challenging due to complex respiratory and cardiac motion. A MRI linear accelerator (MRI-Linac) could solve the problems of motion tracking and compensation using real-time image guidance. In this study, the authors quantified target motion ranges on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyzed the dosimetric benefits of margin reduction assuming real-time motion compensation was applied. Methods: For the imaging study, six human subjects underwent real-time cardiac MRI under free breathing. The target motion was analyzed retrospectively using a template matching algorithm. The planning study was conducted on a CT of an AFib patient with a centrally located esophagus undergoing catheter ablation, representing an ideal case for cardiac radiosurgery. The target definition was similar to the ablation lesions at the PVA created during catheter treatment. Safety margins of 0 mm (perfect tracking) to 8 mm (untracked respiratory motion) were added to the target, defining the planning target volume (PTV). For each margin, a 30 Gy single fraction IMRT plan was generated. Additionally, the influence of 1 and 3 T magnetic fields on the treatment beam delivery was simulated using Monte Carlo calculations to determine the dosimetric impact of MRI guidance for two different Linac positions. Results: Real-time cardiac MRI showed mean respiratory target motion of 10.2 mm (superior–inferior), 2.4 mm (anterior–posterior), and 2 mm (left–right). The planning study showed that increasing safety margins to encompass untracked respiratory motion leads to overlapping structures even in the

  10. Communication: Quantum molecular dynamics simulation of liquid para-hydrogen by nuclear and electron wave packet approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Ando, Koji

    2014-05-07

    Liquid para-hydrogen (p-H{sub 2}) is a typical quantum liquid which exhibits strong nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) and thus anomalous static and dynamic properties. We propose a real-time simulation method of wave packet (WP) molecular dynamics (MD) based on non-empirical intra- and inter-molecular interactions of non-spherical hydrogen molecules, and apply it to condensed-phase p-H{sub 2}. The NQEs, such as WP delocalization and zero-point energy, are taken into account without perturbative expansion of prepared model potential functions but with explicit interactions between nuclear and electron WPs. The developed MD simulation for 100 ps with 1200 hydrogen molecules is realized at feasible computational cost, by which basic experimental properties of p-H{sub 2} liquid such as radial distribution functions, self-diffusion coefficients, and shear viscosities are all well reproduced.

  11. On sequential dynamical systems and simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, C.L.; Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, C.M.

    1999-06-01

    The generic structure of computer simulations motivates a new class of discrete dynamical systems that captures this structure in a mathematically precise way. This class of systems consists of (1) a loopfree graph {Upsilon} with vertex set {l_brace}1,2,{hor_ellipsis},n{r_brace} where each vertex has a binary state, (2) a vertex labeled set of functions (F{sub i,{Upsilon}}:F{sub 2}{sup n} {r_arrow} F{sub 2}{sup n}){sub i} and (3) a permutation {pi} {element_of} S{sub n}. The function F{sub i,{Upsilon}} updates the state of vertex i as a function of the states of vertex i and its {Upsilon}-neighbors and leaves the states of all other vertices fixed. The permutation {pi} represents the update ordering, i.e., the order in which the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} are applied. By composing the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} in the order given by {pi} one obtains the dynamical system (equation given in paper) which the authors refer to as a sequential dynamical system, or SDS for short. The authors will present bounds for the number of functionally different systems and for the number of nonisomorphic digraphs {Gamma}[F{sub {Upsilon}},{pi}] that can be obtained by varying the update order and applications of these to specific graphs and graph classes. This will be done using both combinatorial/algebraic techniques and probabilistic techniques. Finally the authors give results on dynamical system properties for some special systems.

  12. National Instruments Offers Real-Time Course on April 12 | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Instruments Offers Real-Time Linux, LabVIEW Real-Time and LabView FPGA Course at JLab on April 12 For those already using LabView and wanting to learn about embedded ...

  13. Field Evaluation of Real-time Cloud OD Sensor TWST during the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Field Evaluation of Real-time Cloud OD Sensor ... performance of a real-time cloud optical depth (COD) sensor (dubbed three-waveband ...

