National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for readily observable factors

  1. Advances Towards Readily Deployable Antineutrino Detectors for Reactor Monitoring and Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowden, N S; Bernstein, A; Dazeley, S; Lund, J; Reyna, D; Sadler, L; Svoboda, R

    2008-06-05

    Nuclear reactors have served as the neutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Our LLNL/SNL collaboration has demonstrated that such antineutrino based monitoring is feasible using a relatively small cubic meter scale detector at tens of meters standoff from a commercial PWR. With little or no burden on the plant operator we have been able to remotely and automatically monitor the reactor operational status (on/off), power level, and fuel burnup. Recently, we have investigated several technology paths that could allow such devices to be more readily deployed in the field. In particular, we have developed and fielded two new detectors; a low cost, non- flammable water based design; and a robust solid-state design based upon plastic scintillator. Here we will describe the tradeoffs inherent in these designs, and present results from their field deployments.

  2. Estimates for Lorentz factors of gamma-ray bursts from early optical afterglow observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hascoët, Romain; Beloborodov, Andrei M. [Physics Department and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Daigne, Frédéric; Mochkovitch, Robert, E-mail: hascoet@astro.columbia.edu [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 Université Pierre et Marie Curie-CNRS, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-02-10

    The peak time of optical afterglow may be used as a proxy to constrain the Lorentz factor ? of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) ejecta. We revisit this method by including bursts with optical observations that started when the afterglow flux was already decaying; these bursts can provide useful lower limits on ?. Combining all analyzed bursts in our sample, we find that the previously reported correlation between ? and the burst luminosity L {sub ?} does not hold. However, the data clearly show a lower bound ?{sub min} that increases with L {sub ?}. We suggest an explanation for this feature: explosions with large jet luminosities and ? < ?{sub min} suffer strong adiabatic cooling before their radiation is released at the photosphere; they produce weak bursts, barely detectable with present instruments. To test this explanation, we examine the effect of adiabatic cooling on the GRB location in the L {sub ?} – ? plane using a Monte Carlo simulation of the GRB population. Our results predict detectable on-axis 'orphan' afterglows. We also derive upper limits on the density of the ambient medium that decelerates the explosion ejecta. We find that the density in many cases is smaller than expected for stellar winds from normal Wolf-Rayet progenitors. The burst progenitors may be peculiar massive stars with weaker winds, or there might exist a mechanism that reduces the stellar wind a few years before the explosion.

  3. Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  4. Readily Regenerable Microstructure Representations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Padma

    space exploration Users (clients) connect to initiate materials design via web-portal Web services #12;User View Users (clients) connect to initiate materials design via web-portal Web-Stability Map Generator Simulation Handler Analyzer Interaction Handler Intermediate Maps Dark region is subject

  5. Observation of the Fundamental Nyquist Noise Limit in an Ultra-High $Q$-Factor Cryogenic Bulk Acoustic Wave Cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Goryachev; Eugene N. Ivanov; Frank van Kann; Serge Galliou; Michael E. Tobar

    2014-10-16

    Thermal Nyquist noise fluctuations of high-$Q$ Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) cavities have been observed at cryogenic temperatures with a DC Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) amplifier. High $Q$ modes with bandwidths of few tens of milliHz produce thermal fluctuations with a Signal-To-Noise ratio of up to 23dB. The estimated effective temperature from the Nyquist noise is in good agreement with the physical temperature of the device, confirming the validity of the equivalent circuit model and the non-existence of any excess resonator self-noise. The measurements also confirm that the quality factor remains extremely high ($Q>10^8$ at low order overtones) for very weak (thermal) system motion at low temperatures, when compared to values measured with relatively strong external excitation. This result represents an enabling step towards operating such a high-Q acoustic device at the standard quantum limit.

  6. Observation of the fundamental Nyquist noise limit in an ultra-high Q-factor cryogenic bulk acoustic wave cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goryachev, Maxim Ivanov, Eugene N.; Tobar, Michael E.; Kann, Frank van; Galliou, Serge

    2014-10-13

    Thermal Nyquist noise fluctuations of high-Q bulk acoustic wave cavities have been observed at cryogenic temperatures with a DC superconducting quantum interference device amplifier. High Q modes with bandwidths of few tens of milliHz produce thermal fluctuations with a signal-to-noise ratio of up to 23?dB. The estimated effective temperature from the Nyquist noise is in good agreement with the physical temperature of the device, confirming the validity of the equivalent circuit model and the non-existence of any excess resonator self-noise. The measurements also confirm that the quality factor remains extremely high (Q?>?10{sup 8} at low order overtones) for very weak (thermal) system motion at low temperatures, when compared to values measured with relatively strong external excitation. This result represents an enabling step towards operating such a high-Q acoustic device at the standard quantum limit.

  7. Measuring Ambient Densities and Lorentz Factors of Gamma-Ray Bursts from GeV and Optical Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hascoët, Romain; Beloborodov, Andrei M

    2015-01-01

    Fermi satellite discovered that cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are accompanied by long GeV flashes. In two GRBs, an optical counterpart of the GeV flash has been detected. Recent work suggests that the GeV+optical flash is emitted by the external blast wave from the explosion in a medium loaded with copious $e^\\pm$ pairs. The full light curve of the flash is predicted by a first-principle radiative transfer simulation and can be tested against observations. Here we examine a sample of 7 bursts with best GeV+optical data and test the model. We find that the observed light curves are in agreement with the theoretical predictions and allow us to measure three parameters for each burst: the Lorentz factor of the explosion, its isotropic kinetic energy, and the external density. With one possible exception of GRB 090510 (which is the only short burst in the sample) the ambient medium is consistent with a wind from a Wolf-Rayet progenitor. The wind density parameter $A=\\rho r^2$ varies in the sample around $1...

  8. Readily Deinkable Toner - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElementsOxide FuelRead Your

  9. Dynamic valuation model For wind development in regard to land value, proximity to transmission lines, and capacity factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikandrou, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Developing a wind farm involves many variables that can make or break the success of a potential wind farm project. Some variables such as wind data (capacity factor, wind rose, wind speed, etc.) are readily available in ...

  10. Partial Observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Marlow

    2006-10-20

    We attempt to dissolve the measurement problem using an anthropic principle which allows us to invoke rational observers. We argue that the key feature of such observers is that they are rational (we need not care whether they are `classical' or `macroscopic' for example) and thus, since quantum theory can be expressed as a rational theory of probabilistic inference, the measurement problem is not a problem.

  11. Identification of Observables for Quark and Gluon Orbital Angular Momentum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtoy, Aurore; Hernandez, J Osvaldo Gonzalez; Liuti, Simonetta; Rajan, Abha

    2014-01-01

    A new debate has recently arisen on the subject of orbital angular momentum in QCD, in particular on its observability and on its partonic interpretation. Orbital momentum can be defined in QCD using two different decomposition schemes that yield a kinetic and a canonical definition, respectively. We argue that kinetic orbital angular momentum is intrinsically associated with twist three generalized parton distributions, and it is therefore more readily observable, while, due to parity constraints, canonical angular momentum, if defined as suggested in the literature in terms of generalized transverse momentum distributions, cannot be observed in scattering processes involving a single hadronic reaction plane.

  12. Identification of Observables for Quark and Gluon Orbital Angular Momentum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aurore Courtoy; Gary R. Goldstein; J. Osvaldo Gonzalez Hernandez; Simonetta Liuti; Abha Rajan

    2014-12-01

    A new debate has recently arisen on the subject of orbital angular momentum in QCD, in particular on its observability and on its partonic interpretation. Orbital momentum can be defined in QCD using two different decomposition schemes that yield a kinetic and a canonical definition, respectively. We argue that kinetic orbital angular momentum is intrinsically associated with twist three generalized parton distributions, and it is therefore more readily observable, while, due to parity constraints, canonical angular momentum, if defined as suggested in the literature in terms of generalized transverse momentum distributions, cannot be observed in scattering processes involving a single hadronic reaction plane.

  13. Readily Available Data Help to Overcome Geothermal Deployment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    used to create basin-wide 3D temperature models in Petrel Exploration and Production software | photo courtesy of Schlumberger National Geothermal Data System Deployed to...

  14. Readily Available Data Help to Overcome Geothermal Deployment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    nation, these data nodes contribute a continuous stream of fresh data pertaining to geology, faults and seismicity, heat flow, geochemistry, temperature, and drilling. New...

  15. Readily Available Data Help to Overcome Geothermal Deployment Barriers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |ProjectKnow Your PowerWeatherize »Rain

  16. Multilevel Factor Analysis of Class and Student Achievement Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bengt O. Muthén

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Factor Analysis of Class and Student AchievementMultilevel Factor Analysis of Class and Student Achievementof students observed within classes, classes within schools,

  17. Observable primordial vector modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antony Lewis

    2004-06-04

    Primordial vector modes describe vortical fluid perturbations in the early universe. A regular solution exists with constant non-zero radiation vorticities on super-horizon scales. Baryons are tightly coupled to the photons, and the baryon velocity only decays by an order unity factor by recombination, leading to an observable CMB anisotropy signature via the Doppler effect. There is also a large B-mode CMB polarization signal, with significant power on scales larger than l~2000. This B-mode signature is distinct from that expected from tensor modes or gravitational lensing, and makes a primordial vector to scalar mode power ratio ~10^(-6) detectable. Future observations aimed at detecting large scale B-modes from gravitational waves will also be sensitive to regular vector modes at around this level.

  18. VARIATIONS OF SOLAR RADIUS: OBSERVATIONS WITH RHESSI M. D. Fivian, H. S. Hudson, and R. P. Lin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    - ing relative to Sun center. Using these data we find that we can readily measure the solar oblateness we briefly describe SAS (for full details, see 1The Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar SpectroscopicVARIATIONS OF SOLAR RADIUS: OBSERVATIONS WITH RHESSI M. D. Fivian, H. S. Hudson, and R. P. Lin

  19. Human Factors @ UB Fall 2010 Human Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    . Outsourcing aviation maintenance: Hu- man factors implications, specifically for communications. C. Drury, K. Guy, C. Wenner. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 2010, 20, 124 ­ 143. #12;2 Human Factors

  20. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Transcription Factor Encyclopedia. Genome Biology 2012 13:Factor Encyclopedia. Gen- ome Biology 2012, 13:000. where ‘Biology 2012, 13:R24 http://genomebiology.com/2012/13/3/R24 SOFTWARE Open Access The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

  1. Fermi Solar Flare Observations We propose to continue and expand our work over the last three years to make Fermi solar flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    1 Fermi Solar Flare Observations 1. Summary We propose to continue and expand our work over the last three years to make Fermi solar flare data readily available for analysis by the international solar physics community. The two-year time frame of the proposed effort is extremely important for solar

  2. Geo-neutrino Observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.; McDonough, W. F.

    2009-12-17

    Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

  3. Hot Pot Field Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.

  4. Hot Pot Field Observations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Map of field observations including depressions, springs, evidence of former springs, travertine terraces and vegetation patterns. Map also contains interpretation of possible spring alignments.

  5. Atomic Collapse Observed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists Observe Atomic Collapse State Quantum Mechanics Prediction Confirmed in Graphene Using NERSC's Hopper April 26, 2013 | Tags: Hopper, Materials Science Contact: Linda...

  6. Physical observability of horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matt Visser

    2014-11-25

    Event horizons are (generically) not physically observable. In contrast, apparent horizons (and the closely related trapping horizons) are generically physically observable --- in the sense that they can be detected by observers working in finite-size regions of spacetime. Consequently event horizons are inappropriate tools for defining astrophysical black holes, or indeed for defining any notion of evolving}black hole, (evolving either due to accretion or Hawking radiation). The only situation in which an event horizon becomes physically observable is for the very highly idealized stationary or static black holes, when the event horizon is a Killing horizon which is degenerate with the apparent and trapping horizons; and then it is the physical observability of the apparent/trapping horizons that is fundamental --- the event horizon merely comes along for the ride.

  7. Physical observability of horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Event horizons are (generically) not physically observable. In contrast, apparent horizons (and the closely related trapping horizons) are generically physically observable --- in the sense that they can be detected by observers working in finite-size regions of spacetime. Consequently event horizons are inappropriate tools for defining astrophysical black holes, or indeed for defining any notion of evolving}black hole, (evolving either due to accretion or Hawking radiation). The only situation in which an event horizon becomes physically observable is for the very highly idealized stationary or static black holes, when the event horizon is a Killing horizon which is degenerate with the apparent and trapping horizons; and then it is the physical observability of the apparent/trapping horizons that is fundamental --- the event horizon merely comes along for the ride.

  8. Observables on Quantum Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anatolij Dvure?enskij; Mária Kuková

    2012-04-29

    An observable on a quantum structure is any $\\sigma$-homomorphism of quantum structures from the Borel $\\sigma$-algebra into the quantum structure. We show that our partial information on an observable known only for all intervals of the form $(-\\infty,t)$ is sufficient to determine uniquely the whole observable defined on quantum structures like $\\sigma$-MV-algebras, $\\sigma$-effect algebras, Boolean $\\sigma$-algebras, monotone $\\sigma$-complete effect algebras with the Riesz Decomposition Property, the effect algebra of effect operators of a Hilbert space, and a system of functions, and an effect-tribe.

  9. MARS OBSERVER Mission Failure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    of Mars Observer Mission Failure.. ................... D-12 a. Most Probable Cause: Leakage of NT0 Through Check Valves .................................................................. D-14 b. Potential Cause: Pressure Regulator Failure....................... D-28 c. Potential Cause: Failure of a Pyro Valve Charge

  10. Direct Observation of Hyperfine Quenching of the (2)3p0 Level in Helium-Like Nickel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunford, R. W.; Liu, C. J.; Last, J.; Berrahmansour, N.; Vondrasek, R.; Church, David A.; Curtis, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    VOLUME 44, NUMBER 1 I JULY 1991 Direct observation of hyperfine quenching of the 2 I'o level in heliumlike nickel R. W. Dunford, C. J. Liu, J. Last, N. Berrah-Mansour, and R. Vondrasek Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois... between Ni and 'Ni is readily observed in our experiment. The highly ionized nickel beams were obtained from the Argonne Tandem Linac (ATLAS). The ion source was charged with enriched isotopes of 'Ni (42 at. %%uo )an d Ni (58 at. %). First the Linac...

  11. Air Observe System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-10

    This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

  12. Quantum Mechanics Without Observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. H. Sulis

    2013-03-03

    The measurement problem and the role of observers have plagued quantum mechanics since its conception. Attempts to resolve these have introduced anthropomorphic or non-realist notions into physics. A shift of perspective based upon process theory and utilizing methods from combinatorial games, interpolation theory and complex systems theory results in a novel realist version of quantum mechanics incorporating quasi-local, nondeterministic hidden variables that are compatible with the no-hidden variable theorems and relativistic invariance, and reproduce the standard results of quantum mechanics to a high degree of accuracy without invoking observers.

  13. The MX Factor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MX Factor Test films played a strategic-planning role in the debates of the late 1970s and early 1980s about where and how to deploy the MX intercontinental ballistic missile...

  14. Power Factor Improvement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viljoen, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    and disadvantages of various locations in the electrical network are described including the cost of installation and network capacity improvement. Sizing of capacitors is also covered. Finally, some case studies involving power factor improvement are presented...

  15. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Before PF 100142 0.70 or 70% After PF 100105 0.95 or 95% PB References: B.C. Hydro. Power Factor. The GEM Series. October 1989. Commonwealth Sprague Capacitor, Inc....

  16. Electromagetic proton form factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Y Hussein

    2006-10-31

    The electromagnetic form factors are crucial to our understanding of the proton internal structure, and thus provide a strong constraint of the distributions of the charge and magnetization current within the proton. We adopted the quark-parton model for calculating and understanding the charge structure of the proton interms of the electromagnetic form factors. A remarkable agreement with the available experimental evidence is found.

  17. Optimizing Power Factor Correction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, R. K.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    FACTOR CORRECTION Robert K. Phillips and Louis C. Burmeister, Mechanical Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS The optimal investment for power factor correcting capacitors for Kansas Power and Light Company large power contract customers... consumer of electricity were made for demands of 200, 400, 800, 1,600, 3,200, and 6,400 k\\~ and monthly energy consumption periods of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 500 hours for several capacitor purchase and installation costs. The results...

  18. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  19. Global Warming Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

  20. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crossfield, Ian J M

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics & circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly-imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  1. Observations on European Agriculture. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1911-01-01

    AS ACKICUL-I-uRAL EXPE RIMENT STATIONS bLLETIN No. 14-1 DECEMBER, 1911 Division of Chemistry Observations on European Agriculture BY G. S. FRAPS, Chemist 0 Postoffice : CULLEGE STATION; TEXAS AUSTIN. TEXAS I AUSTIN PRINTING CO:. PRINTERS... ............................................... and Conclusions 35 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] rrvations on European Agriculture By C. S. FRAPS ie object of this Bulletin is to present such abservadons on :ulture in Europe as may offer suggestions of value to Texas - :ulturists. The writer...

  2. Observed Cosmological Redshifts Support Contracting Accelerating Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branislav Vlahovic

    2012-07-02

    The main argument that Universe is currently expanding is observed redshift increase by distance. However, this conclusion may not be correct, because cosmological redshift depends only on the scaling factors, the change in the size of the universe during the time of light propagation and is not related to the speed of observer or speed of the object emitting the light. An observer in expanding universe will measure the same redshift as observer in contracting universe with the same scaling. This was not taken into account in analysing the SN Ia data related to the universe acceleration. Possibility that universe may contract, but that the observed light is cosmologically redshifted allows for completely different set of cosmological parameters $\\Omega_M, \\Omega_{\\Lambda}$, including the solution $\\Omega_M=1, \\Omega_{\\Lambda}=0$. The contracting and in the same time accelerating universe explains observed deceleration and acceleration in SN Ia data, but also gives significantly larger value for the age of the universe, $t_0 = 24$ Gyr. This allows to reconsider classical cosmological models with $\\Lambda =0$. The contracting stage also may explain the observed association of high redshifted quasars to low redshifted galaxies.

  3. Multi-factor authentication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  4. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  5. Fluctuations of fragment observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gulminelli; M. D'Agostino

    2006-11-09

    This contribution presents a review of our present theoretical as well as experimental knowledge of different fluctuation observables relevant to nuclear multifragmentation. The possible connection between the presence of a fluctuation peak and the occurrence of a phase transition or a critical phenomenon is critically analyzed. Many different phenomena can lead both to the creation and to the suppression of a fluctuation peak. In particular, the role of constraints due to conservation laws and to data sorting is shown to be essential. From the experimental point of view, a comparison of the available fragmentation data reveals that there is a good agreement between different data sets of basic fluctuation observables, if the fragmenting source is of comparable size. This compatibility suggests that the fragmentation process is largely independent of the reaction mechanism (central versus peripheral collisions, symmetric versus asymmetric systems, light ions versus heavy ion induced reactions). Configurational energy fluctuations, that may give important information on the heat capacity of the fragmenting system at the freeze out stage, are not fully compatible among different data sets and require further analysis to properly account for Coulomb effects and secondary decays. Some basic theoretical questions, concerning the interplay between the dynamics of the collision and the fragmentation process, and the cluster definition in dense and hot media, are still open and are addressed at the end of the paper. A comparison with realistic models and/or a quantitative analysis of the fluctuation properties will be needed to clarify in the next future the nature of the transition observed from compound nucleus evaporation to multi-fragment production.

  6. ARM Observations Projected

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation Data Management Facility PlotsProductsObservations Projected

  7. Fast Factoring of Integers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon Chalmers

    2005-09-20

    An algorithm is given to factor an integer with $N$ digits in $\\ln^m N$ steps, with $m$ approximately 4 or 5. Textbook quadratic sieve methods are exponentially slower. An improvement with the aid of an a particular function would provide a further exponential speedup.

  8. Matrix Factorization and Matrix Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackey, Lester

    2012-01-01

    PCA 3 Mixed Membership Matrix Factorization 3.15.2 Matrix concentration3.3 Mixed Membership Matrix Factorization . . . 3.4

  9. Observations of Accreting Pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars Bildsten; Deepto Chakrabarty; John Chiu; Mark H. Finger; Danny T. Koh; Robert W. Nelson; Thomas A. Prince; Bradley C. Rubin; D. Matthew Scott; Mark Stollberg; Brian A. Vaughan; Colleen A. Wilson; Robert B. Wilson

    1997-07-22

    We summarize five years of continuous monitoring of accretion-powered pulsars with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Our 20-70 keV observations have determined or refined the orbital parameters of 13 binaries, discovered 5 new transient accreting pulsars, measured the pulsed flux history during outbursts of 12 transients (GRO J1744-28, 4U 0115+634, GRO J1750-27, GS 0834-430, 2S 1417-624, GRO J1948+32, EXO 2030+375, GRO J1008-57, A 0535+26, GRO J2058+42, 4U 1145-619 and A 1118-616), and also measured the accretion torque history of during outbursts of 6 of those transients whose orbital parameters were also known. We have also continuously measured the pulsed flux and spin frequency for eight persistently accreting pulsars (Her X-1, Cen X-3, Vela X-1, OAO 1657-415, GX 301-2, 4U 1626-67, 4U 1538-52, and GX 1+4). Because of their continuity and uniformity over a long baseline, BATSE observations have provided new insights into the long-term behavior of accreting magnetic stars. We have found that all accreting pulsars show stochastic variations in their spin frequencies and luminosities, including those displaying secular spin-up or spin-down on long time scales, blurring the conventional distinction between disk-fed and wind-fed binaries. Pulsed flux and accretion torque are strongly correlated in outbursts of transient accreting pulsars, but uncorrelated, or even anticorrelated, in persistent sources.

  10. Deuteron Form Factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, G.R.; Huleihel, K.; Zhang, H. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855 (United States))

    1995-01-30

    We obtain the perturbative QCD (PQCD) prediction for the leading twist deuteron form factor, treated as a pair of nucleons in nonrelativistic bound state. It is [lt]10[sup [minus]3] times experiment at [ital Q][sup 2]=4 GeV[sup 2], suggesting that PQCD is not relevant to the deuteron form factor at present values of [ital Q][sup 2], or that non-nucleon (e.g., hidden color'') degrees of freedom must be included for a correct description of the deuteron. The tree-level amplitude [similar to][ital eg][sup 10] and is the sum of several 10[sup 6] Feynman diagrams, making it an interesting case study in the behavior of perturbation theory.

  11. Journal Information Journal Impact Factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krejcí, Pavel

    Journal Information Journal Impact Factor 5-Year Journal Impact Factor Journal Self Cites Journal Immediacy Index Journal Cited Half-Life 2014 JCR Science Edition Journal: CZECHOSLOVAK MATHEMATICAL JOURNAL Mark Journal Title ISSN Total Cites Impact Factor 5-Year Impact Factor Immediacy Index Citable Items

  12. Journal Information Journal Impact Factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krejcí, Pavel

    Journal Information Journal Impact Factor 5-Year Journal Impact Factor Journal Self Cites Journal Immediacy Index Journal Cited Half-Life 2012 JCR Science Edition Journal: CZECHOSLOVAK MATHEMATICAL JOURNAL Mark Journal Title ISSN Total Cites Impact Factor 5-Year Impact Factor Immediacy Index Citable Items

  13. A Generalized Adjoint Approach for Quantifying Reflector Assembly Discontinuity Factor Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yankov, Artem [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; Collins, Benjamin [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL] [ORNL; Downar, Thomas [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity-based uncertainty analysis of assembly discontinuity factors (ADFs) can be readily performed using adjoint methods for infinite lattice models. However, there is currently no adjoint-based methodology to obtain uncertainties for ADFs along an interface between a fuel and reflector region. To accommodate leakage effects in a reflector region, a 1D approximation is usually made in order to obtain the homogeneous interface flux required to calculate the ADF. Within this 1D framework an adjoint-based method is proposed that is capable of efficiently calculating ADF uncertainties. In the proposed method the sandwich rule is utilized to relate the covariance of the input parameters of 1D diffusion theory in the reflector region to the covariance of the interface ADFs. The input parameters covariance matrix can be readily obtained using sampling-based codes such as XSUSA or adjoint-based codes such as TSUNAMI. The sensitivity matrix is constructed using a fixed-source adjoint approach for inputs characterizing the reflector region. An analytic approach is then used to determine the sensitivity of the ADFs to fuel parameters using the neutron balance equation. A stochastic approach is used to validate the proposed adjoint-based method.

  14. Apps for Vehicles: What sort of vehicle data isn't readily available...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    than the CAN messages used by all other in-vehicle systems. When you turn on your car, the CAN bus is very busy with so-called "normal" messages. For example, the engine...

  15. Apps for Vehicles: What sort of vehicle data isn't readily available from

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC Jump to: navigation,Summaries | OpenLibrary Jumpavailable on it?

  16. Fermi Observations of Gamma-ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohno, Masanori [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    The gamma-ray emission mechanism of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are still unknown. Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope successfully detected high-energy (> 100 MeV) emission from 17 GRBs since its launch. Fermi revealed the distinct temporal behaviors and extra spectral component from high-energy emission. These new observational results are driving many theoretical implications, such as leptonic, hadronic and afterglow origin. The highest energy photon detected by Fermi gives a constraint on the bulk Lorentz factor of the ultra-relativistic jets of GRBs. The impact of the Fermi GRB observations extends not only to the GRB-related issues but also to the outside GRB physics, such as quantum gravity and model of the extra galactic background light.

  17. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  18. Tiled QR factorization algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouwmeester, Henricus; Langou, Julien; Robert, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work revisits existing algorithms for the QR factorization of rectangular matrices composed of p-by-q tiles, where p >= q. Within this framework, we study the critical paths and performance of algorithms such as Sameh and Kuck, Modi and Clarke, Greedy, and those found within PLASMA. Although neither Modi and Clarke nor Greedy is optimal, both are shown to be asymptotically optimal for all matrices of size p = q^2 f(q), where f is any function such that \\lim_{+\\infty} f= 0. This novel and important complexity result applies to all matrices where p and q are proportional, p = \\lambda q, with \\lambda >= 1, thereby encompassing many important situations in practice (least squares). We provide an extensive set of experiments that show the superiority of the new algorithms for tall matrices.

  19. Physically Observable Cryptography Silvio Micali

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyzin, Leonid

    Physically Observable Cryptography Silvio Micali Leonid Reyzin November 29, 2003 Abstract.) inherent in the physical execution of any cryptographic algorithm. Such "physical observation attacks mathematically impregnable systems. The great practicality and the inherent availability of physical attacks

  20. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, T.; Heffington, W. M.

    2009-01-01

    factors and operating hours of small and medium-sized industrial plants are analyzed to classify shift-work patterns and develop energy conservation diagnostic tools. This paper discusses two types of electric load factors for each shift... The purpose of this paper is to analyze operating hours of small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in the United States and develop ranges of load factors for use as diagnostic tools for effective energy management. Load factor is defined...

  1. State observer for synchronous motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lang, Jeffrey H. (Waltham, MA)

    1994-03-22

    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  2. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  3. Observation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingLightweight MaterialsGas and OilPublictearing

  4. Observation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingLightweight MaterialsGas and

  5. Observation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLEDSpeeding accessSpeeding access

  6. NS&T MANAGEMENT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianotto, David

    2014-06-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  7. NS&T Management Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianotto, David

    2014-09-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  8. Accelerated Expansion: Theory and Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Polarski

    2001-09-20

    The present paradigm in cosmology is the usual Big-Bang Cosmology in which two stages of accelerated expansion are incorporated: the inflationary phase in the very early universe which produces the classical inhomogeneities observed in the universe, and a second stage of acceleration at the present time as the latest Supernovae observations seem to imply. Both stages could be produced by a scalar field and observations will strongly constrain the microscopic lagrangian of any proposed model.

  9. The Dirac Form Factor Predicts the Pauli Form Factor in the Endpoint Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumeet Dagaonkar; Pankaj Jain; John P. Ralston

    2015-03-24

    We compute the momentum-transfer dependence of the proton Pauli form factor $F_{2}$ in the endpoint overlap model. We find the model correctly reproduces the scaling of the ratio of $F_{2}$ with the Dirac Form factor $F_{1}$ observed at the Jefferson Laboratory. The calculation uses the leading-power, leading twist Dirac structure of the quark light-cone wave function, and the same endpoint dependence previously determined from the Dirac form factor $F_{1}$. There are no parameters and no adjustable functions in the endpoint model's prediction for $F_{2}$. The model's predicted ratio $F_{2}(Q^{2})/F_{1}(Q^{2})$ is quite insensitive to the endpoint wave function, which explains why the observed ratio scales like $1/Q$ down to rather low momentum transfers. The endpoint model appears to be the only comprehensive model consistent with all form factor information as well as reproducing fixed-angle proton-proton scattering at large momentum transfer. Any one of the processes is capable of predicting the others.

  10. TMD theory, factorization and evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Collins

    2013-07-10

    The concepts and methods of factorization using transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) parton densities and/or fragmentation functions are summarized.

  11. Filling factors and Braid group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington Cruz

    1998-02-25

    We extract the Braid group structure of a recently derived hierarchy scheme for the filling factors proposed by us which related the Hausdorff dimension, $h$, to statistics, $\

  12. Loop quantum gravity and observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Barrau; J. Grain

    2015-10-28

    Quantum gravity has long been thought to be completely decoupled from experiments or observations. Although it is true that smoking guns are still missing, there are now serious hopes that quantum gravity phenomena might be tested. We review here some possible ways to observe loop quantum gravity effects either in the framework of cosmology or in astroparticle physics.

  13. Observational Study PAUL R. ROSENBAUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    . Howell John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, 2005 #12;Observational Study Observational Studies Defined describing the subjects before treatment. As a consequence, random assignment tends to make the groups comparable both in terms of measured char- acteristics and characteristics that were not or could

  14. WHAT DO FIELD OBSERVATIONS TELL US ABOUT AVALANCHE DANGER? Shane Haladuick*, Michael Schirmer, and Bruce Jamieson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamieson, Bruce

    observations (instability, snowpack, and weather factors), which do not require digging a snow profile on weather, ava- lanche and snowpack observations, as well as observations from snow profiles and snowpack tests that require digging a pit. They also rely on their previous experience travelling in similar con

  15. The structure of the nucleon: Elastic electromagnetic form factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Punjabi, V.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Jones, M. K.; Brash, E. J.; Carlson, C. E.

    2015-07-10

    Precise proton and neutron form factor measurements at Jefferson Lab, using spin observables, have recently made a significant contribution to the unraveling of the internal structure of the nucleon. Accurate experimental measurements of the nucleon form factors are a test-bed for understanding how the nucleon's static properties and dynamical behavior emerge from QCD, the theory of the strong interactions between quarks. There has been enormous theoretical progress, since the publication of the Jefferson Lab proton form factor ratio data, aiming at reevaluating the picture of the nucleon. We will review the experimental and theoretical developments in this field and discussmore »the outlook for the future.« less

  16. Observational Approach to Chromium Site Remediation - 13266

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Myers, R.

    2013-07-01

    Production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, required massive quantities of water for reactor cooling and material processing. To reduce corrosion and the build-up of scale in pipelines and cooling systems, sodium dichromate was added to the water feedstock. Spills and other releases at the makeup facilities, as well as leaks from miles of pipelines, have led to numerous areas with chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater, threatening fish populations in the nearby Columbia River. Pump-and-treat systems have been installed to remove chromium from the groundwater, but significant contamination remain in the soil column and poses a continuing threat to groundwater and the Columbia River. Washington Closure Hanford, DOE, and regulators are working on a team approach that implements the observational approach, a strategy for effectively dealing with the uncertainties inherent in subsurface conditions. Remediation of large, complex waste sites at a federal facility is a daunting effort. It is particularly difficult to perform the work in an environment of rapid response to changing field and contamination conditions. The observational approach, developed by geotechnical engineers to accommodate the inherent uncertainties in subsurface conditions, is a powerful and appropriate method for site remediation. It offers a structured means of quickly moving into full remediation and responding to the variations and changing conditions inherent in waste site cleanups. A number of significant factors, however, complicate the application of the observational approach for chromium site remediation. Conceptual models of contamination and site conditions are difficult to establish and get consensus on. Mid-stream revisions to the design of large excavations are time-consuming and costly. And regulatory constraints and contract performance incentives can be impediments to the flexible responses required under the observational approach. The WCH project team is working closely with stakeholders and taking a number of steps to meet these challenges in a continuing effort to remediate chromium contaminated soil in an efficient and cost-effective manner. (authors)

  17. Journal Information Journal Impact Factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krejcí, Pavel

    Journal Information Journal Impact Factor 5-Year Journal Impact Factor Journal Self Cites Journal Immediacy Index 2014 JCR Science Edition Journal: Applications of Mathematics Mark Journal Title ISSN Total- life APPL MATH-CZECH 0862-7940 241 0.400 0.430 0.024 42 8.9 >10.0 Cited Journal Citing Journal Source

  18. Journal Information Journal Impact Factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krejcí, Pavel

    Journal Information Journal Impact Factor 5-Year Journal Impact Factor Journal Self Cites Journal Immediacy Index 2012 JCR Science Edition Journal: Applications of Mathematics Mark Journal Title ISSN Total- life APPL MATH-CZECH 0862-7940 240 0.222 0.549 0.054 37 7.3 >10.0 Cited Journal Citing Journal Source

  19. Objectivity of Quantum Measurement in Many-Observer World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng-Wen Li; C. Y. Cai; X. F. Liu; C. P. Sun

    2015-08-06

    The objectivity of quantum measurement is treated as an emergent phenomenon with $N$ observers who can agree to the same result of measurement, and meanwhile, they can identify their records with each other. In this many-observer world (MOW), an objective quantum measurement is dealt with as a multipartite [$(N+1)$-body] quantum correlation among the measured system and $N$ observers when its bipartite reductions are the same classical correlations. With this conceptual clarification, we find that, an objective quantum measurement is implemented if and only if the MOW is initially factorized in a pure state and then the total system can evolve into a generalized GHZ state with respect to the orthogonal basis preferred by each observer. Especially, such objective quantum measurement is recast in ideal classical correlation when the observer world is macroscopic for $N\\rightarrow\\infty$.

  20. Observation of Fair-weather Cumuli over Land Dynamical Factors Controlling Cloud Size and Cover

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingLightweight MaterialsGas andof Fair-weather

  1. Passive States for Essential Observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Strich

    2008-01-23

    The aim of this note is to present a unified approach to the results given in \\cite{bb99} and \\cite{bs04} which also covers examples of models not presented in these two papers (e.g. $d$-dimensional Minkowski space-time for $d\\geq 3$). Assuming that a state is passive for an observer travelling along certain (essential) worldlines, we show that this state is invariant under the isometry group, is a KMS-state for the observer at a temperature uniquely determined by the structure constants of the Lie algebra involved and fulfills (a variant of) the Reeh-Schlieder property. Also the modular objects associated to such a state and the observable algebra of an observer are computed and a version of weak locality is examined.

  2. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertolini, Daniele

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but ...

