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  1. NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY American Fusion News Category: National Ignition Facility Link: NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

  2. National Ignition Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and Evaluation Inertial Confinement Fusion ICF Facilities National Ignition ... leading to demonstrate fusion ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. ...

  3. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science What

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ignition Facility & Photon Science What is NiF? the national ignition Facility: bringing star Power to earth The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest and...

  4. Heating National Ignition Facility, Realistic Financial Planning...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    National Ignition Facility, Realistic Financial Planning & Rapid Modification Lessons Learned Report Apr 2010 Heating National Ignition Facility, Realistic Financial Planning &...

  5. COLLOQUIUM: In Pursuit of Ignition on the National Ignition Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion (ICF) Program is conducting experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with the goal of igniting a propagating...

  6. National Ignition Facility | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Ignition Facility Subscribe to RSS - National Ignition Facility National Ignition Facility Image: National Ignition Facility Summary of Assessment of Prospects for Inertial Fusion Energy Read more about Summary of Assessment of Prospects for Inertial Fusion Energy National Ignition Facility (NIF): Under Pressure: Ramp-Compression Smashes Record Read more about National Ignition Facility (NIF): Under Pressure: Ramp-Compression Smashes Record NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY Read more about

  7. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    security maintaining the nuclear weapons stockpile As the largest, highest-energy laser ever built, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) can create conditions in the ...

  8. lasers. National Ignition Facility | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    target shot of fiscal year 2015 WASHINGTON - Last week, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) fired its 300th laser target shot in fiscal year (FY) 2015, meeting the year's goal...

  9. National Ignition Facility (NIF): Under Pressure: Ramp-Compression...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Ignition Facility (NIF): Under Pressure: Ramp-Compression Smashes Record American Fusion News Category: National Ignition Facility Link: National Ignition Facility (NIF):...

  10. June 11, 1999: National Ignition Facility | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1, 1999: National Ignition Facility June 11, 1999: National Ignition Facility June 11, 1999: National Ignition Facility June 11, 1999 Secretary Richardson dedicates the National Ignition Facility target chamber at DOE's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  11. lasers. National Ignition Facility

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    data for NNSA's science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program in the area of high-energy-density physics, a scientific field of direct relevance to nuclear deterrence and national...

  12. Ignition and Inertial Confinement Fusion at The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2009-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and for studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is now conducting experiments to commission the laser drive, the hohlraum and the capsule and to develop the infrastructure needed to begin the first ignition experiments in FY 2010. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. NIF will achieve this by concentrating the energy from the 192 beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target and igniting a deuterium-tritium mix, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reaction. NIF's ignition program is a national effort managed via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC has two major goals: execution of DT ignition experiments starting in FY2010 with the goal of demonstrating ignition and a reliable, repeatable ignition platform by the conclusion of the NIC at the end of FY2012. The NIC will also develop the infrastructure and the processes required to operate NIF as a national user facility. The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on laser fusion as a viable energy option. A laser fusion-based energy concept that builds on NIF, known as LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy), is currently under development. LIFE is inherently safe and can provide a global carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This paper describes recent progress on NIF, NIC, and the LIFE concept.

  13. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science What

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 National Ignition Facility & Photon Science What is NiF? the national ignition Facility: bringing star Power to earth The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest and highest energy laser system. NIF is an essential experimental tool supporting the stockpile stewardship program of the u.s. department of energy's National Nuclear security Administration. Construction began in 1997, and NIF became operational in march 2009. during experiments, NIF's 192 intense laser beams are

  14. IGNITION AND FRONTIER SCIENCE ON THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2009-06-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and experiments studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF construction Project was certified by the Department of Energy as complete on March 30, 2009. NIF, a 192-beam Nd-glass laser facility, will produce 1.8 MJ, 500 TW of light at the third-harmonic, ultraviolet light of 351 nm. On March 10, 2009, a total 192-beam energy of 1.1 MJ was demonstrated; this is approximately 30 times more energy than ever produced in an ICF laser system. The principal goal of NIF is to achieve ignition of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel capsule and provide access to HED physics regimes needed for experiments related to national security, fusion energy and for broader frontier scientific exploration. NIF experiments in support of indirect drive ignition will begin in FY2009. These first experiments represent the next phase of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC is a 1.7 billion dollar national effort to achieve fusion ignition and is coordinated through a detailed execution plan that includes the science, technology, and equipment. Equipment required for ignition experiments include diagnostics, cryogenic target manipulator, and user optics. Participants in this effort include LLNL, General Atomics (GA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Energetics (LLE). The primary goal for NIC is to have all of the equipment operational and integrated into the facility and be ready to begin a credible ignition campaign in 2010. With NIF now operational, the long-sought goal of achieving self-sustained nuclear fusion and energy gain in the laboratory is much closer to realization. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and will likely focus the world's attention on the possibility of an ICF energy option. NIF experiments to demonstrate ignition and gain will use central-hot-spot (CHS) ignition, where a spherical fuel capsule is simultaneously compressed and ignited. The scientific basis for CHS has been intensively developed and has high probability of success. Achieving ignition with CHS will open the door for other advanced concepts, such as the use of high-yield pulses of visible wavelength rather than ultraviolet and Fast Ignition concepts. Moreover, NIF will have important scientific applications in such diverse fields as astrophysics, nuclear physics and materials science. The NIC will develop the full set of capabilities required to operate NIF as a major national and international user facility. A solicitation for NIF frontier science experiments to be conducted by the academic community is planned for summer 2009. This paper summarizes the design, performance, and status of NIF, experimental plans for NIC, and will present a brief discussion of the unparalleled opportunities to explore frontier basic science that will be available on the NIF.

  15. Education Highlights: Gasoline Compression Ignition | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Education Highlights: Gasoline Compression Ignition Share Description Argonne intern Kendyl Partridge from Mississippi State University worked with Argonne mentor Steve Ciatti in studying gasoline compression ignition engines. This research will help engineers increase an engine's efficiency while reducing its environmental impact. Speakers Kendyl Partridge, Argonne National Laboratory Intern from Mississippi State University Duration 1:56 Topic Energy Energy efficiency Vehicles

  16. Progress Toward Ignition on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, R L

    2011-10-17

    The principal approach to ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is indirect drive. A schematic of an ignition target is shown in Figure 1. The laser beams are focused through laser entrance holes at each end of a high-Z cylindrical case, or hohlraum. The lasers irradiate the hohlraum walls producing x-rays that ablate and compress the fuel capsule in the center of the hohlraum. The hohlraum is made of Au, U, or other high-Z material. For ignition targets, the hohlraum is {approx}0.5 cm diameter by {approx}1 cm in length. The hohlraum absorbs the incident laser energy producing x-rays for symmetrically imploding the capsule. The fuel capsule is a {approx}2-mm-diameter spherical shell of CH, Be, or C filled with DT fuel. The DT fuel is in the form of a cryogenic layer on the inside of the capsule. X-rays ablate the outside of the capsule, producing a spherical implosion. The imploding shell stagnates in the center, igniting the DT fuel. NIC has overseen installation of all of the hardware for performing ignition experiments, including commissioning of approximately 50 diagnostic systems in NIF. The diagnostics measure scattered optical light, x-rays from the hohlraum over the energy range from 100 eV to 500 keV, and x-rays, neutrons, and charged particles from the implosion. An example of a diagnostic is the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) built by a collaboration of scientists from MIT, UR-LLE, and LLNL shown in Figure 2. MRS measures the neutron spectrum from the implosion, providing information on the neutron yield and areal density that are metrics of the quality of the implosion. Experiments on NIF extend ICF research to unexplored regimes in target physics. NIF can produce more than 50 times the laser energy and more than 20 times the power of any previous ICF facility. Ignition scale hohlraum targets are three to four times larger than targets used at smaller facilities, and the ignition drive pulses are two to five times longer. The larger targets and longer pulse lengths produce unique plasma conditions for laser-plasma instabilities that could reduce hohlraum coupling efficiency. Initial experiments have demonstrated efficient coupling of laser energy to x-rays. X-ray drive greater than 300 eV has been measured in gas-filled ignition hohlraum and shows the expected scaling with laser energy and hohlraum scale size. Experiments are now optimizing capsule implosions for ignition. Ignition conditions require assembling the fuel with sufficient density and temperature for thermonuclear burn. X-rays ablate the outside of the capsule, accelerating and spherically compressing the capsule for assembling the fuel. The implosion stagnates, heating the central core and producing a hot spot that ignites and burns the surrounding fuel. The four main characteristics of the implosion are shell velocity, central hot spot shape, fuel adiabat, and mix. Experiments studying these four characteristics of implosions are used to optimize the implosion. Integrated experiments using cryogenic fuel layer experiments demonstrate the quality of the implosion as the optimization experiments progress. The final compressed fuel conditions are diagnosed by measuring the x-ray emission from the hot core and the neutrons and charged particles produced in the fusion reactions. Metrics of the quality of the implosion are the neutron yield and the shell areal density, as well as the size and shape of the core. The yield depends on the amount of fuel in the hot core and its temperature and is a gauge of the energy coupling to the fuel. The areal density, the density of the fuel times its thickness, diagnoses the fuel assembly, which is measured using the fraction of neutrons that are down scattered passing through the dense shell. The yield and fraction of down scattered neutrons, or shell rho-r, from the cryogenic layered implosions are shown in Figure 3. The different sets of data represent results after a series of implosion optimization experiments. Both yield and areal density show significant increases as a result of the optimization. The experimental Ignition Threshold Factor (ITFX) is a measure of the progress toward ignition. ITFX is analogous to the Lawson Criterion in Magnetic Fusion. Implosions have improved by over a factor of 50 since the first cryogenic layered experiments were done in September 2010. This increase is a measure of the progress made toward the ignition goal in the past year. Optimization experiments are planned in the coming year for continued improvement in implosion performance to achieve the ignition goal. In summary, NIF has made significant progress toward ignition in the 30 months since project completion. Diagnostics and all of the supporting equipment are in place for ignition experiments. The Ignition Campaign is under way as a national collaborative effort of all the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) science laboratories as well as international partners.

  17. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - National Ignition Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feb 2013 14:30:50 +0000 jgreenwa 1361 at http:www.pppl.gov National Ignition Facility (NIF): Under Pressure: Ramp-Compression Smashes Record http:www.pppl.govnode248

  18. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 National Ignition Facility & Photon Science a new era of science a new era of experimental science laboratory experiments at the National Ignition Facility will enable researchers for the first time to study the effects on matter of extreme temperatures, pressures, and densities that exist naturally only in stars and deep inside planets. Results from this relatively new field of research, known as high-energy- density (hed) science, will mark the dawn of a new era of experimental science.

  19. Education Highlights: Gasoline Compression Ignition | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Education Highlights: Gasoline Compression Ignition Share Description Argonne intern Kendyl Partridge from Mississippi State University worked with Argonne mentor Steve Ciatti of the Energy Systems division in studying gasoline compression ignition engines. This research will help engineers increase an engine's efficiency while reducing its environmental impact. Speakers Kendyl Partridge, Argonne National Laboratory Intern from Mississippi State University Duration 1:56 Topic

  20. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 National Ignition Facility & Photon Science how do Lasers work? how Do Lasers work? A laser can be as small as a microscopic computer chip or as immense as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is three football fields wide. Clearly size has nothing to do with what makes a laser. "laser" is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. If the electrons in special glasses, crystals, or gases are energized, they will emit light photons in response to

  1. National Ignition Facility Title II Design Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumpan, S

    1997-03-01

    This National Ignition Facility (NIF) Title II Design Plan defines the work to be performed by the NIF Project Team between November 1996, when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed Title I design and authorized the initiation of Title H design and specific long-lead procurements, and September 1998, when Title 11 design will be completed.

  2. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clobes, A.R.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility M Project. It was prepared for the NIP Prood Office by the NIF Procurement Manager.

  3. Director of the National Ignition Facility, Lawrence Livermore National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Laboratory | National Nuclear Security Administration the National Ignition Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional

  4. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... continued safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear deterrent. Q. How soon will we have fusion power plants? ... (ITeR) will be built in France, with the first experiments ...

  5. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    security maintaining the nuclear weapons stockpile As the largest, highest-energy laser ever built, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) can create conditions in the laboratory-temperatures of 100 million degrees and pressures 100 billion times that of the earth's atmosphere-similar to those in stars and nuclear weapons. NIF is the only facility that can perform controlled, experimental studies of thermonuclear burn, the phenomenon that gives rise to the immense energy of modern nuclear weapons.