  14. Joint Real-Time Energy and Demand-Response Management using a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Real-Time Energy and Demand-Response Management using a Hybrid Coalitional-Noncooperative Game Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Joint Real-Time Energy and ...

  15. Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D Polymer Printing Process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature ...

  16. In-situ, Real-Time Monitoring of Mechanical and Chemical Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: In-situ, Real-Time Monitoring of Mechanical and Chemical Structure Changes in ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In-situ, Real-Time Monitoring of Mechanical and ...

  17. Is there a source of help for setting up real time wind turbine...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Is there a source of help for setting up real time wind turbine data reporting ? Home I'd like our students to be able to see historical data as well as real time power generation...

  18. High-Energy, Pulsed-Laser Diagnostics for Real-Time Measurements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy, Pulsed-Laser Diagnostics for Real-Time Measurements of Reciprocating Engine PM Emissions High-Energy, Pulsed-Laser Diagnostics for Real-Time Measurements of Reciprocating ...

  19. Real-time and imaginary-time quantum hierarchal Fokker-Planck equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-04-14

    We consider a quantum mechanical system represented in phase space (referred to hereafter as “Wigner space”), coupled to a harmonic oscillator bath. We derive quantum hierarchal Fokker-Planck (QHFP) equations not only in real time but also in imaginary time, which represents an inverse temperature. This is an extension of a previous work, in which we studied a spin-boson system, to a Brownian system. It is shown that the QHFP in real time obtained from a correlated thermal equilibrium state of the total system possesses the same form as those obtained from a factorized initial state. A modified terminator for the hierarchal equations of motion is introduced to treat the non-Markovian case more efficiently. Using the imaginary-time QHFP, numerous thermodynamic quantities, including the free energy, entropy, internal energy, heat capacity, and susceptibility, can be evaluated for any potential. These equations allow us to treat non-Markovian, non-perturbative system-bath interactions at finite temperature. Through numerical integration of the real-time QHFP for a harmonic system, we obtain the equilibrium distributions, the auto-correlation function, and the first- and second-order response functions. These results are compared with analytically exact results for the same quantities. This provides a critical test of the formalism for a non-factorized thermal state and elucidates the roles of fluctuation, dissipation, non-Markovian effects, and system-bath coherence. Employing numerical solutions of the imaginary-time QHFP, we demonstrate the capability of this method to obtain thermodynamic quantities for any potential surface. It is shown that both types of QHFP equations can produce numerical results of any desired accuracy. The FORTRAN source codes that we developed, which allow for the treatment of Wigner space dynamics with any potential form (TanimuranFP15 and ImTanimuranFP15), are provided as the supplementary material.

  20. Real-time algorithm for robust coincidence search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrovic, T.; Vencelj, M.; Lipoglavsek, M.; Gajevic, J.; Pelicon, P.

    2012-10-20

    In in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy experiments, we often look for coincident detection events. Among every N events detected, coincidence search is naively of principal complexity O(N{sup 2}). When we limit the approximate width of the coincidence search window, the complexity can be reduced to O(N), permitting the implementation of the algorithm into real-time measurements, carried out indefinitely. We have built an algorithm to find simultaneous events between two detection channels. The algorithm was tested in an experiment where coincidences between X and {gamma} rays detected in two HPGe detectors were observed in the decay of {sup 61}Cu. Functioning of the algorithm was validated by comparing calculated experimental branching ratio for EC decay and theoretical calculation for 3 selected {gamma}-ray energies for {sup 61}Cu decay. Our research opened a question on the validity of the adopted value of total angular momentum of the 656 keV state (J{sup {pi}} = 1/2{sup -}) in {sup 61}Ni.