  3. Baryon Resonances Observed at BES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. S. Zou

    2008-02-01

    The $\\psi$ decays provide a novel way to explore baryon spectroscopy and baryon structure. The baryon resonances observed from $\\psi$ decays at BES are reviewed. The implications and prospects at upgraded BESIII/BEPCII are discussed.

  4. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  5. Applying Human Factors during the SIS Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, K.

    2010-05-05

    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are widely used in U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nonreactor nuclear facilities for safety-critical applications. Although use of the SIS technology and computer-based digital controls, can improve performance and safety, it potentially introduces additional complexities, such as failure modes that are not readily detectable. Either automated actions or manual (operator) actions may be required to complete the safety instrumented function to place the process in a safe state or mitigate a hazard in response to an alarm or indication. DOE will issue a new standard, Application of Safety Instrumented Systems Used at DOE Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, to provide guidance for the design, procurement, installation, testing, maintenance, operation, and quality assurance of SIS used in safety significant functions at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. The DOE standard focuses on utilizing the process industry consensus standard, American National Standards Institute/ International Society of Automation (ANSI/ISA) 84.00.01, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector, to support reliable SIS design throughout the DOE complex. SIS design must take into account human-machine interfaces and their limitations and follow good human factors engineering (HFE) practices. HFE encompasses many diverse areas (e.g., information display, user-system interaction, alarm management, operator response, control room design, and system maintainability), which affect all aspects of system development and modification. This paper presents how the HFE processes and principles apply throughout the SIS life cycle to support the design and use of SIS at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities.

  6. Mechanism Based Anticancer Drugs that Degrade Sp Transcription Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chadalapaka, Gayathri

    2013-03-14

    4 transcription factors. Similar results were observed for a structurally-related triterpenoid, methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me), which is currently in clinical trials for treatment of leukemia. Celastrol, a naturally...

  7. Is G a conversion factor or a fundamental unit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorentini, G; Vysotsky, M I

    2001-01-01

    By using fundamental units c, h, G as conversion factors one can easily transform the dimensions of all observables. In particular one can make them all ``geometrical'', or dimensionless. However this has no impact on the fact that there are three fundamental units, G being one of them. Only experiment can tell us whether G is basically fundamental.

  8. Is G a conversion factor or a fundamental unit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fiorentini; L. Okun; M. Vysotsky

    2001-12-04

    By using fundamental units c, h, G as conversion factors one can easily transform the dimensions of all observables. In particular one can make them all ``geometrical'', or dimensionless. However this has no impact on the fact that there are three fundamental units, G being one of them. Only experiment can tell us whether G is basically fundamental.

  9. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector...

  10. Efficient Networks for Quantum Factoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Beckman; Amalavoyal N. Chari; Srikrishna Devabhaktuni; John Preskill

    1996-02-21

    We consider how to optimize memory use and computation time in operating a quantum computer. In particular, we estimate the number of memory qubits and the number of operations required to perform factorization, using the algorithm suggested by Shor. A $K$-bit number can be factored in time of order $K^3$ using a machine capable of storing $5K+1$ qubits. Evaluation of the modular exponential function (the bottleneck of Shor's algorithm) could be achieved with about $72 K^3$ elementary quantum gates; implementation using a linear ion trap would require about $396 K^3$ laser pulses. A proof-of-principle demonstration of quantum factoring (factorization of 15) could be performed with only 6 trapped ions and 38 laser pulses. Though the ion trap may never be a useful computer, it will be a powerful device for exploring experimentally the properties of entangled quantum states.

  11. Human Factors of Reporting Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, C.W.

    Johnson,C.W. P. Carayon (ed.), A Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare and Patient Safety, Lawrence Erlbaum, London, UK. pp 715-750 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

  12. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SS 433 JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Herman L.; Canizares, Claude R.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Nowak, Michael [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hillwig, Todd [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Mioduszewski, Amy; Rupen, Michael [NRAO, P.O. Box 2, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Heinz, Sebastian, E-mail: hermanm@space.mit.edu, E-mail: crc@space.mit.edu, E-mail: nss@space.mit.edu, E-mail: mnowak@space.mit.edu, E-mail: todd.hillwig@valpo.edu, E-mail: amiodusz@nrao.edu, E-mail: mrupen@aoc.nrao.edu, E-mail: heinzs@astro.wisc.edu [Astronomy Department, 5408 Sterling Hall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present observations of the SS 433 jets using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer with contemporaneous optical and Very Long Baseline Array observations. The X-ray and optical emission line regions are found to be related but not coincident as the optical line emission persists for days while the X-ray emission lines fade in less than 5000 s. The line Doppler shifts from the optical and X-ray lines match well, indicating that they are less than 3 × 10{sup 14} cm apart. The jet Doppler shifts show aperiodic variations that could result from shocks in interactions with the local environment. These perturbations are consistent with a change in jet direction but not jet speed. The proper motions of the radio knots match the kinematic model only if the distance to SS 433 is 4.5 ± 0.2 kpc. Observations during eclipse show that the occulted emission is very hard, seen only above 2 keV and rising to comprise >50% of the flux at 8 keV. The soft X-ray emission lines from the jet are not blocked, constraining the jet length to ?> 2 × 10{sup 12} cm. The base jet density is in the range 10{sup 10-13} cm{sup –3}, in contrast to our previous estimate based on the Si XIII triplet, which is likely to have been affected by UV de-excitation. There is a clear overabundance of Ni by a factor of about 15 relative to the solar value, which may have resulted from an unusual supernova that formed the compact object.

  13. Separability and ground state factorization in quantum spin systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the existence and the properties of fully separable (fully factorized) ground states in quantum spin systems. Exploiting techniques of quantum information and entanglement theory we extend a recently introduced method and construct a general, self-contained theory of ground state factorization in frustration-free quantum spin models defined on lattices in any spatial dimension and for interactions of arbitrary range. We show that, quite generally, non exactly solvable models in external field admit exact, fully factorized ground state solutions. Unentangled ground states occur at finite values of the Hamiltonian parameters satisfying well defined balancing conditions between external fields and interaction strengths. These conditions are analytically determined together with the type of magnetic orderings compatible with factorization and the corresponding values of the fundamental observables such as energy and magnetization. The method is applied to a series of examples of increasing complexi...

  14. Observations & Thoughts on Controller Assessment &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Thomas J.

    & Assessment Design & interpretation of monitoring & assessment methods cannot be divorced from processObservations & Thoughts on Controller Assessment & Performance Monitoring T.J. Harris Queen's University harrist@post.queensu.ca Control Systems 2004 #12;Acknowledge Contributions of NSERC Imperial Oil

  15. Observing the next galactic supernova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Scott M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Beacom, John F.; Stanek, K. Z. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Vagins, Mark R. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    No supernova (SN) in the Milky Way has been observed since the invention of the optical telescope, instruments for other wavelengths, neutrino detectors, or gravitational wave observatories. It would be a tragedy to miss the opportunity to fully characterize the next one. To aid preparations for its observations, we model the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions of a successful Galactic core-collapse supernova (ccSN), its shock breakout radiation, and its massive star progenitor. We find, at very high probability (? 100%), that the next Galactic SN will easily be detectable in the near-IR and that near-IR photometry of the progenitor star very likely (? 92%) already exists in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Most ccSNe (98%) will be easily observed in the optical, but a significant fraction (43%) will lack observations of the progenitor due to a combination of survey sensitivity and confusion. If neutrino detection experiments can quickly disseminate a likely position (?3°), we show that a modestly priced IR camera system can probably detect the shock breakout radiation pulse even in daytime (64% for the cheapest design). Neutrino experiments should seriously consider adding such systems, both for their scientific return and as an added and internal layer of protection against false triggers. We find that shock breakouts from failed ccSNe of red supergiants may be more observable than those of successful SNe due to their lower radiation temperatures. We review the process by which neutrinos from a Galactic ccSN would be detected and announced. We provide new information on the EGADS system and its potential for providing instant neutrino alerts. We also discuss the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions for the next Galactic Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). Based on our modeled observability, we find a Galactic ccSN rate of 3.2{sub ?2.6}{sup +7.3} per century and a Galactic SN Ia rate of 1.4{sub ?0.8}{sup +1.4} per century for a total Galactic SN rate of 4.6{sub ?2.7}{sup +7.4} per century is needed to account for the SNe observed over the last millennium, which implies a Galactic star formation rate of 3.6{sub ?3.0}{sup +8.3} M {sub ?} yr{sup –1}.

  16. A general moment NRIXS approach to the determination of equilibrium Fe isotopic fractionation factors: application to goethite and jarosite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dauphas, N; Alp, E E; Golden, D C; Sio, C K; Tissot, F L H; Hu, M; Zhao, J; Gao, L; Morris, R V

    2012-01-01

    We measured the reduced partition function ratios for iron isotopes in goethite FeO(OH), potassium-jarosite KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6, and hydronium-jarosite (H3O)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6, by Nuclear Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering (NRIXS, also known as Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy -NRVS- or Nuclear Inelastic Scattering -NIS) at the Advanced Photon Source. These measurements were made on synthetic minerals enriched in 57Fe. A new method (i.e., the general moment approach) is presented to calculate {\\beta}-factors from the moments of the NRIXS spectrum S(E). The first term in the moment expansion controls iron isotopic fractionation at high temperature and corresponds to the mean force constant of the iron bonds, a quantity that is readily measured and often reported in NRIXS studies.

  17. CX Lyrae 2008 Observing Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Ponthiere, Pierre; Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The Blazhko effect in CX Lyr has been reported for the first time by Le Borgne et al. (2007). The authors have pointed out that the Blazhko period was not evaluated accurately due to dataset scarcity. The possible period values announced were 128 or 227 days. A newly conducted four-month observing campaign in 2008 (fifty-nine observation nights) has provided fourteen times of maximum. From a period analysis of measured times of maximum, a Blazhko period of 62 +/- 2 days can be suggested. However, the present dataset is still not densely sampled enough to exclude that the measured period is still a modulation of the real Blazhko period. Indeed the shape of the (O-C) curve does not repeat itself exactly during the campaign duration.

  18. RHESSI observation of flare elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

    2006-02-14

    RHESSI observations of elementary flare bursts are presented. These solar flare elements are distinct emission peaks of a duration of some tens of seconds present in the hard X-ray light curves. They are characterized by consistent soft-hard-soft spectral behavior, which can be described in a quantitative way and compared which predictions from acceleration models. A detailed analysis of hard X-ray images for an M5 class flare shows that elementary flare bursts do not occur at distinct locations, but as twin X-ray sources move smoothly along an arcade of magnetic loops. This observation apparently contradicts the predictions of standard translation invariant 2.5-dimensional reconnection models.

  19. Complete measurements of quantum observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juha-Pekka Pellonpää

    2012-06-12

    We define a complete measurement of a quantum observable (POVM) as a measurement of the maximally refined version of the POVM. Complete measurements give information from the multiplicities of the measurement outcomes and can be viewed as state preparation procedures. We show that any POVM can be measured completely by using sequential measurements or maximally refinable instruments. Moreover, the ancillary space of a complete measurement can be chosen to be minimal.

  20. The fourth family: a simple explanation for the observed pattern of anomalies in B-CP asymmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amarjit Soni; Ashutosh Kumar Alok; Anjan Giri; Rukmani Mohanta; Soumitra Nandi

    2009-12-20

    We show that a fourth family of quarks with $m_{t'}$ in the range of (400 - 600) GeV provides a rather simple explanation for the several indications of new physics that have been observed involving CP asymmetries of the b-quark. The built-in hierarchy of the 4$\\times$4 mixing matrix is such that the $t'$ readily provides a needed {\\it perturbation} ($\\approx 15%$) to $\\sin 2 \\beta$ as measured in $B \\to \\psi K_s$ and simultaneously is the dominant source of CP asymmetry in $B_s \\to \\psi \\phi$. The correlation between CP asymmetries in $B_s \\to\\psi \\phi$ and $B_d\\to\\phi K_s$ suggests $m_{t'} \\approx$ (400 - 600) GeV. Such heavy masses point to the tantalizing possibility that the 4th family plays an important role in the electroweak symmetry breaking.

  1. Human factors in software development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an overview of ergonomics/human factors in software development, recent research, and classic papers. Articles are drawn from the following areas of psychological research on programming: cognitive ergonomics, cognitive psychology, and psycholinguistics. Topics examined include: theoretical models of how programmers solve technical problems, the characteristics of programming languages, specification formats in behavioral research and psychological aspects of fault diagnosis.

  2. Nonnegative matrix factorization with -divergence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cichocki, Andrzej

    Nonnegative matrix factorization with -divergence Andrzej Cichocki a , Hyekyoung Lee b , Yong of Science and Technology San 31 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784, Korea Abstract Nonnegative matrix reduction, the goal of which is to decompose nonnegative data matrix X into a product of basis matrix

  3. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of supply, upon written request as follows: Address: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission OfficeTransfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees Office of Nuclear Regulatory; licensee event reports; and Commission papers and their attachments. NRC publications in the NUREG series

  4. Observation of an Interedge Magnetoplasmon Mode in a Degenerate Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hohls, Frank

    detection of edge states in the quantum Hall regime. At filling factors close to 3 we observe two densities was experimentally observed up to now only in a classical system of surface electrons on helium [9 magnetoplasmons. Using selective detection of edge states we can distinguish two wave packets of edge excitations

  5. Optimization Online - Integer Factorization is in P

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuly Shipilevsky

    2012-08-31

    Aug 31, 2012 ... Integer Factorization is in P. Yuly Shipilevsky (yulysh2000 ***at*** yahoo.ca). Abstract: A polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, ...

  6. Infrared Observations of Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Elbaz

    1997-11-28

    This short paper reviews some of the results obtained from ISO observations (ISOCAM and ISOPHOT) on galaxy clusters: Chap.1: "Intracluster dust": new evidence for the presence of dust outside galaxies. Chap.2:"Mid-Infrared Emission of Galaxies" origin of the mid-IR emission. Chap.3:"Star Formation in Nearby Clusters" correlation of the 7 and 15 microns fluxes with the SFR. Chap.4:"Star Formation in z=0.2 Galaxy clusters" Study of the mid-IR emission of A1732 and A1689. Chap.5:"Star Formation in z>0.4 Galaxy clusters" Preliminary.

  7. Observation Wells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon:OGE Energy Resources, IncInc JumpObamaObservation

  8. Yeast GCN4 as a probe for oncogenesis by AP-1. transcription factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeast GCN4 as a probe for oncogenesis by AP-1. transcription factors: transcnpuonal activation for oncogenesis but are distinct from generic transcriptional activation domains. In addition, these observations. IKey Words: Yeast GCN4; Jun; Fos; AP-1 transcription factors; oncogenesis; cellular transformation

  9. Magnetars: the physics behind observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turolla, Roberto; Watts, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Magnetars are the strongest magnets in the present universe and the combination of extreme magnetic field, gravity and density makes them unique laboratories to probe current physical theories (from quantum electrodynamics to general relativity) in the strong field limit. Magnetars are observed as peculiar, burst--active X-ray pulsars, the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and the Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs); the latter emitted also three "giant flares," extremely powerful events during which luminosities can reach up to 10^47 erg/s for about one second. The last five years have witnessed an explosion in magnetar research which has led, among other things, to the discovery of transient, or "outbursting," and "low-field" magnetars. Substantial progress has been made also on the theoretical side. Quite detailed models for explaining the magnetars' persistent X-ray emission, the properties of the bursts, the flux evolution in transient sources have been developed and confronted with observations. New insight on neu...

  10. On Factorization of Molecular Wavefunctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thierry Jecko; Brian T. Sutcliffe; R. Guy Woolley

    2015-07-18

    Recently there has been a renewed interest in the chemical physics literature of factorization of the position representation eigenfunctions \\{$\\Phi$\\} of the molecular Schr\\"odinger equation as originally proposed by Hunter in the 1970s. The idea is to represent $\\Phi$ in the form $\\varphi\\chi$ where $\\chi$ is \\textit{purely} a function of the nuclear coordinates, while $\\varphi$ must depend on both electron and nuclear position variables in the problem. This is a generalization of the approximate factorization originally proposed by Born and Oppenheimer, the hope being that an `exact' representation of $\\Phi$ can be achieved in this form with $\\varphi$ and $\\chi$ interpretable as `electronic' and `nuclear' wavefunctions respectively. We offer a mathematical analysis of these proposals that identifies ambiguities stemming mainly from the singularities in the Coulomb potential energy.

  11. On Factorization of Molecular Wavefunctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thierry Jecko; Brian T. Sutcliffe; R. Guy Woolley

    2015-09-05

    Recently there has been a renewed interest in the chemical physics literature of factorization of the position representation eigenfunctions \\{$\\Phi$\\} of the molecular Schr\\"odinger equation as originally proposed by Hunter in the 1970s. The idea is to represent $\\Phi$ in the form $\\varphi\\chi$ where $\\chi$ is \\textit{purely} a function of the nuclear coordinates, while $\\varphi$ must depend on both electron and nuclear position variables in the problem. This is a generalization of the approximate factorization originally proposed by Born and Oppenheimer, the hope being that an `exact' representation of $\\Phi$ can be achieved in this form with $\\varphi$ and $\\chi$ interpretable as `electronic' and `nuclear' wavefunctions respectively. We offer a mathematical analysis of these proposals that identifies ambiguities stemming mainly from the singularities in the Coulomb potential energy.

  12. On Factorization of Molecular Wavefunctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thierry Jecko; Brian T. Sutcliffe; R. Guy Woolley

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a renewed interest in the chemical physics literature of factorization of the position representation eigenfunctions \\{$\\Phi$\\} of the molecular Schr\\"odinger equation as originally proposed by Hunter in the 1970s. The idea is to represent $\\Phi$ in the form $\\varphi\\chi$ where $\\chi$ is \\textit{purely} a function of the nuclear coordinates, while $\\varphi$ must depend on both electron and nuclear position variables in the problem. This is a generalization of the approximate factorization originally proposed by Born and Oppenheimer, the hope being that an `exact' representation of $\\Phi$ can be achieved in this form with $\\varphi$ and $\\chi$ interpretable as `electronic' and `nuclear' wavefunctions respectively. We offer a mathematical analysis of these proposals that identifies ambiguities stemming mainly from the singularities in the Coulomb potential energy.

  13. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  14. Human factors in waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moray, N.

    1994-10-01

    This article examines the role of human factors in radioactive waste management. Although few problems and ergonomics are special to radioactive waste management, some problems are unique especially with long term storage. The entire sociotechnical system must be looked at in order to see where improvement can take place because operator errors, as seen in Chernobyl and Bhopal, are ultimately the result of management errors.

  15. Hausdorff dimension and filling factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington Cruz

    1998-02-25

    We propose a new hierarchy scheme for the filling factor, a parameter which characterizes the occurrence of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). We consider the Hausdorff dimension, $h$, as a parameter for classifying fractional spin particles, such that, it is written in terms of the statistics of the collective excitations. The number $h$ classifies these excitations with different statistics in terms of its homotopy class.

  16. Bayesian Inference for Radio Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lochner, Michelle; Zwart, Jonathan T L; Smirnov, Oleg; Bassett, Bruce A; Oozeer, Nadeem; Kunz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) New telescopes like the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will push into a new sensitivity regime and expose systematics, such as direction-dependent effects, that could previously be ignored. Current methods for handling such systematics rely on alternating best estimates of instrumental calibration and models of the underlying sky, which can lead to inaccurate uncertainty estimates and biased results because such methods ignore any correlations between parameters. These deconvolution algorithms produce a single image that is assumed to be a true representation of the sky, when in fact it is just one realisation of an infinite ensemble of images compatible with the noise in the data. In contrast, here we report a Bayesian formalism that simultaneously infers both systematics and science. Our technique, Bayesian Inference for Radio Observations (BIRO), determines all parameters directly from the raw data, bypassing image-making entirely, by sampling from the joint posterior probability distribution. Thi...

  17. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  18. Comet tail formation: Giotto observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilken, B.; Jockers, K.; Johnstone, A.; Coates, A.; Heath, J.; Formisano, V.; Amata, E.; Winningham, J.D.; Thomsen, M.; Bryant, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The process of mass loading of the solar wind by cometary ions, which forms comet tails, has been observed throughout the coma of comet Halley. Three distinct regimes were found where the nature of the energy and momentum coupling between solar wind and cometary ions is different. Outside the bow shock, where there is little angular scattering of the freshly ionized particles, the coupling is described by the simple pickup trajectory and the energy is controlled by the angle between the flow and the magnetic field. Just inside the bow shock, there is considerable scattering accompanied by another acceleration process which raises some particle energies well above the straightforward pickup value. Finally, closer to the nucleus, the amount of scattering decreases and the coupling is once more controlled by the magnetic field direction. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Elastic enhancement factor as a quantum chaos probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharkov, Yaroslav A

    2012-01-01

    Recent development of the resonance scattering theory with a transient from the regular to chaotic internal dynamics inspires renewed interest to the problem of the elastic enhancement phenomenon. We reexamine the question what the experimentally observed value of the elastic enhancement factor can tell us about the character of dynamics of the intermediate system. Noting first a remarkable connection of this factor with the time delays variance in the case of the standard Gaussian ensembles we then prove the universal nature of such a relation. This reduces our problem to that of calculation of the Dyson's binary form factor in the whole transition region. By the example of systems with no time-reversal symmetry we then demonstrate that the enhancement can serve as a measure of the degree of internal chaos.

  20. Elastic enhancement factor as a quantum chaos probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaroslav A. Kharkov; Valentin V. Sokolov

    2012-12-30

    Recent development of the resonance scattering theory with a transient from the regular to chaotic internal dynamics inspires renewed interest to the problem of the elastic enhancement phenomenon. We reexamine the question what the experimentally observed value of the elastic enhancement factor can tell us about the character of dynamics of the intermediate system. Noting first a remarkable connection of this factor with the time delays variance in the case of the standard Gaussian ensembles we then prove the universal nature of such a relation. This reduces our problem to that of calculation of the Dyson's binary form factor in the whole transition region. By the example of systems with no time-reversal symmetry we then demonstrate that the enhancement can serve as a measure of the degree of internal chaos.

  1. Automated Surface Observing System: Standby Power Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    contained group of sensors and data gathering equipment that produces an automated weather observation * Weather observations support aviation, climate data, non government...

  2. Unsuspected Pulmonary Embolism in Observation Unit Patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limkakeng, Alexander T.; Glickman, Seth W; Cairns, Charles B; Chandra, Abhinav

    2009-01-01

    department observation unit. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2001;ED) managed acute care unit on ED overcrowding and emergencyof a chest pain observation unit compared with routine care.

  3. Observed Communication in Distressed Couples' Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baucom, Katherine Jane Williams

    2012-01-01

    A. (2011). Observed communication in couples two years afterA. (2011). Observed communication in couples two years afterA. (1996). The Communication Patterns Questionnaire: The

  4. First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene Print Wednesday, 30 June 2010 00:00 An international team of scientists performing...

  5. Off-center observers versus supernovae in inhomogeneous pressure universes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz [Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, Wielkopolska 15, 70-451 Szczecin (Poland)

    2014-09-10

    Exact luminosity distance and apparent magnitude formulae are applied to the Union2 557 supernovae sample in order to constrain the possible position of an observer outside of the center of symmetry in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous pressure Stephani universes, which are complementary to inhomogeneous density Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) void models. Two specific models are investigated. The first allows a barotropic equation of state at the center of symmetry without the need to specify a scale factor function (model IIA). The second has no barotropic equation of state at the center, but has an explicit dust-like scale factor evolution (model IIB). It is shown that even at 3? CL, an off-center observer cannot be further than about 4.4 Gpc away from the center of symmetry, which is comparable to the reported size of a void in LTB models with the most likely value of the distance from the center at about 341 Mpc for model IIA and 68 Mpc for model IIB. The off-center observer cannot be farther away from the center than about 577 Mpc for model IIB at 3? CL. It is determined that the best-fit parameters which characterize inhomogeneity are ?{sub inh} = 0.77 (dimensionless: model IIA) and ? = 7.31 × 10{sup –9} (s km{sup –1}){sup 2/3} Mpc{sup –4/3} (model IIB).

  6. ALASKA MARINE Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALASKA MARINE MAMMAL PROGRAM 2012 #12;2012 Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program Observer Manual Contents Section 1: The Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Marine Mammal Stock Program 1.5 Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program Section 2: The Southeast Alaska Environment 2

  7. Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to High Momentum Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puckett, Andrew J R

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer $Q^2$ between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their ...

  8. Separability and ground state factorization in quantum spin systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Giampaolo; G. Adesso; F. Illuminati

    2009-06-04

    We investigate the existence and the properties of fully separable (fully factorized) ground states in quantum spin systems. Exploiting techniques of quantum information and entanglement theory we extend a recently introduced method and construct a general, self-contained theory of ground state factorization in frustration free quantum spin models defined on lattices in any spatial dimension and for interactions of arbitrary range. We show that, quite generally, non exactly solvable translationally invariant models in presence of an external uniform magnetic field can admit exact, fully factorized ground state solutions. Unentangled ground states occur at finite values of the Hamiltonian parameters satisfying well defined balancing conditions between the applied field and the interaction strengths. These conditions are analytically determined together with the type of magnetic orderings compatible with factorization and the corresponding values of the fundamental observables such as energy and magnetization. The method is applied to a series of examples of increasing complexity, including translationally-invariant models with short, long, and infinite ranges of interaction, as well as systems with spatial anisotropies, in low and higher dimensions. We also illustrate how the general method, besides yielding a large series of novel exact results for complex models in any dimension, recovers, as particular cases, the results previously achieved on simple models in low dimensions exploiting direct methods based on factorized mean-field ansatz.

  9. Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.

    2007-08-08

    Executive Summary Despite advances in technology, power system operators must assimilate overwhelming amounts of data to keep the grid operating. Analyses of recent blackouts have clearly demonstrated the need to enhance the operator’s situation awareness (SA). The long-term objective of this research is to integrate valuable technologies into the grid operator environment that support decision making under normal and abnormal operating conditions and remove non-technical barriers to enable the optimum use of these technologies by individuals working alone and as a team. More specifically, the research aims to identify methods and principles to increase SA of grid operators in the context of system conditions that are representative or common across many operating entities and develop operationally relevant experimental methods for studying technologies and operational practices which contribute to SA. With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the grid, the scope and complexity of situation awareness have grown. New paradigms are needed to guide research and tool development aimed to enhance and improve operations. In reviewing related research, operating practices, systems, and tools, the present study established a taxonomy that provides a perspective on research and development surrounding power grid situation awareness and clarifies the field of human factors/SA for grid operations. Information sources that we used to identify critical factors underlying SA included interviews with experienced operational personnel, available historical summaries and transcripts of abnormal conditions and outages (e.g., the August 14, 2003 blackout), scientific literature, and operational policies/procedures and other documentation. Our analysis of August 2003 blackout transcripts and interviews adopted a different perspective than previous analyses of this material, and we complemented this analysis with additional interviews. Based on our analysis and a broad literature review, we advocate a new perspective on SA in terms of sensemaking, also called situated or ecological decision making, where the focus of the investigation is to understand why the decision maker(s) experienced the situation the way they did, or why what they saw made sense to them at the time. This perspective is distinct from the traditional branch of human factors research in the field which focuses more on ergonomics and the transactional relationship between the human operator and the systems. Consistent with our findings from the literature review, we recognized an over-arching need to focus SA research on issues surrounding the concept of shared knowledge; e.g., awareness of what is happening in adjacent areas as well as one’s own area of responsibility. Major findings were: a) Inadequate communication/information sharing is pervasive, b) Information is available, but not used. Many tools and mechanisms exist for operators to build awareness of the physical grid system, yet the transcripts reveal that they still need to call and exchange information with operators of neighboring areas to improve or validate their SA. The specific types of information that they request are quite predictable and, in most cases, cover information that could be available to both operators and reliability coordinators through readily available displays or other data sources, c) Shared Knowledge is Required on Operations/Actions as Well as Physical Status. In an ideal, technologically and organizationally perfect world, every control room and every reliability coordinator may have access to complete data across all regional control areas and yet, there would still be reason for the operators to call each other to gain and improve their SA of power grid operations, and d) Situation Awareness as sensemaking and shared knowledge.

  10. Dissecting Soft Radiation with Factorization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iain W. Stewart; Frank J. Tackmann; Wouter J. Waalewijn

    2015-02-10

    An essential part of high-energy hadronic collisions is the soft hadronic activity that underlies the primary hard interaction. It includes soft radiation from the primary hard partons, secondary multiple parton interactions (MPI), and factorization-violating effects. The invariant mass spectrum of the leading jet in $Z$+jet and $H$+jet events is directly sensitive to these effects, and we use a QCD factorization theorem to predict its dependence on the jet radius $R$, jet $p_T$, jet rapidity, and partonic process for both the perturbative and nonperturbative components of primary soft radiation. We prove that the nonperturbative contributions involve only odd powers of $R$, and the linear $R$ term is universal for quark and gluon jets. The hadronization model in PYTHIA8 agrees well with these properties. The perturbative soft initial state radiation (ISR) has a contribution that depends on the jet area in the same way as the underlying event, but this degeneracy is broken by dependence on the jet $p_T$. The size of this soft ISR contribution is proportional to the color state of the initial partons, yielding the same positive contribution for $gg\\to Hg$ and $gq\\to Zq$, but a negative interference contribution for $q\\bar q\\to Z g$. Hence, measuring these dependencies allows one to separate hadronization, soft ISR, and MPI contributions in the data.

  11. The Origins of the SPAR-H Method's Performance Shaping Factor Multipliers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; Harold S. Blackman

    2007-08-01

    The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method has proved to be a reliable, easy-to-use method for human reliability analysis. Calculation of human error probability (HEP) rates is especially straightforward, starting with pre-defined nominal error rates for cognitive vs. action oriented tasks, and incorporating performance shaping factor (PSF) multipliers upon those nominal error rates. SPAR-H uses eight PSFs with multipliers typically corresponding to nominal, degraded, and severely degraded human performance for individual PSFs. Additionally, some PSFs feature multipliers to reflect enhanced performance. Although SPAR-H enjoys widespread use among industry and regulators, current source documents on SPAR-H such as NUREG/CR-6883 do not provide a clear account of the origin of these multipliers. The present paper redresses this shortcoming and documents the historic development of the SPAR-H PSF multipliers, from the initial use of nominal error rates, to the selection of the eight PSFs, to the mapping of multipliers to available data sources such as a Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). Where error rates were not readily derived from THERP and other sources, expert judgment was used to extrapolate appropriate values. In documenting key background information on the multipliers, this paper provides a much needed cross-reference for human reliability practitioners and researchers of SPAR-H to validate analyses and research findings.

  12. Confinement and the safety factor profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batha, S.H.; Levinton, F.M.; Scott, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    The conjecture that the safety factor profile, q(r), controls the improvement in tokamak plasmas from poor confinement in the Low (L-) mode regime to improved confinement in the supershot regime has been tested in two experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). First, helium was puffed into the beam-heated phase of a supershot discharge which induced a degradation from supershot to L-mode confinement in about 100 msec, far less than the current relaxation time. The q and shear profiles measured by a motional Stark effect polarimeter showed little change during the confinement degradation. Second, rapid current ramps in supershot plasmas altered the q profile, but were observed not to change significantly the energy confinement. Thus, enhanced confinement in supershot plasmas is not due to a particular q profile which has enhanced stability or transport properties. The discharges making a continuous transition between supershot and L-mode confinement were also used to test the critical-electron-temperature-gradient transport model. It was found that this model could not reproduce the large changes in electron and ion temperature caused by the change in confinement.

  13. Nucleosome-mediated cooperativity between transcription factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonid A. Mirny

    2009-01-19

    Cooperative binding of transcription factors (TFs) to cis-regulatory regions (CRRs) is essential for precision of gene expression in development and other processes. The classical model of cooperativity requires direct interactions between TFs, thus constraining the arrangement of TFs sites in a CRR. On the contrary, genomic and functional studies demonstrate a great deal of flexibility in such arrangements with variable distances, numbers of sites, and identities of the involved TFs. Such flexibility is inconsistent with the cooperativity by direct interactions between TFs. Here we demonstrate that strong cooperativity among non-interacting TFs can be achieved by their competition with nucleosomes. We find that the mechanism of nucleosome-mediated cooperativity is mathematically identical to the Monod-Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model of cooperativity in hemoglobin. This surprising parallel provides deep insights, with parallels between heterotropic regulation of hemoglobin (e.g. Bohr effect) and roles of nucleosome-positioning sequences and chromatin modifications in gene regulation. Characterized mechanism is consistent with numerous experimental results, allows substantial flexibility in and modularity of CRRs, and provides a rationale for a broad range of genomic and evolutionary observations. Striking parallels between cooperativity in hemoglobin and in transcription regulation point at a new design principle that may be used in range of biological systems.

  14. Capacity Factor Risk At Nuclear Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Yangbo

    We develop a model of the dynamic structure of capacity factor risk. It incorporates the risk that the capacity factor may vary widely from year-to-year, and also the risk that the reactor may be permanently shutdown prior ...

  15. Cone Penetrometer N Factor Determination Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2014-03-05

    This document contains the results of testing activities to determine the empirical 'N Factor' for the cone penetrometer in kaolin clay simulant. The N Factor is used to releate resistance measurements taken with the cone penetrometer to shear strength.

  16. Common risk factors in bank stocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viale, Ariel Marcelo

    2007-09-17

    This dissertation provides evidence on the risk factors that are priced in bank equities. Alternative empirical models with precedent in the nonfinancial asset pricing literature are tested, including the single-factor Capital Asset Pricing Model...

  17. Industrial Equipment Demand and Duty Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, E. S.; Heffington, W. M.

    1998-01-01

    Demand and duty factors have been measured for selected equipment (air compressors, electric furnaces, injection molding machines, centrifugal loads, and others) in industrial plants. Demand factors for heavily loaded air ...

  18. Guidelines for Power Factor Improvement Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    Power factor is an indication of electrical system efficiency. Low power factor, or low system efficiency, may be due to one or more causes, including lightly loaded transformers, oversized electric motors, and harmonic-generating non-linear loads...

  19. Closing a Loophole in Factorization Proofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodwin, Geoffrey T. [HEP Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois, 60439 (United States); Garcia i Tormo, Xavier [HEP Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois, 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada); Lee, Jungil [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-23

    We address the possibility in factorization proofs that low-energy collinear gluons can couple to soft gluons.

  20. http://erg.sagepub.com/ Factors Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaber, David B.

    http://erg.sagepub.com/ Factors Applications Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human httpErgonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications Peter A. Hancock, Richard J. Jagacinski: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society can be found at:Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human

  1. Human factors: a necessary tool for industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starcher, K.O.

    1984-03-09

    The need for human factors (ergonomics) input in the layout of a ferroelectric ceramics laboratory is presented as an example of the overall need for human factors professionals in industry. However, even in the absence of one trained in human factors, knowledge of a few principles in ergonomics will provide many possibilities for improving performance in the industrial environment.

  2. Note on Integer Factoring Algorithms II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. A. Carella

    2007-02-08

    This note introduces a new class of integer factoring algorithms. Two versions of this method will be described, deterministic and probabilistic. These algorithms are practical, and can factor large classes of balanced integers N = pq, p < q < 2p in superpolynomial time. Further, an extension of the Fermat factoring method is proposed.