  6. National Ignition Facility project acquisition plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaghan, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this National Ignition Facility Acquisition Plan is to describe the overall procurement strategy planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The scope of the plan describes the procurement activities and acquisition strategy for the following phases of the NIF Project, each of which receives either plant and capital equipment (PACE) or other project cost (OPC) funds: Title 1 and 2 design and Title 3 engineering (PACE); Optics manufacturing facilitization and pilot production (OPC); Convention facility construction (PACE); Procurement, installation, and acceptance testing of equipment (PACE); and Start-up (OPC). Activities that are part of the base Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program are not included in this plan. The University of California (UC), operating Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lockheed-Martin, which operates Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR-LLE), will conduct the acquisition of needed products and services in support of their assigned responsibilities within the NIF Project structure in accordance with their prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). LLNL, designated as the lead Laboratory, will have responsibility for all procurements required for construction, installation, activation, and startup of the NIF.

  7. Stockpile Stewardship and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2012-01-04

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's most energetic laser system, is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Since the completion of the construction project in March 2009, NIF has completed nearly 150 target experiments for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), High Energy Density Stewardship Science (HEDSS) in the areas of radiation transport, material dynamics at high pressure in the solid state, as well as fundamental science and other national security missions. NIF capabilities and infrastructure are in place to support all of its missions with over 50 X-ray, optical and nuclear diagnostic systems and the ability to shoot cryogenic targets and DT layered capsules. NIF is now qualified for use of tritium and other special materials as well as to perform high yield experiments and classified experiments. DT implosions with record indirect-drive neutron yield of 4.5 x 10{sup 14} neutrons have been achieved. A series of 43 experiments were successfully executed over a 27-day period, demonstrating the ability to perform precise experiments in new regimes of interest to HEDSS. This talk will provide an update of the progress on the NIF capabilities, NIC accomplishments, as well as HEDSS and fundamental science experimental results and an update of the experimental plans for the coming year.

  8. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 National Ignition Facility & Photon Science limitless energy the Promise of Limitless energy harnessing the energy of the sun and stars to meet the earth's energy needs has been a decades-long scientific and engineering quest. While a self-sustaining fusion burn has been achieved for brief periods under experimental conditions, the amount of energy that went into creating it was greater than the amount of energy it generated. There was no energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is

  9. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    making a star 17 How to make a miniature star The idea for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) grew out of a decades-long effort to generate fusion burn and energy gain in the laboratory. Current nuclear power plants, which use the splitting of atoms (fission) to produce energy, have been pumping out electric power for more than 50 years. But achieving nuclear fusion burn and gain has not yet been demonstrated as viable for energy production. For fusion burn and gain to occur, a special fuel

  10. National Ignition Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home / About

  11. National Ignition Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home /

  12. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science Seven WonderS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 National Ignition Facility & Photon Science Seven WonderS the seven wonders of niF While construction of the football-stadium- sized National Ignition Facility was a marvel of engineering, NIF is also a tour de force of science and technology development. To complete NIF construction and comissioning and to put NIF on the path to ignition experiments, scientists, engineers, and technicians had to overcome a daunting array of challenges. Working closely with industrial partners, the NIF

  13. Groundbreaking at National Ignition Facility | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration at National Ignition Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our

  14. Status Of The National Ignition Campaign And National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagin, L; Brunton, G; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Fisher, J; Fishler, B; Ludwigsen, P; Marshall, C; Reed, R; Shelton, R; Townsend, S

    2011-03-18

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility that will contains a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for multiple experimental diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. NIF is operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) in an object-oriented, CORBA-based system distributed among over 1800 frontend processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. In the fall of 2010, a set of experiments began with deuterium and tritium filled targets as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). At present, all 192 laser beams routinely fire to target chamber center to conduct fusion and high energy density experiments. During the past year, the control system was expanded to include automation of cryogenic target system and over 20 diagnostic systems to support fusion experiments were deployed and utilized in experiments in the past year. This talk discusses the current status of the NIC and the plan for controls and information systems to support these experiments on the path to ignition.

  15. National Ignition Facility Comes to Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2003-09-01

    First conceived of nearly 15 years ago, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is up and running and successful beyond almost everyone's expectations. During commissioning of the first four laser beams, the laser system met design specifications for everything from beam quality to energy output. NIF will eventually have 192 laser beams. Yet with just 2% of its final beam configuration complete, NIF has already produced the highest energy laser shots in the world. In July, laser shots in the infrared wavelength using four beams produced a total of 26.5 kilojoules of energy per beam, not only meeting NIF's design energy requirement of 20 kilojoules per beam but also exceeding the energy of any other infrared laser beamline. In another campaign, NIF produced over 11.4 kilojoules of energy when the infrared light was converted to green light. An earlier performance campaign of laser light that had been frequency converted from infrared to ultraviolet really proved NIF's mettle. Over 10.4 kilojoules of ultraviolet energy were produced in about 4 billionths of a second. If all 192 beamlines were to operate at these levels, over 2 megajoules of energy would result. That much energy for the pulse duration of several nanoseconds is about 500 trillion watts of power, more than 500 times the US peak generating power.

  16. National Ignition Facility Configuration Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, S G; Moore, T L

    2002-10-01

    This Configuration Management Plan (CMP) describes the technical and administrative management process for controlling the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project configuration. The complexity of the NIF Project (i.e., participation by multiple national laboratories and subcontractors involved in the development, fabrication, installation, and testing of NIF hardware and software, as well as construction and testing of Project facilities) requires implementation of the comprehensive configuration management program defined in this plan. A logical schematic illustrating how the plan functions is provided in Figure 1. A summary of the process is provided in Section 4.0, Configuration Change Control. Detailed procedures that make up the overall process are referenced. This CMP is consistent with guidance for managing a project's configuration provided in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.1, Guide PMG 10, ''Project Execution and Engineering Management Planning''. Configuration management is a formal discipline comprised of the following four elements: (1) Identification--defines the functional and physical characteristics of a Project and uniquely identifies the defining requirements. This includes selection of components of the end product(s) subject to control and selection of the documents that define the project and components. (2) Change management--provides a systematic method for managing changes to the project and its physical and functional configuration to ensure that all changes are properly identified, assessed, reviewed, approved, implemented, tested, and documented. (3) Data management--ensures that necessary information on the project and its end product(s) is systematically recorded and disseminated for decision-making and other uses. Identifies, stores and controls, tracks status, retrieves, and distributes documents. (4) Assessments and validation--ensures that the planned configuration requirements match actual physical configurations and approved changes are implemented according to the change requirements documents.

  17. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) - September 23, 2010 | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NIF03.23.10(1).pdf More Documents & Publications The National Ignition Facility (NIF) - September 23, 2010 EIS-0236-S1: Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0236-S1:...

  18. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) - September 23, 2010 | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NIF03.23.10.pdf More Documents & Publications The National Ignition Facility (NIF) - September 23, 2010 EIS-0236-S1: Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0236-S1:...

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is home to the National Ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is home to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which began full operations in March 2009. NIF's 192 powerful laser beams, housed in a 10-story building the size of 3 football fields, can deliver nearly 2 million joules of ultraviolet laser energy in billionth-of-a- second pulses to the target chamber center. When NIF's laser beams focus all of their energy on a target the size of a pencil eraser, they briefly produce extraordinary temperature and pressure conditions within the target. The

  20. Energetics Measurements of Silver Halfraum Targets at the National Ignition

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Facility (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Energetics Measurements of Silver Halfraum Targets at the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energetics Measurements of Silver Halfraum Targets at the National Ignition Facility Authors: May, M J ; Fournier, K B ; Brown, C G ; Dunlop, W H ; Kane, J O ; Mirkarimi, P B ; Moody, J ; Patterson, R ; Schneider, M ; Widmann, K Publication Date: 2013-09-09 OSTI Identifier: 1229821 Report Number(s):

  1. Heating National Ignition Facility, Realistic Financial Planning & Rapid

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Modification Lessons Learned Report Apr 2010 | Department of Energy 628 National Ignition Facility Realistic Financial Planning Rapid Modification are Essential Lessons Learned Report Apr 2010.pdf More Documents & Publications EIS-0236-S1: Record of Decision EIS-0236-S1: Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement DOE/EIS-0236, Oakland Operations Office, National Ignition Facility Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement to the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic

  2. Delivering Innovations That Create Jobs: National Lab Ignites Business for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Entrepreneurs | Department of Energy Delivering Innovations That Create Jobs: National Lab Ignites Business for Entrepreneurs Delivering Innovations That Create Jobs: National Lab Ignites Business for Entrepreneurs November 17, 2011 - 1:59pm Addthis DEP Shape Memory Therapeutics, Inc. is working to treat aneurysms with exclusively licensed LLNL-developed polymer materials that "remember" their shape. LLNL is a leader in the development of shape memory polymers, for use in medical

  3. The National Ignition Facility and the Path to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2011-07-26

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is operational and conducting experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental facility with 192 beams capable of delivering 1.8 megajoules of 500-terawatt ultraviolet laser energy, over 60 times more energy than any previous laser system. The NIF can create temperatures of more than 100 million degrees and pressures more than 100 billion times Earth's atmospheric pressure. These conditions, similar to those at the center of the sun, have never been created in the laboratory and will allow scientists to probe the physics of planetary interiors, supernovae, black holes, and other phenomena. The NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to the conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. Experiments on the NIF are focusing on demonstrating fusion ignition and burn via inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ignition program is conducted via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) - a partnership among LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and General Atomics. The NIC program has also established collaborations with the Atomic Weapons Establishment in the United Kingdom, Commissariat a Energie Atomique in France, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and many others. Ignition experiments have begun that form the basis of the overall NIF strategy for achieving ignition. Accomplishing this goal will demonstrate the feasibility of fusion as a source of limitless, clean energy for the future. This paper discusses the current status of the NIC, the experimental steps needed toward achieving ignition and the steps required to demonstrate and enable the delivery of fusion energy as a viable carbon-free energy source.

  4. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science HOW NIF WORKS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 National Ignition Facility & Photon Science HOW NIF WORKS beam me up: how niF works In the National Ignition Facility (NIF), 192 laser beams travel a long path, about 1,500 meters, from their birth at the master oscillator-a device that generates the single pulse that seeds the entire NIF laser system-to the center of the target chamber. As the beams move through NIF's amplifiers, their energy increases exponentially. From beginning to end, the beams' total energy grows from one- billionth

  5. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science NIF Fun Facts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 National Ignition Facility & Photon Science NIF Fun Facts niF Fun Facts The National Ignition Facility (NIF), became operational in march 2009. Planning began in the early 1990s, and ground was broken for the facility on may 29, 1997-12 years to the day before NIF's dedication. Construction Construction of the main NIF building, known as the "conventional facility," was completed in 2001. * Building height: 10 stories * Building width: 3 football fields * Cubic meters of soil

  6. The National Ignition Facility: Studying the Stars in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, R

    2008-09-17

    The National Ignition Facility, to be completed in 2009, will be the highest energy laser ever built. The high temperatures and densities it will produce will enable a number of experiments in inertial confinement fusion and stockpile stewardship, as well as in nuclear astrophysics, X-ray astronomy, hydrodynamics, and planetary science. The National Ignition Facility, NIF (1), located at Lawrence Livermore National Lab, (LLNL) is expected to produce inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by delivering sufficient laser energy to compress and heat a millimeter-radius pellet of DT sufficiently to produce fusion to {sup 4}He+neutron and 17.6 MeV per reaction. NIF will be completed by March, 2009, at which time a National Ignition Campaign (2), NIC, a series of experiments to optimize the ICF parameters, will begin. Although NIF is a research facility, a successful NIC would have implications for future energy sources. In addition to the goal of ICF, NIF will support programs in stockpile stewardship. However, the conditions that NIF creates will simulate those inside stars and planets sufficiently closely to provide compelling motivation for experiments in basic high-energy-density (HED) science especially, for the first time, in nuclear astrophysics.

  7. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to Ignition, High Energy Density Science and Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2011-03-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to researchers around the world. The paper will conclude with a discussion of LIFE, its development path and potential to enable a carbon-free clean energy future.

  8. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, P.