  1. Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-10-03

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

  2. Real time detection and correction of distribution feeder operational problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramanian, A.K.; Huang, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents a new technique that detects and corrects distribution operational problems using closed loop control of substation transformers, capacitors and reactors by an online computer. This allows the distribution system to be operated close to its capacity without sacrificing the quality of power supply. Such operations help defer the additional cost of installing new substations. The technique integrates the Distribution Feeder Analysis (DFA) and the Distribution Substation Control (DSC) functions to achieve this. The DFA function provides the topology and power flow results for the feeders using the substation real time measurements. It does not require feeder section measurements. The realtime feeder results are used in detecting any currently existing feeder operational problems such as feeder section voltages and currents outside their limits. The detected feeder problems are transformed into substation distribution bus objectives and then corrected by the DSC function using controls available at the substation. The DSC function has been performing successfully for several years at Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) in Washington, D.C. It uses a closed loop control scheme that controls the substation transformer taps and shunt capacitor and reactor breakers and optimizes the substation operation. By combining the DFA and DSC functions into a single function and with proper transformation of feeder problems into substation objectives, a new closed loop control scheme for the substation controls is achieved. This scheme corrects the detected feeder problems and optimizes the substation operation. This technique is implemented and tested using the actual substation and feeder models of PEPCO.

  3. Cybersecurity through Real-Time Distributed Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisner, Roger A; Manges, Wayne W; MacIntyre, Lawrence Paul; Nutaro, James J; Munro Jr, John K; Ewing, Paul D; Howlader, Mostofa; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Wallace, Richard M; Olama, Mohammed M

    2010-04-01

    Critical infrastructure sites and facilities are becoming increasingly dependent on interconnected physical and cyber-based real-time distributed control systems (RTDCSs). A mounting cybersecurity threat results from the nature of these ubiquitous and sometimes unrestrained communications interconnections. Much work is under way in numerous organizations to characterize the cyber threat, determine means to minimize risk, and develop mitigation strategies to address potential consequences. While it seems natural that a simple application of cyber-protection methods derived from corporate business information technology (IT) domain would lead to an acceptable solution, the reality is that the characteristics of RTDCSs make many of those methods inadequate and unsatisfactory or even harmful. A solution lies in developing a defense-in-depth approach that ranges from protection at communications interconnect levels ultimately to the control system s functional characteristics that are designed to maintain control in the face of malicious intrusion. This paper summarizes the nature of RTDCSs from a cybersecurity perspec tive and discusses issues, vulnerabilities, candidate mitigation approaches, and metrics.

  4. Real-time multi-mode neutron multiplicity counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S; Alvarez, Raymond A

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments are directed to a digital data acquisition method that collects data regarding nuclear fission at high rates and performs real-time preprocessing of large volumes of data into directly useable forms for use in a system that performs non-destructive assaying of nuclear material and assemblies for mass and multiplication of special nuclear material (SNM). Pulses from a multi-detector array are fed in parallel to individual inputs that are tied to individual bits in a digital word. Data is collected by loading a word at the individual bit level in parallel, to reduce the latency associated with current shift-register systems. The word is read at regular intervals, all bits simultaneously, with no manipulation. The word is passed to a number of storage locations for subsequent processing, thereby removing the front-end problem of pulse pileup. The word is used simultaneously in several internal processing schemes that assemble the data in a number of more directly useable forms. The detector includes a multi-mode counter that executes a number of different count algorithms in parallel to determine different attributes of the count data.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of microscale fluid transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, C.C.; Lopez, A.R.; Stevens, M.J.; Plimpton, S.J.

    1998-02-01

    Recent advances in micro-science and technology, like Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), have generated a group of unique liquid flow problems that involve characteristic length scales of a Micron. Also, in manufacturing processes such as coatings, current continuum models are unable to predict microscale physical phenomena that appear in these non-equilibrium systems. It is suspected that in these systems, molecular-level processes can control the interfacial energy and viscoelastic properties at the liquid/solid boundary. A massively parallel molecular dynamics (MD) code has been developed to better understand microscale transport mechanisms, fluid-structure interactions, and scale effects in micro-domains. Specifically, this MD code has been used to analyze liquid channel flow problems for a variety of channel widths, e.g. 0.005-0.05 microns. This report presents results from MD simulations of Poiseuille flow and Couette flow problems and addresses both scaling and modeling issues. For Poiseuille flow, the numerical predictions are compared with existing data to investigate the variation of the friction factor with channel width. For Couette flow, the numerical predictions are used to determine the degree of slip at the liquid/solid boundary. Finally, the results also indicate that shear direction with respect to the wall lattice orientation can be very important. Simulation results of microscale Couette flow and microscale Poiseuille flow for two different surface structures and two different shear directions will be presented.