  3. Journal influence factors6 Massimo Franceschet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franceschet, Massimo

    Journal influence factors6 Massimo Franceschet Department of Mathematics and Computer Science of journal influence, namely 2- year impact factor, 5-year impact factor, eigenfactor and article influence. These indicators have been recently added by Thomson Reuters to the Journal Citation Reports, in both science

  4. Antenna factorization in strongly ordered limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosower, David A.

    2005-02-15

    When energies or angles of gluons emitted in a gauge-theory process are small and strongly ordered, the emission factorizes in a simple way to all orders in perturbation theory. I show how to unify the various strongly ordered soft, mixed soft-collinear, and collinear limits using antenna factorization amplitudes, which are generalizations of the Catani-Seymour dipole factorization function.

  5. Physically Observable Cryptography Silvio Micali # Leonid Reyzin +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyzin, Leonid

    Physically Observable Cryptography Silvio Micali # Leonid Reyzin + November 29, 2003 Abstract.) inherent in the physical execution of any cryptographic algorithm. Such ``physical observation attacks mathematically impregnable systems. The great practicality and the inherent availability of physical attacks

  6. Discrimination of quantum observables using limited resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Ziman; Teiko Heinosaari

    2008-02-18

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination and identification among quantum observables. We set a general framework and investigate in details the case of qubit observables. In particular, we show that perfect discrimination with two shots is possible only for sharp qubit observables (e.g. Stern-Gerlach apparatuses) associated with mutually orthogonal directions. We also show that for sharp qubit observables associated to nonorthogonal directions unambiguous discrimination with an inconclusive result is always possible.

  7. Observability and Computability in Physical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subhash Kak

    2012-06-26

    This paper considers the relevance of the concepts of observability and computability in physical theory. Observability is related to verifiability which is essential for effective computing and as physical systems are computational systems it is important even where explicit computation is not the goal. Specifically, we examine two problems: observability and computability for quantum computing, and remote measurement of time and frequency.

  8. JAXA's Earth Observation Program Osamu Ochiai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JAXA's Earth Observation Program Osamu Ochiai Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency #12;1 Disasters Health Energy Climate Water 1 Japanese Main Activities of Earth Observation Weather MTSAT (JMA) Eco Earth Observation Targets (JFY) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

  9. Chandra Observations of the Northeastern Rim of the Cygnus Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satoru Katsuda; Hiroshi Tsunemi; Masashi Kimura; Koji Mori

    2008-06-25

    We present results from spatially resolved spectral analyses of the northeastern (NE) rim of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant (SNR) based on two Chandra observations. One pointing includes northern outermost abundance-enhanced regions discovered by recent Suzaku observations, while the other pointing is located on regions with "normal" abundances in the NE rim of the Cygnus Loop. The superior spatial resolving power of Chandra allows us to reveal that the abundance-enhanced region is concentrated in an about 200"-thickness region behind the shock front. We confirm absolute metal abundances (i.e., relative to H) as well as abundance ratios between metals are consistent with those of the solar values within a factor of about 2. Also, we find that the emission measure in the region gradually decreases toward the shock front. These features are in contrast with those of the ejecta fragments around the Vela SNR, which leads us to believe that the abundance enhancements are not likely due to metal-rich ejecta. We suggest that the origin of the plasma in this region is the interstellar medium (ISM). In the "normal" abundance regions, we confirm that abundances are depleted to the solar values by a factor of about 5 that is not expected in the ISM around the Cygnus Loop. Introduction of non-thermal emission in our model fitting can not naturally resolve the abundance-depletion problem. The origin of the depletion still remains as an open question.

  10. Gated Si nanowires for large thermoelectric power factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neophytou, Neophytos, E-mail: N.Neophytou@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kosina, Hans [Institute for Microelectronics, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-29/E360, Vienna A-1040 (Austria)

    2014-08-18

    We investigate the effect of electrostatic gating on the thermoelectric power factor of p-type Si nanowires (NWs) of up to 20?nm in diameter in the [100], [110], and [111] crystallographic transport orientations. We use atomistic tight-binding simulations for the calculation of the NW electronic structure, coupled to linearized Boltzmann transport equation for the calculation of the thermoelectric coefficients. We show that gated NW structures can provide ?5× larger thermoelectric power factor compared to doped channels, attributed to their high hole phonon-limited mobility, as well as gating induced bandstructure modifications which further improve mobility. Despite the fact that gating shifts the charge carriers near the NW surface, surface roughness scattering is not strong enough to degrade the transport properties of the accumulated hole layer. The highest power factor is achieved for the [111] NW, followed by the [110], and finally by the [100] NW. As the NW diameter increases, the advantage of the gated channel is reduced. We show, however, that even at 20?nm diameters (the largest ones that we were able to simulate), a ?3× higher power factor for gated channels is observed. Our simulations suggest that the advantage of gating could still be present in NWs with diameters of up to ?40?nm.

  11. Exclusion of cosmic rays in protoplanetary disks. II. Chemical gradients and observational signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.; Adams, Fred C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    The chemical properties of protoplanetary disks are especially sensitive to their ionization environment. Sources of molecular gas ionization include cosmic rays (CRs), stellar X-rays, and short-lived radionuclides, each of which varies with location in the disk. This behavior leads to a significant amount of chemical structure, especially in molecular ion abundances, which is imprinted in their submillimeter rotational line emission. Using an observationally motivated disk model, we make predictions for the dependence of chemical abundances on the assumed properties of the ionizing field. We calculate the emergent line intensity for abundant molecular ions and simulate sensitive observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) for a disk at D = 100 pc. The models readily distinguish between high ionization rates (? ? 10{sup –17} s{sup –1} per H{sub 2}) and below, but it becomes difficult to distinguish between low ionization models when ? ? 10{sup –19} s{sup –1}. We find that H{sub 2}D{sup +} emission is not detectable for sub-interstellar CR rates with ALMA (6h integration), and that N{sub 2}D{sup +} emission may be a more sensitive tracer of midplane ionization. HCO{sup +} traces X-rays and high CR rates (?{sub CR} ? 10{sup –17} s{sup –1}), and provides a handle on the warm molecular ionization properties where CO is present in the gas. Furthermore, species like HCO{sup +}, which emits from a wide radial region and samples a large gradient in temperature, can exhibit ring-like emission as a consequence of low-lying rotational level de-excitation near the star. This finding highlights a scenario where rings are not necessarily structural or chemical in nature, but simply a result of the underlying line excitation properties.

  12. Possible Upper limits on Lorentz Factors in High Energy Astrophysical Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

    2010-08-31

    Gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous physical phenomena in the universe. The relativistic effect on the blast wave associated with the GRB introduces the gamma factor. Here we put an upper limit on the gamma factor via constraints on maximal power allowed by general relativity and hence set upper limits on other observable quantities such as deceleration distance. Also upper limits are set on the high energy particle radiation due to constraints set by cosmic microwave background radiation.

  13. Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Recent Cosmic Inflation Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel Nasser Tawfik; Abdel Magied Diab

    2014-10-29

    The recent background imaging of cosmic extragalactic polarization (BICEP2) observations are believed as an evidence for the cosmic inflation. BICEP2 provided a first direct evidence for the inflation, determined its energy scale and debriefed witnesses for the quantum gravitational processes. The ratio of scalar-to-tensor fluctuations $r$ which is the canonical measurement of the gravitational waves, was estimated as $r=0.2_{-0.05}^{+0.07}$. Apparently, this value agrees well with the upper bound value corresponding to PLANCK $r\\leq 0.012$ and to WMAP9 experiment $r=0.2$. It is believed that the existence of a minimal length is one of the greatest predictions leading to modifications in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle or a GUP at the Planck scale. In the present work, we investigate the possibility of interpreting recent BICEP2 observations through quantum gravity or GUP. We estimate the slow-roll parameters, the tensorial and the scalar density fluctuations which are characterized by the scalar field $\\phi$. Taking into account the background (matter and radiation) energy density, $\\phi$ is assumed to interact with the gravity and with itself. We first review the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) Universe and then suggest modification in the Friedmann equation due to GUP. By using a single potential for a chaotic inflation model, various inflationary parameters are estimated and compared with the PLANCK and BICEP2 observations. While GUP is conjectured to break down the expansion of the early Universe (Hubble parameter and scale factor), two inflation potentials based on certain minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model result in $r$ and spectral index matching well with the observations. Corresponding to BICEP2 observations, our estimation for $r$ depends on the inflation potential and the scalar field. A power-law inflation potential does not.

  14. Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2007, Pages 661666 Factors Related to Food Worker Hand Hygiene Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    661 Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2007, Pages 661­666 Factors Related to Food Worker 37247; 4Connecticut Department of Public Health, Food Protection Program, Division of Environmental To identify factors related to food worker hand hygiene practices, we collected (i) observational data on food

  15. Tests of Higgs boson compositeness through the HHH form factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gounaris, G J

    2015-01-01

    We show how the $q^2$-dependence of the triple Higgs boson HHH form factor can reveal the presence of various types of new physics contributions, like new particles coupled to the Higgs boson or Higgs boson constituents, without directly observing them. We compare the effect of such new contributions to the one of higher order SM corrections to the point-like HHH coupling, due to triangle, 4-leg and s.e. diagrams. We establish simple analytic expressions describing accurately at high energy these SM corrections, as well as the examples of new physics contributions.

  16. Tests of Higgs boson compositeness through the HHH form factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. J. Gounaris; F. M. Renard

    2015-10-14

    We show how the $q^2$-dependence of the triple Higgs boson HHH form factor can reveal the presence of various types of new physics contributions, like new particles coupled to the Higgs boson or Higgs boson constituents, without directly observing them. We compare the effect of such new contributions to the one of higher order SM corrections to the point-like HHH coupling, due to triangle, 4-leg and s.e. diagrams. We establish simple analytic expressions describing accurately at high energy these SM corrections, as well as the examples of new physics contributions.

  17. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  18. Lower bounds for approximate factorizations via semidefinite ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABSTRACT The problem of approximately factoring a real or complex multivariate polynomial f seeks minimal perturbations ? f to the coefficients of the input ...

  19. Industrial Power Factor Analysis Guidebook. Electrotek Concepts...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    low power factors, increased conductor and transformer losses, and lower voltages. Utilities must supply both active and reactive power and compensate for these losses. Power...

  20. Emerging alternatives to the impact factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, Marcus A.; Dellavalle, Robert

    2008-01-01

    abs/0709.0896. 12. Public Library of Science Medicineimpact factor game,” Public Library of Science Medicine Voljournals published by the Public Library of Science, follows

  1. Tetrahydroquinoline Derivatives as Potent and Selective Factor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Derivatives as Potent and Selective Factor XIa Inhibitors Authors: Quan, Mimi L. ; Wong, Pancras C. ; Wang, Cailan ; Woerner, Francis ; Smallheer, Joanne M. ; Barbera, Frank...

  2. CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS AFFECTING FUSION. Henderson, Ian M.; Paxton, Walter F Abstract not provided. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque,...

  3. Factorization for hadronic heavy quarkonium production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Wei Qiu

    2006-10-31

    We briefly review several models of heavy quarkonium production in hadronic collisions, and discuss the status of QCD factorization for these production models.

  4. CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION: FACTORS AFFECTING FUSION. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CONTROL OF MECHANICALLY ACTIVATED POLYMERSOME FUSION:...

  5. Observations of LSI+61303 with Swift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Holder; A. Falcone; D. Morris

    2007-09-18

    The TeV emitting high-mass X-ray binary system LSI+61303 was observed with the Swift satellite from early September 2006 to early January 2007. Many of these observations were contemporaneous with TeV observations. The data consist of observations on 24 separate days with durations ranging between 700s and 4700s, and partially cover 4.5 orbital periods of the binary system. We present here an analysis of the 0.2 to 10keV X-ray data from the Swift-XRT instrument. Contemporaneous optical data from UVOT are also available.

  6. CCD Observing Manual 49 Bay State Road

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zallen, Richard

    Stars 5.6. Supernovae/Novae Patrols 5.7. Designing Your Own: Using AAVSO VSX 6.0 Observing Techniques 6

  7. EA-1964: National Ecological Observation Network (NEON)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) prepared an EA that evaluated potential environmental impacts of the proposed National Ecological Observation Network (NEON), a continental-scale network of...

  8. Observational Field Assessment of Invasiveness for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eucalyptus grandis observations..................................................... 13 Eucalyptus grandis), Eucalyptus grandis, African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and arboreal Leucaenas found on Oahu, Maui, Hawai

  9. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

    2007-01-01

    potential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of BunterSP response during hydraulic fracturing. Citation: Moore, J.observations during hydraulic fracturing, J. Geophys. Res. ,

  10. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

    2007-01-01

    during hydraulic fracturing of Bunter sandstones, Proc. NearSP response during hydraulic fracturing. Citation: Moore, J.observations during hydraulic fracturing, J. Geophys. Res. ,

  11. Cluster Observations with the South Pole Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plagge, Thomas Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope during the last stages ofwater vapor at the South Pole relative to two otherSZ Survey Instrument . 3 The South Pole Telescope Observing

  12. Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods and Observations from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods & Observations from Savannah River Site Dennis Jackson P.E. & Timothy Jannik - Savannah River National Laboratory Teresa Eddy - Savannah...

  13. Timed Nuclear Import of a Transcription Factor During Erythropoiesis Erythroid Krppel-like factor (EKLF) is an erythroid transcription factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    Timed Nuclear Import of a Transcription Factor During Erythropoiesis Erythroid Krüppel-like factor. The regulatory mechanisms of the nuclear transport of EKLF during erythroid differentiation have remained unclear provided essential new insights into this process. They show that nuclear import of EKLF in erythroid cells

  14. Nuclear physics in soft-wall AdS/QCD: Deuteron electromagnetic form factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Gutsche; Valery E. Lyubovitskij; Ivan Schmidt; Alfredo Vega

    2015-06-02

    We present a high-quality description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in a soft-wall AdS/QCD approach. We first propose an effective action describing the dynamics of the deuteron in the presence of an external vector field. Based on this action the deuteron electromagnetic form factors are calculated, displaying the correct 1/Q^10 power scaling for large Q^2 values. This finding is consistent with quark counting rules and the earlier observation that this result holds in confining gauge/gravity duals. The Q^2 dependence of the deuteron form factors is defined by a single and universal scale parameter kappa, which is fixed from data.

  15. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) The Department of Energy investigated the major cost factors that...

  16. Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; O`Reilly, Brian; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Landry, Michael; Sigg, Daniel; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong

    2015-01-01

    Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this work we describe the first observation of parametric instability in an Advanced LIGO detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.

  17. NOS Integrated Ocean Observations Systems (IOOS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observing Assets After Hurricane Sandy NOAA Award No. NA14NOS4830003 Report 05: 31 December 2014 Prepared Ocean Observing System when Hurricane Sandy passed through the region in October 2012. The objective lost during Sandy. The benefits of this work will increase the coverage and data quality of the surface

  18. NOS Integrated Ocean Observations Systems (IOOS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observing Assets After Hurricane Sandy NOAA Award No. NA14NOS4830003 Report 04: 30 September 2014 Prepared Ocean Observing System when Hurricane Sandy passed through the region in October 2012. The objective lost during Sandy. The benefits of this work will increase the coverage and data quality of the surface

  19. NOS Integrated Ocean Observations Systems (IOOS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observing Assets After Hurricane Sandy NOAA Award No. NA14NOS4830003 30 January 2014 Prepared for: NOAA IOOS Association Coastal Ocean Observing System when Hurricane Sandy passed through the region in October 2012 and ADCP assets lost during Sandy. The benefits of this work will increase the coverage and data quality

  20. NOS Integrated Ocean Observations Systems (IOOS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observing Assets After Hurricane Sandy NOAA Award No. NA14NOS4830003 Report 01: 30 April 2014 Prepared for Ocean Observing System when Hurricane Sandy passed through the region in October 2012. The objective lost during Sandy. The benefits of this work will increase the coverage and data quality of the surface

  1. Psychology 4330, Spring 2011. Human Factors Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Matthew

    with an interest in design should remember that it is not really possible to teach ergonomic design per se without: Guastello, S. J. (2006). Human factors engineering and ergonomics: A systems approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence/19 Introduction to human factors (T1) 1/24 Usability evaluation methods (T2) 1/31 Systems that change over time (T

  2. Photon impact factor in the NLO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balitsky, Ian [JLAB

    2013-04-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as a NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for the structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  3. Gauss Sum Factorization with Cold Atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilowski, M.; Wendrich, T.; Mueller, T.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M. [Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Jentsch, Ch. [Astrium GmbH-Satellites, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Schleich, W. P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2008-01-25

    We report the first implementation of a Gauss sum factorization algorithm by an internal state Ramsey interferometer using cold atoms. A sequence of appropriately designed light pulses interacts with an ensemble of cold rubidium atoms. The final population in the involved atomic levels determines a Gauss sum. With this technique we factor the number N=263193.

  4. Platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor beta synergistically potentiate inflammatory mediator synthesis by fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosengren, Sanna; Corr, Maripat; Boyle, David L

    2010-01-01

    et al. , Platelet-derived growth factor and transformingactivated by platelet-derived growth factor. Clin Expmesylate inhibits platelet derived growth factor stimulated

  5. Effects of friction factor and slip factor on the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheth, Ketankumar Kantilal

    1985-01-01

    EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Ma]or Sub]ect: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Approved as to style and content by...

  6. Maternal Risk Factors for Congenital Cerebral Palsy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streja, Elani

    2012-01-01

    in the Renfrew and Paisley study: prospective observational2000). In the Renfrew and Paisley Study, this group reported

  7. Quantum observables, Lie algebra homology and TQFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albert Schwarz

    1999-04-25

    Let us consider a Lie (super)algebra $G$ spanned by $T_{\\alpha}$ where $T_{\\alpha}$ are quantum observables in BV-formalism. It is proved that for every tensor $c^{\\alpha_1...\\alpha_k}$ that determines a homology class of the Lie algebra $G$ the expression $c^{\\alpha_1...\\alpha_k}T_{\\alpha _1}...T_{\\alpha_k}$ is again a quantum observables. This theorem is used to construct quantum observables in BV sigma-model. We apply this construction to explain Kontsevich's results about the relation between homology of the Lie algebra of Hamiltonian vector fields and topological invariants of manifolds.

  8. Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gras, Slawek

    Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale ...

  9. Initial Helioseismic Observations by Hinode/SOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Sekii; Alexander G. Kosovichev; Junwei Zhao; Saku Tsuneta; Hiromoto Shibahashi; Thomas E. Berger; Kiyoshi Ichimoto; Yukio Katsukawa; Bruce W. Lites; Shin'ichi Nagata; Toshifumi Shimizu; Richard A. Shine; Yoshinori Suematsu; Theodore D. Tarbell; Alan M. Title

    2007-09-12

    Results from initial helioseismic observations by Solar Optical Telescope onboard Hinode are reported. It has been demonstrated that intensity oscillation data from Broadband Filter Imager can be used for various helioseismic analyses. The k-omega power spectra, as well as corresponding time-distance cross-correlation function that promises high-resolution time-distance analysis below 6-Mm travelling distance, were obtained for G-band and CaII-H data. Subsurface supergranular patterns have been observed from our first time-distance analysis. The results show that the solar oscillation spectrum is extended to much higher frequencies and wavenumbers, and the time-distance diagram is extended to much shorter travel distances and times than they were observed before, thus revealing great potential for high-resolution helioseismic observations from Hinode.

  10. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigel, Alexander; Engel, Assaf

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spiders, to predator inspection by sticklebacks and to territorial defense by lions, demonstrating animal behavior as a new type of game theoretical equilibrium. Games animals play may be derived unequivocally from their observable behavior, the reconstruction, however, can be subjected to fundamental limitations due to our inability to observe all information exchange mechanisms (communication).

  11. New York/Region Opinions Editorial Observer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pianka, Eric R.

    New York/Region Opinions Editorial Observer Grasping the Depth of Time as a First Step of us. The idea of such quantities of time is extremely new. Humans began to understand the true scale

  12. Observational learning in an uncertain world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acemoglu, Daron

    We study a model of observational learning in social networks in the presence of uncertainty about agents' type distributions. Each individual receives a private noisy signal about a payoff-relevant state of the world, and ...

  13. On the consistent use of Constructed Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trott, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We define "constructed observables" as relating experimental measurements to terms in a Lagrangian while simultaneously making assumptions about possible deviations from the Standard Model (SM), in other Lagrangian terms. Ensuring that the SM effective field theory (EFT) is constrained correctly when using constructed observables requires that their defining conditions are imposed on the EFT in a manner that is consistent with the equations of motion. Failing to do so can result in a "functionally redundant" operator basis and the wrong expectation as to how experimental quantities are related in the EFT. We illustrate the issues involved considering the $\\rm S$ parameter and the off shell triple gauge coupling (TGC) verticies. We show that the relationships between $h \\rightarrow V \\bar{f} \\, f$ decay and the off shell TGC verticies are subject to these subtleties, and how the connections between these observables vanish in the limit of strong bounds due to LEP. The challenge of using constructed observables...

  14. Emerging local warming signals in observational data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahlstein, Irina

    The global average temperature of the Earth has increased, but year-to-year variability in local climates impedes the identification of clear changes in observations and human experience. For a signal to become obvious in ...

  15. Spectrum of Controlling and Observing Complex Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Gang; Barzel, Baruch; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2015-01-01

    Observing and controlling complex networks are of paramount interest for understanding complex physical, biological and technological systems. Recent studies have made important advances in identifying sensor or driver nodes, through which we can observe or control a complex system. Yet, the observation uncertainty induced by measurement noise and the energy cost required for control continue to be significant challenges in practical applications. Here we show that the control energy cost and the observation uncertainty vary widely in different directions of the state space. In particular, we find that if all nodes are directly driven, control is energetically feasible, as the maximum energy cost increases sublinearly with the system size. If, however, we aim to control a system by driving only a single node, control in some directions is energetically prohibitive, increasing exponentially with the system size. For the cases in between, the maximum energy decays exponentially if we increase the number of driv...

  16. Synthetic heparin-binding factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Glass, John D. (Shoreham, NY)

    2010-04-20

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain, and preferably two peptide chains branched from a dipeptide branch moiety composed of two trifunctional amino acid residues, which peptide chain or chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a linker, which may be a hydrophobic linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  17. Chiral solitons in nuclei: Electromagnetic form factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jason R. Smith; Gerald A. Miller

    2004-09-08

    We calculate the electromagnetic form factors of a bound proton. The Chiral Quark-Soliton model provides the quark and antiquark substructure of the proton, which is embedded in nuclear matter. This procedure yields significant modifications of the form factors in the nuclear environment. The sea quarks are almost completely unaffected, and serve to mitigate the valence quark effect. In particular, the ratio of the isoscalar electric to the isovector magnetic form factor decreases by 20% at Q^2=1 GeV^2 at nuclear density, and we do not see a strong enhancement of the magnetic moment.

  18. Observation of the 0-fs pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Observation of the 0-fs pulse By W.H. Knox, R.S. Knox,J.F.Hoose, and R.N. Zare T he quest for the world's shor test laser pulse has led to a re markable pace of develop ment in ultrafast laser technology. Al though pulses of only a few cycles duration have been made, clearly the observation of a 0-fs

  19. Gamma-Ray Line Observations with RHESSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David M. Smith

    2004-04-30

    The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) has been observing gamma-ray lines from the Sun and the Galaxy since its launch in February 2002. Here I summarize the status of RHESSI observations of solar lines (nuclear de-excitation, neutron capture, and positron annihilation), the lines of $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe from the inner Galaxy, and the search for positron annihilation in novae.

  20. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD curves tended to be steeper. The CHO generated the best quantitative agreement with human observers with its CD curve overlapping with that of human observer. Statistical equivalence between CHO and humans can be claimed within 11% of the human observer results, including both the disk and lesion detection experiments.Conclusions: The model observer method can be used to accurately represent human observer performance with the stochastic DPC-CT noise for SKE tasks with sizes ranging from 8 to 128 pixels. The incorporation of the anatomical noise remains to be studied.

  1. Ulysses observations of magnetic waves due to newborn interstellar pickup ions. II. Application of turbulence concepts to limiting wave energy and observability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, Bradford E.; Smith, Charles W.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Joyce, Colin J.; Murphy, Neil; Nuno, Raquel G. E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu E-mail: Neil.Murphy@jpl.nasa.gov

    2014-06-01

    The low-frequency magnetic waves that arise from the isotropization of newborn interstellar pickup ions (PUIs) are reasonably well described by linear and quasi-linear kinetic theory in so far as those theories predict the wave frequency and polarization in the spacecraft frame. Those theories fail to describe the scarce observability of the waves. Quasilinear theory predicts that the wave power should accumulate over long periods of time as the relatively weak kinetic instability slowly adds power to the observed spectrum. At the same time it has been argued that the same wave energy must serve as a secondary source of thermal ion heating in the outer heliosphere once the initial turbulence is depleted. To the extent that turbulent transport of the wave energy acts against the spectrally confined accumulation of wave energy, turbulence should be a limiting factor in observability. We argue that turbulence does limit the observability of the waves and we use turbulence theory to predict the observed wave energy. We compare this prediction against a database of 502 wave observations attributed to newborn interstellar PUIs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft.

  2. Selecting Observation Platforms for Optimized Anomaly Detectability under Unreliable Partial Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen-Chiao Lin; Humberto E. Garcia; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2011-06-01

    Diagnosers for keeping track on the occurrences of special events in the framework of unreliable partially observed discrete-event dynamical systems were developed in previous work. This paper considers observation platforms consisting of sensors that provide partial and unreliable observations and of diagnosers that analyze them. Diagnosers in observation platforms typically perform better as sensors providing the observations become more costly or increase in number. This paper proposes a methodology for finding an observation platform that achieves an optimal balance between cost and performance, while satisfying given observability requirements and constraints. Since this problem is generally computational hard in the framework considered, an observation platform optimization algorithm is utilized that uses two greedy heuristics, one myopic and another based on projected performances. These heuristics are sequentially executed in order to find best observation platforms. The developed algorithm is then applied to an observation platform optimization problem for a multi-unit-operation system. Results show that improved observation platforms can be found that may significantly reduce the observation platform cost but still yield acceptable performance for correctly inferring the occurrences of special events.

  3. Identification of High-Speed Rail Ballast Flight Risk Factors and Risk Mitigation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    1 Identification of High-Speed Rail Ballast Flight Risk Factors and Risk Mitigation Strategies speed line, true high speed rail has seen an increasing success in those countries where such lines were speed rail (HSR) systems around the world during the past 50 years, one of the observed phenomena

  4. TP53 gene mutations of lung cancer patients in upper northern Thailand and environmental risk factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TP53 gene mutations of lung cancer patients in upper northern Thailand and environmental risk mutations are observed in about 40e70% of lung cancer tissues, and the hot spot codon mu- tations factors that influence TP53 gene mutation in lung cancer patients residing areas with high lung cancer

  5. Can aftershock studies predict site amplification factors? Northridge, CA, earthquake of 17 January 1994

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Can aftershock studies predict site amplification factors? Northridge, CA, earthquake of 17 January and the causes of these variations, to learn how to predict the same for future earthquakes [1]. Because, are compared one with another and with the observed distribution of damage from the Northridge, CA, earthquake

  6. Factors and Feeds for Supplementing Beef Cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Stephen P.; Gill, Ronald J.

    2000-05-03

    A beef cow requires energy, protein, minerals and vitamins in its diet. Many factors, including forage quantity and quality and animal body condition, affect the amounts of required nutrients....

  7. Parametrizing Compton form factors with neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kresimir Kumericki; Dieter Mueller; Andreas Schafer

    2011-12-08

    We describe a method, based on neural networks, of revealing Compton form factors in the deeply virtual region. We compare this approach to standard least-squares model fitting both for a simplified toy case and for HERMES data.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  9. Factors favorable to public participation success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peelle, E.; Schweitzer, M.; Munro, J.; Carnes, S.; Wolfe, A.

    1996-05-01

    Categories of factors linked to successful public participation (PP) program outcomes include PP process, organizational context, sociopolitical context, strategic considerations and unique (special circumstances) factors. We re-order the long list factors according to how essential, important, and unique they are and discuss their significance and interrelationships. It is argued that bureacratic structure and operational modes are basically in conflict with features of successful PP programs (openness, two-way education, communication with nonexpert outsiders). If this is so, then it is not surprising that the factors essential for PP success in bureacracies involve extraordinary management efforts by agencies to bypass, compensate for, or overcome structural constraints. We conclude by speculating about the long-term viability of PP practices in the agency setting as well as the consequences for agencies that attempt the problematic task of introducing PP into their complex, mission-oriented organizations.

  10. Factors Involved in Search Dog Training 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Michael B.

    2010-07-14

    Events of significant impact as recent as hurricane Ike yielded a consistent disturbing truth: we lack sufficient numbers of competent search dog [Canis familiaris] teams. This study was conceived to provide information in identifying factors...

  11. Distributed naming in a factored operating system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckmann, Nathan (Nathan Zachary)

    2010-01-01

    A factored operating system (fos) is a new operating system design for manycore and cloud computers. In fos, OS services are separated from application code and run on distinct cores. Furthermore, each service is split ...

  12. Enabling Factors in Successful Product Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Victor

    2005-08-15

    The research literature and industry best-practices report a vast number of enabling factors that contribute to successful product development (PD). Collectively this body of work also establishes the causal linkages between ...

  13. Human Factors of Healthcare Reporting Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, C.W.

    Johnson,C.W. P. Carayon (ed), A Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare and Patient Safety, Lawrence Erlbaum, London, UK pp 525-560 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

  14. Proton form factor effects in hydrogenic atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daza, F. Garcia; Kelkar, N. G.; Nowakowski, M.

    2011-10-21

    The proton structure corrections to the hyperfine splittings in electronic and muonic hydrogen are evaluated using the Breit potential with electromagnetic form factors. In contrast to other methods, the Breit equation with q{sup 2} dependent form factors is just an extension of the standard Breit equation which gives the hyperfine splitting Hamiltonian. Precise QED corrections are comparable to the structure corrections which therefore need to be evaluated ab initio.

  15. Rice Quality Factors: Implications For Management Decisions. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Warren R.; Rister, Edward, M.; Brorsen, B. Wade

    1986-01-01

    . Review comments and suggestions from Bill Black, Bart Drees, Arthur Gerlow, Melvin Parker, James Stansel, Mo Way, Bill Webb, and Michael Wohlgenant are also appreciated. A special thanks to Kim Trant for editorial assistance. ... Rice Quality Factors... that grades are intended to measure are red rice, weed seeds, damaged kernels (including peck), off-color, chalk, and off-types of rice kernels. These factors should be negatively related to price, since they are all undesirable characteristics. 1 Graders...

  16. Factors affecting robust retail energy markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michelman, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper briefly defines an active retail market, details the factors that influence market activity and their relative importance, compares activity in various retail energy markets to date, and predicts future retail energy market activity. Three primary factors translate into high market activity: supplier margins, translated into potential savings for actively shopping customers; market size; and market barriers. The author surveys activity nationwide and predicts hot spots for the coming year.

  17. The factor 2 in fundamental physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Rowlands

    2001-10-24

    A brief history is given of the factor 2, starting in the most elementary considerations of geometry and kinematics of uniform acceleration, and moving to relativity, quantum mechanics and particle physics. The basic argument is that in all the significant cases in which the factor 2 or 1/2 occurs in fundamental physics, whether classical, quantum or relativistic, the same physical operation is taking place.

  18. Cold dark matter cosmology conflicts with fluid mechanics and observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carl H. Gibson

    2006-10-23

    Cold dark matter hierarchical clustering (CDMHC) cosmology based on the Jeans 1902 criterion for gravitational instability gives predictions about the early universe contrary to fluid mechanics and observations. Jeans neglected viscosity, diffusivity, and turbulence: factors that determine gravitational structure formation and contradict small structures (CDM halos) forming from non-baryonic dark matter particle candidates. From hydro-gravitational-dynamics (HGD) cosmology, viscous-gravitational fragmentation produced supercluster (10^46 kg), cluster, and galaxy-mass (10^42 kg) clouds in the primordial plasma with the large fossil density turbulence (rho_o ~ 3x10-17 kg m-3) of the first fragmentation at 10^12 s, and a protogalaxy linear and spiral clump morphology reflecting maximum stretching near vortex lines of the plasma turbulence at the 10^13 s plasma-gas transition. Gas protogalaxies fragmented into proto-globular-star-cluster mass (10^36 kg) clumps of protoplanet gas clouds that are now frozen as earth-mass (10^24-^25 kg) Jovian planets of the baryonic dark matter, about 30,000,000 rogue planets per star. Observations contradict the CDMHCC prediction of large explosive Population III first stars at 10^16 s, but support the immediate gentle formation of small Population II first stars at 10^13 s in globular-star-clusters from HGD.

  19. Observations of hydroxyl in early-type galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBride, James; Nyland, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    We used Arecibo Observatory and the Green Bank Telescope to observe OH in twelve early-type galaxies with known reservoirs of dense gas. We present three new detections of OH in absorption in the 1667 MHz line. One objective of our survey was to find evidence of molecular outflows, but our sensitivity, and the strength of the OH absorption, were insufficient to detect outflows. The detected sources have infrared luminosities and dust temperatures among the lowest of any galaxy detected in OH absorption. The ratio $L_{\\rm HCN} / L_{\\rm CO}$, a measure of the dense gas fraction in galaxies, is a powerful selector of OH megamasers for galaxies with high infrared luminosity. In early-type galaxies, which have much lower infrared luminosities, $L_{\\rm HCN} / L_{\\rm CO}$ is also a promising tool for discovering OH, but in absorption rather than in maser emission. In addition to dense molecular gas, a radio continuum source and a favorable line-of-sight to the observer are likely key factors in detecting OH absorber...

  20. BeppoSAX observations of 3C 273

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haardt, F

    1997-01-01

    We present preliminary results of BeppoSAX AO1 observations of 3C 273 performed in January 1997. We also present a close comparison with data obtained during the satellite SVP, in July 1996. On average, the AO1 flux is about a factor 2 higher than the flux detected during the SVP, and roughly on the middle of the historical X-ray flux range. Power law fits with galactic absorption to all observations yield spectral indices in the range 1.53-1.6, with the spectrum extending from 0.2 to at least up to 200 keV without any significant slope change. The broad band spectrum appears basically featureless, marking a clear difference from the SVP data, where an absorption feature at low energy and a fluorescence iron emission line are present. The lack of cold/warm matter signatures in our data may indicate that, at this "high" level of luminosity, the featureless continuum produced in a relativistic jet overwhelms any thermal and/or reprocessing component, while the two components were at least comparable during the ...