    2012-08-29

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the worlds largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  9. Nuclear diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Thomas J.; Barnes, Cris W.; Berggren, R. R.; Bradley, P.; Caldwell, S. E.; Chrien, R. E.; Faulkner, J. R.; Gobby, P. L.; Hoffman, N.; Jimerson, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, will provide unprecedented opportunities for the use of nuclear diagnostics in inertial confinement fusion experiments. The completed facility will provide 2 MJ of laser energy for driving targets, compared to the approximately 40 kJ that was available on Nova and the approximately 30 kJ available on Omega. Ignited NIF targets are anticipated to produce up to 10{sup 19} DT neutrons. In addition to a basic set of nuclear diagnostics based on previous experience, these higher NIF yields are expected to allow innovative nuclear diagnostic techniques to be utilized, such as neutron imaging, recoil proton techniques, and gamma-ray-based reaction history measurements.

  10. The Neutron Imaging System Fielded at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fittinghoff, D N; Atkinson, D P; Bower, D E; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Felker, B; Frank, M; Liddick, S N; Moran, M J; Roberson, G P; Weiss, P B; Grim, G P; Aragonez, R J; Archuleta, T N; Batha, S H; Clark, D D; Clark, D J; Danly, C R; Day, R D; Fatherley, V E; Finch, J P; Garcia, F P; Gallegos, R A; Guler, N; Hsu, A H; Jaramillo, S A; Loomis, E N; Mares, D; Martinson, D D; Merrill, F E; Morgan, G L; Munson, C; Murphy, T J; Oertel, J A; Polk, P J; Schmidt, D W; Tregillis, I L; Valdez, A C; Volegov, P L; Wang, T F; Wilde, C H; Wilke, M D; Wilson, D C; Buckles, R A; Cradick, J R; Kaufman, M I; Lutz, S S; Malone, R M; Traille, A

    2011-10-24

    We have fielded a neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility to collect images of fusion neutrons produced in the implosion of inertial confinement fusion experiments and scattered neutrons from (n, n') reactions of the source neutrons in the surrounding dense material. A description of the neutron imaging system will be presented, including the pinhole array aperture, the line-of-sight collimation, the scintillator-based detection system and the alignment systems and methods. Discussion of the alignment and resolution of the system will be presented. We will also discuss future improvements to the system hardware.

  11. The First Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landen, O L; Glenzer, S; Froula, D; Dewald, E; Suter, L J; Schneider, M; Hinkel, D; Fernandez, J; Kline, J; Goldman, S; Braun, D; Celliers, P; Moon, S; Robey, H; Lanier, N; Glendinning, G; Blue, B; Wilde, B; Jones, O; Schein, J; Divol, L; Kalantar, D; Campbell, K; Holder, J; MacDonald, J; Niemann, C; Mackinnon, A; Collins, R; Bradley, D; Eggert, J; Hicks, D; Gregori, G; Kirkwood, R; Young, B; Foster, J; Hansen, F; Perry, T; Munro, D; Baldis, H; Grim, G; Heeter, R; Hegelich, B; Montgomery, D; Rochau, G; Olson, R; Turner, R; Workman, J; Berger, R; Cohen, B; Kruer, W; Langdon, B; Langer, S; Meezan, N; Rose, H; Still, B; Williams, E; Dodd, E; Edwards, J; Monteil, M; Stevenson, M; Thomas, B; Coker, R; Magelssen, G; Rosen, P; Stry, P; Woods, D; Weber, S; Alvarez, S; Armstrong, G; Bahr, R; Bourgade, J; Bower, D; Celeste, J; Chrisp, M; Compton, S; Cox, J; Constantin, C; Costa, R; Duncan, J; Ellis, A; Emig, J; Gautier, C; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hargrove, D; James, T; Kamperschroer, J; Kimbrough, J; Landon, M; Lee, D; Malone, R; May, M; Montelongo, S; Moody, J; Ng, E; Nikitin, A; Pellinen, D; Piston, K; Poole, M; Rekow, V; Rhodes, M; Shepherd, R; Shiromizu, S; Voloshin, D; Warrick, A; Watts, P; Weber, F; Young, P; Arnold, P; Atherton, L J; Bardsley, G; Bonanno, R; Borger, T; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S; Burkhart, S; Cooper, F; Dixit, S; Erbert, G; Eder, D; Ehrlich, B; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Gardner, S; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Hall, T; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermann, M; Hermes, G; Huber, S; Jancaitis, K; Johnson, S; Kauffman, B; Kelleher, T; Kohut, T; Koniges, A E; Labiak, T; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lund, D; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K R; Marshall, C; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Menapace, J; Mertens, E; Munro, D; Murray, J; Neumann, J; Newton, M; Opsahl, P; Padilla, E; Parham, T; Parrish, G; Petty, C; Polk, M; Powell, C; Reinbachs, I; Rinnert, R; Riordan, B; Ross, G; Robert, V; Tobin, M; Sailors, S; Saunders, R; Schmitt, M; Shaw, M; Singh, M; Spaeth, M; Stephens, A; Tietbohl, G; Tuck, J; Van Wonterghem, B; Vidal, R; Wegner, P; Whitman, P; Williams, K; Winward, K; Work, K

    2005-11-11

    A first set of laser-plasma interaction, hohlraum energetics and hydrodynamic experiments have been performed using the first 4 beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), in support of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density Physics (HEDP). In parallel, a robust set of optical and x-ray spectrometers, interferometer, calorimeters and imagers have been activated. The experiments have been undertaken with laser powers and energies of up to 8 TW and 17 kJ in flattop and shaped 1-9 ns pulses focused with various beam smoothing options.

  12. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a...

  13. "New Results from the National Ignition Facility", Dr. John Lindl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    goal of 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light in 2012. The Ignition Campaign on the NIF is making steady progress toward achieving ignition. Utilizing precision...

  14. Theory of hydro-equivalent ignition for inertial fusion and its applications to OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nora, R.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Christopherson, A. R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; McCrory, R. L.

    2014-05-15

    The theory of ignition for inertial confinement fusion capsules [R. Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010)] is used to assess the performance requirements for cryogenic implosion experiments on the Omega Laser Facility. The theory of hydrodynamic similarity is developed in both one and two dimensions and tested using multimode hydrodynamic simulations with the hydrocode DRACO [P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 032702 (2005)] of hydro-equivalent implosions (implosions with the same implosion velocity, adiabat, and laser intensity). The theory is used to scale the performance of direct-drive OMEGA implosions to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) energy scales and determine the requirements for demonstrating hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA. Hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA is represented by a cryogenic implosion that would scale to ignition on the NIF at 1.8?MJ of laser energy symmetrically illuminating the target. It is found that a reasonable combination of neutron yield and areal density for OMEGA hydro-equivalent ignition is 3 to 6??10{sup 13} and ?0.3?g/cm{sup 2}, respectively, depending on the level of laser imprinting. This performance has not yet been achieved on OMEGA.

  15. Fast Ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast Ignition Researchers Study Fast Ignition University of California at San Diego researchers participate in experiments on the Titan laser at LLNL's Jupiter Laser Facility to study fast ignition. The approach being taken by the National Ignition Facility to achieve thermonuclear ignition and burn is called the "central hot spot" scenario. This technique relies on simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule in an implosion, roughly like in a diesel engine (see

  16. The Neutron Imaging System Fielded at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, F E; Buckles, R; Clark, D D; Danly, C R; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Fatherley, V E; Fittinghoff, D N; Gallegos, R; Grim, G P; Guler, N; Loomis, E N; Lutz, S; Malone, R M; Martinson, D D; Mares, D; Morley, D J; Morgan, G L; Oertel, J A; Tregillis, I L; Volegov, P L; Weiss, P B; Wilde, C H

    2012-08-01

    A neutron imaging diagnostic has recently been commissioned at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This new system is an important diagnostic tool for inertial fusion studies at the NIF for measuring the size and shape of the burning DT plasma during the ignition stage of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. The imaging technique utilizes a pinhole neutron aperture, placed between the neutron source and a neutron detector. The detection system measures the two dimensional distribution of neutrons passing through the pinhole. This diagnostic has been designed to collect two images at two times. The long flight path for this diagnostic, 28 m, results in a chromatic separation of the neutrons, allowing the independently timed images to measure the source distribution for two neutron energies. Typically the first image measures the distribution of the 14 MeV neutrons and the second image of the 6-12 MeV neutrons. The combination of these two images has provided data on the size and shape of the burning plasma within the compressed capsule, as well as a measure of the quantity and spatial distribution of the cold fuel surrounding this core.

  17. Target diagnostic system for the national ignition facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Cooper, G.W.; Derzon, M.S.; Fehl, D.L.; Hebron, D.E.; Moats, A.R.; Noack, D.D.; Porter, J.L.; Ruggles, L.E.; Ruiz, C.L.; Torres, J.A.; Cable, M.D.; Bell, P.M.; Clower, C.A.; Hammel, B.A.; Kalantar, D.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kauffman, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Lee, F.D.; Lerche, R.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Moran, M.J.; Nelson, M.B.; Olson, W.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Phillips, T.W.; Ress, D.; Tietbohl, G.L.; Trebes, J.E.; Bartlett, R.J.; Berggren, R.; Caldwell, S.E.; Chrien, R.E.; Failor, B.H.; Fernandez, J.C.; Hauer, A.; Idzorek, G.; Hockaday, R.G.; Murphy, T.J.; Oertel, J.; Watt, R.; Wilke, M.; Bradley, D.K.; Knauer, J.; Petrasso, R.D.; Li, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    A review of recent progress on the design of a diagnostic system proposed for ignition target experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be presented. This diagnostic package contains an extensive suite of optical, x ray, gamma ray, and neutron diagnostics that enable measurements of the performance of both direct and indirect driven NIF targets. The philosophy used in designing all of the diagnostics in the set has emphasized redundant and independent measurement of fundamental physical quantities relevant to the operation of the NIF target. A unique feature of these diagnostics is that they are being designed to be capable of operating in the high radiation, electromagnetic pulse, and debris backgrounds expected on the NIF facility. The diagnostic system proposed can be categorized into three broad areas: laser characterization, hohlraum characterization, and capsule performance diagnostics. The operating principles of a representative instrument from each class of diagnostic employed in this package will be summarized and illustrated with data obtained in recent prototype diagnostic tests. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Validating hydrodynamic growth in National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J. L. Casey, D. T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Raman, K. S.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2015-05-15

    We present new hydrodynamic growth experiments at the National Ignition Facility, which extend previous measurements up to Legendre mode 160 and convergence ratio 4, continuing the growth factor dispersion curve comparison of the low foot and high foot pulses reported by Casey et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 011102(R) (2014)]. We show that the high foot pulse has lower growth factor and lower growth rate than the low foot pulse. Using novel on-capsule fiducial markers, we observe that mode 160 inverts sign (changes phase) for the high foot pulse, evidence of amplitude oscillations during the Richtmyer-Meshkov phase of a spherically convergent system. Post-shot simulations are consistent with the experimental measurements for all but the shortest wavelength perturbations, reinforcing the validity of radiation hydrodynamic simulations of ablation front growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules.

  19. National Ignition Facility Reaches Milestone Early | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Reaches Milestone Early | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for

  20. X-ray area backlighter development at the National Ignition Facility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the National Ignition Facility (invited) 1D spectral imaging was used to characterize the K-shell emission of Z 30-35 and Z 40-42 laser-irradiated foils at the National...

  1. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; LePape, S.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; et al

    2015-05-11

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drive–specific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beammore » geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D₂ gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ~500 to 750 kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8 10¹⁴ to 1.2 10¹⁵W/cm². Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.« less

  2. Polar-direct-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Myatt, J. F.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Michel, D. T.; Regan, S. P.; Seka, W.; Shvydky, A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Froula, D. H.; and others

    2015-05-15

    To support direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)] in its indirect-drive beam configuration, the polar-direct-drive (PDD) concept [S. Skupsky et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2763 (2004)] has been proposed. Ignition in PDD geometry requires direct-drivespecific beam smoothing, phase plates, and repointing the NIF beams toward the equator to ensure symmetric target irradiation. First experiments to study the energetics and preheat in PDD implosions at the NIF have been performed. These experiments utilize the NIF in its current configuration, including beam geometry, phase plates, and beam smoothing. Room-temperature, 2.2-mm-diam plastic shells filled with D{sub 2} gas were imploded with total drive energies ranging from ?500 to 750?kJ with peak powers of 120 to 180 TW and peak on-target irradiances at the initial target radius from 8??10{sup 14} to 1.2??10{sup 15?}W/cm{sup 2}. Results from these initial experiments are presented, including measurements of shell trajectory, implosion symmetry, and the level of hot-electron preheat in plastic and Si ablators. Experiments are simulated with the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO including a full 3-D ray-trace to model oblique beams, and models for nonlocal electron transport and cross-beam energy transport (CBET). These simulations indicate that CBET affects the shell symmetry and leads to a loss of energy imparted onto the shell, consistent with the experimental data.