  6. Real-Time Combined Heat and Power Operational Strategy Using a Hierarchical Optimization Algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    Existing attempts to optimize the operation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems for building applications have two major limitations: the electrical and thermal loads are obtained from historical weather profiles; and the CHP system models ignore transient responses by using constant equipment efficiencies. This paper considers the transient response of a building combined with a hierarchical CHP optimal control algorithm to obtain a real-time integrated system that uses the most recent weather and electric load information. This is accomplished by running concurrent simulations of two transient building models. The first transient building model uses current as well as forecast input information to obtain short term predictions of the thermal and electric building loads. The predictions are then used by an optimization algorithm, i.e., a hierarchical controller, that decides the amount of fuel and of electrical energy to be allocated at the current time step. In a simulation, the actual physical building is not available and, hence, to simulate a real-time environment, a second, building model with similar but not identical input loads are used to represent the actual building. A state-variable feedback loop is completed at the beginning of each time step by copying, i.e., measuring, the state variable from the actual building and restarting the predictive model using these ?measured? values as initial conditions. The simulation environment presented in this paper features nonlinear effects such as the dependence of the heat exchanger effectiveness on their operating conditions. The results indicate that the CHP engine operation dictated by the proposed hierarchical controller with uncertain weather conditions have the potential to yield significant savings when compared to conventional systems using current values of electricity and fuel prices.

  7. Predictive Dynamic Security Assessment through Advanced Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Diao, Ruisheng; Jin, Shuangshuang; Chen, Yousu

    2014-11-30

    Abstract— Traditional dynamic security assessment is limited by several factors and thus falls short in providing real-time information to be predictive for power system operation. These factors include the steady-state assumption of current operating points, static transfer limits, and low computational speed. This addresses these factors and frames predictive dynamic security assessment. The primary objective of predictive dynamic security assessment is to enhance the functionality and computational process of dynamic security assessment through the use of high-speed phasor measurements and the application of advanced computing technologies for faster-than-real-time simulation. This paper presents algorithms, computing platforms, and simulation frameworks that constitute the predictive dynamic security assessment capability. Examples of phasor application and fast computation for dynamic security assessment are included to demonstrate the feasibility and speed enhancement for real-time applications.

  8. Real-time Shape-based Particle Separation and Detailed In-situ Particle Shape Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beranek, Josef; Imre, D.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2012-02-07

    Particle shape is an important attribute that is very difficult to characterize. We present a new portable system that offers, for the first time, the opportunity to separate particles with different shapes and characterize their chemical and physical properties, including their dynamic shape factors (DSFs) in the transition and free-molecular regimes, with high precision, in-situ, and in real-time. The system uses a new generation aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM) to classify particles based on their masses and transport them to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) that is used to select particles of one charge, one mass, and one shape. These highly uniform particles are ready for use and/or characterization by any application or analytical tool. We combine APM and DMA with our single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II, to form the ADS, and demonstrate its utility to measure in real-time individual particle compositions and vacuum aerodynamic diameters to yield, for each selected shape, particle DSFs in two flow regimes. We apply the ADS to characterize aspherical ammonium sulfate and NaCl particles and show that both particle types have wide distribution of particle shapes with DSFs from nearly 1 to 1.5.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of Electrolytes and ElectrolyteElectrode Interfaces

  10. Sandia Energy - Simulations Reveal Ion Dynamics in Polymer Electrolyte

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and their effects on material properties is important for improved design. Recent molecular-dynamics simulations have revealed new details of ion motion in model ionomers....

  11. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Gas Selectivity in Amorphous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics Simulations of Gas Selectivity in Amorphous Porous Molecular Solids Previous Next List Shan Jiang, Kim E. Jelfs, Daniel Holden, Tom Hasell, Samantha Y. Chong, Maciej...