  1. Chandra Observations of the Northeastern Rim of the Cygnus Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsuda, Satoru; Kimura, Masashi; Mori, Koji

    2008-01-01

    We present results from spatially resolved spectral analyses of the northeastern (NE) rim of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant (SNR) based on two Chandra observations. One pointing includes northern outermost abundance-enhanced regions discovered by recent Suzaku observations, while the other pointing is located on regions with "normal" abundances in the NE rim of the Cygnus Loop. The superior spatial resolving power of Chandra allows us to reveal that the abundance-enhanced region is concentrated in an about 200"-thickness region behind the shock front. We confirm absolute metal abundances (i.e., relative to H) as well as abundance ratios between metals are consistent with those of the solar values within a factor of about 2. Also, we find that the emission measure in the region gradually decreases toward the shock front. These features are in contrast with those of the ejecta fragments around the Vela SNR, which leads us to believe that the abundance enhancements are not likely due to metal-rich ejecta. We ...

  2. RHESSI and SphinX Common Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mrozek, Tomasz

    better than GOES XRM - energy resolution: ~0.4 keV Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) Goal: to measure sensitive. #12;RHESSI (Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) - launched: February 2002 - 9 large) energy range: 3-8 keV (16 energy bands, E=0.3 keV) #12;Fluxes comparison SphinX DRM conversion factors

  3. The web-PLOP observation prioritisation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin Snodgrass; Yiannis Tsapras; Rachel Street; Daniel Bramich; Keith Horne; Martin Dominik; Alasdair Allan

    2008-05-14

    We present a description of the automated system used by RoboNet to prioritise follow up observations of microlensing events to search for planets. The system keeps an up-to-date record of all public data from OGLE and MOA together with any existing RoboNet data and produces new PSPL fits whenever new data arrives. It then uses these fits to predict the current or future magnitudes of events, and selects those to observe which will maximise the probability of detecting planets for a given telescope and observing time. The system drives the RoboNet telescopes automatically based on these priorities, but it is also designed to be used interactively by human observers. The prioritisation options, such as telescope/instrument parameters, observing conditions and available time can all be controlled via a web-form, and the output target list can also be customised and sorted to show the parameters that the user desires. The interactive interface is available at http://www.artemis-uk.org/web-PLOP/

  4. Numerical Model Construction with Closed Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix Dietrich; Gerta Köster; Hans-Joachim Bungartz

    2015-10-18

    Performing analysis, optimization and control using simulations of many-particle systems is computationally demanding when no macroscopic model for the dynamics of the variables of interest is available. In case observations on the macroscopic scale can only be produced via legacy simulator code or live experiments, finding a model for these macroscopic variables is challenging. In this paper, we employ time-lagged embedding theory to construct macroscopic numerical models from output data of a black box, such as a simulator or live experiments. Since the state space variables of the constructed, coarse model are dynamically closed and observable by an observation function, we call these variables closed observables. The approach is an online-offline procedure, as model construction from observation data is performed offline and the new model can then be used in an online phase, independent of the original. We illustrate the theoretical findings with numerical models constructed from time series of a two-dimensional ordinary differential equation system, and from the density evolution of a transport-diffusion system. Applicability is demonstrated in a real-world example, where passengers leave a train and the macroscopic model for the density flow onto the platform is constructed with our approach. If only the macroscopic variables are of interest, simulation runtimes with the numerical model are three orders of magnitude lower compared to simulations with the original fine scale model. We conclude with a brief discussion of possibilities of numerical model construction in systematic upscaling, network optimization and uncertainty quantification.

  5. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  6. X-ray computed-tomography observations of water flow through anisotropic methane hydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

    2009-06-01

    We used X-ray computed tomography (CT) to image and quantify the effect of a heterogeneous sand grain-size distribution on the formation and dissociation of methane hydrate, as well as the effect on water flow through the heterogeneous hydrate-bearing sand. A 28 cm long sand column was packed with several segments having vertical and horizontal layers with sands of different grain-size distributions. During the hydrate formation, water redistribution occurred. Observations of water flow through the hydrate-bearing sands showed that water was imbibed more readily into the fine sand, and that higher hydrate saturation increased water imbibition in the coarse sand due to increased capillary strength. Hydrate dissociation induced by depressurization resulted in different flow patterns with the different grain sizes and hydrate saturations, but the relationships between dissociation rates and the grain sizes could not be identified using the CT images. The formation, presence, and dissociation of hydrate in the pore space dramatically impact water saturation and flow in the system.

  7. Total observed organic carbon (TOOC) in the atmosphere: a synthesis of North American observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    publication 1,3-butadiene C4H6 2,3-dimethylbutane C6H14by a factor of 8 for 1,3-butadiene C4H6 with the pristine

  8. Observations of Radio Giant Pulses with GAVRT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Radio giant pulses provide a unique opportunity to study the pulsar radio emission mechanism in exquisite detail. Previous studies have revealed a wide range of properties and phenomena, including extraordinarily high brightness temperatures, sub-nanosecond emission features, and banded dynamic spectra. New measurements of giant pulse characteristics can help guide and test theoretical emission models. To this end, an extensive observation campaign has begun which will provide more than 500 hours on the Crab with a 34-meter antenna located in California, USA. The observations are being done as part of an educational outreach program called the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT). This antenna has a novel wide bandwidth receiver which provides up to 8 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the range of 2.5 to 14 GHz. These observations will provide detailed information about the variability, amplitude distribution, and detailed frequency structure of radio giant pulses. In addition, a database of pulses ...

  9. Factors that control Typha marsh evapotranspiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulden, M. L.; Litvak, M.; Miller, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    the conductances and vapor pressure gradients. D subcanopythe observed ambient vapor pressure and the vapor pressureg) The difference in vapor pressure between ambient air and

  10. Odd orders in Shor's factoring algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Lawson

    2015-01-13

    Shor's factoring algorithm (SFA) finds the prime factors of a number, $N=p_1 p_2$, exponentially faster than the best known classical algorithm. Responsible for the speed-up is a subroutine called the quantum order finding algorithm (QOFA) which calculates the order -- the smallest integer, $r$, satisfying $a^r \\mod N =1$, where $a$ is a randomly chosen integer coprime to $N$ (meaning their greatest common divisor is one, $\\gcd(a, N) =1$). Given $r$, and with probability not less than $1/2$, the factors are given by $p_1 = \\gcd (a^{\\frac{r}{2}} - 1, N)$ and $p_2 = \\gcd (a^{\\frac{r}{2}} + 1, N)$. For odd $r$ it is assumed the factors cannot be found (since $a^{\\frac{r}{2}}$ is not generally integer) and the QOFA is relaunched with a different value of $a$. But a recent paper [E. Martin-Lopez: Nat Photon {\\bf 6}, 773 (2012)] noted that the factors can sometimes be found from odd orders if the coprime is square. This raises the question of improving SFA's success probability by considering odd orders. We show that an improvement is possible, though it is small. We present two techniques for retrieving the order from apparently useless runs of the QOFA: not discarding odd orders; and looking out for new order finding relations in the case of failure. In terms of efficiency, using our techniques is equivalent to avoiding square coprimes and disregarding odd orders, which is simpler in practice. Even still, our techniques may be useful in the near future, while demonstrations are restricted to factoring small numbers. The most convincing demonstrations of the QOFA are those that return a non-power-of-two order, making odd orders that lead to the factors attractive to experimentalists.

  11. The collisional relaxation of electrons in hot flaring plasma and inferring the properties of solar flare accelerated electrons from X-ray observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffrey, Natasha; Emslie, Gordon; Bian, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    X-ray observations are a direct diagnostic of fast electrons produced in solar flares, energized during the energy release process and directed towards the Sun. Since the properties of accelerated electrons can be substantially changed during their transport and interaction with the background plasma, a model must ultimately be applied to X-ray observations in order to understand the mechanism responsible for their acceleration. A cold thick target model is ubiquitously used for this task, since it provides a simple analytic relationship between the accelerated electron spectrum and the emitting electron spectrum in the X-ray source, with the latter quantity readily obtained from X-ray observations. However, such a model is inappropriate for the majority of solar flares in which the electrons propagate in a hot megaKelvin plasma, because it does not take into account the physics of thermalization of fast electrons. The use of a more realistic model, properly accounting for the properties of the background pla...

  12. Black Holes: from Speculations to Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas W. Baumgarte

    2006-04-13

    This paper provides a brief review of the history of our understanding and knowledge of black holes. Starting with early speculations on ``dark stars'' I discuss the Schwarzschild "black hole" solution to Einstein's field equations and the development of its interpretation from "physically meaningless" to describing the perhaps most exotic and yet "most perfect" macroscopic object in the universe. I describe different astrophysical black hole populations and discuss some of their observational evidence. Finally I close by speculating about future observations of black holes with the new generation of gravitational wave detectors.

  13. The Formaldehyde Masers in Sgr B2: Very Long Baseline Array and Very Large Array Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian M. Hoffman; W. M. Goss; Patrick Palmer

    2006-09-28

    Observations of two of the formaldehyde (H2CO) masers (A and D) in Sgr B2 using the VLBA+Y27 (resolution ~0.01") and the VLA (resolution ~9") are presented. The VLBA observations show compact sources (10^8 K. The maser sources are partially resolved in the VLBA observations. The flux densities in the VLBA observations are about 1/2 those of the VLA; and, the linewidths are about 2/3 of the VLA values. The applicability of a core-halo model for the emission distribution is demonstrated. Comparison with earlier H2CO absorption observations and with ammonia (NH3) observations suggests that H2CO masers form in shocked gas. Comparison of the integrated flux densities in current VLA observations with those in previous observations indicates that (1) most of the masers have varied in the past 20 years, and (2) intensity variations are typically less than a factor of two compared to the 20-year mean. No significant linear or circular polarization is detected with either instrument.

  14. The Formaldehyde Masers in Sgr B2: Very Long Baseline Array and Very Large Array Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, I M; Palmer, P; Hoffman, Ian M.; Palmer, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Observations of two of the formaldehyde (H2CO) masers (A and D) in Sgr B2 using the VLBA+Y27 (resolution ~0.01") and the VLA (resolution ~9") are presented. The VLBA observations show compact sources (10^8 K. The maser sources are partially resolved in the VLBA observations. The flux densities in the VLBA observations are about 1/2 those of the VLA; and, the linewidths are about 2/3 of the VLA values. The applicability of a core-halo model for the emission distribution is demonstrated. Comparison with earlier H2CO absorption observations and with ammonia (NH3) observations suggests that H2CO masers form in shocked gas. Comparison of the integrated flux densities in current VLA observations with those in previous observations indicates that (1) most of the masers have varied in the past 20 years, and (2) intensity variations are typically less than a factor of two compared to the 20-year mean. No significant linear or circular polarization is detected with either instrument.

  15. Simulating Factorization with a Quantum Computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose Luis Rosales

    2015-05-12

    Modern cryptography is largely based on complexity assumptions, for example, the ubiquitous RSA is based on the supposed complexity of the prime factorization problem. Thus, it is of fundamental importance to understand how a quantum computer would eventually weaken these algorithms. In this paper, one follows Feynman's prescription for a computer to simulate the physics corresponding to the algorithm of factoring a large number $N$ into primes. Using Dirac-Jordan transformation theory one translates factorization into the language of quantum hermitical operators, acting on the vectors of the Hilbert space. This leads to obtaining the ensemble of factorization of $N$ in terms of the Euler function $\\varphi(N)$, that is quantized. On the other hand, considering $N$ as a parameter of the computer, a Quantum Mechanical Prime Counting Function $\\pi_{QM}(x)$, where $x$ factorizes $N$, is derived. This function converges to $\\pi(x)$ when $N\\gg x$. It has no counterpart in analytic number theory and its derivation relies on semiclassical quantization alone.

  16. VLA multifrequency observations of RS CVn binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Garcia-Sanchez; J. M. Paredes; M. Ribo

    2003-03-21

    We present multiepoch Very Large Array (VLA) observations at 1.4 GHz, 4.9 GHz, 8.5 GHz and 14.9 GHz for a sample of eight RS CVn binary systems. Circular polarization measurements of these systems are also reported. Most of the fluxes observed are consistent with incoherent emission from mildly relativistic electrons. Several systems show an increase of the degree of circular polarization with increasing frequency in the optically thin regime, in conflict with predictions by gyrosynchrotron models. We observed a reversal in the sense of circular polarization with increasing frequency in three non-eclipsing systems: EI Eri, DM Uma and HD 8358. We find clear evidence for coherent plasma emission at 1.4 GHz in the quiescent spectrum of HD 8358 during the helicity reversal. The degrees of polarization of the other two systems could also be accounted for by a coherent emission process. The observations of ER Vul revealed two U-shaped flux spectra at the highest frequencies. The U-shape of the spectra may be accounted for by an optically thin gyrosynchrotron source for the low frequency part whereas the high frequency part is dominated by a thermal emission component.

  17. Equivalences on Observable Processes Irek Ulidowski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulidowski, Irek

    and finitely observable. We define copy+refusal testing equivalence as indistinguishabil- ity by copy, provided their operational meaning is defined by realistically implementable transition rules. Process behaviour which can be established by so-called local testing but not global testing is called locally

  18. Experimental Observation of Bonding Electrons in Proteins*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental Observation of Bonding Electrons in Proteins* (Received for publication, April 15 enables bonding details of electron distributions in proteins to be revealed experimentally for the first time. We move one step closer to imaging directly the fine details of the electronic structure on which

  19. Energy flow observables in hadronic collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Hautmann

    2012-05-24

    We present recent QCD calculations of energy flow distributions associated with the production of jets at wide rapidity separations in high-energy hadron collisions, and discuss the role of these observables to analyze contributions from parton showering and from multiple parton collisions.

  20. OH Maser Observations of Planetary Nebulae Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. M. Deacon; J. M. Chapman; A. J. Green

    2004-06-08

    We present OH maser observations at 1612, 1665, 1667, and 1720 MHz for 86 post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars selected from a survey of 1612 MHz maser sources in the Galactic Plane. The observations were taken with the Parkes Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array between 2002 September and 2003 August. Post-AGB stars are the precursors to planetary nebulae, the diverse morphological range of which is unexplained. The maser observations were taken to investigate the onset and incidence of wind asymmetries during the post-AGB phase. We re-detected all 86 sources at 1612 MHz while 27 sources were detected at 1665 and 45 at 1667 MHz. One source was re-detected at 1720 MHz. We present a classification scheme for the maser profiles and show that 25% of sources in our sample are likely to have asymmetric or bipolar outflows. From a comparison of the maser and far-infrared properties we find that there is a likely trend in the shape of the maser profiles with some sources evolving from double-peaked to irregular to fully bipolar profiles. A subset of higher-mass sources stand out as having almost no mainline emission and mostly double-peaked profiles. At least 25% of sources in the sample are variable at one or more of the frequencies observed. We also confirm a previously-noted 1667 MHz overshoot phenomenon.

  1. GEO Secretariat Global Earth Observing System of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Epidemiology 3. Energy Management 4. Climate Variability & Change 5. Water Management 6. Weather Forecasting 7© GEO Secretariat Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS): Biodiversity, Ecosystems and GEO BON GEO Forest Monitoring Symposium 4 November 2008 Douglas M. Muchoney, Ph.D. U.S. Geological

  2. General relativistic observables of the GRAIL mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turyshev, Slava G; Sazhin, Mikhail V

    2012-01-01

    We present a realization of astronomical relativistic reference frames in the solar system and its application to the GRAIL mission. We model the necessary spacetime coordinate transformations for light-trip time computations and address some practical aspects of the implementation of the resulting model. We develop all the relevant relativistic coordinate transformations that are needed to describe the motion of the GRAIL spacecraft and to compute all observable quantities. We take into account major relativistic effects contributing to the dual one-way range observable, which is derived from one-way signal travel times between the two GRAIL spacecraft. We develop a general relativistic model for this fundamental observable of GRAIL, accurate to 1 $\\mu$m. We develop and present a relativistic model for another key observable of this experiment, the dual one-way range-rate, accurate to 1 $\\mu$m/s. The presented formulation justifies the basic assumptions behind the design of the GRAIL mission. It may also be ...

  3. General relativistic observables of the GRAIL mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slava G. Turyshev; Viktor T. Toth; Mikhail V. Sazhin

    2012-12-18

    We present a realization of astronomical relativistic reference frames in the solar system and its application to the GRAIL mission. We model the necessary spacetime coordinate transformations for light-trip time computations and address some practical aspects of the implementation of the resulting model. We develop all the relevant relativistic coordinate transformations that are needed to describe the motion of the GRAIL spacecraft and to compute all observable quantities. We take into account major relativistic effects contributing to the dual one-way range observable, which is derived from one-way signal travel times between the two GRAIL spacecraft. We develop a general relativistic model for this fundamental observable of GRAIL, accurate to 1 $\\mu$m. We develop and present a relativistic model for another key observable of this experiment, the dual one-way range-rate, accurate to 1 $\\mu$m/s. The presented formulation justifies the basic assumptions behind the design of the GRAIL mission. It may also be used to further improve the already impressive results of this lunar gravity recovery experiment after the mission is complete. Finally, we present transformation rules for frequencies and gravitational potentials and their application to GRAIL.

  4. 8) Stratospheric equatorial variability a) Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lott, Francois

    speed. Phase lines inclined eastward when altitude increases indicating upward propation Signal field) Westward phase propagation but eastward group propagation Phase lines inclined westward Signal;5 Satellites wind observations (UARS, Swinbak et Ortland 1997) The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (low stratosphere

  5. Uncertain Probabilistic Roadmaps with Observations Richard Dearden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Xin

    Uncertain Probabilistic Roadmaps with Observations Richard Dearden School of Computer Science Science University of Birmingham Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK mlk@cs.bham.ac.uk Abstract Probabilistic roadmaps. Introduction Probabilistic Roadmaps (PRM) are a popular technique for path planning in high dimensional spaces

  6. Observation of D(0) ? K+pi-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ammar, Raymond G.; Ball, S.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Coppage, Don; Copty, N.; Davis, Robin E. P.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, Nowhan; Lam, H.

    1994-03-01

    Using the CLEO II data sample, with an integrated luminosity of 1.8 fb-1 at and near the UPSILON(4S) resonance, we have observed a signal for D0 --> K+pi-, which could be due to either D0D0BAR mixing or doubly Cabibbo suppressed decay, or a...

  7. Timed Automata with Observers under Energy Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    of schedules given an initial energy level of one. For one-clock priced timed automata both the lowerTimed Automata with Observers under Energy Constraints Patricia Bouyer Lab. Spécification et@lsv.ens-cachan.fr ABSTRACT In this paper we study one-clock priced timed automata in which prices can grow linearly ( p = k

  8. On the consistent use of Constructed Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Trott

    2015-01-17

    We define "constructed observables" as relating experimental measurements to terms in a Lagrangian while simultaneously making assumptions about possible deviations from the Standard Model (SM), in other Lagrangian terms. Ensuring that the SM effective field theory (EFT) is constrained correctly when using constructed observables requires that their defining conditions are imposed on the EFT in a manner that is consistent with the equations of motion. Failing to do so can result in a "functionally redundant" operator basis and the wrong expectation as to how experimental quantities are related in the EFT. We illustrate the issues involved considering the $\\rm S$ parameter and the off shell triple gauge coupling (TGC) verticies. We show that the relationships between $h \\rightarrow V \\bar{f} \\, f$ decay and the off shell TGC verticies are subject to these subtleties, and how the connections between these observables vanish in the limit of strong bounds due to LEP. The challenge of using constructed observables to consistently constrain the Standard Model EFT is only expected to grow with future LHC data, as more complex processes are studied.

  9. Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs (Invited Paper)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs (Invited Paper) Andrew J. Whalen*t, Sean N. Brennan Engineering, + Engineering Science and Mechanics, Neurosurgery, and Physics, Penn State University, University) neuronal networks as a function of 1) the connection topology and sym metry, 2) the measured nodes, and 3

  10. Observational constraints on Tachyon and DBI inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sheng; Liddle, Andrew R., E-mail: sl277@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: arl@roe.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We present a systematic method for evaluation of perturbation observables in non-canonical single-field inflation models within the slow-roll approximation, which allied with field redefinitions enables predictions to be established for a wide range of models. We use this to investigate various non-canonical inflation models, including Tachyon inflation and DBI inflation. The Lambert W function will be used extensively in our method for the evaluation of observables. In the Tachyon case, in the slow-roll approximation the model can be approximated by a canonical field with a redefined potential, which yields predictions in better agreement with observations than the canonical equivalents. For DBI inflation models we consider contributions from both the scalar potential and the warp geometry. In the case of a quartic potential, we find a formula for the observables under both non-relativistic (sound speed c{sub s}{sup 2} ? 1) and relativistic behaviour (c{sub s}{sup 2} || 1) of the scalar DBI inflaton. For a quadratic potential we find two branches in the non-relativistic c{sub s}{sup 2} ? 1 case, determined by the competition of model parameters, while for the relativistic case c{sub s}{sup 2} ? 0, we find consistency with results already in the literature. We present a comparison to the latest Planck satellite observations. Most of the non-canonical models we investigate, including the Tachyon, are better fits to data than canonical models with the same potential, but we find that DBI models in the slow-roll regime have difficulty in matching the data.

  11. Chiral extrapolation of nucleon magnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Wang; D. Leinweber; A. W. Thomas; R.Young

    2007-04-01

    The extrapolation of nucleon magnetic form factors calculated within lattice QCD is investigated within a framework based upon heavy baryon chiral effective-field theory. All one-loop graphs are considered at arbitrary momentum transfer and all octet and decuplet baryons are included in the intermediate states. Finite range regularization is applied to improve the convergence in the quark-mass expansion. At each value of the momentum transfer (Q{sup 2}), a separate extrapolation to the physical pion mass is carried out as a function of m{sub {pi}} alone. Because of the large values of Q{sup 2} involved, the role of the pion form factor in the standard pion-loop integrals is also investigated. The resulting values of the form factors at the physical pion mass are compared with experimental data as a function of Q{sup 2} and demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the chiral extrapolation methods presented herein.

  12. Human factors in nuclear technology - a history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.B. )

    1992-01-01

    Human factors, human factors engineering (HFE), or ergonomics did not receive much formal attention in nuclear technology prior to the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) incident. Three principal reasons exist for this lack of concern. First, emerging technologies show little concern with how people will use a new system. Making the new technology work is considered more important than the people who will use it. Second, the culture of the users of nuclear power did not recognize a need for human factors. Traditional utilities had well established and effective engineering designs for control of electric power generation, while medicine considered the use of nuclear isotopes another useful tool, not requiring special ergonomics. Finally, the nuclear industry owed much to Admiral Rickover. He was definitely opposed.

  13. Hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syukurilla, L. Mart, T.

    2014-09-25

    We have revisited the effect of hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction process by utilizing an isobaric model developed for kaon photoproduction off the proton. The model is able to reproduce the available experimental data nicely as well as to reveal the origin of the second peak in the total cross section, which was the main source of confusion for decades. Different from our previous study, in the present work we explore the possibility of using different hadronic form factors in each of the K?N vertices. The use of different hadronic form factors, e.g. dipole, Gaussian, and generalized dipole, has been found to produce a more flexible isobar model, which can provide a significant improvement in the model.

  14. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  15. Unidentified factors in the nutrition of chickens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dieckert, Julius Walter

    1951-01-01

    of the factor were described? The factor was found to be stable to heat and acid, Xn fact? ths activity of liver?L" wac increased several?4'oi14 by autoclaving at pH 1 for thirty xdxxutes? RecentIy? Tovs& Lslor+ and RLvsbgem {'%) reported that mink required...~ The idea was expressed explicitly by Hapson ('3&? '33) and hy ByerIy et aI ('33) ~ Hapson in working with rats found that these animals required something associated with animal protein for normal growthI unfortunate+? he did not con~us the study, ByurIy...

  16. Momentum compaction and phase slip factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Section 2.3.11 of the Handbook of Accelerator Physics and Engineering on Landau damping is updated. The slip factor and its higher orders are given in terms of the various orders of the momentum compaction. With the aid of a simplified FODO lattice, formulas are given for the alteration of the lower orders of the momentum compaction by various higher multipole magnets. The transition to isochronicity is next demonstrated. Formulas are given for the extraction of the first three orders of the slip factor from the measurement of the synchrotron tune while changing the rf frequency. Finally bunch-length compression experiments in semi-isochronous rings are reported.

  17. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  18. Observational evidence for travelling wave modes bearing distance proportional shifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guruprasad, V

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies of range between the Space Surveillance Network radars and the Deep Space Network in tracking the 1998 earth flyby of NEAR, and between ESA's Doppler and range data in Rosetta's 2009 flyby, reveal a consistent excess delay, or lag, equal to instantaneous one-way travel time in the telemetry signals. These lags readily explain all details of the flyby anomaly, and are shown to be symptoms of chirp d'Alembertian travelling wave solutions, relating to traditional sinusoidal waves by a rotation of the spectral decomposition due to the clock acceleration caused by the Doppler rates during the flybys. The lags thus relate to special relativity, but yield distance proportional shifts like those of cosmology at short range.

  19. Observational evidence for travelling wave modes bearing distance proportional shifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Guruprasad

    2015-07-18

    Discrepancies of range between the Space Surveillance Network radars and the Deep Space Network in tracking the 1998 earth flyby of NEAR, and between ESA's Doppler and range data in Rosetta's 2009 flyby, reveal a consistent excess delay, or lag, equal to instantaneous one-way travel time in the telemetry signals. These lags readily explain all details of the flyby anomaly, and are shown to be symptoms of chirp d'Alembertian travelling wave solutions, relating to traditional sinusoidal waves by a rotation of the spectral decomposition due to the clock acceleration caused by the Doppler rates during the flybys. The lags thus relate to special relativity, but yield distance proportional shifts like those of cosmology at short range.

  20. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada); Siemann, Stefan, E-mail: ssiemann@laurentian.ca [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Rd., Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

  1. RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF HD 80606 NEAR PLANETARY PERIASTRON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Farrell, W. M.; Shankland, P. D.; Blank, D. L.

    2010-12-15

    This paper reports Very Large Array observations at 325 and 1425 MHz ({lambda}90 cm and {lambda}20 cm) during and near the periastron passage of HD 80606b on HJD 2454424.86 (2007 November 20). We obtain flux density limits (3{sigma}) of 1.7 mJy and 48 {mu}Jy at 325 and 1425 MHz, respectively, equivalent to planetary luminosity limits of 2.3 x 10{sup 24} erg s{sup -1} and 2.7 x 10{sup 23} erg s{sup -1}. Unfortunately, these are several orders of magnitude above the nominal Jovian value (at 40 MHz) of 2 x 10{sup 18} erg s{sup -1}. The motivation for these observations was that the planetary magnetospheric emission is driven by a stellar wind-planetary magnetosphere interaction so that the planetary luminosity would be elevated near periastron. We estimate that, near periastron, HD 80606b might be as much as 3000 times more luminous than Jupiter. Recent transit observations of HD 80606b provide reasonably stringent constraints on the planetary mass and radius, and, because of the planet's highly eccentric orbit, its rotation period is likely to be 'pseudo-synchronized' to its orbital period, allowing a robust estimate of the former. Consequently, we are able to make relatively robust estimates of the emission frequency of the planetary magnetospheric emission and find it to be around 60-90 MHz. While this is too low for our reported observations, we compare HD 80606b to other high-eccentricity systems and assess the detection possibilities for both near-term and more distant future systems. Of the known high-eccentricity planets, only HD 80606b is likely to be detectable, as the others (HD 20782B and HD 4113) are both lower mass and longer rotational periods, which imply weaker magnetic field strengths. We find that both the forthcoming 'EVLA low band' system, which will operate as low as 65 MHz, and the Low Frequency Array may be able to improve upon our planetary luminosity limits for HD 80606b, and do so at a more optimum frequency. If the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA-lo) and a future lunar radio array are able to approach their thermal noise limits, they should be able to detect an HD 80606b-like planet, unless the amount by which the planet's luminosity increases is substantially less than the factor of 3000 that we estimate; for the SKA-lo, which is to be located in the southern hemisphere, future planetary surveys will have to find southern hemisphere equivalents of HD 80606b.

  2. The Solar Wind Charge-Exchange Production Factor for Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuntz, K D; Collier, M R; Connor, H K; Cravens, T E; Koutroumpa, D; Porter, F S; Robertson, I P; Sibeck, D G; Snowden, S L; Thomas, N E; Wash, B M

    2015-01-01

    The production factor, or broad band averaged cross-section, for solar wind charge-exchange with hydrogen producing emission in the ROSAT 1/4 keV (R12) band is $3.8\\pm0.2\\times10^{-20}$ count degree$^{-2}$ cm$^4$. This value is derived from a comparison of the Long-Term (background) Enhancements in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey with magnetohysdrodynamic simulations of the magnetosheath. This value is 1.8 to 4.5 times higher than values derived from limited atomic data, suggesting that those values may be missing a large number of faint lines. This production factor is important for deriving the exact amount of 1/4 keV band flux that is due to the Local Hot Bubble, for planning future observations in the 1/4 keV band, and for evaluating proposals for remote sensing of the magnetosheath. The same method cannot be applied to the 3/4 keV band as that band, being composed primarily of the oxygen lines, is far more sensitive to the detailed abundances and ionization balance in the solar wind. We also show, incidentally,...

  3. Photon impact factor and k{sub T} factorization in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Balitsky

    2012-12-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as a NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for the structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  4. Domain Assignment to Transcription FactorsDomain Assignment to Transcription Factors 412 Proteins with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babu, M. Madan

    Domain Assignment to Transcription FactorsDomain Assignment to Transcription Factors 412 Proteins with at least one SCOP DBD assignment 412 Proteins with at least one SCOP DBD assignment 7 proteins with PFAM DBD assignment 7 proteins with PFAM DBD assignment 419 proteins with DBD assignment419 proteins

  5. Observations of Solids in Protoplanetary Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the state of research that employs astronomical (remote sensing) observations of solids ("dust") in young circumstellar disks to learn about planet formation. The intention is for it to serve as an accessible, introductory, pedagogical resource for junior scientists interested in the subject. After some historical background and a basic observational primer, the focus is shifted to the three fundamental topics that broadly define the field: (1) demographics -- the relationships between disk properties and the characteristics of their environments and hosts; (2) structure -- the spatial distribution of disk material and its associated physical conditions and composition; and (3) evolution -- the signposts of key changes in disk properties, including the growth and migration of solids and the impact of dynamical interactions with young planetary systems. Based on the state of the art results in these areas, suggestions are made for potentially fruitful lines of work in the near future.

  6. Observables in Strongly Coupled Anisotropic Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitrios Giataganas

    2013-12-30

    We review certain anisotropic gauge/gravity dualities, focusing more on a theory with space dependent axion term. Then we discuss and also present some new results for several observables: the static potential and force, the imaginary part of the static potential, the quark dipole in the plasma wind, the drag force and diffusion time, the jet quenching of heavy and light quarks, the energy loss of rotating quarks, the photon production and finally the violation of the holographic viscosity over entropy bound. The corresponding weakly coupled results are also discussed. Finally we investigate the bounds of the parameters of the current strongly coupled anisotropic theories attempting to match them with the observed quark-gluon plasma and report the problems appear.

  7. First direct observation of muon antineutrino disappearance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adamson, P.

    2011-07-05

    This letter reports the first direct observation of muon antineutrino disappearance. The MINOS experiment has taken data with an accelerator beam optimized for ??? production, accumulating an exposure of 1.71 x 1020 protons on target. In the Far Detector, 97 charged current ??? events are observed. The no-oscillation hypothesis predicts 156 events and is excluded at 6.3?. The best fit to oscillation yields |?m?2| = (3.36-0.40 +0.46(stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10-3 eV2, sin2(2 ??) = 0.86-0.12+0.11 (stat.) ± 0.01(syst.). The MINOS ?? and ??? measurements are consistent at the 2.0% confidence level, assuming identical underlying oscillation parameters.

  8. Observational constraints on braneworld chaotic inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew R Liddle; Anthony J Smith

    2003-08-13

    We examine observational constraints on chaotic inflation models in the Randall-Sundrum Type II braneworld. If inflation takes place in the high-energy regime, the perturbations produced by the quadratic potential are further from scale-invariance than in the standard cosmology, in the quartic case more or less unchanged, while for potentials of greater exponent the trend is reversed. We test these predictions against a data compilation including the WMAP measurements of microwave anisotropies and the 2dF galaxy power spectrum. While in the standard cosmology the quartic potential is at the border of what the data allow and all higher powers excluded, we find that in the high-energy regime of braneworld inflation even the quadratic case is under strong observational pressure. We also investigate the intermediate regime where the brane tension is comparable to the inflationary energy scale, where the deviations from scale-invariance prove to be greater.

  9. APS DPP, Savannah 2004 Tomographic Observation ofTomographic Observation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    -formed FRC, or generate a FRC from a pre-ionized plasma The TCS chamber is constructed of a 40-cm radiusAPS DPP, Savannah 2004 Tomographic Observation ofTomographic Observation of FRC Rotational Modes and Stabilization byFRC Rotational Modes and Stabilization by Various RMF Antenna Geometries in TCSVarious RMF

  10. Bioorganometallic chemistry: biocatalytic oxidation reactions with biomimetic nad+/nadh co-factors and [cp*rh(bpy)h]+ for selective organic synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Jochen; Hollman, Frank; Ho, The Vinh; Schnyder, Adrian; Fish, Richard H.; Schmid, Andreas

    2004-03-09

    The biocatalytic, regioselective hydroxylation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl to the corresponding catechol was accomplished utilizing the monooxygenase 2-hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase (HbpA). The necessary natural nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) co-factor for this biocatalytic process was replaced by a biomimetic co-factor, N-benzylnicotinamide bromide, 1a. The interaction between the flavin (FAD) containing HbpA enzyme and the corresponding biomimetic NADH compound, N-benzyl-1,4-dihdronicotinamide, 1b, for hydride transfers, was shown to readily occur. The in situ recycling of the reduced NADH biomimic 1b from 1a was accomplished with [Cp*Rh(bpy)H](Cl); however, productive coupling of this regeneration reaction to the enzymatic hydroxylation reaction was not totally successful, due to a deactivation process concerning the HbpA enzyme peripheral groups; i.e., -SH or -NH{sub 2} possibly reacting with the precatalyst, [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H{sub 2}O)](Cl){sub 2}, and thus inhibiting the co-factor regeneration process. The deactivation mechanism was studied, and a promising strategy of derivatizing these peripheral -SH or -NH{sub 2} groups with a polymer containing epoxide was successful in circumventing the undesired interaction between HbpA and the precatalyst. This latter strategy allowed tandem co-factor regeneration using 1a or 2a, [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H2O)](Cl){sub 2}, and formate ion, in conjunction with the polymer bound, FAD containing HbpA enzyme to provide the catechol product.

  11. LNG Observer: Second Qatargas train goes onstream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    The January-February, 1997 issue of the LNG Observer is presented. The following topics are discussed: second Qatargas train goes onstream; financing for the eighth Indonesian liquefaction train; Koreans take stakes in Oman LNG; US imports and exports of LNG in 1996; A 60% increase in proved reserves on the North West Shelf; proposals for Indian LNG terminal CEDIGAZ forecasts world LNG trade by 2010; growth for North African gas production and exports; and new forecast sees strong growth for Asian gas.