  3. SULI Intern: Gasoline Compression Ignition | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasoline Compression Ignition Share Argonne intern Kendyl Partridge from Mississippi State University worked with Argonne mentor Steve Ciatti in studying gasoline compression ignition engines. This research will help engineers increase an engine's efficiency while reducing its environmental impact. Browse By - Any - Energy -Energy efficiency --Vehicles ---Alternative fuels ---Automotive engineering ---Diesel ---Electric drive technology ---Hybrid & electric vehicles ---Hydrogen & fuel

  4. "New Results from the National Ignition Facility", Dr. John Lindl, Lawrence

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Livermore National Laboratory | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab November 7, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium "New Results from the National Ignition Facility", Dr. John Lindl, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Since completion of the NIF construction project in March 2009, a wide variety of diagnostics, facility infrastructure, and experimental platforms have been qualified. NIF reached its design goal of 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light in 2012. The Ignition Campaign

  5. Preliminary hazards analysis for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1993-10-01

    This report documents the Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In summary, it provides: a general description of the facility and its operation; identification of hazards at the facility; and details of the hazards analysis, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions. As part of the safety analysis procedure set forth by DOE, a PHA must be performed for the NIF. The PHA characterizes the level of intrinsic potential hazard associated with a facility, and provides the basis for hazard classification. The hazard classification determines the level of safety documentation required, and the DOE Order governing the safety analysis. The hazard classification also determines the level of review and approval required for the safety analysis report. The hazards of primary concern associated with NIF are radiological and toxicological in nature. The hazard classification is determined by comparing facility inventories of radionuclides and chemicals with threshold values for the various hazard classification levels and by examining postulated bounding accidents associated with the hazards of greatest significance. Such postulated bounding accidents cannot take into account active mitigative features; they must assume the unmitigated consequences of a release, taking into account only passive safety features. In this way, the intrinsic hazard level of the facility can be ascertained.

  6. X-ray area backlighter development at the National Ignition Facility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: X-ray area backlighter development at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray area backlighter development at the...

  7. The Role of the Federal Project Director: Lessons from the National Ignition Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Facility is home of the world’s largest laser.  With 192 laser beams that can deliver more than 60 times the energy of any previous laser system, NIF represents...

  8. Research Reactor Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reactor Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

  9. Advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2009-10-15

    The 192-beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational and conducting experiments. NIF, the flagship facility of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, will achieve high-energy-density conditions never previously obtained in the laboratory - temperatures over 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures exceeding 100 billion atmospheres. Such conditions exist naturally only in the interiors of the stars and during thermonuclear burn. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. To date, the NIF laser has demonstrated all pulse shape, beam quality, energy, and other specifications required to meet the ignition challenge. On March 10, 2009, the NIF laser delivered 1.1 MJ of ultraviolet laser energy to target chamber center, approximately 30 times more energy than any previous facility. The ignition program at NIF is the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), a national collaboration for ignition experimentation with participation from General Atomics, LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on fusion as a viable energy option. A particular energy concept under investigation is the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy) scheme. The LIFE engine is inherently safe, minimizes proliferation concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, and can provide a sustainable carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This talk will describe NIF and its potential as a user facility and an experimental platform for high-energy-density science, NIC, and the LIFE approach for clean, sustainable energy.

  10. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Meezan, N. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; et al

    2014-11-03

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D3He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D3He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2x higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infermore » the areal density (pR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (Rcm) from the downshift of the shock-produced D3He protons. The observed pR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time ('short-coast'), while longer-coasting implosions have lower pR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (~800 ps) than in the short-coast (~400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time. This result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel pR.« less

  11. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to a Carbon-Free Energy Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J

    2011-03-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF will enable exploration of scientific problems in national strategic security, basic science and fusion energy. One of the early NIF goals centers on achieving laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and energy gain, demonstrating the feasibility of laser fusion as a viable source of clean, carbon-free energy. This talk will discuss the precision technology and engineering challenges of building the NIF and those we must overcome to make fusion energy a commercial reality.

  12. PIA - Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Users Week 2009 PIA - Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Users Week 2009 PIA - Advanced Test Reactor ...

  13. HEC-DPSSL 2012 Workshop, NIF Tour: National Ignition Facility & Photon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science NIF Tour TEXT SIZE Workshops About Organizing Committee Agenda Deadlines Abstract Submission Venue NIF Tour Directions Lake Tahoe Workshop Sign-up NIF Tour Non-US Citizen Deadline: July 11, 2012 US Citizen Deadline: August 10, 2012 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is home to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NIF is a national resource — a unique experimental facility addressing compelling national security, energy, and science missions. NIF's 192 powerful laser beams,

  14. Gas-filled hohlraum experiments at the national ignition facility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernndez, J. C.; Gautier, D. C.; Goldman, S. R.; Grimm, B. M.; Hegelich, B. M.; Kline, J. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Lanier, N. E.; Rose, H. A.; Schmidt, D. M.; Swift, D. C.; Workman, J. B.; Alvarez, Sharon; Bower, Dan.; Braun, Dave.; Campbell, K.; DeWald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Holder, J.; Kamperschroer, J. H.; Kimbrough, Joe; Kirkwood, Robert; Landen, O. L.; Mccarville, Tom; Macgowan, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Niemann, C.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M; Watts, Phil; Young, Ben-li 194154; Young B.

    2004-01-01

    The summary of this paper is: (1) We have fielded on NIF a gas-filled hohlraum designed for future ignition experiments; (2) Wall-motion measurements are consistent with LASNEX simulations; (3) LPI back-scattering results have confounded expectations - (a) Stimulated Brillouin (SBS) dominates Raman (SRS) for any gas-fill species, (b) Measured SBS time-averaged reflectivity values are high, peak values are even higher, (c) SRS and SBS peak while laser-pulse is rising; and (4) Plasma conditions at the onset of high back-scattering yield high SBS convective linear gain - Wavelengths of the back-scattered light is predicted by linear theory.

  15. Summary of the First Neutron Image Data Collected at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grim, G P; Aragonez, R J; Batha, S H; Clark, D D; Clark, D J; Clark, D J; Fatherley, V E; Finch, J P; Garcia, F P; Gallegos, R A; Guler, N; Hsu, A H; Jaramillo, S A; Loomis, E N; Mares, D; Martinson, D D; Merrill, F E; Morgan, G L; Munson, C; Murphy, T J; Polk, P J; Schmidt, D W; Tregillis, I L; Valdez, A C; Volegov, P L; Wang, T.-S. F; Wilde, C H; Wilke, M D; Wilson, D C; Atkinson, D P; Bower, D E; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Felker, B; Fittinghoff, D N; Frank, M; Liddick, S N; Moran, M J; Roberson, G P; Weiss, P; Buckles, R A; Cradick, J R; Kaufman, M I; Lutz, S S; Malone, R M

    2011-11-01

    A summary of data and results from the first neutron images produced by the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA are presented. An overview of the neutron imaging technique is presented, as well as a synopsis of the data collected and measurements made to date. Data form directly driven, DT filled microballoons, as well as, indirectly driven, cryogenically layered ignition experiments are presented. The data presented show that the primary cores from directly driven implosions are approximately twice as large, 64 +/- 3 um, as indirect cores (25 +/- 4 and 29 +/- 4 um and more asymmetric, P2/P0 = 47% vs. -14% and -7%. Further, comparison with the size and shape of X-ray image data from on the same implosions show good agreement, indicating X-ray emission is dominated by the hot regions of the implosion. This work was performed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration and by the National Ignition Campaign partners; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of Rochester -Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), General Atomics(GA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). Other contributors include Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), England, and Commissariat `a l Energie Atomique (CEA), France.

  16. Naval Reactors | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Naval Reactors Naval Reactors Y-12 processes the feedstock to power the nation's submarines and aircraft carriers. Y-12 processes highly enriched uranium for use by the Naval Reactors Program for Naval Nuclear Propulsion. Our support of the Naval Reactors program began in Fiscal Year 2002 and is currently planned through FY 2050 and beyond. We use dismantled weapons to provide feedstock, moving the material off-site and reducing Y-12's storage footprint and risk. The United States stopped

  17. Neutron time-of-flight and emission time diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, T. J.; Jimerson, J. L.; Berggren, R. R.; Faulkner, J. R.; Oertel, J. A.; Walsh, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Current plans call for a system of current mode neutron detectors for the National Ignition Facility for extending the range of neutron yields below that of the neutron activation system, for ion-temperature measurements over a wide yield range, and for determining the average neutron emission time. The system will need to operate over a yield range of 10{sup 6} for the lowest-yield experiments to 10{sup 19} for high-yield ignited targets. The requirements will be satisfied using several detectors located at different distances from the target. This article presents a conceptual design for the NIF nToF system.

  18. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced Test Reactor National ...

  19. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced Test Reactor National...

  20. Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home NNSA Blog Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National ... Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National...

  1. Summary of the first neutron image data collected at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grim, G P; Archuleta, T N; Aragonez, R J; Atkinson, D P; Batha, S H; Barrios, M A; Bower, D E; Bradley, D K; Buckles, R A; Clark, D D; Clark, D J; Cradick, J R; Danly, C; Drury, O B; Fatherley, V E; Finch, J P; Garcia, F P; Gallegos, R A; Guler, N; Glenn, S M; Hsu, A H; Izumi, N; Jaramillo, S A; Kyrala, G A; Pape, S L; Loomis, E N; Mares, D; Martinson, D D; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A J; Merrill, F E; Morgan, G L; Munson, C; Murphy, T J; Polk, P J; Schmidt, D W; Tommasini, T; Tregillis, I L; Valdez, A C; Volegov, P L; Wang, T F; Wilde, C H; Wilke, M D; Wilson, D C; Dzenitis, J M; Felker, B; Fittinghoff, D N; Frank, M; Liddick, S N; Moran, M J; Roberson, G P; Weiss, P B; Kauffman, M I; Lutz, S S; Malone, R M; Traille, A

    2011-11-01

    A summary of data and results from the first neutron images produced by the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA are presented. An overview of the neutron imaging technique is presented, as well as a synopsis of the data collected and measurements made to date. Data form directly driven, DT filled microballoons, as well as, indirectly driven, cryogenically layered ignition experiments are presented. The data presented show that the primary cores from directly driven implosions are approximately twice as large, 64 {+-} 3 {mu}m, as indirect cores 25 {+-} 4 and 29 {+-} 4 {mu}m and more asymmetric, P2/P0 = 47% vs. -14% and 7%. Further, comparison with the size and shape of X-ray image data on the same implosions show good agreement, indicating X-ray emission is dominated by the hot regions of the implosion.

  2. Prospects for high-gain, high yield National Ignition Facility targets driven by 2(omega) (green) light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suter, L J; Glenzer, S; Haan, S; Hammel, B; Manes, K; Meezan, N; Moody, J; Spaeth, M; Divol, L; Oades, K; Stevenson, M

    2003-12-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), operating at green (2{omega}) light, has the potential to drive ignition targets with significantly more energy than the 1.8 MJ it will produce with its baseline, blue (3{omega}) operations. This results in a greatly increased 'target design space', providing a number of exciting opportunities for fusion research. These include the prospect of ignition experiments with capsules absorbing energies in the vicinity of 1 MJ. This significant increase in capsule absorbed energy over the original designs at {approx}150 kJ could allow high-gain, high yield experiments on NIF. This paper reports the progress made exploring 2{omega} for NIF ignition, including potential 2{omega} laser performance, 2{omega} ignition target designs and 2{omega} Laser Plasma Interaction (LPI) studies.

  3. Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility Appendix A: Safety Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerruti, S.J.