  12. Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment Citation Details ... Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? Save Share this ...

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es058smith2011o.pdf (854.25 KB) More Documents & Publications Molecular Dynamics Simulation ...

  14. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Enabling Extreme Real-Time...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    distribution planning and operation solutions to enable dynamic, automated, and cost-effective management of distributed and variable generation sources, like solar, onto the grid. ...

  15. Optimization Based Data Mining Approah for Forecasting Real-Time Energy Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping; Zhou, Shengchao

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide concern over environmental degradation, increasing pressure on electric utility companies to meet peak energy demand, and the requirement to avoid purchasing power from the real-time energy market are motivating the utility companies to explore new approaches for forecasting energy demand. Until now, most approaches for forecasting energy demand rely on monthly electrical consumption data. The emergence of smart meters data is changing the data space for electric utility companies, and creating opportunities for utility companies to collect and analyze energy consumption data at a much finer temporal resolution of at least 15-minutes interval. While the data granularity provided by smart meters is important, there are still other challenges in forecasting energy demand; these challenges include lack of information about appliances usage and occupants behavior. Consequently, in this paper, we develop an optimization based data mining approach for forecasting real-time energy demand using smart meters data. The objective of our approach is to develop a robust estimation of energy demand without access to these other building and behavior data. Specifically, the forecasting problem is formulated as a quadratic programming problem and solved using the so-called support vector machine (SVM) technique in an online setting. The parameters of the SVM technique are optimized using simulated annealing approach. The proposed approach is applied to hourly smart meters data for several residential customers over several days.

  16. Using architecture information and real-time resource state to reduce power consumption and communication costs in parallel applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, James M.; Devine, Karen D.; Gentile, Ann C.; Leung, Vitus J.; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Pedretti, Kevin; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Bunde, David P.; Deveci, Mehmet; Catalyurek, Umit V.

    2014-09-01

    As computer systems grow in both size and complexity, the need for applications and run-time systems to adjust to their dynamic environment also grows. The goal of the RAAMP LDRD was to combine static architecture information and real-time system state with algorithms to conserve power, reduce communication costs, and avoid network contention. We devel- oped new data collection and aggregation tools to extract static hardware information (e.g., node/core hierarchy, network routing) as well as real-time performance data (e.g., CPU uti- lization, power consumption, memory bandwidth saturation, percentage of used bandwidth, number of network stalls). We created application interfaces that allowed this data to be used easily by algorithms. Finally, we demonstrated the benefit of integrating system and application information for two use cases. The first used real-time power consumption and memory bandwidth saturation data to throttle concurrency to save power without increasing application execution time. The second used static or real-time network traffic information to reduce or avoid network congestion by remapping MPI tasks to allocated processors. Results from our work are summarized in this report; more details are available in our publications [2, 6, 14, 16, 22, 29, 38, 44, 51, 54].

  17. Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J.; Otter, Wouter K. den

    2014-08-14

    The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.

  18. Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Alan Gruenhagen

    2003-12-12

    The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca{sup 2+} imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K{sup +} and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol functionalized Cd

  19. Real-Time Active Cosmic Neutron Background Reduction Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Neutron counting using large arrays of pressurized 3He proportional counters from an aerial system or in a maritime environment suffers from the background counts from the primary cosmic neutrons and secondary neutrons caused by cosmic ray-induced mechanisms like spallation and charge-exchange reaction. This paper reports the work performed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Andrews (RSL-A) and results obtained when using two different methods to reduce the cosmic neutron background in real time. Both methods used shielding materials with a high concentration (up to 30% by weight) of neutron-absorbing materials, such as natural boron, to remove the low-energy neutron flux from the cosmic background as the first step of the background reduction process. Our first method was to design, prototype, and test an up-looking plastic scintillator (BC-400, manufactured by Saint Gobain Corporation) to tag the cosmic neutrons and then create a logic pulse of a fixed time duration (~120 μs) to block the data taken by the neutron counter (pressurized 3He tubes running in a proportional counter mode). The second method examined the time correlation between the arrival of two successive neutron signals to the counting array and calculated the excess of variance (Feynman variance Y2F)1 in the neutron count distribution from Poisson distribution. The dilution of this variance from cosmic background values ideally would signal the presence of man-made neutrons.2 The first method has been technically successful in tagging the neutrons in the cosmic-ray flux and preventing them from being counted in the 3He tube array by electronic veto—field measurement work shows the efficiency of the electronic veto counter to be about 87%. The second method has successfully derived an empirical relationship between the percentile non-cosmic component in a neutron flux and the Y2F of the measured neutron count distribution. By using shielding materials alone, approximately 55% of the neutron flux