  12. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  13. Cosmological inference using gravitational wave observations alone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter Del Pozzo; Tjonnie G. F. Li; Chris Messenger

    2015-06-22

    Gravitational waves emitted during the coalescence of binary neutron star systems are self-calibrating signals. As such they can provide a direct measurement of the luminosity distance to a source without the need for a cosmic distance scale ladder. In general, however, the corresponding redshift measurement needs to be obtained electromagnetically since it is totally degenerate with the total mass of the system. Nevertheless, recent Fisher matrix studies has shown that if information about the equation of state of the neutron stars is available, it is indeed possible to extract redshift information from the gravitational wave signal alone. Therefore, measuring the cosmological parameters in pure gravitational wave fashion is possible. Furthermore, the huge number of sources potentially observable by the Einstein Telescope has led to speculations that the gravitational wave measurement is potentially competitive with traditional methods. The Einstein telescope is a conceptual study for a third generation gravitational wave detector which is designed to yield detections of $10^3-10^7$ binary neutron star systems per year. This study presents the first Bayesian investigation of the accuracy with which the cosmological parameters can be measured using observations of binary neutron star systems by the Einstein Telescope with the one year of observations. We find by direct simulation of $10^3$ detections of binary neutron stars that, within our simplifying assumptions, $H_0,\\Omega_m,\\Omega_\\Lambda,w_0$ and $w_1$ can be measured at the $95\\%$ level with an accuracy of $\\sim 8\\%,65\\%,39\\%,80\\%$ and $90\\%$, respectively. We also find, by extrapolation, that a measurement accuracy comparable with current measurements by Planck is reached for a number of observed events $O(10^{6-7})$

  14. X-ray Observations of Mrk 231

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Turner

    1998-08-10

    This paper presents new X-ray observations of Mrk 231, an active galaxy of particular interest due to its large infrared luminosity and the presence of several blueshifted broad absorption line (BAL) systems, a phenomenon observed in a small fraction of QSOs. A ROSAT HRI image of Mrk 231 is presented, this shows an extended region of soft X-ray emission, covering several tens of kpc, consistent with the extent of the host galaxy. An ASCA observation of Mrk 231 is also presented. Hard X-rays are detected but the data show no significant variability in X-ray flux. The hard X-ray continuum is heavily attenuated and X-ray column estimates range from ~ 2 x 10^{22} - 10^{23} cm^{-2} depending on whether the material is assumed to be neutral or ionized, and on the model assumed for the extended X-ray component. These ASCA data provide only the second hard X-ray spectrum of a BAL AGN presented to date. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution of the source is discussed. While Mrk 231 is X-ray weak compared to Seyfert 1 galaxies, it has an optical-to-X-ray spectrum typical of a QSO.

  15. Chaos, Dirac observables and constraint quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianca Dittrich; Philipp A. Hoehn; Tim A. Koslowski; Mike I. Nelson

    2015-08-08

    There is good evidence that full general relativity is non-integrable or even chaotic. We point out the severe repercussions: differentiable Dirac observables and a reduced phase space do not exist in non-integrable constrained systems and are thus unlikely to occur in a generic general relativistic context. Instead, gauge invariant quantities generally become discontinuous, thus not admitting Poisson-algebraic structures and posing serious challenges to a quantization. Non-integrability also renders the paradigm of relational dynamics cumbersome, thereby straining common interpretations of the dynamics. We illustrate these conceptual and technical challenges with simple toy models. In particular, we exhibit reparametrization invariant models which fail to be integrable and, as a consequence, can either not be quantized with standard methods or lead to sick quantum theories without a semiclassical limit. These troubles are qualitatively distinct from semiclassical subtleties in unconstrained quantum chaos and can be directly traced back to the scarcity of Dirac observables. As a possible resolution, we propose to change the method of quantization by refining the configuration space topology until the generalized observables become continuous in the new topology and can acquire a quantum representation. This leads to the polymer quantization method underlying loop quantum cosmology and gravity. Remarkably, the polymer quantum theory circumvents the problems of the quantization with smooth topology, indicating that non-integrability and chaos, while a challenge, may not be a fundamental obstruction for quantum gravity.

  16. Rayleigh lidar observations of mesosphere temperature structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meriwether, J.W.; Dao, P.D.; Mcnutt, R.T.; Klemetti, W.; Moskowitz, W.; Davidson, G. [Hanscom Air Force Base, MA (United States)]|[PhotoMetrics, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Ground-based observations of atmospheric density profiles to 92 km were obtained for four successive seasons between summer 1989 and spring 1990. These results were obtained with a powerful Rayleigh lidar facility located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Dayton, Ohio). This instrument combined a 14-W XeF laser transmitter with a 2.54-m receiver mirror to observe returns from altitudes between 40 and 95 km. Analysis of the scale height dependence of the density profiles produced temperatures with a measurement error of about 5 K (approximately 2.5%) at 90 km when the lidar data was averaged for 20 min. and smoothed in height over 2.7 km. Examination of these profiles for the total of 18 nights showed that there often existed in the mesophere a layer of enhanced temperatures when compared with the U.S. standard profile. The layer centroid height was about 85 km for summer and 70 to 75 km for winter. Data obtained for the equinoctial periods showed the amplitude of these layers to be weak. The winter temperature profiles showed evidence for long-period waves passing through the region of the thermal anomaly while the equinox profiles revealed more sporadic wave activity with shorter vertical wavelengths. Both the winter and summer temperature data displayed regions where the observed lapse rate approached the adiabatic lapse rate. In the summer the wave activity near the iversion layer was weak.

  17. Infrared Freezing of Euclidean QCD observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul M. Brooks; C. J. Maxwell

    2006-08-22

    We consider the leading one-chain term in a skeleton expansion for QCD observables and show that for energies Q^2>\\Lambda^2, where Q^2=\\Lambda^2 is the Landau pole in the coupling, the skeleton expansion result is equivalent to the standard Borel integral representation, with ambiguities related to infrared (IR) renormalons. For Q^2freezing behaviour, vanishing at Q^2=0. Finiteness at Q^2=\\Lambda^2 implies specific relations between the residues of IR and UV renormalons in the Borel plane. These relations, only one of which has previously been noted (though it remained unexplained) are shown to follow from the continuity of the characteristic function in the skeleton expansion. By considering the compensation of non-perturbative and perturbative ambiguities we are led to a result for the Q^2 dependence of these observables at all Q^2, in which there is a single undetermined non-perturbative parameter, and which involves the skeleton expansion characteristic function. The observables freeze to zero in the infrared. We briefly consider the freezing behaviour of the Minkowskian R_{e+e-} ratio.

  18. Observational consequencies of baryonic gaseous dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shchekinov, Yu A

    1998-01-01

    Possible observational consequencies of dark matter in the Galaxy in the form of dense molecular gas clouds -- clumpuscules of masses $M_c\\sim 10^{-3}~\\msun$ and radii $R_c\\sim 3\\times 10^{13}$ cm -- are considered. Recent models of the extreme scattering events -- refraction of radio-waves from quasars in dense plasma clumps in the Galactic halo -- definitely show on such clouds as possible dark matter candidate. We arugue that collisions of such clumpuscules are quite frequent: around $1-10~\\msun$ a year can be ejected in the intestellar medium due to collisions. Optical continuum and 21 cm emissions from post-collisional gas are found to be observable. We show that clumpuscules can form around O stars HII regions of sizes $R\\sim 30$ pc and emission measure $EM\\simeq 20$ cm$^{-6}$ pc, and can also be observable in $H_\\alpha$ emission. Evaporation of clumpuscules by external ionising radiation can be a substantial mass source. From requirement that the total mass input on the Hubble time cannot exceed the lu...

  19. Observational consequences of baryonic gaseous dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. A. Shchekinov

    1998-12-03

    Possible observational consequences of dark matter in the Galaxy in the form of dense molecular gas clouds - clumpuscules of masses $M_c\\sim 10^{-3} \\msun$ and radii $R_c\\sim 3\\times 10^{13}$ cm - are considered. Recent models of the extreme scattering events - refraction of radio-waves from quasars in dense plasma clumps in the Galactic halo - definitely show on such clouds as possible dark matter candidate. We argue that collisions of such clumpuscules are quite frequent: around $1-10 \\msun$ a year can be ejected in the interstellar medium due to collisions. Optical continuum and 21 cm emissions from post-collisional gas are found to be observable. We show that clumpuscules can form around O stars HII regions of sizes $R\\sim 30$ pc and emission measure $EM\\simeq 20 cm^{-6}$ pc, and can also be observable in $H_\\alpha$ emission. Evaporation of clumpuscules by external ionizing radiation can be a substantial mass source. From requirement that the total mass input on the Hubble time cannot exceed the luminous mass in the Galaxy, typical radius of clouds is constrained as $R_c energy of the gas ejected by such clouds can be an efficient energy source for the Galactic halo.

  20. Apparatus for observing a hostile environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Thomas A. (Aiken, SC); Boylston, Micah L. (Williston, SC); Robinson, Casandra W. (Trenton, SC); Sexton, William C. (Aiken, SC); Heckendorn, Frank M. (Aiken, SC)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for observing a hostile environment, comprising a housing and a camera capable of insertion within the housing. The housing is a double wall assembly with an inner and outer wall with an hermetically sealed chamber therebetween. A housing for an optical system used to observe a hostile environment is provided, comprising a transparent, double wall assembly. The double wall assembly has an inner wall and an outer wall with an hermetically sealed chamber therebetween. The double wall assembly has an opening and a void area in communication with the opening. The void area of the housing is adapted to accommodate the optical system within said void area. An apparatus for protecting an optical system used to observe a hostile environment is provided comprising a housing; a tube positioned within the housing; and a base for supporting the housing and the tube. The housing comprises a double wall assembly having an inner wall and an outerwall with an hermetically sealed chamber therebetween. The tube is adapted to house the optical system therein.

  1. Deep Mixtures of Factor Analysers Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Deep Mixtures of Factor Analysers Introduction Experiments - High dimensional data (avg. log An efficient way to learn deep density models is to greedily learn one layer at a time using one layer latent Graphical Model of Deep MFA Illustration with 2D data Each ellipse is a Gaussian Component Aggregated

  2. Integrating Human Factors with Software Engineering Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Nashville, TN, October, 1994. Also to the design, development, and evaluation of usable and useful interactive systems, and presents a rationale Ergonomics and Safety Technology, Inc. Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA jtr001@delphi.com 1. Introduction The design

  3. Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashurst, W. Robert

    Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values Mass 1 kg = 1000 g = 0.001 metric ton = 2·R 10.73 psia·ft3 lbmol·R 62.36 liter·torr mol·K 0.7302 ft3·atm lbmol·R Temperature Conversions: T

  4. Singular subfactors of II_1 factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiggins, Alan Daniel

    2007-09-17

    II1 factor and G is a countable discrete group acting on P by outer automorphisms, we characterize the elements x of PoG such that x(PoH)x0 PoH for some subgroup H of G. We establish that proper finite index singular subfactors do not have the weak...

  5. Distributed QR Factorization Based on Randomized Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zemen, Thomas

    Distributed QR Factorization Based on Randomized Algorithms Hana Strakov´a1 , Wilfried N. Gansterer of Algorithms Hana.Strakova@univie.ac.at, Wilfried.Gansterer@univie.ac.at 2 Forschungszentrum Telekommunication Wien, Austria Thomas.Zemen@ftw.at Abstract. Most parallel algorithms for matrix computations assume

  6. GRIDONOMICS An Introduction to the Factors Shaping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    GRIDONOMICS An Introduction to the Factors Shaping Electric Industry Transformation White Paper industry is at a tipping point where the pace of change and opportunity for disruption is accelerating. Thirty years of energy policy and industry structural changes are combining with accelerating social

  7. Pion form factor with twisted mass QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou M. Abdel-Rehim; Randy Lewis

    2004-09-10

    The pion form factor is calculated using quenched twisted mass QCD with beta=6.0 and maximal twisting angle omega=pi/2. Two pion masses and several values of momentum transfer are considered. The momentum averaging procedure of Frezzotti and Rossi is used to reduce lattice spacing errors, and numerical results are consistent with the expected O(a) improvement.

  8. Factors Influencing Succession: Lessons from Large, Infrequent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    intense disturbances of large and small extent. Key words: disturbance frequency; disturbance intensityFactors Influencing Succession: Lessons from Large, Infrequent Natural Disturbances Monica G ABSTRACT Disturbance events vary in intensity, size, and fre- quency, but few opportunities exist to study

  9. Factored Language Models for Statistical Machine Translation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koehn, Philipp

    Factored Language Models for Statistical Machine Translation Amittai E. Axelrod TH E U N I V E R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4.3 Log-Linear, Phrase-Based Translation Models . . . . . . . . . 11 3 Statistical Language S ITY OF E D I N B U R G H Master of Science by Research Institute for Communicating and Collaborative

  10. Structure Functions, Form Factors, and Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter Wilcox; B. Andersen-Pugh

    1993-12-07

    We present results towards the calculation of the pion electric form factor and structure function on a $16^3\\times 24$ lattice using charge overlap. By sacrificing Fourier transform information in two directions, it is seen that the longitudinal four point function can be extracted with reasonable error bars at low momentum.

  11. Ion beam measurement of deuterium in palladium and calculation of hydrogen isotope separation factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gullinger, T.R.; Kelly, M.J.; Knapp, J.A.; Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L. )

    1991-08-01

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a new technique for measuring hydrogen isotope separation factors in hydrogen-absorbing metals. Using external ion beam nuclear reaction analysis of metal electrodes in an operating electrochemical cell, the authors monitor in situ the deuterium content of the electrode. changing the deuterium/hydrogen ratio in the electrolyte changes the observed deuterium content of the metal electrode, and, assuming identical ultimate total metal loading for deuterium, hydrogen, and any mixture of deuterium and hydrogen, a simple calculation yields the separation factor.

  12. Nucleon and $?$ elastic and transition form factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jorge Segovia; Ian C. Cloet; Craig D. Roberts; Sebastian M. Schmidt

    2014-09-03

    We compute nucleon and Delta elastic and transition form factors, and compare predictions made using a framework built upon a Faddeev equation kernel and interaction vertices that possess QCD-like momentum dependence with results obtained using a vector-vector contact-interaction. The comparison emphasises that experiment is sensitive to the momentum dependence of the running couplings and masses in the strong interaction sector of the Standard Model and highlights that the key to describing hadron properties is a veracious expression of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in the bound-state problem. Amongst the results we describe, the following are of particular interest: $G_E^p(Q^2)/G_M^p(Q^2)$ possesses a zero at $Q^2=9.5GeV^2$; any change in the interaction which shifts a zero in the proton ratio to larger $Q^2$ relocates a zero in $G_E^n(Q^2)/G_M^n(Q^2)$ to smaller $Q^2$; and there is likely a value of momentum transfer above which $G_E^n>G_E^p$. Regarding the $\\Delta(1232)$-baryon, we find that, inter alia: the electric monopole form factor exhibits a zero; the electric quadrupole form factor is negative, large in magnitude, and sensitive to the nature and strength of correlations in the $\\Delta(1232)$ Faddeev amplitude; and the magnetic octupole form factor is negative so long as rest-frame P- and D-wave correlations are included. In connection with the N-to-Delta transition, the momentum-dependence of the magnetic transition form factor, $G_M^\\ast$, matches that of $G_M^n$ once the momentum transfer is high enough to pierce the meson-cloud; and the electric quadrupole ratio is a keen measure of diquark and orbital angular momentum correlations.

  13. Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor...

  14. High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials Authors:...

  15. Test of factorization in diffractive deep inelastic scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Test of factorization in diffractive deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Test of factorization in diffractive deep...

  16. Major Risk Factors to the Integrated Facility Disposition Project...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Major Risk Factors to the Integrated Facility Disposition Project Major Risk Factors to the Integrated Facility Disposition Project The scope of the Integrated Facility Disposition...

  17. Direct Observation of Paramagnons in Palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doubble, R.; Hayden, S M.; Dai, Pengcheng; Mook Jr, Herbert A; Thompson, James R; Frost, C.

    2010-01-01

    We report an inelastic neutron scattering study of the spin fluctuations in the nearly ferromagnetic element palladium. Dispersive over-damped collective magnetic excitations or 'paramagnons' are observed up to 128 meV. We analyze our results in terms of a Moriya-Lonzarich-type spin-fluctuation model and estimate the contribution of the spin fluctuations to the low-temperature heat capacity. In spite of the paramagnon excitations being relatively strong, their relaxation rates are large. This leads to a small contribution to the low-temperature electronic specific heat.

  18. VLBI polarimetric observations of 3C147

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rossetti; F. Mantovani; D. Dallacasa

    2004-12-29

    We present multi-frequency VLBI observations of the Compact Steep-spectrum Quasar 3C147 (0538+498) made with the VLBA at the four frequencies in the available 5 GHz band and at 8.4 GHz (still under analysis), from which we derived millarcsecond-resolution images of the total intensity, polarization, and rotation measure distributions. The source shows a core-jet structure, with a compact feature and a jet, extending about 200 mas to the South-West. We detect polarized emission in two bright features in the inner jet; the rotation measure of this features (aprox -1630 rad m(-2), aprox -540 rad m(-2)).

  19. Gamma-Ray Burst observations with Fermi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Omodei, Nicola; Vianello, Giacomo; von Kienlin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    After seven years of science operation, the Fermi mission has brought great advances in the study of Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs). Over 1600 GRBs have been detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and more than 100 of these are also detected by the Large Area Telescope above 30 MeV. We will give an overview of these observations, presenting the common properties in the GRB temporal and spectral behavior at high energies. We will also highlight the unique characteristics of some individual bursts. The main physical implications of these results will be discussed, along with open questions regarding GRB modeling in their prompt and temporally-extended emission phases.

  20. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lemonick, Michael [Princeton University and Time Magazine, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2010-01-08

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus?the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  1. Superconductivity observed in platinum-silicon interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, Pai-Chia, E-mail: paichia@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Research Program on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lee, Ku-Pin; Shiue, Jessie, E-mail: yshiue@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Research Program on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-26

    We report the discovery of superconductivity with an onset temperature of ?0.6?K in a platinum-silicon interface. The interface was formed by using a unique focused ion beam sputtering micro-deposition method in which the energies of most sputtered Pt atoms are ?2.5?eV. Structural and elemental analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveal a???7?nm interface layer with abundant Pt, which is the layer likely responsible for the superconducting transport behavior. Similar transport behavior was also observed in a gold-silicon interface prepared by the same technique, indicating the possible generality of this phenomenon.

  2. Operationalization of Basic Observables in Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This novel approach to the foundation of the physical theory begins with thought experiments on measurement practice like Einstein for relativistic Kinematics. For a similar foundation of Dynamics one can start from Hermann von Helmholtz analysis of basic measurements. We define energy, momentum and mass from elemental ordering relations for "capability to execute work" and "impact" in a collision and apply Helmholtz program for quantification. From simple pre-theoretic (principle of inertia, impossibility of Perpetuum Mobile, relativity principle) and measurement methodical principles we derive all fundamental equations of Mechanics. We explain the mathematical formalism from the operationalization of basic observables.

  3. Observation of ?cJ decays to ??¯¯¯????

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Bennett, J. V.; et al

    2012-09-13

    Decays of the ?cJ states (J=0, 1, 2) to ??¯¯¯????, including processes with intermediate ?(1385), are studied through the E1 transition ?'???cJ using 106×10? ?' events collected with the BESIII detector at BEPCII. This is the first observation of ?cJ decays to the final state ??¯¯¯????. The branching ratio of the intermediate process ?cJ??(1385)±?¯¯¯(1385)? is also measured for the first time, and the results agree with the theoretical predictions based on the color-octet effect.

  4. Inflation models, spectral index and observational constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Covi

    2000-03-30

    We have evaluated the observational constraints on the spectral index $n$, in the context of a $\\Lambda$CDM model. For $n$ scale-independent, as predicted by most models of inflation, present data require $n\\simeq 1.0 \\pm 0.1$ at the 2-$\\sigma$ level. We have also studied the two-parameter scale-dependent spectral index, predicted by running-mass inflation models. Present data allow significant variation of $n$ in this case, within the theoretically preferred region of parameter space.

  5. Observations and simulations improve space weather models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingLightweight MaterialsGasObservation of

  6. ARM - PI Product - Niamey Dust Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSAProductsMerged and corrected 915Dust Observations

  7. First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServices »First Observation of Plasmarons in

  8. First Observation of Plasmarons in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServices »First Observation of Plasmarons inFirst

  9. Category:Observation Wells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla, Georgia:GeothermalNEPA Environmental AnalysisObservation

  10. Observations and simulations improve space weather models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSEHowScientific andComplex Oak RidgeObservation of

  11. will appear in Journal of Geophysical Research, 2001. Observations of turbulence in a tidal beam and across a coastal ridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lien, Ren-Chieh

    1 will appear in Journal of Geophysical Research, 2001. Observations of turbulence in a tidal beam the turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate exceeded 10-6 W kg-1 , and the diapycnal eddy diffusivity K varied by a factor of 100 with a semidiurnal tidal periodicity; the isopycnal displacement confirmed

  12. Short-term variability of suspended sediment and phytoplankton in Tampa Bay, Florida: Observations from a coastal oceanographic tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Chl increases were observed after sediment resuspension with a lag time of e1e2 days, probably due to release of bottom nutrients and optimal light conditions associated with sediment resuspension physical, chemical, and biological variability. These driving factors lead to a wide range of temporal

  13. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHARA,J.; BROWN,W.; STUBLER,W.; HIGGINS,J.; WACHTEL,J.; PERSENSKY,J.J.

    2000-07-30

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ``Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1.

  14. Suzaku Observations of Four Heavily Absorbed HMXBs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. C. Morris; R. K. Smith; C. B. Markwardt; R. F. Mushotzky; J. Tueller; T. R. Kallman; K. S. Dhuga

    2008-08-22

    We report on Suzaku observations of four unidentified sources from the INTEGRAL and Swift BAT Galactic plane surveys. All the sources have a large neutral hydrogen column density and are likely members of an emerging class of heavily absorbed high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) first identified in INTEGRAL observations. Two of the sources in our sample are approximately constant flux sources, one source shows periodic variation and one source exhibited a short, bright X-ray outburst. The periodicity is transient, suggesting it is produced by a neutron star in an elliptical orbit around a stellar wind source. We analyze the flaring source in several segments to look for spectral variation and discuss the implications of the findings for the nature of the source. We conclude that all four sources in our sample can be identified with the emerging class of highly absorbed HMXBs, that one is a newly identified transient X-ray pulsar and that at least one is a newly identified supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT).

  15. New Interpretation of the Observational Matter Asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, R G; Li, X Q; Wang, X; Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Tong; Li, Xue-Qian; Wang, Xun

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the AMS project, we assume that due to some reason which is not known so far, after the Big Bang or inflation epoch, antimatter was repelled onto one brane which is separated from our brane where all the observational matter resides. We suppose that there is a potential barrier at the brane boundary, which is similar to the surface tension for water membrane. The barrier prevents the mater particles to enter the space between two branes and jump from one brane to another. However, by the quantum tunnelling, a sizable anti-matter flux may come to our brane and be observed by the Alpha-Magnetic-Spectrometer (AMS). The matter and antimatter on the two branes attract each other via gravitational force. Following literature we consider a possibility that a scalar field existing in the space between the branes causes a Casimir effect which results in a repulsive force against the gravitation. We find that the Casimir force is much stronger than the gravitational force, as long as the separation of the ...

  16. Swift observations of GRB050904: the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Cusumano; V. Mangano; G. Chincarini; A. Panaitescu; D. N. Burrows; V. La Parola; T. Sakamoto; S. Campana; T. Mineo; G. Tagliaferri; L. Angelini; S. D. Barthelemy; A. P. Beardmore; P. T. Boyd; L. Cominsky; C. Gronwall; E. E. Fenimore; N. Gehrels; P. Giommi; M. Goad; K. Hurley; S. Immler; J. A. Kennea; K. O. Mason; F. Marshall; P. Meszaros; J. A. Nousek; J. P. Osborne; D. M. Palmer; P. W. A. Roming; A. Wells; N. E. White; B. Zhang

    2006-11-08

    Swift discovered the high redshift (z=6.29) GRB050904 with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and began observing with its narrow field instruments 161 s after the burst onset. This gamma-ray burst is the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed. Because of its high redshift, the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and BAT simultaneous observations provide 4 orders of magnitude of spectral coverage (0.2-150 keV; 1.4-1090 keV in the source rest frame) at a very early source-frame time (22 s). GRB050904 was a long, multi-peaked, bright GRB with strong variability during its entire evolution. The light curve observed by the XRT is characterized by the presence of a long flaring activity lasting up to 1-2 hours after the burst onset in the burst rest frame, with no evidence of a smooth power-law decay following the prompt emission as seen in other GRBs. However, the BAT tail extrapolated to the XRT band joins the XRT early light curve and the overall behavior resembles that of a very long GRB prompt. The spectral energy distribution softens with time, with the photon index decreasing from -1.2 during the BAT observation to -1.9 at the end of the XRT observation. The dips of the late X-ray flares may be consistent with an underlying X-ray emission arising from the forward shock and with the properties of the optical afterglow reported by Tagliaferri et al. (2005b). We interpret the BAT and XRT data as a single continuous observation of the prompt emission from a very long GRB. The peculiarities observed in GRB050904 could be due to its origin within one of the first star-forming regions in the Universe; very low metallicities of the progenitor at these epochs may provide an explanation.

  17. Measurement of the ??*?? and ??*??' transition form factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Palano, A.; et al

    2011-09-06

    We study the reactions e?e??e?e??(') in the single-tag mode and measure the ??*??(') transition form factors in the momentum-transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV². The analysis is based on 469 fb?¹ of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e?e? center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  18. Measurement of the ??*?? and ??*??' transition form factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu.?G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Botov, A. A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu.?I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K.?Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Jasper, H.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Kobel, M. J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Nicolaci, M.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Edwards, A. J.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Ebert, M.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Volk, A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Perez, A.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, L.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Anderson, J.; Cenci, R.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Zhao, M.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Buenger, C.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.

    2011-09-06

    We study the reactions e?e??e?e??(') in the single-tag mode and measure the ??*??(') transition form factors in the momentum-transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV². The analysis is based on 469 fb?¹ of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e?e? center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and unstable clones. These mitochondrial abnormalities in the unstable clones contributes to oxidative stress.

  20. Factor Analysis for Skewed Data and Skew-Normal Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaucher, Beverly Jane

    2013-04-04

    This research explores factor analysis applied to data from skewed distributions for the general skew model, the selection-elliptical model, the selection-normal model, the skew-elliptical model and the skew-normal model ...

  1. Transcription factor-based biosensors for detecting dicarboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietrich, Jeffrey; Keasling, Jay

    2014-02-18

    The invention provides methods and compositions for detecting dicarboxylic acids using a transcription factor biosensor.

  2. Amplitudes, Form Factors and the Dilatation Operator in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Wilhelm

    2015-03-24

    We study the form factor of a generic gauge-invariant local composite operator in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory. At tree level and for a minimal number of external on-shell super fields, we find that the form factor precisely yields the spin-chain picture of integrability in the language of scattering amplitudes. Moreover, we compute the cut-constructible part of the one-loop correction to this minimal form factor via generalised unitarity. From its UV divergence, we obtain the complete one-loop dilatation operator of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory. Thus, we provide a field-theoretic derivation of a relation between the one-loop dilatation operator and the four-point tree-level amplitude which was observed earlier. We also comment on the implications of our findings in the context of integrability.

  3. 3.5. EFFICIENCY FACTORS 63 3.5 Efficiency factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, R. A.

    3.5. EFFICIENCY FACTORS 63 3.5 Efficiency factors For comparison we consider a complete) and the variance of the estimator of x is (x L-x)2 CBD, which is equal to r-1x x2 CBD. Definition The efficiency to a complete-block design with variance 2 CBD and the same replication is x x rx L-x 2 CBD 2 and the efficiency

  4. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF A0620-00 IN QUIESCENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Froning, Cynthia S.; France, Kevin; Khargharia, Juthika [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); and others

    2011-12-10

    We present contemporaneous X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared, and radio observations of the black hole binary system, A0620-00, acquired in 2010 March. Using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained the first FUV spectrum of A0620-00 as well as NUV observations with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The observed spectrum is flat in the FUV and very faint (with continuum fluxes {approx_equal} 1e - 17 erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} A{sup -1}). The UV spectra also show strong, broad (FWHM {approx} 2000 km s{sup -1}) emission lines of Si IV, C IV, He II, Fe II, and Mg II. The C IV doublet is anomalously weak compared to the other lines, which is consistent with the low carbon abundance seen in NIR spectra of the source. Comparison of these observations with previous NUV spectra of A0620-00 shows that the UV flux has varied by factors of 2-8 over several years. We compiled the dereddened, broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of A0620-00 and compared it to previous SEDs as well as theoretical models. The SEDs show that the source varies at all wavelengths for which we have multiple samples. Contrary to previous observations, the optical-UV spectrum does not continue to drop to shorter wavelengths, but instead shows a recovery and an increasingly blue spectrum in the FUV. We created an optical-UV spectrum of A0620-00 with the donor star contribution removed. The non-stellar spectrum peaks at {approx_equal}3000 A. The peak can be fit with a T = 10,000 K blackbody with a small emitting area, probably originating in the hot spot where the accretion stream impacts the outer disk. However, one or more components in addition to the blackbody are needed to fit the FUV upturn and the red optical fluxes in the optical-UV spectrum. By comparing the mass accretion rate determined from the hot spot luminosity to the mean accretion rate inferred from the outburst history, we find that the latter is an order of magnitude smaller than the former, indicating that {approx}90% of the accreted mass must be lost from the system if the predictions of the disk instability model and the estimated interoutburst interval are correct. The mass accretion rate at the hot spot is 10{sup 5} the accretion rate at the black hole inferred from the X-ray luminosity. To reconcile these requires that outflows carry away virtually all of the accreted mass, a very low rate of mass transfer from the outer cold disk into the inner hot region, and/or radiatively inefficient accretion. We compared our broadband SED to two models of A0620-00 in quiescence: the advection-dominated accretion flow model and the maximally jet-dominated model. The comparison suggests that strong outflows may be present in the system, indicated by the discrepancies in accretion rates and the FUV upturn in flux in the SED.

  5. Observational tests of backreaction with recent data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiesa, Matteo; Maino, Davide; Majerotto, Elisabetta E-mail: davide.maino@mi.infn.it

    2014-12-01

    We explore the backreaction model based on the template metric proposed in Larena et al. [1] constraining the matter density parameter ?{sub m}{sup D{sub 0}} and the Dark Energy parameter w with recent data. We provide constraints based on Supernovae Ia from the SNLS and the Union2.1 catalogs, confirming that the backreacted Universe should have a higher matter density than the corresponding Friedmaniann one. Angular diameter distances from clusters data confirm the same feature. Finally we combine these results with constraints obtained from the position of the first three peaks and the first dip of the CMB power spectrum, fitting WMAP-9 and Planck data. We find that an inconsistency arises in predicting the scale factor at recombination, leading to a backreacted Universe with lower matter density, in contradiction with results produced by SnIa and clusters. The same behavior is confirmed by analyzing the CMB-shift parameters from WMAP-9. We conclude exploring qualitatively the motivations of this inconsistency.

  6. Dark Energy: Observational Evidence and Theoretical Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Novosyadlyj; V. Pelykh; Yu. Shtanov; A. Zhuk

    2015-02-14

    The book elucidates the current state of the dark energy problem and presents the results of the authors, who work in this area. It describes the observational evidence for the existence of dark energy, the methods and results of constraining of its parameters, modeling of dark energy by scalar fields, the space-times with extra spatial dimensions, especially Kaluza---Klein models, the braneworld models with a single extra dimension as well as the problems of positive definition of gravitational energy in General Relativity, energy conditions and consequences of their violation in the presence of dark energy. This monograph is intended for science professionals, educators and graduate students, specializing in general relativity, cosmology, field theory and particle physics.

  7. Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilo Steinmetz; Tobias Wilken; Constanza Araujo-Hauck; Ronald Holzwarth; Theodor W. Hänsch; Luca Pasquini; Antonio Manescau; Sandro D'Odorico; Michael T. Murphy; Thomas Kentischer; Wolfgang Schmidt; Thomas Udem

    2008-09-09

    A direct measurement of the universe's expansion history could be made by observing in real time the evolution of the cosmological redshift of distant objects. However, this would require measurements of Doppler velocity drifts of about 1 centimeter per second per year, and astronomical spectrographs have not yet been calibrated to this tolerance. We demonstrate the first use of a laser frequency comb for wavelength calibration of an astronomical telescope. Even with a simple analysis, absolute calibration is achieved with an equivalent Doppler precision of approximately 9 meters per second at about 1.5 micrometers - beyond state-of-the-art accuracy. We show that tracking complex, time-varying systematic effects in the spectrograph and detector system is a particular advantage of laser frequency comb calibration. This technique promises an effective means for modeling and removal of such systematic effects to the accuracy required by future experiments to see direct evidence of the universe's putative acceleration.

  8. Observables from a relativistic hydro solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Csanad, Mate

    2009-01-01

    In the last several years it has been revealed that the matter produced in the collisions of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a nearly perfect fluid, i.e. it can be described with perfect fluid hydrodynamics. There was a long search for exact hydrodynamic models (solutions of the partial differential equations of hydrodynamics) and several models proved to be applicable. There are 1+3 dimensional models, as well as relativistic models - but no 1+3 dimensional and relativistic model has been tested yet. In this paper we extract observables from the relativistic, ellipsoidally symmetric model of Csorgo et al. We calculate momentum distribution, elliptic flow and correlation radii and compare them to RHIC data.

  9. Physics Beyond the Single Top Quark Observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinson, A.P.; Collaboration, for the DZero

    2010-10-01

    In March 2009, the D0 Collaboration first observed the electroweak production of single top quarks at 5{sigma} significance. We measured the cross section for the combined s-channel and t-channel production modes, and set a lower limit on the CKM matrix element |V{sub tb}|. Since then, we have used the same dataset to measure the t-channel production mode independently, the combined cross section in the hadronically-decaying tau lepton final state, and the width and lifetime of the top quark, and we have set upper limits on contributions from anomalous flavor-changing neutral currents. This paper describes these new measurements, as presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Top Quark Physics, held in Brugge, Belgium, May 31-June 4, 2010.

  10. Interstellar water chemistry: from laboratory to observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Neufeld, David A

    2013-01-01

    Water is observed throughout the universe, from diffuse interstellar clouds to protoplanetary disks around young stars, and from comets in our own solar system and exoplanetary atmospheres to galaxies at high redshifts. This review summarizes the spectroscopy and excitation of water in interstellar space as well as the basic chemical processes that form and destroy water under interstellar conditions. Three major routes to water formation are identified: low temperature ion-molecule chemistry, high-temperature neutral-neutral chemistry and gas-ice chemistry. The rate coefficients of several important processes entering the networks are discussed in detail; several of them have been determined only in the last decade through laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. Astronomical examples of each of the different chemical routes are presented using data from powerful new telescopes, in particular the Herschel Space Observatory. Basic chemical physics studies remain critically important to analyze ast...