    1997-01-14

    These rules apply to all LLNL employees, non-LLNL employees (including contract labor, supplemental labor, vendors, personnel matrixed/assigned from other National Laboratories, participating guests, visitors and students) and construction contractors/subcontractors. The General Safety and Health rules shall be used by management to promote accident prevention through indoctrination, safety and health training and on-the-job application. As a condition for contracts award, all contractors and subcontractors and their employees must certify on Form S & H A-1 that they have read and understand, or have been briefed and understand, the National Ignition Facility OCIP Project General Safety Rules.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Bentley Harwood, Advanced Test Reactor Nuclear Safety Engineer Battelle Energy Alliance Idaho National Laboratory

  5. Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor concept.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coats, Richard Lee; Dahl, James J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor and hot cell facility concepts. The reactor proposed is designed to be capable of producing 100% of the U.S. demand for the medical isotope {sup 99}Mo. The concept is novel in that the fuel for the reactor and the targets for the {sup 99}Mo production are the same. There is no driver core required. The fuel pins that are in the reactor core are processed on a 7 to 21 day irradiation cycle. The fuel is low enriched uranium oxide enriched to less than 20% {sup 235}U. The fuel pins are approximately 1 cm in diameter and 30 to 40 cm in height, clad with Zircaloy (zirconium alloy). Approximately 90 to 150 fuel pins are arranged in the core in a water pool {approx}30 ft deep. The reactor power level is 1 to 2 MW. The reactor concept is a simple design that is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days. The fuel fabrication, reactor design and operation, and {sup 99}Mo production processing use well-developed technologies that minimize the technological and licensing risks. There are no impediments that prevent this type of reactor, along with its collocated hot cell facility, from being designed, fabricated, and licensed today.

  6. design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National Ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facility | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab design a high-resolution diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility By John Greenwald November 16, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Kenneth Hill and Manfred Bitter inspect an X-ray crystal spectrometer to be used to study OMEGA EP laser-produced plasmas. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) Kenneth Hill and Manfred Bitter inspect an X-ray crystal spectrometer to be used to study OMEGA EP laser-produced plasmas.

  7. Comparison of the recently proposed super-Marx generator approach to thermonuclear ignition with the deuterium-tritium laser fusion-fission hybrid concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed super-Marx generator pure deuterium microdetonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser deuterium-tritium fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE). In a super-Marx generator, a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultrahigh voltage Marx generator from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium microexplosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. Typical examples of the LIFE concept are a fusion gain of 30 and a fission gain of 10, making up a total gain of 300, with about ten times more energy released into fission as compared to fusion. This means the substantial release of fission products, as in fissionless pure fission reactors. In the super-Marx approach for the ignition of pure deuterium microdetonation, a gain of the same magnitude can, in theory, be reached. If feasible, the super-Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions.

  8. Comparison of the recently proposed super-Marx generator approach to thermonuclear ignition with the deuterium-tritium laser fusion-fission hybrid concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Winterberg, F.

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed super-Marx generator pure deuterium microdetonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser deuterium-tritium fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE). In a super-Marx generator, a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultrahigh voltage Marx generator from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium microexplosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. Typical examples of the LIFE concept are a fusion gain of 30 and a fission gain of 10, making up a total gain of 300, with about ten times more energy released into fissionmore » as compared to fusion. This means the substantial release of fission products, as in fissionless pure fission reactors. In the super-Marx approach for the ignition of pure deuterium microdetonation, a gain of the same magnitude can, in theory, be reached. If feasible, the super-Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions.« less

  9. PIA - Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Users Week

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2009 | Department of Energy Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Users Week 2009 PIA - Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Users Week 2009 PIA - Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Users Week 2009 PDF icon PIA - Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Users Week 2009 More Documents & Publications Integrated Safety Management Workshop Registration, PIA, Idaho National Laboratory PIA - INL SECURITY INFORMATION

  10. Software solutions manage the definition, operation, maintenance and configuration control of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, D; Churby, A; Krieger, E; Maloy, D; White, K

    2011-07-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest laser composed of millions of individual parts brought together to form one massive assembly. Maintaining control of the physical definition, status and configuration of this structure is a monumental undertaking yet critical to the validity of the shot experiment data and the safe operation of the facility. The NIF business application suite of software provides the means to effectively manage the definition, build, operation, maintenance and configuration control of all components of the National Ignition Facility. State of the art Computer Aided Design software applications are used to generate a virtual model and assemblies. Engineering bills of material are controlled through the Enterprise Configuration Management System. This data structure is passed to the Enterprise Resource Planning system to create a manufacturing bill of material. Specific parts are serialized then tracked along their entire lifecycle providing visibility to the location and status of optical, target and diagnostic components that are key to assessing pre-shot machine readiness. Nearly forty thousand items requiring preventive, reactive and calibration maintenance are tracked through the System Maintenance & Reliability Tracking application to ensure proper operation. Radiological tracking applications ensure proper stewardship of radiological and hazardous materials and help provide a safe working environment for NIF personnel.

  11. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, A S; Guymer, T M; Kline, J L; Morton, J; Taccetti, M; Lanier, N E; Bentley, C; Workman, J; Peterson, B; Mussack, K; Cowan, J; Prasad, R; Richardson, M; Burns, S; Kalantar, D H; Benedetti, L R; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Hsing, W; Stevenson, M

    2012-05-01

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors (GXD) it records sixteen time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000eV with 100ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and VUV beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), evidence a <100{micro}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10eV at photon energies of 300eV.

  12. Time-resolved measurements of the hot-electron population in ignition-scale experiments on the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohenberger, M. Stoeckl, C.; Albert, F.; Palmer, N. E.; Dppner, T.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E. L.; Bachmann, B.; MacPhee, A. G.; LaCaille, G.; Bradley, D. K.; Lee, J. J.

    2014-11-15

    In laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, hot electrons can preheat the fuel and prevent fusion-pellet compression to ignition conditions. Measuring the hot-electron population is key to designing an optimized ignition platform. The hot electrons in these high-intensity, laser-driven experiments, created via laser-plasma interactions, can be inferred from the bremsstrahlung generated by hot electrons interacting with the target. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)], the filter-fluorescer x-ray (FFLEX) diagnostica multichannel, hard x-ray spectrometer operating in the 20500 keV rangehas been upgraded to provide fully time-resolved, absolute measurements of the bremsstrahlung spectrum with ?300 ps resolution. Initial time-resolved data exhibited significant background and low signal-to-noise ratio, leading to a redesign of the FFLEX housing and enhanced shielding around the detector. The FFLEX x-ray sensitivity was characterized with an absolutely calibrated, energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector using the high-energy x-ray source at NSTec Livermore Operations over a range of K-shell fluorescence energies up to 111 keV (U K{sub ?}). The detectors impulse response function was measured in situ on NIF short-pulse (?90 ps) experiments, and in off-line tests.

  13. Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National Ignition

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Facility (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National Ignition Facility Authors: Fournier, K B ; May, M J ; Colvin, J D ; Barrios, M A ; Patterson, J R ; Regan, S P Publication Date: 2013-05-29 OSTI Identifier: 1095970 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-638276 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48

  14. Hydrodynamic instability growth and mix experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Barrios, M.; Caggiano, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Hsing, W. W.; Hurricane, O.; Kroll, J.; Landen, O. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Ma, T.; McNaney, J. M.; Mintz, M.; Parham, T.; Peterson, J. L.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Hydrodynamic instability growth and its effects on implosion performance were studied at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)]. Implosion performance and mix have been measured at peak compression using plastic shells filled with tritium gas and containing embedded localized carbon-deuterium diagnostic layers in various locations in the ablator. Neutron yield and ion temperature of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions were used as a measure of shell-gas mix, while neutron yield of the tritium-tritium fusion reaction was used as a measure of implosion performance. The results have indicated that the low-mode hydrodynamic instabilities due to surface roughness were the primary culprits for yield degradation, with atomic ablator-gas mix playing a secondary role. In addition, spherical shells with pre-imposed 2D modulations were used to measure instability growth in the acceleration phase of the implosions. The capsules were imploded using ignition-relevant laser pulses, and ablation-front modulation growth was measured using x-ray radiography for a shell convergence ratio of ?2. The measured growth was in good agreement with that predicted, thus validating simulations for the fastest growing modulations with mode numbers up to 90 in the acceleration phase. Future experiments will be focused on measurements at higher convergence, higher-mode number modulations, and growth occurring during the deceleration phase.

  15. Use of the target diagnostic control system in the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, R; Lagin, L; Nelson, J

    2011-07-25

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics including optical backscatter, time-integrated, time resolved and gated X-ray sensors, laser velocity interferometry, and neutron time of flight. Diagnostics to diagnose fusion ignition implosion and neutron emissions have been developed. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Window XP processor and Java application. Instruments are aggregated as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. During the past several years, over thirty-six diagnostics have been deployed using this architecture in support of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The DCS architecture facilitates the expected additions and upgrades to diagnostics as more experiments are performed. This paper presents the DCS architecture, framework and our experiences in using it during the NIC to operate, upgrade and maintain a large set of diagnostic instruments.

  16. Small Modular Reactors, National Security and Clean Energy: A...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small Modular Reactors, National Security and Clean Energy: A U.S. National Strategy Dr. ... driven, but unsuccessful Global Nuclear Energy Partnership and suggest how that ...

  17. About Naval Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Naval Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA

  18. naval reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    naval reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA

  19. Laser irradiance scaling in polar direct drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, T. J.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Baumgaertel, J. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Hakel, P.; Hsu, S. C.; Kline, J. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Obrey, K. A. D.; Shah, R. C.; Tregillis, I. L.; Schmitt, M. J.; Kanzleiter, R. J.; Batha, S. H.; Wallace, R. J.; Bhandarkar, S. D.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Hoppe, M. L.; Nikroo, A.; Hohenberger, M.; McKenty, P. W.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-09-17

    Polar-direct-drive experiments conducted at the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, Fusion Sci. Technol. 54, 361 (2008)] performed at laser irradiance between 1 and 2×1015 W/cm2 exhibit increased hard x-ray emission, decreased neutron yield, and reduced areal density as the irradiance is increased. Experimental x-ray images at the higher irradiances show x-ray emission at the equator, as well as degraded symmetry, that is not predicted in hydrodynamic simulations using flux-limited energy transport, but that appear when non-local electron transport together with a model to account for cross beam energy transfer (CBET) is utilized. The reduction in laser power for equatorial beams required in the simulations to reproduce the effects of CBET on the observed symmetry also reproduces the yield degradation consistent with experimental data.

  20. ENERGY PARTITIONING, ENERGY COUPLING (EPEC) EXPERIMENTS AT THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K B; Brown, C G; May, M J; Dunlop, W H; Compton, S M; Kane, J O; Mirkarimi, P B; Guyton, R L; Huffman, E

    2012-01-05

    The energy-partitioning, energy-coupling (EPEC) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will simultaneously measure the coupling of energy into both ground shock and air-blast overpressure from a laser-driven target. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of seismic and air-blast phenomena caused by a nuclear weapon. In what follows, we discuss the motivation for our investigation and briefly describe NIF. Then, we introduce the EPEC experiments, including diagnostics, in more detail.

  1. A High-Resolution Integrated Model of the National Ignition Campaign Cryogenic Layered Experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jones, O. S.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Dixit, S. M.; Dopppner, T.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Dzentitis, E. G.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S. M.; et al

    2012-05-29

    A detailed simulation-based model of the June 2011 National Ignition Campaign (NIC) cryogenic DT experiments is presented. The model is based on integrated hohlraum-capsule simulations that utilize the best available models for the hohlraum wall, ablator, and DT equations of state and opacities. The calculated radiation drive was adjusted by changing the input laser power to match the experimentally measured shock speeds, shock merger times, peak implosion velocity, and bangtime. The crossbeam energy transfer model was tuned to match the measured time-dependent symmetry. Mid-mode mix was included by directly modeling the ablator and ice surface perturbations up to mode 60.more »Simulated experimental values were extracted from the simulation and compared against the experiment. The model adjustments brought much of the simulated data into closer agreement with the experiment, with the notable exception of the measured yields, which were 15-40% of the calculated yields.« less

  2. Laser irradiance scaling in polar direct drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Murphy, T. J.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Baumgaertel, J. A.; Cobble, J. A.; Hakel, P.; Hsu, S. C.; Kline, J. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; et al

    2015-09-17

    Polar-direct-drive experiments conducted at the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, Fusion Sci. Technol. 54, 361 (2008)] performed at laser irradiance between 1 and 2×1015 W/cm2 exhibit increased hard x-ray emission, decreased neutron yield, and reduced areal density as the irradiance is increased. Experimental x-ray images at the higher irradiances show x-ray emission at the equator, as well as degraded symmetry, that is not predicted in hydrodynamic simulations using flux-limited energy transport, but that appear when non-local electron transport together with a model to account for cross beam energy transfer (CBET) is utilized. The reduction in laser power for equatorialmore » beams required in the simulations to reproduce the effects of CBET on the observed symmetry also reproduces the yield degradation consistent with experimental data.« less

  3. Initial Activation and Operation of the Power Conditioning System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newton, M A; Kamm, R E; Fulkerson, E S; Hulsey, S D; Lao, N; Parrish, G L; Pendleton, D L; Petersen, D E; Polk, M; Tuck, J M; Ullery, G T; Moore, W B

    2003-08-20

    The NIF Power Conditioning System (PCS) resides in four Capacitor Bays, supplying energy to the Master and Power Amplifiers which reside in the two adjacent laser bays. Each capacitor bay will initially house 48 individual power conditioning modules, shown in Figure 2, with space reserved for expansion to 54 modules. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Power Conditioning System (PCS) is a modular capacitive energy storage system that will be capable of storing nearly 400 MJ of electrical energy and delivering that energy to the nearly 8000 flashlamps in the NIF laser. The first sixteen modules of the power conditioning system have been built, tested and installed. Activation of the first nine power conditioning modules has been completed and commissioning of the first ''bundle'' of laser beamlines has begun. This paper will provide an overview of the power conditioning system design and describe the status and results of initial testing and activation of the first ''bundle'' of power conditioning modules.