  20. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan Michael

    2007-05-31

    This report describes the development and application of a dispatch optimization algorithm for integrated energy systems (IES) comprised of on-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, energy storage devices, and demand response opportunities. This work is intended to aid commercial and industrial sites in making use of modern computing power and optimization algorithms to make informed, near-optimal decisions under significant uncertainty and complex objective functions. The optimization algorithm uses a finite set of randomly generated future scenarios to approximate the true, stochastic future; constraints are included that prevent solutions to this approximate problem from deviating from solutions to the actual problem. The algorithm is then expressed as a mixed integer linear program, to which a powerful commercial solver is applied. A case study of United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Centers (P&DC) in four cities and under three different electricity tariff structures is conducted to (1) determine the added value of optimal control to a cogeneration system over current, heuristic control strategies; (2) determine the value of limited electric load curtailment opportunities, with and without cogeneration; and (3) determine the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon operations of a cogeneration system. Key results for the P&DC sites studied include (1) in locations where the average electricity and natural gas prices suggest a marginally profitable cogeneration system, optimal control can add up to 67% to the value of the cogeneration system; optimal control adds less value in locations where cogeneration is more clearly profitable; (2) optimal control under real-time pricing is (a) more complicated than under typical time-of-use tariffs and (b) at times necessary to make cogeneration economic at all; (3) limited electric load curtailment opportunities can be more valuable as a compliment to the cogeneration system than alone; and

  1. Quasi real time in vivo dosimetry for VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fidanzio, A.; Azario, L.; U.O.C di Fisica Sanitaria, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome 00168; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare , Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome 00146 ; Porcelli, A.; Greco, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare , Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome 00146 ; Cilla, S.; Grusio, M.; Balducci, M.; Valentini, V.; Piermattei, A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Results about the feasibility of a method for quasi real timein vivo dosimetry (IVD) at the isocenter point for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) are here reported. The method is based on correlations between the EPID signal and the dose on the beam central axis. Moreover, the γ-analysis of EPID images was adopted to verify off-axis reproducibility of fractionated plan delivery. Methods: An algorithm to reconstructin vivo the isocenter dose, D{sub iso}, for RapidArc treatments has been developed. 20 VMAT plans, optimized with two opposite arcs, for prostate, pancreas, and head treatments have been delivered by a Varian linac both to a conic PMMA phantom with elliptical section and to patients. The ratios R between reconstructed D{sub iso} and the planned doses were determined for phantom and patient irradiations adopting an acceptance criterion of ±5%. In total, 40 phantom checks and 400 patient checks were analyzed. Moreover, 3% and 3 mm criteria were adopted for portal image γ-analysis to assess patient irradiation reproducibility. Results: The average ratio R, between reconstructed and planned doses for the PMMA phantom irradiations was equal to 1.007 ± 0.024. When the IVD method was applied to the 20 patients, the average R ratio was equal to 1.003 ± 0.017 and 96% of the tests were within the acceptance criteria. The portal image γ-analysis supplied 88% of the tests within the pass rates γ{sub mean} ≤ 0.4 and P{sub γ<1} ≥ 98%. All the warnings were understood comparing the CT and the cone beam CT images and in one case a patient's setup error was detected and corrected for the successive fractions. Conclusions: This preliminary experience suggests that the method is able to detect dosimetric errors in quasi real time at the end of the therapy session. The authors intend to extend this procedure to other pathologies with the integration of in-room imaging verification by cone beam CT.