  11. Astronomical Observations of Volatiles on Asteroids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivkin, Andrew S; Emery, Joshua P; Howell, Ellen S; Licandro, Javier; Takir, Driss; Vilas, Faith

    2015-01-01

    We have long known that water and hydroxyl are important components in meteorites and asteroids. However, in the time since the publication of Asteroids III, evolution of astronomical instrumentation, laboratory capabilities, and theoretical models have led to great advances in our understanding of H2O/OH on small bodies, and spacecraft observations of the Moon and Vesta have important implications for our interpretations of the asteroidal population. We begin this chapter with the importance of water/OH in asteroids, after which we will discuss their spectral features throughout the visible and near-infrared. We continue with an overview of the findings in meteorites and asteroids, closing with a discussion of future opportunities, the results from which we can anticipate finding in Asteroids V. Because this topic is of broad importance to asteroids, we also point to relevant in-depth discussions elsewhere in this volume.

  12. Head Observation Organizer (HObO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Predmore

    2008-03-06

    The Head Observation Organizer, HObO, is a computer program that stores and manages measured ground-water levels. HObO was developed to help ground-water modelers compile, manage, and document water-level data needed to calibrate ground-water models. Well-construction and water-level data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Database (NWIS) easily can be imported into HObO from the NWIS web site (NWISWeb). The water-level data can be flagged to determine which data will be included in the calibration data set. The utility program HObO_NWISWeb was developed to simplify the down loading of well and water-level data from NWISWeb. An ArcGIS NWISWeb Extension was developed to retrieve site information from NWISWeb. A tutorial is presented showing the basic elements of HObO.

  13. First observation of doubly charmed baryons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. A. Moinester et al.

    2003-09-25

    The SELEX experiment (E781) at Fermilab has observed two statistically compelling high mass states near 3.6 GeV/c{sup 2}, decaying to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} and {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. These final states are Cabibbo-allowed decay modes of doubly charmed baryons {Xi}{sub cc}{sup +} and {Xi}{sub cc}{sup ++}, respectively. The masses are in the range expected from theoretical considerations, but the spectroscopy is surprising. SELEX also has weaker preliminary evidence for a state near 3.8 GeV/c{sup 2}, a high mass state decaying to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}, possibly an excited {Xi}{sub cc}{sup ++} (ccu*). Data are presented and discussed.

  14. Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC provides data management support for the Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program. The VOS project is coordinated by the UNESCO International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP). The international groups from 14 countries have been outfitting research ships and commercial vessels with automated CO2 sampling equipment to analyze the carbon exchange between the ocean and atmosphere. [copied from http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/genInfo.html] CDIAC provides a map interface with the shipping routes of the 14 countries involved marked in different colors. Clicking on the ship's name on that route brings up information about the vessel, the kinds of measurements collected and the timeframe, links to project pages, and, most important, the links to the data files themselves. The 14 countries are: United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, Australia, Canada, Spain, Norway, New Zealand, China (including Taiwan), Iceland, and the Netherlands. Both archived and current, underway data can be accessed from the CDIAC VOS page.

  15. Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to High Momentum Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew J. R. Puckett

    2015-08-06

    The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer $Q^2$ between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH$_2$ analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large-acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors $G_E^p/G_M^p$. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at $Q^2=$5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV$^2$, and represent the most accurate measurements of $G_E^p$ in this $Q^2$ region to date.

  16. Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Puckett

    2010-02-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer Q2 between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large f momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH2 analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors GpE=GpM. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at Q2 =5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2, and represent the most accurate measurements of GpE in this Q2 region to date.

  17. Remarks on mechanical approach to observable Universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eingorn, Maxim [CREST and NASA Research Centers, North Carolina Central University, Fayetteville st. 1801, Durham, North Carolina 27707 (United States); Zhuk, Alexander, E-mail: maxim.eingorn@gmail.com, E-mail: ai.zhuk2@gmail.com [Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Dvoryanskaya st. 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine)

    2014-05-01

    We consider the Universe deep inside the cell of uniformity. At these scales, the Universe is filled with inhomogeneously distributed discrete structures (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies), which perturb the background Friedmann model. Here, the mechanical approach (Eingorn and Zhuk, 2012) is the most appropriate to describe the dynamics of the inhomogeneities which is defined, on the one hand, by gravitational potentials of inhomogeneities and, on the other hand, by the cosmological expansion of the Universe. In this paper, we present additional arguments in favor of this approach. First, we estimate the size of the cell of uniformity. With the help of the standard methods of statistical physics and for the galaxies of the type of the Milky Way and Andromeda, we get that it is of the order of 190 Mpc which is rather close to observations. Then, we show that the nonrelativistic approximation (with respect to the peculiar velocities) is valid for z?<10, i.e. approximately for 13 billion years from the present moment. We consider scalar perturbations and, within the ?CDM model, justify the main equations. Moreover, we demonstrate that radiation can be naturally incorporated into our scheme. This emphasizes the viability of our approach. This approach gives a possibility to analyze different cosmological models and compare them with the observable Universe. For example, we indicate some problematic aspects of the spatially flat models. Such models require a rather specific distribution of the inhomogeneities to get a finite potential at any points outside gravitating masses. We also criticize the application of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution to the description of the motion of test bodies on the cosmological background.

  18. Constraint effects observed in crack initiation stretch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.M.; Ernst, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    The current paper characterizes constraint in fracture: J-modified resistance (Jr) curves were developed for two tough structural materials, 6061-T651 (aluminum) and IN718-STA1 (nickel-base superalloy). A wide variety of configurations was tested to consider load configurations from bending to tension including three specimen types (compact tension, center-crack tension, and single-edge notched tension), and a range of ligament lengths and thicknesses, as well as side-grooved and smooth-sided ligaments. The Jr curves exhibited an inflection point after some crack extension, and the data were excluded beyond the inflection. Qualified Jr curves for the two materials showed similar behavior, but R-curves were identical for equal ligament length-to-thickness ratio (RL), for the aluminum alloy, with increasing slope for increasing RL, while for the nickel, the resistance curves aligned for equal ligament thickness, B, and the slope increased for decreasing B. Displacements at the original crack tip (CToD) were recorded throughout the test for several specimens. CToD-versus-crack extension curves were developed, and data were excluded beyond the inflection point (as with the Jr curves). The data collapsed into two distinct curves, thought to represent the surface, plane stress effect and the central, plane strain effect. This was observed for both materials. A technique called profiling is presented for the aluminum alloy only, where the crack face displacements are recorded at the final point of the test as a function of the position throughout the crack cavity, along with an effort to extract the observations in a usable form. Displacements were consistent throughout the cross-section at and behind the original crack tip. In the region where the crack grew, this displacement was developed by a combination of stretch and crack growth. The stretch required to initiate crack extension was a function of the depth beneath the surface into the cross-section.

  19. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF HOTSPOTS IN RADIO LOBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, Michael W.; Murphy, David W.; Livingston, John H.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jones, Dayton L.; Meier, David L.; Lawrence, Charles R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We have carried out a systematic search with Spitzer Warm Mission and archival data for infrared emission from the hotspots in radio lobes that have been described by Hardcastle et al. These hotspots have been detected with both radio and X-ray observations, but an observation at an intermediate frequency in the infrared can be critical to distinguish between competing models for particle acceleration and radiation processes in these objects. Between the archival and warm mission data, we report detections of 18 hotspots; the archival data generally include detections at all four IRAC bands, the Warm Mission data only at 3.6 {mu}m. Using a theoretical formalism adopted from Godfrey et al., we fit both archival and warm mission spectral energy distributions (SEDs)-including radio, X-ray, and optical data from Hardcastle as well as the Spitzer data-with a synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, in which the X-rays are produced by Compton scattering of the radio frequency photons by the energetic electrons which radiate them. With one exception, an SSC model requires that the magnetic field be less or much less than the equipartition value which minimizes total energy and has comparable amounts of energy in the magnetic field and in the energetic particles. This conclusion agrees with those of comparable recent studies of hotspots, and with the analysis presented by Hardcastle et al. We also show that the infrared data rule out the simplest synchrotron-only models for the SEDs. We briefly discuss the implications of these results and of alternate interpretations of the data.

  20. Molecular gas observations and enhanced massive star formation efficiencies in M100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. H. Knapen; J. E. Beckman; J. Cepa; N. Nakai

    1995-09-14

    We present new J=1-0 12-CO observations along the northern spiral arm of the grand-design spiral galaxy M100 (NGC 4321), and study the distribution of molecular hydrogen as derived from these observations, comparing the new data with a set of data points on the southern arm published previously. We compare these measurements on both spiral arms and on the interarm regions with observations of the atomic and ionized hydrogen components. We determine massive star formation efficiency parameters, defined as the ratio of H alpha luminosity to total gas mass, along the arms and compare the values to those in the interarm regions adjacent to the arms. We find that these parameters in the spiral arms are on average a factor of 3 higher than outside the arms, a clear indication of triggering of the star formation in the spiral arms. We discuss possible mechanisms for this triggering, and conclude that a density wave system is probably responsible for it. We discuss several possible systematical effects in some detail, and infer that the conclusions on triggering are sound. We specifically discuss the possible effects of extinction in H alpha, or a non-standard CO to H_2 conversion factor (X), and find that our conclusions on the enhancement of the efficiencies in the arms are reinforced rather than weakened by these considerations. A simple star forming scheme involving threshold densities for gravitational collapse is discussed for NGC 4321, and comparison is made with M51. We find that the gas between the arms is generally stable against gravitational collapse whereas the gas in the arms is not, possibly leading to the observed arm-interarm differences in efficiency, but also note that these results, unlike the others obtained in this paper, do depend critically on the assumed value for the conversion factor.

  1. Observation of the Second Harmonic in Thomson Scattering from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observation of the Second Harmonic in Thomson Scattering from Relativistic Electrons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of the Second Harmonic in Thomson...

  2. Collaboration yields 'The Right Glasses' for observing mystery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observing mystery behavior In electrons Collaboration yields 'The Right Glasses' for observing mystery behavior in electrons The research may lead to a better understanding of...

  3. Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations Net Zero Waste - Tools and Technical Support ...and other observations Presentation at Waste-to-Energy using...

  4. If physics is an information science, what is an observer?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris Fields

    2012-02-11

    Interpretations of quantum theory have traditionally assumed a "Galilean" observer, a bare "point of view" implemented physically by a quantum system. This paper investigates the consequences of replacing such an informationally-impoverished observer with an observer that satisfies the requirements of classical automata theory, i.e. an observer that encodes sufficient prior information to identify the system being observed and recognize its acceptable states. It shows that with reasonable assumptions about the physical dynamics of information channels, the observations recorded by such an observer will display the typical characteristics predicted by quantum theory, without requiring any specific assumptions about the observer's physical implementation.

  5. Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene wrinkles and grain boundaries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct observation of resistive heating at graphene...

  6. Lorentz Coherence and the Proton Form Factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young S. Kim

    2015-02-28

    The dipole cutoff behavior for the proton form factor has been and still is one of the major issues in high-energy physics. It is shown that this dipole behavior comes from the coherence between the Lorentz contraction of the proton size and the decreasing wavelength of the incoming photon signal. The contraction rates are the same for both cases. This form of coherence is studied also in the momentum-energy space. The coherence effect in this space can be explained in terms of two overlapping wave functions.

  7. Factors for design of dips for roadways 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCasland, William Richard

    1957-01-01

    limit is sub]ect to mot1on which may cause considerable discomfort to be experienced by the oocupants. If a dip is particularly critical, the vehicle may even incur damages. The most important consideration, however, 1s the fact that the driver may... lose control of the vehicle momentarily and be involved in a traffic accident. These three factors indicate the need for all dips in roadways to be nrop- erly designed, whether they are to be temporary or oermanent. The use of dips as speed checks...

  8. Prime number generation and factor elimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vineet Kumar

    2014-10-06

    We have presented a multivariate polynomial function termed as factor elimination function,by which, we can generate prime numbers. This function's mapping behavior can explain the irregularities in the occurrence of prime numbers on the number line. Generally the different categories of prime numbers found till date, satisfy the form of this function. We present some absolute and probabilistic conditions for the primality of the number generated by this method. This function is capable of leading to highly efficient algorithms for generating prime numbers.

  9. Emission Factors (EMFAC) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of theClimateElgin, Illinois:JV JumpFactors (EMFAC) Jump to:

  10. Observational Tests and Predictive Stellar Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Young; E. E. Mamajek; David Arnett; James Liebert

    2001-03-23

    We compare eighteen binary systems with precisely determined radii and masses from 23 to 1.1 M_sol, and stellar evolution models produced with our newly revised code TYCHO. ``Overshooting'' and rotational mixing were suppressed in order to establish a baseline for isolating these and other hydrodynamic effects. Acceptable coeval fits are found for sixteen pairs without optimizing for heavy element or helium abundance. The precision of these tests is limited by the accuracies of the observed effective temperatures. High dispersion spectra and detailed atmospheric modeling should give more accurate effective temperatures and heavy element abundances. PV Cas, a peculiar early A system, EK Cep B, a known post-T Tauri star, and RS Cha, a member of a young OB association, are matched by pre-main sequence models. Predicted mass loss agrees with upper limits from IUE for CW Cep A and B. Relatively poor fits are obtained for binaries having at least one component in the mass range 1.7 < M/M_sol <2.6, whose evolution is sensitive to mixing. These discrepancies are robust and consistent with additional mixing in real stars. The predicted apsidal motion implies that massive star models are systematically less centrally condensed than the real stars. If these effects are due to overshooting, then the overshooting parameter alpha_OV increases with stellar mass. The apsidal motion constants are controlled by radiative opacity under conditions close to those directly measured in laser experiments, making this test more stringent than possible before.

  11. MAGIC observation of the GRB080430 afterglow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksi?, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Baixeras, C; Balestra, S; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; González, J Becerra; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berdyugin, A; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Bock, R K; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Tridon, D Borla; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bose, D; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Britzger, D; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Covino, S; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; del Pozo, E de Cea; Reyes, R De los; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Elsaesser, D; Errando, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Godinovic, N; Goebel, F; Hadasch, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Höhne-Mönch, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Hsu, C C; Jogler, T; Klepser, S; Krähenbühl, T; Kranich, D; La Barbera, A; Laille, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Miyamoto, H; Moldón, J; Moles, M; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Orito, R; Oya, I; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Prada, F; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Sánchez-Conde, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Strah, N; Struebig, J C; Suric, T; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Wagner, R M; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J; de Ugarte-Postigo, A

    2015-01-01

    Context: Gamma-ray bursts are cosmological sources emitting radiation from the gamma-rays to the radio band. Substantial observational efforts have been devoted to the study of gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase, i.e. the initial burst of high-energy radiation, and during the long-lasting afterglows. In spite of many successes in interpreting these phenomena, there are still several open key questions about the fundamental emission processes, their energetics and the environment. Aim: Independently of specific gamma-ray burst theoretical recipes, spectra in the GeV/TeV range are predicted to be remarkably simple, being satisfactorily modeled with power-laws, and therefore offer a very valuable tool to probe the extragalactic background light distribution. Furthermore, the simple detection of a component at very-high energies, i.e. at $\\sim 100$\\,GeV, would solve the ambiguity about the importance of various possible emission processes, which provide barely distinguishable scenarios at lower energies. Me...

  12. Chandra Observations of SNR RCW 103

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Kari A; Park, Sangwook

    2015-01-01

    We analyze three Chandra observations, with a combined exposure time of 99 ks, of the Galactic supernova remnant RCW 103, a young supernova remnant, previously with no clear detection of metal-rich ejecta. Based on our imaging and spectral analyses of these deep Chandra data, we find evidence for metal-rich ejecta emission scattered throughout the remnant. X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta is generally weak, and the shocked circumstellar medium (CSM) is a largely dominant component across the entire remnant. The CSM component shows abundances of ~0.5 solar, while Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe abundances of the ejecta are up to a few times solar. Comparison of these ejecta abundances with yields from supernova nucleosynthesis models suggests, together with the existence of a central neutron star, a progenitor mass of ~18-20 M$_\\odot$, though the Fe/Si ratios are larger than predicted. The shocked CSM emission suggests a progenitor with high mass-loss rate and subsolar metallicity.

  13. Observation of Bloch oscillations in molecular rotation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes Floß; Andrei Kamalov; Ilya Sh. Averbukh; Philip H. Bucksbaum

    2015-04-26

    The periodically kicked quantum rotor is known for non-classical effects such as quantum localisation in angular momentum space or quantum resonances in rotational excitation. These phenomena have been studied in diverse systems mimicking the kicked rotor, such as cold atoms in optical lattices, or coupled photonic structures. Recently, it was predicted that several solid state quantum localisation phenomena - Anderson localisation, Bloch oscillations, and Tamm-Shockley surface states - may manifest themselves in the rotational dynamics of laser-kicked molecules. Here, we report the first observation of rotational Bloch oscillations in a gas of nitrogen molecules kicked by a periodic train of femtosecond laser pulses. A controllable detuning from the quantum resonance creates an effective accelerating potential in angular momentum space, inducing Bloch-like oscillations of the rotational excitation. These oscillations are measured via the temporal modulation of the refractive index of the gas. Our results introduce room-temperature laser-kicked molecules as a new laboratory for studies of localisation phenomena in quantum transport.

  14. Optical monitor for observing turbulent flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Georg F. (Livermore, CA); Moore, Thomas R. (Rochester, NY)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides an apparatus and method for non-invasively monitoring turbulent fluid flows including anisotropic flows. The present invention uses an optical technique to filter out the rays travelling in a straight line, while transmitting rays with turbulence induced fluctuations in time. The output is two dimensional, and can provide data regarding the spectral intensity distribution, or a view of the turbulence in real time. The optical monitor of the present invention comprises a laser that produces a coherent output beam that is directed through a fluid flow, which phase-modulates the beam. The beam is applied to a temporal filter that filters out the rays in the beam that are straight, while substantially transmitting the fluctuating, turbulence-induced rays. The temporal filter includes a lens and a photorefractive crystal such as BaTiO.sub.3 that is positioned in the converging section of the beam near the focal plane. An imaging system is used to observe the filtered beam. The imaging system may take a photograph, or it may include a real time camera that is connected to a computer. The present invention may be used for many purposes including research and design in aeronautics, hydrodynamics, and combustion.

  15. The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in cortical motor learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Von dem Bussche, Mary

    2007-01-01

    T. , and Nakamura, S. , Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor toneurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and

  16. Direct observation of electron emission from the grain boundaries of chemical vapour deposition diamond films by tunneling atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Vijay; Harniman, Robert; May, Paul W.; Barhai, P. K.

    2014-04-28

    The emission of electrons from diamond in vacuum occurs readily as a result of the negative electron affinity of the hydrogenated surface due to features with nanoscale dimensions, which can concentrate electric fields high enough to induce electron emission from them. Electrons can be emitted as a result of an applied electric field (field emission) with possible uses in displays or cold-cathode devices. Alternatively, electrons can be emitted simply by heating the diamond in vacuum to temperatures as low as 350?°C (thermionic emission), and this may find applications in solar energy generation or energy harvesting devices. Electron emission studies usually use doped polycrystalline diamond films deposited onto Si or metallic substrates by chemical vapor deposition, and these films have a rough, faceted morphology on the micron or nanometer scale. Electron emission is often improved by patterning the diamond surface into sharp points or needles, the idea being that the field lines concentrate at the points lowering the barrier for electron emission. However, there is little direct evidence that electrons are emitted from these sharp tips. The few reports in the literature that have studied the emission sites suggested that emission came from the grain boundaries and not the protruding regions. We now present direct observation of the emission sites over a large area of polycrystalline diamond using tunneling atomic force microscopy. We confirm that the emission current comes mostly from the grain boundaries, which is consistent with a model for emission in which the non-diamond phase is the source of electrons with a threshold that is determined by the surrounding hydrogenated diamond surface.

  17. Human factors engineering program review model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  18. Swift observations of GRB050904: the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cusumano, G; Chincarini, G; Panaitescu, A; Burrows, D N; La Parola, V; Sakamoto, T; Campana, S; Mineo, T; Tagliaferri, G; Angelini, L; Barthelemy, S D; Beardmore, A P; Boyd, P T; Cominsky, L; Gronwall, C; Fenimore, E E; Gehrels, N; Giommi, P; Goad, M; Hurley, K; Immler, S; Kennea, J A; Mason, K O; Marshall, F; Mészáros, P; Nousek, J A; Osborne, J P; Palmer, D M; Roming, P W A; Wells, A; White, N E; Zhang, B

    2006-01-01

    Swift discovered the high redshift (z=6.29) GRB050904 with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and began observing with its narrow field instruments 161 s after the burst onset. This gamma-ray burst is the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed. Because of its high redshift, the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and BAT simultaneous observations provide 4 orders of magnitude of spectral coverage (0.2-150 keV; 1.4-1090 keV in the source rest frame) at a very early source-frame time (22 s). GRB050904 was a long, multi-peaked, bright GRB with strong variability during its entire evolution. The light curve observed by the XRT is characterized by the presence of a long flaring activity lasting up to 1-2 hours after the burst onset in the burst rest frame, with no evidence of a smooth power-law decay following the prompt emission as seen in other GRBs. However, the BAT tail extrapolated to the XRT band joins the XRT early light curve and the overall behavior resembles that of a very long GRB prompt. The spectral energy distri...

  19. Non-observable nature of the nuclear shell structure. Meaning, illustrations and consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Duguet; H. Hergert; J. D. Holt; V. Somà

    2015-09-11

    The concept of single-nucleon shells constitutes a basic pillar of our understanding of nuclear structure. Effective single-particle energies (ESPEs) introduced by French and Baranger represent the most appropriate tool to relate many-body observables to a single-nucleon shell structure. As briefly discussed in [T. Duguet, G. Hagen, Phys. Rev. C {\\bf 85}, 034330 (2012)], the dependence of ESPEs on one-nucleon transfer probability matrices makes them purely theoretical quantities that "run" with the non-observable resolution scale $\\lambda$ employed in the calculation. Given that ESPEs provide a way to interpret the many-body problem in terms of simpler theoretical ingredients, the goal is to specify the terms, i.e. the exact sense and conditions, in which this interpretation can be conducted meaningfully. State-of-the-art multi-reference in-medium similarity renormalization group and self-consistent Gorkov Green's function many-body calculations are employed to corroborate the formal analysis. This is done by comparing the behavior of several observables and of non-observable ESPEs (and spectroscopic factors) under (quasi) unitary similarity renormalization group transformations of the Hamiltonian parameterized by the resolution scale $\\lambda$. The non-observable nature of the nuclear shell structure, i.e. the fact that it constitutes an intrinsically theoretical object with no counterpart in the empirical world, must be recognized and assimilated. Eventually, practitioners can refer to nuclear shells and spectroscopic factors in their analyses of nuclear phenomena if, and only if, they use consistent structure and reaction theoretical schemes based on a fixed resolution scale they have agreed on prior to performing their analysis and comparisons.

  20. Non-observable nature of the nuclear shell structure. Meaning, illustrations and consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Duguet; H. Hergert; J. D. Holt; V. Somà

    2015-09-10

    The concept of single-nucleon shells constitutes a basic pillar of our understanding of nuclear structure. Effective single-particle energies (ESPEs) introduced by French and Baranger represent the most appropriate tool to relate many-body observables to a single-nucleon shell structure. As briefly discussed in [T. Duguet, G. Hagen, Phys. Rev. C {\\bf 85}, 034330 (2012)], the dependence of ESPEs on one-nucleon transfer probability matrices makes them purely theoretical quantities that "run" with the non-observable resolution scale $\\lambda$ employed in the calculation. Given that ESPEs provide a way to interpret the many-body problem in terms of simpler theoretical ingredients, the goal is to specify the terms, i.e. the exact sense and conditions, in which this interpretation can be conducted meaningfully. State-of-the-art multi-reference in-medium similarity renormalization group and self-consistent Gorkov Green's function many-body calculations are employed to corroborate the formal analysis. This is done by comparing the behavior of several observables and of non-observable ESPEs (and spectroscopic factors) under (quasi) unitary similarity renormalization group transformations of the Hamiltonian parameterized by the resolution scale $\\lambda$. The non-observable nature of the nuclear shell structure, i.e. the fact that it constitutes an intrinsically theoretical object with no counterpart in the empirical world, must be recognized and assimilated. Eventually, practitioners can refer to nuclear shells and spectroscopic factors in their analyses of nuclear phenomena if, and only if, they use consistent structure and reaction theoretical schemes based on a fixed resolution scale they have agreed on prior to performing their analysis and comparisons.

  1. Non-observable nature of the nuclear shell structure. Meaning, illustrations and consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Duguet; H. Hergert; J. D. Holt; V. Somà

    2014-11-05

    The concept of single-nucleon shells constitutes a basic pillar of our understanding of nuclear structure. Effective single-particle energies (ESPEs) introduced by French and Baranger represent the most appropriate tool to relate many-body observables to a single-nucleon shell structure. As briefly discussed in [T. Duguet, G. Hagen, Phys. Rev. C {\\bf 85}, 034330 (2012)], the dependence of ESPEs on one-nucleon transfer probability matrices makes them purely theoretical quantities that "run" with the non-observable resolution scale $\\lambda$ employed in the calculation. Given that ESPEs provide a way to interpret the many-body problem in terms of simpler theoretical ingredients, the goal is to specify the terms, i.e. the exact sense and conditions, in which this interpretation can be conducted meaningfully. State-of-the-art multi-reference in-medium similarity renormalization group and self-consistent Gorkov Green's function many-body calculations are employed to corroborate the formal analysis. This is done by comparing the behavior of several observables and of non-observable ESPEs (and spectroscopic factors) under (quasi) unitary similarity renormalization group transformations of the Hamiltonian parameterized by the resolution scale $\\lambda$. The non-observable nature of the nuclear shell structure, i.e. the fact that it constitutes an intrinsically theoretical object with no counterpart in the empirical world, must be recognized and assimilated. Eventually, practitioners can refer to nuclear shells and spectroscopic factors in their analyses of nuclear phenomena if, and only if, they use consistent structure and reaction theoretical schemes based on a fixed resolution scale they have agreed on prior to performing their analysis and comparisons.

  2. An XMM-Newton Observation of Abell 2597

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Glenn Morris; A. C. Fabian

    2005-01-17

    We report on a 120 ks XMM-Newton observation of the galaxy cluster Abell 2597. Results from both the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) are presented. From EPIC we obtain radial profiles of temperature, density and abundance, and use these to derive cooling time and entropy. We illustrate corrections to these profiles for projection and point spread function (PSF) effects. At the spatial resolution available to XMM-Newton, the temperature declines by around a factor of two in the central 150 kpc or so in radius, and the abundance increases from about one-fifth to over one-half solar. The cooling time is less than 10 Gyr inside a radius of 130 kpc. EPIC fits to the central region are consistent with a cooling flow of around 100 solar masses per year. Broad-band fits to the RGS spectra extracted from the central 2 arcmin are also consistent with a cooling flow of the same magnitude; with a preferred low-temperature cut-off of essentially zero. The data appear to suggest (albeit at low significance levels below formal detection limits) the presence of the important thermometer lines from Fe XVII at 15, 17 Angstrom rest wavelength, characteristic of gas at temperatures ~ 0.3 keV. The measured flux in each line is converted to a mass deposition estimate by comparison with a classical cooling flow model, and once again values at the level of 100 solar masses per year are obtained. These mass deposition rates, whilst lower than those of previous generations of X-ray observatories, are consistent with those obtained from UV data for this object. This raises the possibility of a classical cooling flow, at the level of around 100 solar masses per year, cooling from 4 keV by more than two orders of magnitude in temperature.

  3. A Method for Weak Lensing Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick Kaiser; Gordon Squires; Tom Broadhurst

    1994-11-01

    We develop and test a method for measuring the gravitational lensing induced distortion of faint background galaxies. We first describe how we locate the galaxies and measure a 2-component `polarisation' or ellipticity statistic $e_\\alpha$ whose expectation value should be proportional to the gravitational shear $\\gamma_\\alpha$. We then show that an anisotropic instrumental psf perturbs the polarisation by $\\delta e_\\alpha = P^s_{\\alpha\\beta} p_\\beta$, where $p_\\alpha$ is a measure of the psf anisotropy and $P^s_{\\alpha\\beta}$ is the `linearised smear polarisability tensor'. By estimating $P^s_{\\alpha\\beta}$ for each object we can determine $p_\\alpha$ from the foreground stars and apply a correction $-P^s_{\\alpha\\beta}p_\\beta$ to the galaxies. We test this procedure using deep high-resolution images from HST which are smeared with an anisotropic psf and then have noise added to simulate ground-based observations. We find that the procedure works very well. A similar analysis yields a linear shear polarisability tensor $P^\\gamma_{\\alpha\\beta}$ which describes the response to a gravitational shear. This calibrates the polarisation-shear relation, but only for galaxies which are well resolved. To empirically calibrate the effect of seeing on the smaller galaxies we artificially stretch HST images to simulate lensing and then degrade them as before. These experiments provide a rigorous and exacting test of the method under realistic conditions. They show that it is possible to remove the effect of instrumental psf anisotropy, and that the method provides an efficient and quantitative measurement of the gravitational shear.

  4. Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Kazufumi, E-mail: m_fuji@kvj.biglobe.ne.jp [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan)] [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan); Nagai, Hideo, E-mail: nagai@sigmath.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan)] [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan); Runggaldier, Wolfgang J., E-mail: runggal@math.unipd.it [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

  5. FULLY RESOLVED QUIET-SUN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE OBSERVED WITH THE SUNRISE/IMAX INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Borrero, J. M.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    Until today, the small size of magnetic elements in quiet-Sun areas has required the application of indirect methods, such as the line-ratio technique or multi-component inversions, to infer their physical properties. A consistent match to the observed Stokes profiles could only be obtained by introducing a magnetic filling factor that specifies the fraction of the observed pixel filled with magnetic field. Here, we investigate the properties of a small magnetic patch in the quiet Sun observed with the IMaX magnetograph on board the balloon-borne telescope SUNRISE with unprecedented spatial resolution and low instrumental stray light. We apply an inversion technique based on the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation to retrieve the temperature stratification and the field strength in the magnetic patch. The observations can be well reproduced with a one-component, fully magnetized atmosphere with a field strength exceeding 1 kG and a significantly enhanced temperature in the mid to upper photosphere with respect to its surroundings, consistent with semi-empirical flux tube models for plage regions. We therefore conclude that, within the framework of a simple atmospheric model, the IMaX measurements resolve the observed quiet-Sun flux tube.

  6. OBSERVATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW JET SIMULATIONS AND NUMERICAL LIGHT CURVE CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Eerten, Hendrik J.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2012-06-01

    We discuss jet dynamics for narrow and wide gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow jets and the observational implications of numerical simulations of relativistic jets in two dimensions. We confirm earlier numerical results that sideways expansion of relativistic jets during the bulk of the afterglow emission phase is logarithmic in time and find that this also applies to narrow jets with half opening angle of 0.05 rad. As a result, afterglow jets remain highly nonspherical until after they have become nonrelativistic. Although sideways expansion steepens the afterglow light curve after the jet break, the jet edges becoming visible dominates the jet break, which means that the jet break is sensitive to the observer angle even for narrow jets. Failure to take the observer angle into account can lead to an overestimation of the jet energy by up to a factor of four. This weakens the challenge posed to the magneter energy limit by extreme events such as GRB090926A. Late-time radio calorimetry based on a spherical nonrelativistic outflow model remains relevant when the observer is approximately on-axis and where differences of a few in flux level between the model and the simulation are acceptable. However, this does not imply sphericity of the outflow and therefore does not translate to high observer angles relevant to orphan afterglows. For more accurate calorimetry and in order to model significant late-time features such as the rise of the counterjet, detailed jet simulations remain indispensable.

  7. Observed high-altitude warming and snow cover retreat over Tibet and the Himalayas enhanced by black carbon aerosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Y.; Ramanathan, V.; Washington, W. M.

    2015-07-10

    Himalayan mountain glaciers and the snowpack over the Tibetan Plateau provide the headwater of several major rivers in Asia. In-situ observations of snow cover fraction since the 1960s suggest that the snow pack in the region have retreated significantly, accompanied by a surface warming of 2–2.5 °C observed over the peak altitudes (5000 m). Using a high-resolution ocean–atmosphere global climate model and an observationally constrained black carbon (BC) aerosol forcing, we attribute the observed altitude dependence of the warming trends as well as the spatial pattern of reductions in snow depths and snow cover fraction to various anthropogenic factors. Atmore »the Tibetan Plateau altitudes, the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration exerted a warming of 1.7 °C, BC 1.3 °C where as cooling aerosols cause about 0.7 °C cooling, bringing the net simulated warming consistent with the anomalously large observed warming. We therefore conclude that BC together with CO2 has contributed to the snow retreat trends. Especially, BC increase is the major factor in the strong elevation dependence of the observed surface warming. The atmospheric warming by BC as well as its surface darkening of snow are coupled with the positive snow albedo feedbacks to account for the disproportionately large role of BC in high-elevation regions. These findings reveal that BC impact needs to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections, in particular on high-altitude cryosphere.« less

  8. Secular Changes in Solar Magnetic Flux Amplification Factor and Prediction of Space Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. E. Girish; G. Gopkumar

    2010-11-21

    We could infer a secular decreasing trend in the poloidal to toroidal solar magnetic flux amplification factor ( Af) using geomagnetic observations ( classic and IHV corrected aa indices) during the sunspot cycles 9-23. A similar decreasing trend is also observed for the solar equatorial rotation (W) which imply possibly a decrease in the efficiency of the solar dynamo during the above period. We could show correlated changes of Af and extreme space weather activity variations near earth since the middle of the 19th century. Indirect solar observations ( solar proton fluence estimates) suggests that the distinct enhancements in extreme space weather activity , Af and W found during sunspot cycles 10 to 15 is probably largest of that kind during the past 400 years. We find that the sunspot activity can reach an upper limit (Rsolar dynamo, space weather, predictions,cycle 24

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - Observations and Modeling of the Green...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    population. This relation between respiratory diseases and environmental factors about air pollution can help to building an epidemiological hypothesis for this region. So, it...

  10. Various factors affect coiled tubing limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-01-15

    Safety and reliability remain the primary concerns in coiled tubing operations. Factors affecting safety and reliability include corrosion, flexural bending, internal (or external) pressure and tension (or compression), and mechanical damage due to improper use. Such limits as coiled tubing fatigue, collapse, and buckling need to be understood to avoid disaster. With increased use of coiled tubing, operators will gain more experience. But at the same time, with further research and development of coiled tubing, the manufacturing quality will be improved and fatigue, collapse, and buckling models will become more mature, and eventually standard specifications will be available. This paper reviews the uses of coiled tubing and current research on mechanical behavior of said tubing. It also discusses several models used to help predict fatigue and failure levels.

  11. Chiral corrections to hyperon axial form factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Fujiun; Tiburzi, B. C.