  4. The National Ignition Facility: Ushering in a new age for high energy density science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E. I.; Boyd, R. N.; Remington, B. A.; Keane, C. J.; Al-Ayat, R.

    2009-04-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012003 (2008); https://lasers.llnl.gov/], completed in March 2009, is the highest energy laser ever constructed. The high temperatures and densities achievable at NIF will enable a number of experiments in inertial confinement fusion and stockpile stewardship, as well as access to new regimes in a variety of experiments relevant to x-ray astronomy, laser-plasma interactions, hydrodynamic instabilities, nuclear astrophysics, and planetary science. The experiments will impact research on black holes and other accreting objects, the understanding of stellar evolution and explosions, nuclear reactions in dense plasmas relevant to stellar nucleosynthesis, properties of warm dense matter in planetary interiors, molecular cloud dynamics and star formation, and fusion energy generation.

  5. PLANNING TOOLS FOR ESTIMATING RADIATION EXPOSURE AT THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verbeke, J; Young, M; Brereton, S; Dauffy, L; Hall, J; Hansen, L; Khater, H; Kim, S; Pohl, B; Sitaraman, S

    2010-10-22

    A set of computational tools was developed to help estimate and minimize potential radiation exposure to workers from material activation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF). AAMI (Automated ALARA-MCNP Interface) provides an efficient, automated mechanism to perform the series of calculations required to create dose rate maps for the entire facility with minimal manual user input. NEET (NIF Exposure Estimation Tool) is a web application that combines the information computed by AAMI with a given shot schedule to compute and display the dose rate maps as a function of time. AAMI and NEET are currently used as work planning tools to determine stay-out times for workers following a given shot or set of shots, and to help in estimating integrated doses associated with performing various maintenance activities inside the target bay. Dose rate maps of the target bay were generated following a low-yield 10{sup 16} D-T shot and will be presented in this paper.

  6. Radiation transport and energetics of laser-driven half-hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, A. S. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Cooper, A. B.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schneider, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacLaren, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Graham, P. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Lu, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Seugling, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Satcher, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klingmann, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Comley, A. J. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Marrs, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); May, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glendinning, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sain, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Back, C. A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Hund, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Baker, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsing, W. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, J. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Young, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Young, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Experiments that characterize and develop a high energy-density half-hohlraum platform for use in bench-marking radiation hydrodynamics models have been conducted at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Results from the experiments are used to quantitatively compare with simulations of the radiation transported through an evolving plasma density structure, colloquially known as an N-wave. A half-hohlraum is heated by 80 NIF beams to a temperature of 240 eV. This creates a subsonic di#11;usive Marshak wave which propagates into a high atomic number Ta2O5 aerogel. The subsequent radiation transport through the aerogel and through slots cut into the aerogel layer is investigated. We describe a set of experiments that test the hohlraum performance and report on a range

  7. X-ray area backlighter development at the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrios, M. A. Fournier, K. B.; Smith, R.; Lazicki, A.; Rygg, R.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Eggert, J.; Park, H.-S.; Huntington, C.; Bradley, D. K.; Landen, O. L.; Collins, G. W.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.

    2014-11-15

    1D spectral imaging was used to characterize the K-shell emission of Z ? 3035 and Z ? 4042 laser-irradiated foils at the National Ignition Facility. Foils were driven with up to 60 kJ of 3? light, reaching laser irradiances on target between 0.5 and 20 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Laser-to-X-ray conversion efficiency (CE) into the He{sub ?} line (plus satellite emission) of 1.0%1.5% and 0.15%0.2% was measured for Z ? 3032 and Z ? 4042, respectively. Measured CE into He{sub ?} (plus satellite emission) of Br (Z = 35) compound foils (either KBr or RbBr) ranged between 0.16% and 0.29%. Measured spectra are compared with 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium atomic kinetic and radiation transport simulations, providing a fast and accurate predictive capability.

  8. Zero Power Reactor simulation | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Zero Power Reactor simulation Share Description Ever wanted to see a nuclear reactor core in action? Here's a detailed simulation of the Zero Power Reactor experiment, run by...

  9. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    advanced nuclear materials research (Conference) | SciTech Connect Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and

  10. The effects of early time laser drive on hydrodynamic instability growth in National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J. L.; Clark, D. S.; Suter, L. J.; Masse, L. P.

    2014-09-15

    Defects on inertial confinement fusion capsule surfaces can seed hydrodynamic instability growth and adversely affect capsule performance. The dynamics of shocks launched during the early period of x-ray driven National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosions determine whether perturbations will grow inward or outward at peak implosion velocity and final compression. In particular, the strength of the first shock, launched at the beginning of the laser pulse, plays an important role in determining Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) oscillations on the ablation front. These surface oscillations can couple to the capsule interior through subsequent shocks before experiencing Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth. We compare radiation hydrodynamic simulations of NIF implosions to analytic theories of the ablative RM and RT instabilities to illustrate how early time laser strength can alter peak velocity growth. We develop a model that couples the RM and RT implosion phases and captures key features of full simulations. We also show how three key parameters can control the modal demarcation between outward and inward growth.

  11. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Dppner, T.; Ma, T.; Park, H.-S.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Milovich, J. L.; and others

    2015-05-15

    By increasing the velocity in high foot implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), and the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1 10{sup 15} neutrons, the total yield ??v{sup 9.4}. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating (?v{sup 5.9}) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.

  12. The high-foot implosion campaign on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurricane, O. A. Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Dppner, T.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Kervin, P.; Pape, S. Le; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Milovich, J. L.; Moody, J.; Pak, A. E.; Patel, P. K.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; and others

    2014-05-15

    The High-Foot platform manipulates the laser pulse-shape coming from the National Ignition Facility laser to create an indirect drive 3-shock implosion that is significantly more robust against instability growth involving the ablator and also modestly reduces implosion convergence ratio. This strategy gives up on theoretical high-gain in an inertial confinement fusion implosion in order to obtain better control of the implosion and bring experimental performance in-line with calculated performance, yet keeps the absolute capsule performance relatively high. In this paper, we will cover the various experimental and theoretical motivations for the high-foot drive as well as cover the experimental results that have come out of the high-foot experimental campaign. At the time of this writing, the high-foot implosion has demonstrated record total deuterium-tritium yields (9.310{sup 15}) with low levels of inferred mix, excellent agreement with implosion simulations, fuel energy gains exceeding unity, and evidence for the bootstrapping associated with alpha-particle self-heating.

  13. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Dppner, T.; Ma, T.; Park, H. -S.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Kline, J. L.; Knauer, J. P.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Milovich, J. L.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A. E.; Patel, P. K.; Rygg, J. R.; Ralph, J. E.; Salmonson, J. D.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Field, J. E.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G. P.; Hatarik, R.; Merrill, F. E.; Nagel, S. R.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Town, R. P. J.; Sayre, D. B.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C. H.

    2015-05-15

    By increasing the velocity in high foot implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), and the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1e15 neutrons, the total yield ~ v???. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating ( ~v???) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.

  14. 2011 Status of the Automatic Alignment System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelmsen, K; Awwal, A; Burkhart, S; McGuigan, D; Kamm, V M; Leach, R; Lowe-Webb, R; Wilson, R

    2011-07-19

    Automated alignment for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is accomplished using a large-scale parallel control system that directs 192 laser beams along the 300-m optical path. The beams are then focused down to a 50-micron spot in the middle of the target chamber. The entire process is completed in less than 50 minutes. The alignment system commands 9,000 stepping motors for highly accurate adjustment of mirrors and other optics. 41 control loops per beamline perform parallel processing services running on a LINUX cluster to analyze high-resolution images of the beams and their references. This paper describes the status the NIF automatic alignment system and the challenges encountered as NIF development has transitioned from building the laser, to becoming a research project supporting a 24 hour, 7 day laser facility. NIF is now a continuously operated system where performance monitoring is increasingly more critical for operation, maintenance, and commissioning tasks. Equipment wear and the effects of high energy neutrons from fusion experiments are issues which alter alignment efficiency and accuracy. New sensors needing automatic alignment assistance are common. System modifications to improve efficiency and accuracy are prevalent. Handling these evolving alignment and maintenance needs while minimizing the impact on NIF experiment schedule is expected to be an on-going challenge for the planned 30 year operational life of NIF.

  15. The shock/shear platform for planar radiation-hydrodynamics experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doss, F. W.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Perry, T. S.; DeVolder, B. G.; Tregillis, I.; Loomis, E. N.; Merritt, E. C.; Murphy, T. J.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Fincke, J. R.

    2015-04-17

    An indirectly-driven shock tube experiment fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was used to create a high-energy-density hydrodynamics platform at unprecedented scale. Scaling up a shear-induced mixing experiment previously fielded at OMEGA, the NIF shear platform drives 130 ?m/ns shocks into a CH foam-filled shock tube (~ 60 mg/cc) with interior dimensions of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm length. The pulse-shaping capabilities of the NIF are used to extend the drive for >10 ns, and the large interior tube volumes are used to isolate physics-altering edge effects from the region of interest. The scaling of the experiment to the NIF allows for considerable improvement in maximum driving time of hydrodynamics, in fidelity of physics under examination, and in diagnostic clarity. Details of the experimental platform and post-shot simulations used in the analysis of the platform-qualifying data are presented. Hydrodynamic scaling is used to compare shear data from OMEGA with that from NIF, suggesting a possible change in the dimensionality of the instability at late times from one platform to the other.

  16. Near Field Intensity Trends of Main Laser Alignment Images in the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, R R; Beltsar, I; Burkhart, S; Lowe-Webb, R; Kamm, V M; Salmon, T; Wilhelmsen, K

    2015-01-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) utilizes 192 high-energy laser beams focused with enough power and precision on a hydrogen-filled spherical, cryogenic target to potentially initiate a fusion reaction. NIF has been operational for six years; during that time, thousands of successful laser firings or shots have been executed. Critical instrument measurements and camera images are carefully recorded for each shot. The result is a massive and complex database or ‘big data’ archive that can be used to investigate the state of the laser system at any point in its history or to locate and track trends in the laser operation over time. In this study, the optical light throughput for more than 1600 NIF shots for each of the 192 main laser beams and 48 quads was measured over a three year period from January 2009 to October 2012. The purpose was to verify that the variation in the transmission of light through the optics over time performed within design expectations during this time period. Differences between average or integrated intensity from images recorded by the input sensor package (ISP) and by the output sensor package (OSP) in the NIF beam-line were examined. A metric is described for quantifying changes in the integrated intensity measurements and was used to view potential trends. Results are presented for the NIF input and output sensor package trends and changes over the three year time-frame.

  17. Three-dimensional simulations of National Ignition Facility implosions: Insight into experimental observables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spears, Brian K. Munro, David H.; Sepke, Scott; Caggiano, Joseph; Clark, Daniel; Hatarik, Robert; Kritcher, Andrea; Sayre, Daniel; Yeamans, Charles; Knauer, James; Hilsabeck, Terry; Kilkenny, Joe

    2015-05-15

    We simulate in 3D both the hydrodynamics and, simultaneously, the X-ray and neutron diagnostic signatures of National Ignition Facility (NIF) implosions. We apply asymmetric radiation drive to study the impact of low mode asymmetry on diagnostic observables. We examine X-ray and neutron images as well as neutron spectra for these perturbed implosions. The X-ray images show hot spot evolution on small length scales and short time scales, reflecting the incomplete stagnation seen in the simulation. The neutron images show surprising differences from the X-ray images. The neutron spectra provide additional measures of implosion asymmetry. Flow in the hot spot alters the neutron spectral peak, namely, the peak location and width. The changes in the width lead to a variation in the apparent temperature with viewing angle that signals underlying hot spot asymmetry. We compare our new expectations based on the simulated data with NIF data. We find that some recent cryogenic layered experiments show appreciable temperature anisotropy indicating residual flow in the hot spot. We also find some trends in the data that do not reflect our simulation and theoretical understanding.