  2. Real Time Quantitative Radiological Monitoring Equipment for Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Giles; Lyle G. Roybal; Michael V. Carpenter

    2006-03-01

    and measures. These analyses are combined to provide real-time areal activity and coverage maps that are displayed to the operator as the survey progresses. The flexible functionality of the INL systems are well suited to multiple roles supporting homeland security needs.

  3. Expansion techniques for collisionless stellar dynamical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiron, Yohai; Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Spurzem, Rainer

    2014-09-10

    We present graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of two fast force calculation methods based on series expansions of the Poisson equation. One method is the self-consistent field (SCF) method, which is a Fourier-like expansion of the density field in some basis set; the other method is the multipole expansion (MEX) method, which is a Taylor-like expansion of the Green's function. MEX, which has been advocated in the past, has not gained as much popularity as SCF. Both are particle-field methods and optimized for collisionless galactic dynamics, but while SCF is a 'pure' expansion, MEX is an expansion in just the angular part; thus, MEX is capable of capturing radial structure easily, while SCF needs a large number of radial terms. We show that despite the expansion bias, these methods are more accurate than direct techniques for the same number of particles. The performance of our GPU code, which we call ETICS, is profiled and compared to a CPU implementation. On the tested GPU hardware, a full force calculation for one million particles took ∼0.1 s (depending on expansion cutoff), making simulations with as many as 10{sup 8} particles fast for a comparatively small number of nodes.

  4. Kinetic simulations of plasmoid chain dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markidis, S. [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Henri, P. [Universit de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cte d'Azur, Nice (France)] [Universit de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cte d'Azur, Nice (France); Lapenta, G. [Centrum voor Plasma-Astrofysica, Department Wiskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)] [Centrum voor Plasma-Astrofysica, Department Wiskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Divin, A. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)] [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden); Goldman, M.; Newman, D. [Department of Physics and CIPS, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309-0390 (United States)] [Department of Physics and CIPS, University of Colorado, Boulder 80309-0390 (United States); Laure, E. [PDC and High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [PDC and High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    The dynamics of a plasmoid chain is studied with three dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations. The evolution of the system with and without a uniform guide field, whose strength is 1/3 the asymptotic magnetic field, is investigated. The plasmoid chain forms by spontaneous magnetic reconnection: the tearing instability rapidly disrupts the initial current sheet generating several small-scale plasmoids that rapidly grow in size coalescing and kinking. The plasmoid kink is mainly driven by the coalescence process. It is found that the presence of guide field strongly influences the evolution of the plasmoid chain. Without a guide field, a main reconnection site dominates and smaller reconnection regions are included in larger ones, leading to an hierarchical structure of the plasmoid-dominated current sheet. On the contrary in presence of a guide field, plasmoids have approximately the same size and the hierarchical structure does not emerge, a strong core magnetic field develops in the center of the plasmoid in the direction of the existing guide field, and bump-on-tail instability, leading to the formation of electron holes, is detected in proximity of the plasmoids.

  5. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Versteeg, Roelof J.; Few, Douglas A.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Johnson, Douglas; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-12-15

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  6. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Versteeg, Roelof J; Few, Douglas A; Kinoshita, Robert A; Johnson, Doug; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-02-24

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  7. Dynamic Simulation over Long Time Periods with 100% Solar Generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Concepcion, Ricky James; Elliott, Ryan Thomas

    2015-12-01

    This project aimed to identify the path forward for dynamic simulation tools to accommodate these needs by characterizing the properties of power systems (with high PV penetration), analyzing how these properties affect dynamic simulation software, and offering solutions for potential problems.

  8. SPARTA Stochastic Particle Real Time Analyzer Validation and Verification Test Suite.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Koehler, Timothy; Plimpton, Steven J.