    2008-05-01

    We study the complete set of flavor-changing hyperon axial-current matrix elements at small momentum transfer. Using partially quenched heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, we derive the chiral and momentum behavior of the axial and induced pseudoscalar form factors. The meson pole contributions to the latter posses a striking signal for chiral physics. We argue that the study of hyperon axial matrix elements enables a systematic lattice investigation of the efficacy of three-flavor chiral expansions in the baryon sector. This can be achieved by considering chiral corrections to SU(3) symmetry predictions, and their partially quenched generalizations. In particular, despite the presence of eight unknown low-energy constants, we are able to make next-to-leading order symmetry breaking predictions for two linear combinations of axial charges.

  12. Factors that influence follow-up after an abnormal mammogram 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copeland, Valerie Anne

    2009-05-15

    The focus of this study was to explore women’s experiences with follow-up after an abnormal mammogram, and factors that influence follow-up. Factors, including health status, found in the cancer screening and treatment ...

  13. Factors Analysis on Safety of Indoor Air Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Q.; Liu, Z.; Xiong, J.

    2006-01-01

    Influence factors on safety of indoor air quality (IAQ) were analyzed in this paper. Some regeneration compositions resulting from potential indoor chemical reactions may be more harmful to habitants. A few building flaws may be key factors...

  14. 2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2457 x 2457 kWh x 0.347 x 0.330 Domestic Coal 3 tonnes x 2523 x 2523 kWh x 0.313 x 0.298 Wood Pellets 4 stations or for industrial purposes have different emission factors. Wood pellets are used in domestic

  15. Iteration of Target Matrices in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Tyler Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    extraction methods .Performance of factor extraction methods Several methodshere. How well an extraction method performs is influenced

  16. Annihilation Poles for Form Factors in XXZ Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Pakuliak

    1993-07-14

    The annihilation poles for the form factors in XXZ model are studied using vertex operators introduced in \\cite{DFJMN}. An annihilation pole is the property of form factors according to which the residue of the $2n$-particle form factor in such a pole can be expressed through linear combination of the $2n-2$-particle form factors. To prove this property we use the bosonization of the vertex operators in XXZ model which was invented in \\cite{JMMN}.

  17. SUCCESS FACTORS IN INFORMATION SECURITY IMPLEMENTATION IN ORGANIZATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, John

    SUCCESS FACTORS IN INFORMATION SECURITY IMPLEMENTATION IN ORGANIZATIONS Maryam Al-Awadi University This paper will explore and identify success factors related to the implementation of information security was to identify those factors required to ensure successful implementation of information security, particularly

  18. http://rev.sagepub.com/ Reviews of Human Factors and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    http://rev.sagepub.com/ Ergonomics Reviews of Human Factors and http://rev.sagepub.com/content/7 Factors and Ergonomics Michael A. Nees and Bruce N. Walker Auditory Displays for In-Vehicle Technologies Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society at: can

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION Rhizobium Nod factors induce increases in intracellular free

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Rhizobium Nod factors induce increases in intracellular free calcium of Massachusetts, Box 35810, Amherst MA 01003±5810, USA Summary Application of Nod factors to growing, responsive region after 10±15 min treatment with Nod factors. The extracellular Ca2+ ¯ux, detected with the non

  20. Human Factors Aspects of Power System Flow Animation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Human Factors Aspects of Power System Flow Animation Douglas A. Wiegmann, Gavin R. Essenberg experimental results associated with human factors aspects of using animation to display electric power system. Index Terms--Power System Operations and Planning, Power System Visualization, Animation, Human Factors

  1. The Multivariate Merit Factor of a Boolean T. Aaron Gulliver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Matthew Geoffrey

    The Multivariate Merit Factor of a Boolean Function T. Aaron Gulliver Dept. of Electrical, the multivariate merit factor (MMF) of a Boolean function, is presented, and various infinite recursive quadratic sequence constructions are given for which both uni- variate and multivariate merit factors can be computed

  2. Bayesian CP Factorization of Incomplete Tensors with Automatic Rank Determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Liqing

    IEEEProof Bayesian CP Factorization of Incomplete Tensors with Automatic Rank Determination Qibin--CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor factorization of incomplete data is a powerful technique for tensor completion through explicitly capturing the multilinear latent factors. The existing CP algorithms require the tensor rank

  3. Prediction and Informative Risk Factor Selection of Bone Diseases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    --Electronic health records (EHRs); risk factor analysis; integrated feature extraction; risk factor selection1 Prediction and Informative Risk Factor Selection of Bone Diseases Hui Li, Xiaoyi Li, Murali and the overwhelming amount of electronic health records (EHRs) shared by healthcare institutions and practitioners, we

  4. Infinite Dimensional VARs and Factor Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chudik, Alexander; Pesaran, M Hashem

    numbers, N is the set of natural numbers, and Z is the set of integers. Convergence in distribution and convergence in probability is denoted by d! and p!, respectively. Symbol q:m:! represents convergence in quadratic mean and L1! stands for convergence... errors to P1 j=0#8; jut#0;j asM ! 1, namely by assuming that the process has been in operation for su¢ ciently long time before its ?rst observed realization, x1. Also for a ?nite N , when all eigenvalues of #8; lie inside the unit circle, the Euclidean...

  5. CONSTRAINING THE BULK LORENTZ FACTOR OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OUTFLOW IN THE MAGNETIC-DOMINATED JET MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Zhe; Lin Hainan; Jiang Yunguo, E-mail: changz@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: linhn@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangyg@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2012-11-10

    Recent observations by the Fermi-LAT showed that there are delayed arrivals of GeV photons relative to the onset of MeV photons in some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In order to avoid a large optical depth, the minimal value of the Lorentz factor has been estimated to be higher than 1000 in some of the brightest bursts. In this paper, we present a detailed calculation of the time delay between the MeV and GeV photons in the framework of the magnetic-dominated jet model. We find that the time delay strongly depends on the saturated bulk Lorentz factor of the jet. Inspired by this fact, we use this model to calculate the Lorentz factors of the four brightest Fermi bursts. The results indicate that the Lorentz factors are much smaller than those obtained from the 'single-zone' scenario. The short burst GRB 090510 has a minimal Lorentz factor of 385, while the three long bursts, GRB 080916c, GRB 090902b, and GRB 090926, have almost the same Lorentz factors with an average value near 260. Another interesting result is that, for long bursts, GeV photons are emitted after the bulk Lorentz factor saturates. For the short GRB, however, MeV and GeV photons are emitted at the same phase, i.e., either in the expansion phase or in the coasting phase.

  6. Observers and the AdS/CFT correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Dance

    2010-12-18

    The paper \\cite{Dance0601} tentatively suggested a physical picture that might underlie string theories. The string parameters $\\tau $ and $\\sigma_i $ were interpreted as spacetime dimensions which a simple quantum mechanical observer can observe, while symmetries of the relevant observer states could limit the observability of other dimensions. The present paper extends the discussion by outlining how consideration of different observers, at least one of which is quantum mechanical, might provide insights into the nature of the AdS/CFT correspondence. It is suggested that such correspondences might arise as different forms of theories about the world as perceived by different observers.

  7. Collective Electronic Excitations in Multilayer Systems Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is a well established and readily available method in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    preparation), measuring different layered systems · Graphene / MoS2 / Graphene (beam-sensitive, combination-standing single-layer graphene for increasing in- plane momentum transfer q along two different crystallographic-calibration) · analysis of E-x maps for graphene edge (adapt calibration method) · tools: Python 3. E-q mapping

  8. Optimization of the transmission of observable expectation values and observable statistics in Continuous Variable Teleportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Albano Farias; J. Stephany

    2010-09-28

    We analyze the statistics of observables in continuous variable quantum teleportation in the formalism of the characteristic function. We derive expressions for average values of output state observables in particular cumulants which are additive in terms of the input state and the resource of teleportation. Working with Squeezed Bell-like states, which may be optimized in a free parameter for better teleportation performance we discuss the relation between resources optimal for fidelity and for different observable averages. We obtain the values of the free parameter which optimize the central momenta and cumulants up to fourth order. For the cumulants the distortion between in and out states due to teleportation depends only on the resource. We obtain optimal parameters for the second and fourth order cumulants which do not depend on the squeezing of the resource. The second order central momenta which is equal to the second order cumulants and the photon number average are optimized by the same resource. We show that the optimal fidelity resource, found in reference (Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 76}, 022301 (2007)) to depend also on the characteristics of input, tends for high squeezing to the resource which optimizes the second order momenta. A similar behavior is obtained for the resource which optimizes the photon statistics which is treated here using the sum of the squared differences in photon probabilities of input and output states as the distortion measure. This is interpreted to mean that the distortions associated to second order momenta dominates the behavior of the output state for large squeezing of the resource. Optimal fidelity and optimal photon statistics resources are compared and is shown that for mixtures of Fock states they are equivalent.

  9. INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF VOLATILE MOLECULES IN COMET HALEBOPP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    ­slit spectroscopy --- of the space distribution of these species. With ISO, carbon dioxide was directly observed case the only remote­ sensing technique allowing to observe non­polar molecules such as CO 2

  10. Zeroth-order inversion of transient head observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasco, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    The hydraulic head was observed in seven surrounding wellsHydraulic conductivity variation used for numerical trajectory computations. The wellhydraulic conductivity, given the significant variations in travel time to the observation wells.

  11. Observed Relations Between Snowfall Microphysics and Triple-Frequency Radar Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingLightweight MaterialsGasObservationRelations

  12. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R.; Xing, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2010-11-07

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

  13. Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Yuanshui; Ramirez, Eric; Mascia, Anthony; Ding Xiaoning; Okoth, Benny; Zeidan, Omar; Hsi Wen; Harris, Ben; Schreuder, Andries N.; Keole, Sameer [ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, 420 North Walnut Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, 5901 West Memorial Road, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73142 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: Current commercial treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and calculate monitor units for proton fields. Patient-specific field output factors are thus determined by either measurements or empirical modeling based on commissioning data. The objective of this study is to commission output factors for uniform scanning beams utilized at the ProCure proton therapy centers. Methods: Using water phantoms and a plane parallel ionization chamber, the authors first measured output factors with a fixed 10 cm diameter aperture as a function of proton range and modulation width for clinically available proton beams with ranges between 4 and 31.5 cm and modulation widths between 2 and 15 cm. The authors then measured the output factor as a function of collimated field size at various calibration depths for proton beams of various ranges and modulation widths. The authors further examined the dependence of the output factor on the scanning area (i.e., uncollimated proton field), snout position, and phantom material. An empirical model was developed to calculate the output factor for patient-specific fields and the model-predicted output factors were compared to measurements. Results: The output factor increased with proton range and field size, and decreased with modulation width. The scanning area and snout position have a small but non-negligible effect on the output factors. The predicted output factors based on the empirical modeling agreed within 2% of measurements for all prostate treatment fields and within 3% for 98.5% of all treatment fields. Conclusions: Comprehensive measurements at a large subset of available beam conditions are needed to commission output factors for proton therapy beams. The empirical modeling agrees well with the measured output factor data. This investigation indicates that it is possible to accurately predict output factors and thus eliminate or reduce time-consuming patient-specific output measurements for proton treatments.

  14. The Pegg-Barnett Formalism and Covariant Phase Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pekka Lahti; Juha-Pekka Pellonpaa

    2001-06-15

    We compare the Pegg-Barnett (PB) formalism with the covariant phase observable approach to the problem of quantum phase and show that PB-formalism gives essentially the same results as the canonical (covariant) phase observable. We also show that PB-formalism can be extended to cover all covariant phase observables including the covariant phase observable arising from the angle margin of the Husimi Q-function.

  15. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros; Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A.

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  16. The accuracy of climate models' simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of grid scale correction factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterhalter, Wade

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact biological populations through a variety of mechanisms including increases in the length of their growing season. Climate models are useful tools for predicting how season length might change in the future. However, the accuracy of these models tends to be rather low at regional geographic scales. Here, I determined the ability of several atmosphere and ocean general circulating models (AOGCMs) to accurately simulate historical season lengths for a temperate ectotherm across the continental United States. I also evaluated the effectiveness of regional-scale correction factors to improve the accuracy of these models. I found that both the accuracy of simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of the correction factors to improve the model's accuracy varied geographically and across models. These results suggest that regional specific correction factors do not always adequately remove potential discrepancies between simulated and historically observed environmental parameters. As such, an explicit evaluation of the correction factors' effectiveness should be included in future studies of global climate change's impact on biological populations.

  17. Novel application of stem cell-derived factors for periodontal regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inukai, Takeharu; Katagiri, Wataru; Yoshimi, Ryoko; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete a variety of cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytokines were detected in conditioned medium from cultured MSCs (MSC-CM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM enhanced activation of dog MSCs and periodontal ligament cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM significantly promoted alveolar bone and cementum regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM promote periodontal regeneration. -- Abstract: The effect of conditioned medium from cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) on periodontal regeneration was evaluated. In vitro, MSC-CM stimulated migration and proliferation of dog MSCs (dMSCs) and dog periodontal ligament cells (dPDLCs). Cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-{beta}1, and hepatocyte growth factor were detected in MSC-CM. In vivo, one-wall critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandible of dogs. Dogs with these defects were divided into three groups that received MSC-CM, PBS, or no implants. Absorbable atelo-collagen sponges (TERUPLUG Registered-Sign ) were used as a scaffold material. Based on radiographic and histological observation 4 weeks after transplantation, the defect sites in the MSC-CM group displayed significantly greater alveolar bone and cementum regeneration than the other groups. These findings suggest that MSC-CM enhanced periodontal regeneration due to multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM.

  18. Determining the covering factor of Compton-thick active galactic nuclei with NuSTAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brightman, M; Stern, D; Arevalo, P; Ballantyne, D R; Bauer, F E; Boggs, S E; Craig, W W; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Fuerst, F; Gandhi, P; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Hickox, R C; Koss, M; LaMassa, S; Puccetti, S; Rivers, E; Vasudevan, R; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting Compton-thick absorption along the line of sight ($N_{H}>1.5\\times10^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this Compton-thick fraction is difficult however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays ($>$10 keV), NuSTAR is sensitive to the AGN covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGN observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so called Compton-thick (CT) AGN. We use the torus models of Brightman & Nandra which predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the Compton-thick gas i...

  19. Designing optimal greenhouse gas observing networks that consider performance and cost

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lucas, D. D.; Yver Kwok, C.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Graven, H.; Bergmann, D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Weiss, R.; Keeling, R.

    2014-12-23

    Emission rates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) entering into the atmosphere can be inferred using mathematical inverse approaches that combine observations from a network of stations with forward atmospheric transport models. Some locations for collecting observations are better than others for constraining GHG emissions through the inversion, but the best locations for the inversion may be inaccessible or limited by economic and other non-scientific factors. We present a method to design an optimal GHG observing network in the presence of multiple objectives that may be in conflict with each other. As a demonstration, we use our method to design a prototypemore »network of six stations to monitor summertime emissions in California of the potent GHG 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CH2FCF3, HFC-134a). We use a multiobjective genetic algorithm to evolve network configurations that seek to jointly maximize the scientific accuracy of the inferred HFC-134a emissions and minimize the associated costs of making the measurements. The genetic algorithm effectively determines a set of "optimal" observing networks for HFC-134a that satisfy both objectives (i.e., the Pareto frontier). The Pareto frontier is convex, and clearly shows the tradeoffs between performance and cost, and the diminishing returns in trading one for the other. Without difficulty, our method can be extended to design optimal networks to monitor two or more GHGs with different emissions patterns, or to incorporate other objectives and constraints that are important in the practical design of atmospheric monitoring networks.« less

  20. Designing optimal greenhouse gas observing networks that consider performance and cost

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lucas, D. D.; Yver Kwok, C.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Graven, H.; Bergmann, D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Weiss, R.; Keeling, R.

    2015-06-16

    Emission rates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) entering into the atmosphere can be inferred using mathematical inverse approaches that combine observations from a network of stations with forward atmospheric transport models. Some locations for collecting observations are better than others for constraining GHG emissions through the inversion, but the best locations for the inversion may be inaccessible or limited by economic and other non-scientific factors. We present a method to design an optimal GHG observing network in the presence of multiple objectives that may be in conflict with each other. As a demonstration, we use our method to design a prototypemore »network of six stations to monitor summertime emissions in California of the potent GHG 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CH2FCF3, HFC-134a). We use a multiobjective genetic algorithm to evolve network configurations that seek to jointly maximize the scientific accuracy of the inferred HFC-134a emissions and minimize the associated costs of making the measurements. The genetic algorithm effectively determines a set of "optimal" observing networks for HFC-134a that satisfy both objectives (i.e., the Pareto frontier). The Pareto frontier is convex, and clearly shows the tradeoffs between performance and cost, and the diminishing returns in trading one for the other. Without difficulty, our method can be extended to design optimal networks to monitor two or more GHGs with different emissions patterns, or to incorporate other objectives and constraints that are important in the practical design of atmospheric monitoring networks.« less

  1. EuropeanGridofSolarObservations Progress on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;EuropeanGridofSolarObservations Some generic issues We need to build on the existing situation UserEuropeanGridofSolarObservations Progress on the European Grid of Solar Observations R.D. Bentley Mullard Space Science Laboratory University College London FASR Workshop #12;EuropeanGridofSolar

  2. FACULTY OF GEO-INFORMATION SCIENCE AND EARTH OBSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FACULTY OF GEO-INFORMATION SCIENCE AND EARTH OBSERVATION ITC research Space for global development. At the Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC) of the University of Twente, knowledge;2 At the Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC) of the University of Twente, research

  3. Test, debug and development environment of Subaru Observation Software System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayashi, Saeko S.

    - 1/7 - Test, debug and development environment of Subaru Observation Software System Junichi have a computer system in Japan which simulates the network of the summit system in part. Software test, Japan ABSTRACT Subaru Observation Software System (SOSS) provides observers with so called high

  4. SM EFT -connect UV models to precision observables Xiaochuan Lu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    observables UV models Connect Models to Measurements How do the precision measurements shed light on physics observables UV models Connect Models to Measurements How do the precision measurements shed light on physics Berkeley 14 Precision observables UV models Connect Models to Measurements How do the precision

  5. RECORDS AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    422 RECORDS AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA CALIFORNIA, APRIL 1952 SPECIAL AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA CALIFORNIA, APRIL 1952 by David Kramer United States Fish volumes 21 Literature cited 42 Hi #12;#12;RECORDS AND OBSERVATIONS FROM PLANKTON GRID STUDIES OFF BAJA

  6. LPS-inducible factor(s) from activated macrophages mediates cytolysis of Naegleria fowleri amoebae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleary, S.F.; Marciano-Cabral, F.

    1986-03-01

    Soluble cytolytic factors of macrophage origin have previously been described with respect to their tumoricidal activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism and possible factor(s) responsible for cytolysis of the amoeba Naegleria fowleri by activated peritoneal macrophages from B6C3F1 mice. Macrophages or conditioned medium (CM) from macrophage cultures were incubated with /sup 3/H-Uridine labeled amoebae. Percent specific release of label served as an index of cytolysis. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum macrophages demonstrated significant cytolysis of amoebae at 24 h with an effector to target ratio of 10:1. Treatment of macrophages with inhibitors of RNA or protein synthesis blocked amoebicidal activity. Interposition of a 1 ..mu..m pore membrane between macrophages and amoebae inhibited killing. Inhibition in the presence of the membrane was overcome by stimulating the macrophages with LPS. CM from SPS-stimulated, but not unstimulated, cultures of activated macrophages was cytotoxic for amoebae. The activity was heat sensitive and was recovered from ammonium sulfate precipitation of the CM. Results indicate that amoebicidal activity is mediated by a protein(s) of macrophage origin induced by target cell contact or stimulation with LPS.

  7. Inter- and Intra-Observer Variability in Prostate Definition With Tissue Harmonic and Brightness Mode Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Kaur, E-mail: Gurpreet.Sandhu2@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Meyer, Tyler [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Pavamani, Simon [Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Christian Medical College, Vellore (India); Khan, Rao [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the relative utility of tissue harmonic (H) and brightness (B) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the prostate by studying interobserver and intraobserver variation in prostate delineation. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with early-stage disease were randomly selected. TRUS images of prostates were acquired using B and H modes. The prostates on all images were contoured by an experienced radiation oncologist (RO) and five equally trained observers. The observers were blinded to information regarding patient and imaging mode. The volumes of prostate glands and areas of midgland slices were calculated. Volumes contoured were compared among the observers and between observer group and RO. Contours on one patient were repeated five times by four observers to evaluate the intraobserver variability. Results: A one-sample Student t-test showed the volumes outlined by five observers are in agreement (p > 0.05) with the RO. Paired Student t-test showed prostate volumes (p = 0.008) and midgland areas (p = 0.006) with H mode were significantly smaller than that with B mode. Two-factor analysis of variances showed significant interobserver variability (p < 0.001) in prostate volumes and areas. Inter- and intraobserver consistency was quantified as the standard deviation of mean volumes and areas, and concordance indices. It was found that for small glands ({<=}35 cc) H mode provided greater interobserver consistency; however, for large glands ({>=}35 cc), B mode provided more consistent estimates. Conclusions: H mode provided superior inter- and intraobserver agreement in prostate volume definition for small to medium prostates. In large glands, H mode does not exhibit any additional advantage. Although harmonic imaging has not proven advantageous for all cases, its utilization seems to be judicious for small prostates.

  8. A Comparison of TWP-ICE Observational Data with Cloud-Resolving Model Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Hill, A.; Jones, T. R.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Liu, G.; Minnis, Patrick; Morrison, H.; Nguyen, L.; Park, S.; Petch, Jon C.; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Schumacher, Courtney; Shipway, Ben; Varble, A. C.; Wu, Xiaoqing; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Minghua

    2012-03-13

    Observations made during the TWP-ICE campaign are used to drive and evaluate thirteen cloud-resolving model simulations with periodic lateral boundary conditions. The simulations employ 2D and 3D dynamics, one- and two-moment microphysics, several variations on large-scale forcing, and the use of observationally derived aerosol properties to prognose droplet numbers. When domain means are averaged over a 6-day active monsoon period, all simulations reproduce observed surface precipitation rate but not its structural distribution. Simulated fractional areas covered by convective and stratiform rain are uncorrelated with one another, and are both variably overpredicted by up to a factor of {approx}2. Stratiform area fractions are strongly anticorrelated with outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) but are negligibly correlated with ice water path (IWP), indicating that ice spatial distribution controls OLR more than mean IWP. Overpredictions of OLR tend to be accompanied by underpredictions of reflected shortwave radiation (RSR). When there are two simulations differing only in microphysics scheme or large-scale forcing, the one with smaller stratiform area tends to exhibit greater OLR and lesser RSR by similar amounts. After {approx}10 days, simulations reach a suppressed monsoon period with a wide range of mean precipitable water vapor, attributable in part to varying overprediction of cloud-modulated radiative flux divergence compared with observationally derived values. Differences across the simulation ensemble arise from multiple sources, including dynamics, microphysics, and radiation treatments. Close agreement of spatial and temporal averages with observations may not be expected, but the wide spreads of predicted stratiform fraction and anticorrelated OLR indicate a need for more rigorous observation-based evaluation of the underlying micro- and macrophysical properties of convective and stratiform structures.

  9. Fractional Quantum Hall Filling Factors from String Theory using Toric Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belhaj, A; Idrissi, M El; Manaut, B; Sebbar, A; Sedra, M B

    2015-01-01

    Using toric Cartan matrices as abelian gauge charges, we present a class of stringy fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) producing some recent experimental observed filling factor values. More precisely, we derive the corresponding Chern-Simons type models from M-theory compactified on four complex dimensional hyper-K\\"{a}hler manifolds X^4. These manifolds, which are viewed as target spaces of a particular N=4 sigma model in two dimensions, are identified with the cotangent bundles over intersecting 2-dimensional toric varieties V_i^2 according to toric Cartan matrices. Exploring results of string dualities, the presented FQHE can be obtained from D6-banes wrapping on such intersecting toric varieties interacting with R-R gauge fields. This string theory realization provides a geometric interpretation of the filling factors in terms of toric and Euler characteristic topological data of the compactified geometry. Concretely, explicit bilayer models are worked out in some details.

  10. Observations of thermally excited ferromagnetic resonance on spin torque oscillators having a perpendicularly magnetized free layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamaru, S. Kubota, H.; Yakushiji, K.; Konoto, M.; Nozaki, T.; Fukushima, A.; Imamura, H.; Taniguchi, T.; Arai, H.; Tsunegi, S.; Yuasa, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-05-07

    Measurements of thermally excited ferromagnetic resonance were performed on spin torque oscillators having a perpendicularly magnetized free layer and in-plane magnetized reference layer (abbreviated as PMF-STO in the following) for the purpose of obtaining magnetic properties in the PMF-STO structure. The measured spectra clearly showed a large main peak and multiple smaller peaks on the high frequency side. A Lorentzian fit on the main peak yielded Gilbert damping factor of 0.0041. The observed peaks moved in proportion to the out-of-plane bias field. From the slope of the main peak frequency as a function of the bias field, Lande g factor was estimated to be about 2.13. The mode intervals showed a clear dependence on the diameter of the PMF-STOs, i.e., intervals are larger for a smaller diameter. These results suggest that the observed peaks should correspond to eigenmodes of lateral spin wave resonance in the perpendicularly magnetized free layer.

  11. Observations of the pulsation of the Cepheid l Car with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Davis; A. P. Jacob; J. G. Robertson; M. J. Ireland; J. R. North; W. J. Tango; P. G. Tuthill

    2008-12-28

    Observations of the southern Cepheid l Car to yield the mean angular diameter and angular pulsation amplitude have been made with the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) at a wavelength of 696 nm. The resulting mean limb-darkened angular diameter is 2.990+-0.017 mas (i.e. +-0.6 per cent) with a maximum-to-minimum amplitude of 0.560+-0.018 mas corresponding to 18.7+-0.6 per cent in the mean stellar diameter. Careful attention has been paid to uncertainties, including those in measurements, in the adopted calibrator angular diameters, in the projected values of visibility squared at zero baseline, and to systematic effects. No evidence was found for a circumstellar envelope at 696 nm. The interferometric results have been combined with radial displacements of the stellar atmosphere derived from selected radial velocity data taken from the literature to determine the distance and mean diameter of l Car. The distance is determined to be 525+-26 pc and the mean radius 169+-8R{solar). Comparison with published values for the distance and mean radius show excellent agreement, particularly when a common scaling factor from observed radial velocity to pulsation velocity of the stellar atmosphere (the p-factor) is used.

  12. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  13. Partial and Complete Observables for Canonical General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Dittrich

    2005-07-25

    In this work we will consider the concepts of partial and complete observables for canonical general relativity. These concepts provide a method to calculate Dirac observables. The central result of this work is that one can compute Dirac observables for general relativity by dealing with just one constraint. For this we have to introduce spatial diffeomorphism invariant Hamiltonian constraints. It will turn out that these can be made to be Abelian. Furthermore the methods outlined here provide a connection between observables in the space--time picture, i.e. quantities invariant under space--time diffeomorphisms, and Dirac observables in the canonical picture.

  14. Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to Q^2 = 8.5 GeV^2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. R. Puckett; E. J. Brash; M. K. Jones; W. Luo; M. Meziane; L. Pentchev; C. F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; F. R. Wesselmann; A. Ahmidouch; I. Albayrak; K. A. Aniol; J. Arrington; A. Asaturyan; H. Baghdasaryan; F. Benmokhtar; W. Bertozzi; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; W. Boeglin; C. Butuceanu; P. Carter; S. Chernenko; E. Christy; M. Commisso; J. C. Cornejo; S. Covrig; S. Danagoulian; A. Daniel; A. Davidenko; D. Day; S. Dhamija; D. Dutta; R. Ent; S. Frullani; H. Fenker; E. Frlez; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; S. Gilad; R. Gilman; Y. Goncharenko; K. Hafidi; D. Hamilton; D. W. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; T. Horn; B. Hu; J. Huang; G. M. Huber; E. Jensen; C. Keppel; M. Khandaker; P. King; D. Kirillov; M. Kohl; V. Kravtsov; G. Kumbartzki; Y. Li; V. Mamyan; D. J. Margaziotis; A. Marsh; Y. Matulenko; J. Maxwell; G. Mbianda; D. Meekins; Y. Melnik; J. Miller; A. Mkrtchyan; H. Mkrtchyan; B. Moffit; O. Moreno; J. Mulholland; A. Narayan; S. Nedev; Nuruzzaman; E. Piasetzky; W. Pierce; N. M. Piskunov; Y. Prok; R. D. Ransome; D. S. Razin; P. Reimer; J. Reinhold; O. Rondon; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; K. Shestermanov; S. Sirca; I. Sitnik; L. Smykov; G. Smith; L. Solovyev; P. Solvignon; R. Subedi; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson; A. Vasiliev; M. Veilleux; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; S. Wood; Z. Ye; Y. Zanevsky; X. Zhang; Y. Zhang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2010-05-28

    Among the most fundamental observables of nucleon structure, electromagnetic form factors are a crucial benchmark for modern calculations describing the strong interaction dynamics of the nucleon's quark constituents; indeed, recent proton data have attracted intense theoretical interest. In this letter, we report new measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio using the recoil polarization method, at momentum transfers Q2=5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2. By extending the range of Q2 for which GEp is accurately determined by more than 50%, these measurements will provide significant constraints on models of nucleon structure in the non-perturbative regime.

  15. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Dissipation at tidal and seismic frequencies in a melt-free,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    be readily detectable with future seismological observations. 1. Introduction The rate at which tidal energyJOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Dissipation at tidal and seismic of Phobos provides a constraint on the tidal dissipation factor, Q, within Mars. We model viscoelastic

  16. Multiwavelength Observations of EXO 0748-676 - I. Reprocessing of X-ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. I. Hynes; K. Horne; K. O'Brien; C. A. Haswell; E. L. Robinson; A. R. King; P. A. Charles; K. J. Pearson

    2006-05-04

    We present the first high time-resolution simultaneous X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical observations of X-ray bursts in UY Vol, the optical counterpart of the low mass X-ray binary EXO 0748-676, obtained with RXTE, HST, and Gemini-S. Strong reprocessed signals are present in the ultraviolet (a factor of 4) and optical (a factor of 2.5). These signals are lagged with respect to the X-rays and appear significantly smeared as well. The addition of far-ultraviolet coverage for one burst, together with the high quality of the dataset, allow much tighter constraints upon the temperature and geometry of the reprocessing region than previously possible. A single-zone black body reprocessing model for this burst suggests a rise in temperatures during the burst from 18,000 to 35,000K and an emitting area comparable to that expected for the disk and/or irradiated companion star. The lags, a mean of 4.0s and range of 2.5s, are consistent with those expected within the binary. The single-zone black body model cannot reproduce the ratio of optical to ultraviolet flux during the burst, however. The discrepancy, corresponding to underpredicting the optical by more than a factor of two, seems too large to explain with deviations from a local black body spectrum and more likely indicates that a range of reprocessing temperatures are required, as would be expected, with cooler regions not contributing to the UV. Comparable results are derived from other bursts, and in particular the lag and smearing both appear shorter when the companion star is on the near side of the disk as predicted. The burst observed by HST also yielded a spectrum of the reprocessed light. [Abridged

  17. Factors influencing methane distribution in Texas ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, C.; Grossman, E.L.; Ammerman, J.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-01-01

    To determine the factors that influence the distribution of methane in Texas ground water, water samples were collected from 40 wells in east-central and central Texas aquifers. Among the chemical parameters examined, sulfate is most important in controlling methane distribution. Methane occurs in high concentration in east-central Texas only where sulfate concentration is low, supporting the hypothesis that abundant microbial methane production does not begin until sulfate is depleted. Because water samples from central Texas are high in either oxygen or sulfate, methane concentrations are low in these waters. A positive correlation between methane and sulfate in these waters indicates a different, perhaps thermogenic, origin for the trace methane. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of dissolved methane ranged from {minus}80{per_thousand} to {minus}21{per_thousand} in east-central Texas and {minus}41.2{per_thousand} to {minus}8.5{per_thousand} in central Texas. Low values of < {minus}50{per_thousand} in the east-central Texas ground water indicate a microbial origin for methane and are consistent with the observed sulfate-methane relationship; high {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of > {minus}31{per_thousand} likely result from bacterial methane oxidation. Similarly, methane with high {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios in central Texas may reflect partial oxidation of the methane pool. Overall, water samples from both regions show a positive correlation between sulfate concentration and the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of methane, suggesting that methane oxidation may be associated with sulfate reduction in Texas ground water.

  18. Multifocal Glioblastoma Multiforme: Prognostic Factors and Patterns of Progression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Andrel, Jocelyn; Andrews, David W.; Curran, Walter J.; Daskalakis, Constantine; Werner-Wasik, Maria

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the progression patterns in patients with multifocal glioblastoma multiforme who had undergone whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), the historical standard, versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, and to identify predictive treatment and pretreatment factors. Methods and Materials: The records of 50 patients with multifocal glioblastoma multiforme treated with RT were reviewed. Univariate analyses were performed using survival methods and the Cox proportional hazards regression method. Multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression method. Results: The mean age was 61 years, and 71% had a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score of {>=}70. Of the 50 patients, 32% underwent WBRT and 68%, three-dimensional conformal RT. Progression was local in all evaluable patients, as determined by imaging in 38 patients and early neurologic progression in 12. The median time to progression (TTP) was 3.1 months, and the median survival time (MST) was 8.1 months. The significant independent predictors of TTP on multivariate analysis were a KPS score <70 (p = 0.001), the extent of surgery (p = 0.040), a radiation dose <60 Gy (p = 0.027), and the lack of chemotherapy (p = 0.001). The significant independent predictors of a reduced MST were a KPS score <70 (p = 0.022) and the absence of salvage surgery (p = 0.011) and salvage chemotherapy (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Local progression was observed in all patients. On multivariate analysis, no significant difference was found in the TTP or MST between three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and WBRT. The KPS was a consistent independent predictor of both TTP and MST. On the basis of the progression pattern, we do not recommend WBRT as a mandatory component of the treatment of multifocal glioblastoma multi0011for.

  19. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Dan

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  20. Dose factor entry and display tool for BNCT radiotherapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessol, Daniel E. (Bozeman, MT); Wheeler, Floyd J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cook, Jeremy L. (Greeley, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A system for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiotherapy planning where a biological distribution is calculated using a combination of conversion factors and a previously calculated physical distribution. Conversion factors are presented in a graphical spreadsheet so that a planner can easily view and modify the conversion factors. For radiotherapy in multi-component modalities, such as Fast-Neutron and BNCT, it is necessary to combine each conversion factor component to form an effective dose which is used in radiotherapy planning and evaluation. The Dose Factor Entry and Display System is designed to facilitate planner entry of appropriate conversion factors in a straightforward manner for each component. The effective isodose is then immediately computed and displayed over the appropriate background (e.g. digitized image).

  1. Observational results of a multi-telescope campaign in search of interstellar urea [(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remijan, Anthony J.; Snyder, Lewis E.; Kuo, Hsin-Lun; Looney, Leslie W.; Friedel, Douglas N.; McGuire, Brett A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu; Lovas, Frank J.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Dyubko, S. F.; McCall, Benjamin J.; Hollis, Jan M.