  18. Mode 1 drive asymmetry in inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spears, Brian K. Edwards, M. J.; Hatchett, S.; Kritcher, A.; Lindl, J.; Munro, D.; Patel, P.; Robey, H. F.; Town, R. P. J.; Kilkenny, J.; Knauer, J.

    2014-04-15

    Mode 1 radiation drive asymmetry (pole-to-pole imbalance) at significant levels can have a large impact on inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This asymmetry distorts the cold confining shell and drives a high-speed jet through the hot spot. The perturbed hot spot shows increased residual kinetic energy and reduced internal energy, and it achieves reduced pressure and neutron yield. The altered implosion physics manifests itself in observable diagnostic signatures, especially the neutron spectrum which can be used to measure the neutron-weighted flow velocity, apparent ion temperature, and neutron downscattering. Numerical simulations of implosions with mode 1 asymmetry show that the resultant simulated diagnostic signatures are moved toward the values observed in many NIF experiments. The diagnostic output can also be used to build a set of integrated implosion performance metrics. The metrics indicate that P{sub 1} has a significant impact on implosion performance and must be carefully controlled in NIF implosions.

  19. Backlighter development at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Zinc to Zirconium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barrios, M. A.; Fournier, K. B.; Regan, S. P.; Landen, O.; May, M.; Opachich, Y. P.; Widmann, K.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.

    2013-06-07

    A K-shell X-ray emission from laser-irradiated planar Zn, Ge, Br, and Zr foils was measured at the National Ignition Facility for laser irradiances in the range of 0.6–9.5 × 1015 W/cm 2. The incident laser power had a pre-pulse to enhance the laser-to-X-ray conversion efficiency (CE) of a 2–5 ns constant-intensity pulse used as the main laser drive. The measured CE into the 8–16 keV energy band ranged from 0.43% to 2%, while the measured CE into the He-like resonance 1s2–1s2p(1P) and intercombination 1s2–1s2p(3P) transitions, as well as from their 1s2(2s,2p)l–1s2p(2s,2p)l satellite transitions for l = 1, 2, 3, correspondingmore » to the Li-, Be-, and B-like resonances, respectively, ranged from 0.3% to 1.5%. Moreover, absolute and relative CE measurements are consistent with X-ray energy scaling of (hν) -3 to (hν) -5, where hν is the X-ray energy. The temporal evolution of the broadband X-ray power was similar to the main laser drive for ablation plasmas having a critical density surface.« less

  20. The shock/shear platform for planar radiation-hydrodynamics experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Doss, F. W.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Perry, T. S.; DeVolder, B. G.; Tregillis, I.; Loomis, E. N.; Merritt, E. C.; Murphy, T. J.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; et al

    2015-04-17

    An indirectly-driven shock tube experiment fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was used to create a high-energy-density hydrodynamics platform at unprecedented scale. Scaling up a shear-induced mixing experiment previously fielded at OMEGA, the NIF shear platform drives 130 μm/ns shocks into a CH foam-filled shock tube (~ 60 mg/cc) with interior dimensions of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm length. The pulse-shaping capabilities of the NIF are used to extend the drive for >10 ns, and the large interior tube volumes are used to isolate physics-altering edge effects from the region of interest. The scaling of the experiment tomore » the NIF allows for considerable improvement in maximum driving time of hydrodynamics, in fidelity of physics under examination, and in diagnostic clarity. Details of the experimental platform and post-shot simulations used in the analysis of the platform-qualifying data are presented. Hydrodynamic scaling is used to compare shear data from OMEGA with that from NIF, suggesting a possible change in the dimensionality of the instability at late times from one platform to the other.« less

  1. Radiative shocks produced from spherical cryogenic implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pak, A.; Divol, L.; Gregori, G.; Weber, S.; Atherton, J.; Bennedetti, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D.; Dewald, E.; Doppner, T.; et al

    2013-05-20

    Spherically expanding radiative shock waves have been observed from inertially confined implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In these experiments, a spherical fusion target, initially 2 mm in diameter, is compressed via the pressure induced from the ablation of the outer target surface. At the peak compression of the capsule, x-ray and nuclear diagnostics indicate the formation of a central core, with a radius and ion temperature of ~20 μm and ~ 2 keV, respectively. This central core is surrounded by a cooler compressed shell of deuterium-tritium fuel that has an outer radius of ~40 μm and a densitymore » of >500 g/cm3. Using inputs from multiple diagnostics, the peak pressure of the compressed core has been inferred to be of order 100 Gbar for the implosions discussed here. Furthermore, the shock front, initially located at the interface between the high pressure compressed fuel shell and surrounding in-falling low pressure ablator plasma, begins to propagate outwards after peak compression has been reached.« less

  2. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H.; Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E.

    2014-09-01

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  3. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Döppner, T.; Ma, T.; Park, H. -S.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; et al

    2015-05-15

    By increasing the velocity in “high foot” implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), andmore » the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1e15 neutrons, the total yield ~ v⁹˙⁴. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating ( ~v⁵˙⁹) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.« less

  4. Reactor Chamber and Balance-of-Plant Characteristics for a Fast-Ignition Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medin, Stanislav; Churazov, Mikhail; Koshkarev, Dmitri; Sharkov, Boris; Orlov, Yurii; Suslin, Viktor; Zemskov, Eugeni

    2003-05-15

    The concept of a fast-ignition heavy-ion fusion (FIHIF) power plant involves a cylindrical target and superhigh energy ion beams. The driver produces one plus/minus charge state multimass platinum ions with energy of 100 GeV. The driver efficiency and the target gain are taken as 0.25 and 100, respectively. The preliminary data on the energy fluxes delivered to the reactor chamber wall by the 500-MJ fusion yield are presented. The reactor chamber designed has two sections. In the first section, the microexplosions occur, and in the second section of bigger volume the expansion and condensation of vapors take place. The response of the blanket and the thin liquid film at the first-wall surface is evaluated. Lithium-lead eutectic is taken as a coolant. The evaporated mass and the condensation time are estimated, taking into account major thermophysical effects. The estimated neutron spectrum from the FIHIF target gives an average neutron energy of 11.9 MeV. The mechanical stresses in the construction material due to neutron energy release are evaluated. The outlet coolant chamber temperature is taken as 550 deg. C. The heat conversion system consisting of three coolant loops provides a net efficiency of the FIHIF power plant of 0.37.

  5. A Robust In-Situ Warp-Correction Algorithm For VISAR Streak Camera Data at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labaria, G; Warrick, A L; Celliers, P M; Kalantar, D H

    2015-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a 192-beam pulsed laser system for high-energy-density physics experiments. Sophisticated diagnostics have been designed around key performance metrics to achieve ignition. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is the primary diagnostic for measuring the timing of shocks induced into an ignition capsule. The VISAR system utilizes three streak cameras; these streak cameras are inherently nonlinear and require warp corrections to remove these nonlinear eff ects. A detailed calibration procedure has been developed with National Security Technologies (NSTec) and applied to the camera correction analysis in production. However, the camera nonlinearities drift over time, aff ecting the performance of this method. An in-situ fi ber array is used to inject a comb of pulses to generate a calibration correction in order to meet the timing accuracy requirements of VISAR. We develop a robust algorithm for the analysis of the comb calibration images to generate the warp correction that is then applied to the data images. Our algorithm utilizes the method of thin-plate splines (TPS) to model the complex nonlinear distortions in the streak camera data. In this paper, we focus on the theory and implementation of the TPS warp-correction algorithm for the use in a production environment.

  6. Progress on Establishing Guidelines for National Ignition Facility (NIF) Experiments to Extend Debris Shield Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, M; Eder, D; Braun, D; MacGowan, B

    2000-07-26

    The survivability and performance of the debris shields on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are a key factor for the successful conduct and affordable operation of the facility. The improvements required over Nova debris shields are described. Estimates of debris shield lifetimes in the presence of target emissions with 4 - 5 J/cm{sup 2} laser fluences (and higher) indicate lifetimes that may contribute unacceptably to operations costs for NIF. We are developing detailed guidance for target and experiment designers for NIF to assist in minimizing the damage to, and therefore the cost of, maintaining NIF debris shields. The guidance limits the target mass that is allowed to become particulate on the debris shields (300 mg). It also limits the amount of material that can become shrapnel for any given shot (10 mg). Finally, it restricts the introduction of non-volatile residue (NVR) that is a threat to the sol-gel coatings on the debris shields to ensure that the chamber loading at any time is less than 1 pg/cm{sup 2}. We review the experimentation on the Nova chamber that included measuring quantities of particulate on debris shields by element and capturing shrapnel pieces in aerogel samples mounted in the chamber. We also describe computations of x-ray emissions from a likely NIF target and the associated ablation expected from this x-ray exposure on supporting target hardware. We describe progress in assessing the benefits of a pre-shield and the possible impact on the guidance for target experiments on NIF. Plans for possible experimentation on Omega and other facilities to improve our understanding of target emissions and their impacts are discussed. Our discussion of planned future work provides a forum to invite possible collaboration with the IFE community.

  7. Performance of High-Convergence, Layered DT Implosions on Power-Scaling Experiments at National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Atherton, L. J.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bleuel, D.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D.; Dewald, E. L.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edgell, D. H.; Edwards, M. J.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Y.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H.; Grim, G.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hartouni, E.; Hatarik, R.; Hatchett, S.; Hicks, D.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Key, M. H.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kline, J. L.; Knauer, J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Pape, S. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Ma, T.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J.; Meezan, N. B.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A.; Moran, M.; Moses, E. I.; Pak, A.; Parham, T; Park, H. -S.; Patel, P. K.; Petrasso, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Regan, S. P.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Ross, J. S.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.; Suter, L J; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P.; Weber, S. V.; Widmann, K.

    2013-10-19

    The radiation-driven, low-adiabat, cryogenic DT layered plastic capsule implosions were carried out on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to study the sensitivity of performance to peak power and drive duration. An implosion with extended drive and at reduced peak power of 350 TW achieved the highest compression with fuel areal density of ~1.3±0.1 g/cm 2, representing a significant step from previously measured ~1.0 g/cm2 toward a goal of 1.5 g/cm 2. Moreover, for future experiments will focus on understanding and mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities and mix, and improving symmetry required to reach the threshold for thermonuclear ignition on NIF.

  8. Performance of High-Convergence, Layered DT Implosions on Power-Scaling Experiments at National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Atherton, L. J.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bleuel, D.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; et al

    2013-10-19

    The radiation-driven, low-adiabat, cryogenic DT layered plastic capsule implosions were carried out on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to study the sensitivity of performance to peak power and drive duration. An implosion with extended drive and at reduced peak power of 350 TW achieved the highest compression with fuel areal density of ~1.3±0.1 g/cm 2, representing a significant step from previously measured ~1.0 g/cm2 toward a goal of 1.5 g/cm 2. Moreover, for future experiments will focus on understanding and mitigating hydrodynamic instabilities and mix, and improving symmetry required to reach the threshold for thermonuclear ignition on NIF.

  9. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Don't worry, that beer can you're holding is not going to spontaneously burst into flames. June 30, 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the compound burns like a Fourth of July sparkler. Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the

  10. Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories achieves

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    10,000th reactor pulse operation | National Nuclear Security Administration at Sandia National Laboratories achieves 10,000th reactor pulse operation | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations

  11. Development of the CD Symcap platform to study gas-shell mix in implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, D. T.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Tipton, R. E.; Pino, J. E.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Weber, S. V.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Edwards, M. J.; Fittinghoff, D.; Glenn, S.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A.; and others

    2014-09-15

    Surrogate implosions play an important role at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for isolating aspects of the complex physical processes associated with fully integrated ignition experiments. The newly developed CD Symcap platform has been designed to study gas-shell mix in indirectly driven, pure T{sub 2}-gas filled CH-shell implosions equipped with 4 ?m thick CD layers. This configuration provides a direct nuclear signature of mix as the DT yield (above a characterized D contamination background) is produced by D from the CD layer in the shell, mixing into the T-gas core. The CD layer can be placed at different locations within the CH shell to probe the depth and extent of mix. CD layers placed flush with the gas-shell interface and recessed up to 8??m have shown that most of the mix occurs at the inner-shell surface. In addition, time-gated x-ray images of the hotspot show large brightly radiating objects traversing through the hotspot around bang-time, which are likely chunks of CH/CD plastic. This platform is a powerful new capability at the NIF for understanding mix, one of the key performance issues for ignition experiments.