    2014-10-01

    This report presents the test cases used to verify, validate and demonstrate the features and capabilities of the first release of the 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo ( DSMC ) code SPARTA (Stochastic Real Time Particle Analyzer). The test cases included in this report exercise the most critical capabilities of the code like the accurate representation of physical phenomena (molecular advection and collisions, energy conservation , etc.) and implementation of numerical methods (grid adaptation, load balancing, etc.) . Several test cases of simple flow examples are shown to demonstrate that the code can reproduce phenomena predicted by an alytical solutions and theory. A number of add itional test cases are presented to illustrate the ability of SPARTA to model flow around complicated shapes. In these cases, the results are compared to other well - est ablished codes or theoretical predictions. This compi lation of test cases is not exha u s t ive , and it is anticipated that more cases will be added in the future.

  9. Real-time graphic display utility for nuclear safety applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, S.; Huang, X.; Taylor, J.; Stevens, J.; Gerardis, T.; Hsu, A.; McCreary, T.

    2006-07-01

    With the increasing interests in the nuclear energy, new nuclear power plants will be constructed and licensed, and older generation ones will be upgraded for assuring continuing operation. The tendency of adopting the latest proven technology and the fact of older parts becoming obsolete have made the upgrades imperative. One of the areas for upgrades is the older CRT display being replaced by the latest graphics displays running under modern real time operating system (RTOS) with safety graded modern computer. HFC has developed a graphic display utility (GDU) under the QNX RTOS. A standard off-the-shelf software with a long history of performance in industrial applications, QNX RTOS used for safety applications has been examined via a commercial dedication process that is consistent with the regulatory guidelines. Through a commercial survey, a design life cycle and an operating history evaluation, and necessary tests dictated by the dedication plan, it is reasonably confirmed that the QNX RTOS was essentially equivalent to what would be expected in the nuclear industry. The developed GDU operates and communicates with the existing equipment through a dedicated serial channel of a flat panel controller (FPC) module. The FPC module drives a flat panel display (FPD) monitor. A touch screen mounted on the FPD serves as the normal operator interface with the FPC/FPD monitor system. The GDU can be used not only for replacing older CRTs but also in new applications. The replacement of the older CRT does not disturb the function of the existing equipment. It not only provides modern proven technology upgrade but also improves human ergonomics. The FPC, which can be used as a standalone controller running with the GDU, is an integrated hardware and software module. It operates as a single board computer within a control system, and applies primarily to the graphics display, targeting, keyboard and mouse. During normal system operation, the GDU has two sources of data

  10. MO-G-BRE-01: A Real-Time Virtual Delivery System for Photon Radiotherapy Delivery Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, F; Gu, X; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Graves, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Treatment delivery monitoring is important for radiotherapy, which enables catching dosimetric error at the earliest possible opportunity. This project develops a virtual delivery system to monitor the dose delivery process of photon radiotherapy in real-time using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC) method. Methods: The simulation process consists of 3 parallel CPU threads. A thread T1 is responsible for communication with a linac, which acquires a set of linac status parameters, e.g. gantry angles, MLC configurations, and beam MUs every 20 ms. Since linac vendors currently do not offer interface to acquire data in real time, we mimic this process by fetching information from a linac dynalog file at the set frequency. Instantaneous beam fluence map (FM) is calculated. A FM buffer is also created in T1 and the instantaneous FM is accumulated to it. This process continues, until a ready signal is received from thread T2 on which an inhouse developed MC dose engine executes on GPU. At that moment, the accumulated FM is transferred to T2 for dose calculations, and the FM buffer in T1 is cleared. Once the calculation finishes, the resulting 3D dose distribution is directed to thread T3, which displays it in three orthogonal planes overlaid on the CT image for treatment monitoring. This process continues to monitor the 3D dose distribution in real-time. Results: An IMRT and a VMAT cases used in our patient-specific QA are studied. Maximum dose differences between our system and treatment planning system are 0.98% and 1.58% for the two cases, respectively. The average time per MC calculation is 0.1sec with <2% relative uncertainty. The update frequency of ∼10Hz is considered as real time. Conclusion: By embedding a GPU-based MC code in a novel data/work flow, it is possible to achieve real-time MC dose calculations to monitor delivery process.