    2014-03-10

    In this paper, we present the results of an observational search for gas phase urea [(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CO] observed toward the Sgr B2(N-LMH) region. We show data covering urea transitions from ?100 GHz to 250 GHz from five different observational facilities: the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland-Association (BIMA) Array, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), the NRAO 12 m telescope, the IRAM 30 m telescope, and the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST). The results show that the features ascribed to urea can be reproduced across the entire observed bandwidth and all facilities by best-fit column density, temperature, and source size parameters which vary by less than a factor of two between observations merely by adjusting for telescope-specific parameters. Interferometric observations show that the emission arising from these transitions is cospatial and compact, consistent with the derived source sizes and emission from a single species. Despite this evidence, the spectral complexity of both (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CO and of Sgr B2(N) makes the definitive identification of this molecule challenging. We present observational spectra, laboratory data, and models, and discuss our results in the context of a possible molecular detection of urea.

  2. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 97, No. 4, pp. 13341345, August 2007, doi: 10.1785/0120060148 Propagating Waves in the Steel, Moment-Frame Factor Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Julia R.

    University of California, Los Angeles, Factor building. Waveform data from the 72-channel array in the 17-dimensional model of the Factor building has been developed based on structural drawings. Observed displacements base. The impulse response functions were then stacked to bring out wave-propagation effects more

  3. Sloan Digital Sky Survey observing time tracking and efficiency measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric H. Neilsen, Jr.; Richard G. Kron; William N. Boroski

    2002-10-16

    Accurate and consistent time tracking is essential for evaluating the efficiency of survey observing operations and identifying areas that need improvement. Off the shelf time tracking software, which requires users to enter activities by hand, proved tedious to use and insufficiently exible. In this paper, we present an alternate time tracking system developed specifically for Sloan Digital Sky Survey observing. This system uses an existing logging system, murmur, to log the beginning and ending times of tracked circumstances, including activities, weather, and problems which effect observing. Operations software automatically generates most entries for routine observing activities; in a night of routine observing, time tracking requires little or no attention from the observing staff. A graphical user interface allows observers to make entries marking time lost to weather and equipment, and to correct inaccurate entries made by the observing software. The last is necessary when the change in activity is not marked by a change in the state of the software or instruments, or when the time is used for engineering or other observing not part of routine survey data collection. A second utility generates reports of time usage from these logs. These reports include totals for the time spent for each observing task, time lost to weather and problems, efficiency statistics for comparison with the survey baseline, and a detailed listing of what activities and problems were present in any covered time period.

  4. Observability and Controllability of Nonlinear Networks: The Role of Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew J. Whalen; Sean N. Brennan; Timothy D. Sauer; Steven J. Schiff

    2014-10-06

    Observability and controllability are essential concepts to the design of predictive observer models and feedback controllers of networked systems. For example, noncontrollable mathematical models of real systems have subspaces that influence model behavior, but cannot be controlled by an input. Such subspaces can be difficult to determine in complex nonlinear networks. Since almost all of the present theory was developed for linear networks without symmetries, here we present a numerical and group representational framework, to quantify the observability and controllability of nonlinear networks with explicit symmetries that shows the connection between symmetries and nonlinear measures of observability and controllability. We numerically observe and theoretically predict that not all symmetries have the same effect on network observation and control. Our analysis shows that the presence of symmetry in a network may decrease observability and controllability, although networks containing only rotational symmetries remain controllable and observable. These results alter our view of the nature of observability and controllability in complex networks, change our understanding of structural controllability, and affect the design of mathematical models to observe and control such networks.

  5. Fractionation studies on the unidentified growth factor(s) in distillers dried solubles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dannenburg, Warren Nathaniel

    1955-01-01

    "rltrr ro?v toJ oy itunler urr- . r. roan i ')1, in wn'ch aport it;~ ue. on tr, ited t. iuu whole liver anu dried bre er= yeast ai ?cured to oe . ", o~d s . urces oi tai- l'aCtOr Wnile dried Wiiej, di tiller= dried ~ui Oie-, nid ter. ontat. on s... c: ?ein . ilu . ~@i allan , irotein u' tne, rotein - dice; ? iid . o?cd that it le?t two i'ctur- . . ere required bg tiie cuici. &or og, . imum?io, t i . . )ne factor . ; suyfilied bg liver z ictiun= iii uriod oie, ers yea. . t, while t?= ot...

  6. Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Autism in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    and perinatal risk factors for autism. Journal of PerinatalB. (1979). Viral exposure and autism. American Journal ofage and the risk of autism spectrum disorder. American

  7. Factors driving wind power development in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bird, Lori A.; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew H.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-01-01

    s Largest Purchase of Wind Power,” September 17, 2001.FACTORS DRIVING WIND POWER DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATESthe United States third in wind power capacity globally,

  8. Electromagnetic form factors and the hypercentral constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanctis, M. De; Giannini, M. M.; Santopinto, E.; Vassallo, A.

    2007-12-15

    We present new results concerning the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon using a relativistic version of the hypercentral constituent quark model and a relativistic current.

  9. Towards large-cohort comparative studies to define the factors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Towards large-cohort comparative studies to define the factors influencing the gut microbial community structure of ASD patients Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  10. Planar superconducting resonators with internal quality factors above one million

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinis, John M.

    Planar superconducting resonators with internal quality factors above one million A. Megrant,1,2 C criti- cal elements for superconducting electromagnetic radiation detectors,1 quantum memories,2

  11. Factors influencing photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunc...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors influencing photocurrent generation in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: interfacial energetics and blend microstructure April 29, 2009 at 3pm36-428 Jenny Nelson...

  12. Factors Associated with Hepatitis B Testing Among Vietnamese Americans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Asian American adults for hepatitis B: a cross-sectionalFactors Associated with Hepatitis B Testing Among VietnameseBACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis B- associated

  13. Factors Controlling The Geochemical Evolution Of Fumarolic Encrustatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by the chemistry of the ejecta on which the relict encrustations are found. This matrix chemistry factor illustrates that the primary fumarolic minerals surrounding the...

  14. Method for determining formation quality factor from well log...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    determining formation quality factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method for...

  15. Factors governing sustainable groundwater pumping near a river

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    study the interplay between riverbed clogging and infiltration.study various factors that can potentially impact infiltrationthat affect infiltration processes. Our study is performed

  16. Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry 2004...

  17. Analyticity properties and unitarity constraints of heavy meson form factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Rafael, E; Eduardo de Rafael; Josep Taron; Rafael, Eduardo de; Taron, Josep

    1994-01-01

    We derive new bounds on the b-number form factor $F(q^2)$ of the B meson. (Revised version of hep-ph/9306214).

  18. A NOTE ON THE FACTORIZATION THEOREM OF TORIC ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-20

    In this section, we harvest the fruit “Weak Factorization Theorem” grown upon the tree of the ...... chatov Institute Atomic Energy preprint (1989). [Sumihiro] H.

  19. Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life Cycle Cost...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Life Cycle Cost Analysis, 2013 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life Cycle Cost Analysis, 2013 Handbook describes the annual supplements to the NIST Handbook 135 and...

  20. Critical Factors Driving the High Volumetric Uptake of Methane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Critical Factors Driving the High Volumetric Uptake of Methane in Cu-3(btc)(2) Previous Next List Hulvey, Zeric; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Mason, Jarad A.; Tsivion, Ehud; Dougherty,...

  1. HST Observations and Photoionization Modeling of the LINER Galaxy NGC 1052

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Gabel; F. C. Bruhweiler; D. M. Crenshaw; S. B. Kraemer; C. L. Miskey

    2000-01-19

    We present a study of available Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectroscopic and imaging observations of the low ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) galaxy NGC 1052. The WFPC2 imagery clearly differentiates extended nebular Halpha emission from that of the compact core. Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) observations provide a full set of optical and UV data (1200-6800 Angstroms). These spectral data sample the innermost region (0."86 x 0."86 ~ 82pc x 82pc) and exclude the extended Halpha emission seen in the WFPC2 image. The derived emission line fluxes allow a detailed analysis of the physical conditions within the nucleus. The measured flux ratio for Halpha/Hbeta, F{Halpha}/F{Hbeta}=4.53, indicates substantial intrinsic reddening, E(B-V)=0.42, for the nuclear nebular emission. This is the first finding of a large extinction of the nuclear emission line fluxes in NGC 1052. If the central ionizing continuum is assumed to be attenuated by a comparable amount, then the emission line fluxes can be reproduced well by a simple photoionization model using a central power law continuum source with a spectral index of alpha = -1.2 as deduced from the observed flux distribution. A multi-density, dusty gas gives the best fit to the observed emission line spectrum. Our calculations show that the small contribution from a highly ionized gas observed in NGC 1052 can also be reproduced solely by photoionization modeling. The high gas covering factor determined from our model is consistent with the assumption that our line of sight to the central engine is obscured.

  2. 86, 43, and 22 GHz VLBI Observations of 3C120

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose-Luis Gomez; Alan P. Marscher; Antonio Alberdi

    1999-06-11

    We present the first 86 GHz VLBI observations of the radio galaxy 3C~120, together with contemporaneous 43 and 22 GHz polarimetric VLBA observations. The very high angular resolution obtained at 86 GHz provides an upper limit to the size of the core of 54 $\\mu$as (0.025 $h^{-1}$pc). This represents a direct determination of the base of the jet which is independent of variability arguments (which depend on uncertain estimates of the Doppler factor), and places it below approximately one light-month. Comparison with previous VLBA observations after a one-year interval shows pronounced changes in the structure and polarization of the jet. Most of the components are found to follow a curved path while undergoing a steepening of their spectra accompanied by a decrease in total and polarized emission. However, at least one component is observed to follow a quasi-ballistic motion, accompanied by a flattening of its spectrum, as well as an increase in total and polarized flux. This may be explained by its interaction with the external medium, resulting in a shock that enhances the emission and aligns the magnetic field perpendicular to the component motion, thereby producing an increase of the degree of polarization from undetected values to as high as 15%. A second strong component, with the highest degree of polarization (23%), is found to have experienced a displacement from the ridge line of the structural position angle of the jet as it moved downstream. We have found a mean swing to the south of the position angle of the innermost components of $\\sim 6^{\\circ}$ between late 1996 and 1997, which may be responsible for the jet curvature observed at parsec and kiloparsec scales.

  3. NS&T Managment Observations - 1st Quarter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Gianotto

    2014-06-01

    The INL Management Observation Program (MOP) is designed to improve managers and supervisors understanding of work being performed by employees and the barriers impacting their success. The MOP also increases workers understanding of managements’ expectations as they relate to safety, security, quality, and work performance. Management observations (observations) are designed to improve the relationship and trust between employees and managers through increased engagement and interactions between managers and researchers in the field. As part of continuous improvement, NS&T management took initiative to focus on the participation and quality of observations in FY 14. This quarterly report is intended to (a) summarize the participation and quality of management’s observations, (b) assess observations for commonalities or trends related to facility or process barriers impacting research, and (c) provide feedback and make recommendations for improvements NS&T’s MOP.

  4. Observation of GRBs by the MAGIC Telescope, Status and Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Bastieri; N. Galante; M. Garczarczyk; M. Gaug; F. Longo; S. Mizobuchi; V. Scapin

    2007-09-10

    Observation of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the Very High Energy (VHE) domain will provide important information on the physical conditions in GRB outflows. The MAGIC telescope is the best suited Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) for these observations. Thanks to its fast repositioning time and low energy threshold, MAGIC is able to start quickly the follow-up observation, triggered by an alert from the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN), and observe the prompt emission and early afterglow phase from GRBs. In the last two years of operation several GRB follow-up observations were performed by MAGIC, however, until now without successful detection of VHE gamma rays above threshold energies >100 GeV. In this paper we revise the expectations for the GRB observations with MAGIC, based on the experience from the last years of operation.

  5. Hawking radiation as perceived by different observers (ERE2011 proceedings)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbado, Luis C; Garay, Luis J

    2012-01-01

    We study the perception of Hawking radiation by different observers outside a black hole. The analysis is done in terms of an effective-temperature function that varies along the trajectory of each observer. The vacuum state of the radiation field is chosen to be non-stationary, so as to mimic the switching-on of Hawking radiation that would appear in a real black hole collapse. We analyse how this vacuum is perceived by observers staying at a fixed radius, by observers coming in free-fall from radial infinity at different times, and by observers in free-fall released from finite radial positions. Results found have a compelling physical interpretation. One main result, at first unexpected, is that in general free-falling observers do perceive particle emission by the black hole when crossing the event horizon. This happens because of a diverging Doppler shift at the event horizon.

  6. Hawking radiation as perceived by different observers (ERE2011 proceedings)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis C. Barbado; Carlos Barceló; Luis J. Garay

    2012-10-01

    We study the perception of Hawking radiation by different observers outside a black hole. The analysis is done in terms of an effective-temperature function that varies along the trajectory of each observer. The vacuum state of the radiation field is chosen to be non-stationary, so as to mimic the switching-on of Hawking radiation that would appear in a real black hole collapse. We analyse how this vacuum is perceived by observers staying at a fixed radius, by observers coming in free-fall from radial infinity at different times, and by observers in free-fall released from finite radial positions. Results found have a compelling physical interpretation. One main result, at first unexpected, is that in general free-falling observers do perceive particle emission by the black hole when crossing the event horizon. This happens because of a diverging Doppler shift at the event horizon.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor rescues synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    in mice lacking brain- derived neurotrophic factor. Procterm potentiation by brain- derived neurotrophic factor. JCM, Simmons DA (2007b) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

  8. The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Observations of Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01

    We describe measurements of GeV and TeV cosmic rays with the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory, or HAWC. The measurements include the observation of the shadow of the moon; the observation of small-scale and large-scale angular clustering of the TeV cosmic rays; the prospects for measurement of transient solar events with HAWC; and the observation of Forbush decreases with the HAWC engineering array and HAWC-30.

  9. Transport Regulation from Theory to Practice: General Observations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transport Regulation from Theory to Practice: General Observations and a Case Study Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Transport Regulation from Theory to...

  10. Some Observations Regarding Steady Laminar Flows Past Bluff Bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fornberg, Bengt

    Some Observations Regarding Steady Laminar Flows Past Bluff Bodies Bengt Fornberg Department, 2013. February 4, 2014 Abstract Steady laminar flows past simple objects, such as a cylinder

  11. Sandia Energy - NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Process Experiment (MIZOPEX) Home Climate Office of Science News News & Events Research & Capabilities Monitoring Analysis...

  12. Simultaneous observation of nascent plasma and bubble induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simultaneous observation of nascent plasma and bubble induced by laser ablation in water with various pulse durations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simultaneous...

  13. Magnetism and superconductivity observed to exist in harmony

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Los Alamos National Laboratory, along with colleagues at institutions in Switzerland and Canada, have observed, for the first time in a single exotic phase, a situation...

  14. Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric telescope automation and observing software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric H. Neilsen, Jr. et al.

    2002-10-16

    The photometric telescope (PT) provides observations necessary for the photometric calibration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Because the attention of the observing staff is occupied by the operation of the 2.5 meter telescope which takes the survey data proper, the PT must reliably take data with little supervision. In this paper we describe the PT's observing program, MOP, which automates most tasks necessary for observing. MOP's automated target selection is closely modeled on the actions a human observer might take, and is built upon a user interface that can be (and has been) used for manual operation. This results in an interface that makes it easy for an observer to track the activities of the automating procedures and intervene with minimum disturbance when necessary. MOP selects targets from the same list of standard star and calibration fields presented to the user, and chooses standard star fields covering ranges of airmass, color, and time necessary to monitor atmospheric extinction and produce a photometric solution. The software determines when additional standard star fields are unnecessary, and selects survey calibration fields according to availability and priority. Other automated features of MOP, such as maintaining the focus and keeping a night log, are also built around still functional manual interfaces, allowing the observer to be as active in observing as desired; MOP's automated features may be used as tools for manual observing, ignored entirely, or allowed to run the telescope with minimal supervision when taking routine data.

  15. AAO support observations for the Hubble Deep Field Sout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. J. Boyle

    1998-04-09

    We present proposed ground-based support observations at the AAO for the forthcoming Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) campaign.

  16. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud Results are presented...

  17. Pole placement design for quantum systems via coherent observers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zibo Miao; Matthew R. James; Valery A. Ugrinovskii

    2015-09-17

    We previously extended Luenberger's approach for observer design to the quantum case, and developed a class of coherent observers which tracks linear quantum stochastic systems in the sense of mean values. In light of the fact that the Luenberger observer is commonly and successfully applied in classical control, it is interesting to investigate the role of coherent observers in quantum feedback. As the first step in exploring observer-based coherent control, in this paper we study pole-placement techniques for quantum systems using coherent observers, and in such a fashion, poles of a closed-loop quantum system can be relocated at any desired locations. In comparison to classical feedback control design incorporating the Luenberger observer, here direct coupling between a quantum plant and the observer-based controller are allowed to enable a greater degree of freedom for the design of controller parameters. A separation principle is presented, and we show how to design the observer and feedback independently to be consistent with the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed scheme is applicable to coherent feedback control of quantum systems, especially when the transient dynamic response is of interest, and this issue is illustrated in an example.

  18. Magnetized Interstellar Molecular Clouds. I. Comparison Between Simulations and Zeeman Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I

    2015-01-01

    The most accurate measurements of magnetic fields in star-forming gas are based on the Zeeman observations analyzed by Crutcher et al. (2010). We show that their finding that the 3D magnetic field scales approximately as density$^{0.65}$ can also be obtained from analysis of the observed line-of-sight fields. We present two large-scale AMR MHD simulations of several thousand $M_\\odot$ of turbulent, isothermal, self-gravitating gas, one with a strong initial magnetic field (Alfven Mach number $M_{A,0}= 1$) and one with a weak initial field ($M_{A,0}=10$). We construct samples of the 100 most massive clumps in each simulation and show that they exhibit a power-law relation between field strength and density in excellent agreement with the observed one. Our results imply that the average field in molecular clumps in the interstellar medium is $ \\sim 42 n_{H,4}^{0.65} \\mu$G. Furthermore, the median value of the ratio of the line-of-sight field to density$^{0.65}$ in the simulations is within a factor of about (1....

  19. The Relation between Solar Eruption Topologies and Observed Flare Features I: Flare Ribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savcheva, A; McKillop, S; McCauley, P; Hanson, E; Su, Y; Werner, E; DeLuca, E E

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a topological magnetic field investigation of seven two-ribbon flares in sigmoidal active regions observed with Hinode, STEREO, and SDO. We first derive the 3D coronal magnetic field structure of all regions using marginally unstable 3D coronal magnetic field models created with the flux rope insertion method. The unstable models have been shown to be a good model of the flaring magnetic field configurations. Regions are selected based on their pre-flare configurations along with the appearance and observational coverage of flare ribbons, and the model is constrained using pre-flare features observed in extreme ultraviolet and X-ray passbands. We perform a topology analysis of the models by computing the squashing factor, Q, in order to determine the locations of prominent quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). QSLs from these maps are compared to flare ribbons at their full extents. We show that in all cases the straight segments of the two J-shaped ribbons are matched very well by the flux...

  20. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

  1. Optimized dark matter searches in deep observations of Segue 1 with MAGIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleksi?, J.; Blanch, O.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L.A.; Bonnoli, G.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; De Almeida, U. Barres; Bock, R.K.; Borracci, F.; Barrio, J.A.; Bonnefoy, S.; González, J. Becerra; Berger, K.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E. E-mail: jrico@ifae; and others

    2014-02-01

    We present the results of stereoscopic observations of the satellite galaxy Segue 1 with the MAGIC Telescopes, carried out between 2011 and 2013. With almost 160 hours of good-quality data, this is the deepest observational campaign on any dwarf galaxy performed so far in the very high energy range of the electromagnetic spectrum. We search this large data sample for signals of dark matter particles in the mass range between 100 GeV and 20 TeV. For this we use the full likelihood analysis method, which provides optimal sensitivity to characteristic gamma-ray spectral features, like those expected from dark matter annihilation or decay. In particular, we focus our search on gamma-rays produced from different final state Standard Model particles, annihilation with internal bremsstrahlung, monochromatic lines and box-shaped signals. Our results represent the most stringent constraints to the annihilation cross-section or decay lifetime obtained from observations of satellite galaxies, for masses above few hundred GeV. In particular, our strongest limit (95% confidence level) corresponds to a ? 500 GeV dark matter particle annihilating into ?{sup +}?{sup ?}, and is of order (?{sub ann}v) ?  1.2 × 10{sup ?24} cm{sup 3} s{sup ?1} — a factor ? 40 above the (?{sub ann}v) ?  thermal value.

  2. Measurement of the Neutron electric form factor at Q2=0.8 2(GeV\\\\c)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derek Glazier

    2007-09-30

    Nucleon form factors allow a sensitive test for models of the nucleon. Recent experiments utilising polarisation observables have resulted, for the first time, in a model-independent determination of the neutron electric form factor GnE. This method employed an 80% longitudinally polarised, high intensity (10 uA) electon beam (883 MeV) that was quasi-elastically scattered off a liquid deuterium target in the reaction D (e, en)p. A neutron polarimeter was designed and installed to measure the ratio of transverse-to-longitudinal polarisation using neutron scattering asymmetries. This ratio allowed a determination of the neutron elastic form factor, GnE, free of the previous large systematic uncertainties associated with the deuterium wave function. The experiment took place in the A1 experimental hall at MAMI taking advantage of a high resolution magnetic spectrometer. A detailed investigation was carried out into the performance of the neutron polarimeter.

  3. Applying Human Factors to the Design of Performance Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pancake, Cherri M.

    Applying Human Factors to the Design of Performance Tools Cherri M. Pancake Oregon State University Abstract. After two decades of research in parallel tools for perfor- mance tuning, why are users still dissatis ed? This paper outlines the human factors issues that determine how performance tools

  4. Factors influencing digital technology use in early childhood education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahriar, Selim

    Factors influencing digital technology use in early childhood education Courtney K. Blackwell extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence early childhood educators' digital technology use. Survey data from 1234 early childhood educators indicate that attitudes toward the value of technology to aid

  5. Matrix Factorizations for Information Retrieval Dianne P. O'Leary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Dianne P.

    Matrix Factorizations for Information Retrieval Dianne P. O'Leary Computer Science Dept that is predominantly linear algebra · Conclusions A Catalog of Matrix Factorizations c 2006 Dianne P. O'Leary 1 or oscillation · understanding Markov chains c 2006 Dianne P. O'Leary 2 University of Maryland, College Park #12

  6. Scaling factor inconsistencies in neutrinoless double beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowell, S. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2006-02-15

    The modern theory of neutrinoless double beta decay includes a scaling factor that has often been treated inconsistently in the literature. The nuclear contribution to the decay half-life can be suppressed by 15%-20% when scaling factors are mismatched. Correspondingly, is overestimated.

  7. Scaling Factor Inconsistencies in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Cowell

    2005-12-05

    The modern theory of neutrinoless double beta decay includes a scaling factor that has often been treated inconsistently in the literature. The nuclear contribution to the decay half life can be suppressed by 15-20% when scaling factors are mismatched. Correspondingly, $$ is overestimated.

  8. Journal Diffusion Factors a measure of diffusion? Tove Faber Frandsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Journal Diffusion Factors ­ a measure of diffusion? Tove Faber Frandsen Royal School of Library In this paper we show that the measure of diffusion introduced by Ian Rowlands called the Journal Diffusion Factor (JDF) is highly negatively correlated with the number of citations, leading highly cited journals

  9. The Multivariate Merit Factor of a Boolean T. Aaron Gulliver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Matthew Geoffrey

    The Multivariate Merit Factor of a Boolean Function T. Aaron Gulliver Dept. of Electrical metric, the multivariate merit factor (MMF) of a Boolean function, is presented, and various infinite recursive quadratic sequence constructions are given for which both uni­ variate and multivariate merit

  10. Implementing the Elliptic Curve Method of Factoring in Reconfigurable Hardware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaj, Krzysztof

    Bachimanchi1 1 Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030-exponential factoring algorithm, with expected run time of O(exp(c log p log log p) M(N)) where c > 0, p is a factor we aim to find, and M(N) denotes the cost of multiplication (mod N). ECM is the best method to perform

  11. A Parallel Jacobi Method for the Takagi Factorization Xiaohong Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Sanzheng

    A Parallel Jacobi Method for the Takagi Factorization Xiaohong Wang Department of Computing-symmetric matrix. We present a multthreading parallel Jacobi algorithm for computing the Takagi factorization Jacobi method, Multithreading. 1 Introduction A matrix A of order n is symmetric if A = A T . When

  12. A Two-factor Authentication Mechanism Using Mobile Phones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -03 Last Modification Date: 2008/08/20 Abstract Mobile devices are becoming more pervasive and more of mobile devices to provide a two-factor authentication method. Our approach uses a combination of one-time passwords, as the first authentication factor, and credentials stored on a mobile device, as the second

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING EXVESSEL PRICES OF SKIPJACK TUNA IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FACTORS AFFECTING EXVESSEL PRICES OF SKIPJACK TUNA IN HAWAII Yung C . Shang The skipj ack -tuna to overfishing. On the other hand, the cost-revenue analysis indicates that, given the past input and tuna prices objective of this paper is to exam- ine the factors affecting the prices of skipj ack tuna. Skipjack

  14. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include sig- nificant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic

  15. Model Order Selection for Boolean Matrix Factorization Pauli Miettinen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldmann, Uwe

    Science Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgium jilles.vreeken@ua.ac.be ABSTRACT Matrix factorizations--where a given data matrix is approximated by a product of two or more factor matrices--are powerful data mining the data mining community in recent years. The technique has desirable properties, such as high

  16. Environmental Factors Affecting Situation Awareness in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scerri, Paul

    Environmental Factors Affecting Situation Awareness in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Prasanna Velagapudi in the application of unmanned aerial systems to a wide variety of problems. One particular class of vehicle that has of unmanned vehicles. One such factor is the physical proximity of operators to the vehicle during deployment

  17. Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor by Means of a Potential Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor by Means of a Potential Barrier Neophytos Neophytou}@iue.tuwien.ac.at Abstract Large efforts in improving thermoelectric energy conversion are devoted to energy filtering design, ~40% improvement in the thermoelectric power factor can be achieved if the following conditions

  18. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from behind-the-limb solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Vahe'; Liu, Wei; da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Allafort, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Fermi-LAT >30 MeV observations have increased the number of detected solar flares by almost a factor of 10 with respect to previous space observations. These sample both the impulsive and long duration phases of GOES M and X class flares. Of particular interest is the recent detections of three solar flares whose position behind the limb was confirmed by the STEREO-B spacecraft. While gamma-ray emission up to tens of MeV resulting from proton interactions has been detected before from occulted solar flares, the significance of these particular events lies in the fact that these are the first detections of >100 MeV gamma-ray emission from footpoint-occulted flares. We will present the Fermi-LAT, RHESSI and STEREO observations of these flares and discuss the various emission scenarios for these sources and implications for the particle acceleration mechanisms.

  19. Gray, W. D. (2003). Cognitive factors in homeland defense: The role of human factors in the novel intelligence from massive data (NIMD) project, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 1017-1018). Santa Monica, CA: Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    intelligence from massive data (NIMD) project, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 1017-1018). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. COGNITIVE FACTORS IN HOMELAND DEFENSE: THE ROLE

  20. Pulsar-Wind Nebulae: Recent Progress in Observations and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Lyubarsky, Yuri; Striani, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    In this review we describe recent observational and theoretical developments in our understanding of pulsar winds and pulsar-wind nebulae (PWNe). We put special emphasis on the results from observations of well-characterized PWNe of various types (e.g., torus-jet and bowshock-tail), the most recent MHD modeling efforts, and the status of the flaring Crab PWN puzzle.

  1. Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stehr, Jeffrey

    Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions Bryan J. Bloomer,1, and R. R. Dickerson (2009), Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions decreased by 43% for the time period 1995 to 2002 compared with 2003 to 2006 as a result of air pollution

  2. Neutron star cooling: theoretical aspects and observational constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neutron star cooling: theoretical aspects and observational constraints D.G. Yakovlev a,*, O 2003 Abstract The cooling theory of isolated neutron stars is reviewed. The main cooling regulators of supranuclear matter in neutron star interiors by confronting cooling theory with observations of isolated

  3. UAV PATH FOLLOWING FOR TARGET OBSERVATION IN WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UAV PATH FOLLOWING FOR TARGET OBSERVATION IN WIND Rolf Rysdyk, University of Washington, Seattle guidance and syn- chronous camera angles to observe a target from an unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV).1 Semi- autonomous operation of UAVs for target sensing have shown that operator situational awareness can be easily

  4. Observations of Collaborative Behavior in COMPS Computer Mediated Problem Solving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luther, Ken

    Observations of Collaborative Behavior in COMPS Computer Mediated Problem Solving Jung Hee Kim.glass @valpo.edu Abstract COMPS is a web-delivered computer-mediated problem solving environment for student in the problem-solving process. These observations confirm that COMPS indeed fa- cilitates true collaborative

  5. Observed and CAM3 GCM Sea Surface Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    Observed and CAM3 GCM Sea Surface Wind Speed Distributions: Characterization, Comparison, and Bias climatological surface wind speed probability density functions (PDFs) estimated from observations and use them to evaluate, for the first time, contemporaneous wind PDFs predicted by a GCM. The ob- servations include NASA

  6. DESIGN OF THE GREAT LAKES OBSERVING SYSTEM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGN OF THE GREAT LAKES OBSERVING SYSTEM ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE T.J. Dekker1 , J.V. DePinto1 , S, collaborative, and consensus-based enterprise architecture design process was conducted under the direction that will achieve an integrated, comprehensive, and sustainable observing system enterprise for the Great Lakes

  7. Observation of Electroweak Single Top-Quark Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Si

    We report the observation of single top-quark production using 3.2??fb[superscript -1] of pp? collision data with ?s=1.96??TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The significance of the observed data is 5.0 ...

  8. Mm/submm observations of symbiotic binary stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Mikolajewska; R. J. Ivison; A. Omont

    2002-10-22

    We present and discuss mm/submm observations of quiescent S-type symbiotic systems, and compare them with popular models proposed to account for their radio emission. We find that the M giant mass-loss rates derived from our observations are systematically higher than those reported for single M giants.

  9. Observability of Stuck-at-Faults with Differential Power Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ,flottes,rouzeyre}@lirmm.fr Abstract In this paper we propose an innovative method to test integrated circuits based on the use of the current consumed by the circuit during net transitions, it does not require observing primary outputs of the circuit and allows the test of hard-to-observe faults. Conversely to Iddq, this technique is not sensible

  10. WIND OBSERVATIONS OF SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    WIND OBSERVATIONS OF SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN THE INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM R. P. LIN Space Sciences Particle Instrument on the WIND spacecraft, which provides high sensitivity electron and ion measurements from solar wind thermal plasma up to &MeV energies. These results include: (1) the observation of solar

  11. Designed for: Ocean Observing Demo: A collaboration between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effective low cost ocean observing system. This system was recently developed and deployed for offshore oil. The Fetch node was deployed in 550 feet of water to measure ocean temperature and pressure, and the Tsunami Observing Initiatives Pioneer Array. The Fetch will record pressure and temperatures at this site prior

  12. Ornithology Based on Linking Bird Observations with Weather Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyvönen, Eero

    Ornithology Based on Linking Bird Observations with Weather Data Mikko Koho1,2 , Eero Hyv¨onen2 [12]. By combining observa- tional data with related datasets, such as weather or pollution data a use case of adding value to a bird observation dataset by related weather data and a species ontology

  13. CONVENIENCE YIELD MODEL WITH PARTIAL OBSERVATIONS AND EXPONENTIAL UTILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    CONVENIENCE YIELD MODEL WITH PARTIAL OBSERVATIONS AND EXPONENTIAL UTILITY REN´E CARMONA AND MICHAEL. We study the value function corresponding to utility pric- ing with exponential utility. Assuming of the full information case. convenience yield, filtering, partial observations, stochastic control, utility

  14. Beyond the Standard Model of Physics with Astronomical Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raul Jimenez

    2013-07-09

    There has been significant recent progress in observational cosmology. This, in turn, has provided an unprecedented picture of the early universe and its evolution. In this review I will present a (biased) view of how one can use these observational results to constraint fundamental physics and in particular physics beyond the standard model.

  15. ARM Observations Projected onto CCSM Results Projected onto

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    ARM Observations Projected onto ARM States CCSM Results Projected onto ARM States 1Oak Ridge to Comparing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data with Global Climate Model (GCM) Results Atmospheric state contained only in model results Atmospheric states contained only in ARM observations ARM

  16. EVALUATION OF PARAMETERIZED SURFACE FLUXES WITH ARM OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EVALUATION OF PARAMETERIZED SURFACE FLUXES WITH ARM OBSERVATIONS G. Liu, Y. Liu, T. Toto, M. Jensen advantage of the long-term observations of surface fluxes collected by the DOE ARM program at the Great the ARM measurements based on the EC (Eddy- Correlation) and EBBR (Energy Balance Bowen Ratio) methods

  17. First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol Reinhard Beer,1 Mark W) and methanol (CH3OH), well above the normal background levels. This is the first time that these molecules have. Citation: Beer, R., et al. (2008), First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol

  18. Scavenging quantum information: Multiple observations of quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Rapcan; John Calsamiglia; Ramon Munoz-Tapia; Emilio Bagan; Vladimir Buzek

    2011-05-26

    Given an unknown state of a qudit that has already been measured optimally, can one still extract any information about the original unknown state? Clearly, after a maximally informative measurement, the state of the system `collapses' into a post-measurement state from which the {\\em{same}} observer cannot obtain further information about the original state of the system. However, the system still encodes a significant amount of information about the original preparation for a second observer who is unaware of the actions of the first one. We study how a series of independent observers can obtain, or scavenge, information about the unknown state of a system (quantified by the fidelity) when they sequentially measure it. We give closed-form expressions for the estimation fidelity, when one or several qudits are available to carry information about the single-qudit state, and study the `classical' limit when an arbitrarily large number of observers can obtain (nearly) complete information on the system. In addition to the case where all observers perform most informative measurements we study the scenario where a finite number of observers estimate the state with equal fidelity,regardless of their position in the measurement sequence; and the scenario where all observers use identical measurement apparata (up to a mutually unknown orientation) chosen so that a particular observer's estimation fidelity is maximized.

  19. OBSERVATIONS OF THE EFFECT OF ACID-IRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OBSERVATIONS OF THE EFFECT OF ACID-IRON WASTE DISPOSAL AT SEA ON ANIMAL POPULATIONS tj^iitinn p AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;OBSERVATIONS OF THE EFFECT OF ACID-IRON WASTE DISPOSAL AT SEA ON ANIMAL scope, intended to aid or direct management or utilization practices and as guides for administrative

  20. THEORY OF THE CONTROL OF OBSERVABLE QUANTUM V. P. BELAVKIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belavkin, Viacheslav P.

    . The general problem of optimal control of a quantum-mechanical system is discussed and the corre- sponding], of the dynamical observation and feedback control optimization problems for such systems has provided a means measurement and control of classical (i.e., non-quantum) Markov processes with quantum observation channels