  12. Development of the CD symcap platform to study gas-shell mix in implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, D. T.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Tipton, R. E.; Pino, J. E.; Grim, G. P.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Weber, S. V.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Chen, K. C.; Edgell, D. H.; Edwards, M. J.; Fittinghoff, D.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Glebov, V. Y.; Glenn, S.; Guler, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hoover, D.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Kervin, P.; Khan, S.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J. M.; Mintz, M.; Moore, A.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Parham, T.; Petrasso, R.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sayre, D. B.; Schneider, M.; Stoeffl, W.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P.; Widmann, K.; Wilson, D. C.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2014-09-09

    Surrogate implosions play an important role at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for isolating aspects of the complex physical processes associated with fully integrated ignition experiments. The newly developed CD Symcap platform has been designed to study gas-shell mix in indirectly driven, pure T?-gas filled CH-shell implosions equipped with 4 ?m thick CD layers. This configuration provides a direct nuclear signature of mix as the DT yield (above a characterized D contamination background) is produced by D from the CD layer in the shell, mixing into the T-gas core. The CD layer can be placed at different locations within the CH shell to probe the depth and extent of mix. CD layers placed flush with the gas-shell interface and recessed up to 8 ?m have shown that most of the mix occurs at the inner-shell surface. In addition, time-gated x-ray images of the hotspot show large brightly-radiating objects traversing through the hotspot around bang-time, which are likely chunks of CH/CD plastic. This platform is a powerful new capability at the NIF for understanding mix, one of the key performance issues for ignition experiments.

  13. Development of the CD symcap platform to study gas-shell mix in implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Casey, D. T.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Tipton, R. E.; Pino, J. E.; Grim, G. P.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Weber, S. V.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, L. R.; et al

    2014-09-09

    Surrogate implosions play an important role at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for isolating aspects of the complex physical processes associated with fully integrated ignition experiments. The newly developed CD Symcap platform has been designed to study gas-shell mix in indirectly driven, pure T₂-gas filled CH-shell implosions equipped with 4 μm thick CD layers. This configuration provides a direct nuclear signature of mix as the DT yield (above a characterized D contamination background) is produced by D from the CD layer in the shell, mixing into the T-gas core. The CD layer can be placed at different locations within themore » CH shell to probe the depth and extent of mix. CD layers placed flush with the gas-shell interface and recessed up to 8 μm have shown that most of the mix occurs at the inner-shell surface. In addition, time-gated x-ray images of the hotspot show large brightly-radiating objects traversing through the hotspot around bang-time, which are likely chunks of CH/CD plastic. This platform is a powerful new capability at the NIF for understanding mix, one of the key performance issues for ignition experiments.« less

  14. Horizontal Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster), NREL (National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diff erent pretreatment chemistry residence time combinations are possible using these multiple horizontal-tube reactors * Each tube is indirectly and directly steam heated to...

  15. An Account of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Thirteen Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, Murray Wilford

    2009-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has built and operated 13 nuclear reactors in its 66-year history. The first was the graphite reactor, the world's first operational nuclear reactor, which served as a plutonium production pilot plant during World War II. It was followed by two aqueous-homogeneous reactors and two red-hot molten-salt reactors that were parts of power-reactor development programs and by eight others designed for research and radioisotope production. One of the eight was an all-metal fast burst reactor used for health physics studies. All of the others were light-water cooled and moderated, including the famous swimming-pool reactor that was copied dozens of times around the world. Two of the reactors were hoisted 200 feet into the air to study the shielding needs of proposed nuclear-powered aircraft. The final reactor, and the only one still operating today, is the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) that was built particularly for the production of californium and other heavy elements. With the world's highest flux and recent upgrades that include the addition of a cold neutron source, the 44-year-old HFIR continues to be a valuable tool for research and isotope production, attracting some 500 scientific visitors and guests to Oak Ridge each year. This report describes all of the reactors and their histories.

  16. Gamma Reaction History ablator areal density constraints upon correlated diagnostic modeling of National Ignition Facility implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerjan, C. Sayre, D. B.; Landen, O. L.; Church, J. A.; Stoeffl, W.; Grafil, E. M.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kim, Y.

    2015-03-15

    The inelastic neutron scattering induced γ-ray signal from {sup 12}C in an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule is demonstrated to be an effective and general diagnostic for shell ablator areal density. Experimental acquisition of the time-integrated signal at 4.4 MeV using threshold detection from four gas Čerenkov cells provides a direct measurement of the {sup 12}C areal density near stagnation. Application of a three-dimensional isobaric static model of data acquired in a recent high neutron yield National Ignition Facility experimental campaign reveals two general trends: smaller remaining ablator mass at stagnation and higher shell density with increasing laser drive.

  17. High-energy x-ray microscopy of laser-fusion plasmas at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J.A.; Landen, O.L.; Hammel, B.A.

    1997-08-26

    Multi-keV x-ray microscopy will be an important laser-produced plasma diagnostic at future megajoule facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF).In preparation for the construction of this facility, we have investigated several instrumentation options in detail, and we conclude that near normal incidence single spherical or toroidal crystals may offer the best general solution for high-energy x-raymicroscopy at NIF and at similar large facilities. Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes using multi-layer mirrors may also be good secondary options, particularly if apertures are used to increase the band-width limited field of view.

  18. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Döppner, T.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Ma, T.; Park, H. -S.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. P.; Dewald, E. L.; et al

    2015-07-28

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a “highfoot” laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shapemore » closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 1016 neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel.« less

  19. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Döppner, T.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Ma, T.; Park, H. -S.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. P.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Haan, S.; Kritcher, A. L.; MacPhee, A.; Le Pape, S.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Springer, P. T.; Salmonson, J. D.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Church, J.; Dixit, S.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Hatarik, R.; Havre, M.; Herrmann, H.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Knauer, J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J.; Moore, A. S.; Nikroo, A.; Ralph, J. E.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M.; Streckert, H.; Town, R.; Turnbull, D.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-07-28

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a “highfoot” laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shape closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 1016 neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel.

  20. Sandia Energy - Particle Ignition and Char Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the top right shows a collection of streaks from injected particles as they ignite and burn while flowing upward. Figure 1. Schematic of Sandia's optical entrained flow reactor...

  1. Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster), NREL (National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC....

  2. National Ignition Facility LLNL-AR-585912_NIF-0135637-AA_2012...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . 47 6 * NIF User Guide * Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contents 5.11. Final Optics Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  3. HEC-DPSSL 2012 Workshop, Organizing Committee: National Ignition Facility &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Science Organizing Committee TEXT SIZE Workshops About Organizing Committee Agenda Deadlines Abstract Submission Venue NIF Tour Directions Lake Tahoe Workshop Sign-up Organizing Committee Andrew J. Bayramian Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Robert J. Deri Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Michael Dunne Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Meeting Support Trina Voelker NIF Event & Protocol Office Deputy Manager Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Mila Shapovalov NIF

  4. CRAD, Maintenance- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Maintenance Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  5. CRAD, Engineering- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Engineering Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  6. CRAD, Training- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Training Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  7. CRAD, Management- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Management in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  8. Congressional Delegation visits Naval Reactors Facility | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Delegation visits Naval Reactors Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo

  9. Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery

  10. NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery

  11. Submission of Notice of Termination of Coverage Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System General Permit No. CAS000002 for WDID No. 201C349114, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Ignition Facility Construction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunckhorst, K

    2009-04-21

    This is the completed Notice of Termination of Coverage under the General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Construction Activity. Construction activities at the National Ignition Facility Construction Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are now complete. The Notice of Termination includes photographs of the completed construction project and a vicinity map.

  12. An in-flight radiography platform to measure hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, K. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; Haan, S. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kroll, J. J.; Peterson, J. L.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Salmonson, J.; Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, K. J.

    2014-07-15

    A new in-flight radiography platform has been established at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure RayleighTaylor and RichtmyerMeshkov instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The platform has been tested up to a convergence ratio of 4. An experimental campaign is underway to measure the growth of pre-imposed sinusoidal modulations of the capsule surface, as a function of wavelength, for a pair of ignition-relevant laser drives: a low-foot drive representative of what was fielded during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] and the new high-foot [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014)] pulse shape, for which the predicted instability growth is much lower. We present measurements of Legendre modes 30, 60, and 90 for the NIC-type, low-foot, drive, and modes 60 and 90 for the high-foot drive. The measured growth is consistent with model predictions, including much less growth for the high-foot drive, demonstrating the instability mitigation aspect of this new pulse shape. We present the design of the platform in detail and discuss the implications of the data it generates for the on-going ignition effort at NIF.

  13. Reactor and Material Supply | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactor and Material Supply Reactor and Material Supply Y-12 has processed highly enriched uranium for more than 60 years in support of the nation's defense. The end of the Cold War and ensuing strategic arms control treaties have resulted in an excess of HEU materials. In 1994, approximately 174 metric tons of weapons-usable HEU was declared surplus to defense needs. The HEU disposition program was established to make the surplus HEU unsuitable for use in weapons by blending it down to

  14. National Ignition Facility fires 300th laser target shot of fiscal year

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2015 | National Nuclear Security Administration fires 300th laser target shot of fiscal year 2015 | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets

  15. Current Reactor Physics Benchmark Activities at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall; Mackenzie L. Gorham; Joseph Christensen; James C. Turnbull; Kim Clark

    2011-11-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [1] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) [2] were established to preserve integral reactor physics and criticality experiment data for present and future research. These valuable assets provide the basis for recording, developing, and validating our integral nuclear data, and experimental and computational methods. These projects are managed through the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA). Staff and students at the Department of Energy - Idaho (DOE-ID) and INL are engaged in the development of benchmarks to support ongoing research activities. These benchmarks include reactors or assemblies that support Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) research, space nuclear Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) design validation, and currently operational facilities in Southeastern Idaho.

  16. Advanced Test Reactor - A National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford J. Stanley

    2008-05-01

    The ATR is a pressurized, light-water moderated and cooled, beryllium-reflected nuclear research reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The unique serpentine configuration of the fuel elements creates five main reactor power lobes (regions) and nine flux traps. In addition to these nine flux traps there are 68 additional irradiation positions in the reactor core reflector tank. There are also 34 low-flux irradiation positions in the irradiation tanks outside the core reflector tank. The ATR is designed to provide a test environment for the evaluation of the effects of intense radiation (neutron and gamma). Due to the unique serpentine core design each of the five lobes can be operated at different powers and controlled independently. Options exist for the individual test trains and assemblies to be either cooled by the ATR coolant (i.e., exposed to ATR coolant flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and neutron flux) or to be installed in their own independent test loops where such parameters as temperature, pressure, flow rate, neutron flux, and energy can be controlled per experimenter specifications. The full-power maximum thermal neutron flux is ~1.0 x1015 n/cm2-sec with a maximum fast flux of ~5.0 x1014 n/cm2-sec. The Advanced Test Reactor, now a National Scientific User Facility, is a versatile tool in which a variety of nuclear reactor, nuclear physics, reactor fuel, and structural material irradiation experiments can be conducted. The cumulative effects of years of irradiation in a normal power reactor can be duplicated in a few weeks or months in the ATR due to its unique design, power density, and operating flexibility.

  17. Thermal Issues Associated with the Lighting Systems, Electronics Racks, and Pre-Amplifier Modules in the National Ignition System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. C. Owen; J. D. Bernardin; K. L. Lam

    1998-08-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the thermal issues related to the National Ignition Facility. The influence of heat sources such as lighting fixtures, electronics racks, and pre-amplifier modules (PAMs) on the operational performance of the laser guide beam tubes and optical alignment hardware in the NE laser bays were investigated with experiments and numerical models. In particular, empirical heat transfer data was used to establish representative and meaningful boundary conditions and also serve as bench marks for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. Numerical models, constructed with a commercial CFD code, were developed to investigate the extent of thermal plumes and radiation heat transfer from the heat sources. From these studies, several design modifications were recommended including reducing the size of all fluorescent lights in the NIF laser bays to single 32 W bulb fixtures, maintaining minimum separation distances between light fixtures/electronics racks and beam transport hardware, adding motion sensors in areas of the laser bay to control light fixture operation during maintenance procedures, properly cooling all electronics racks with air-water heat exchangers with heat losses greater than 25 W/rack to the M1 laser bay, ensuring that the electronics racks are not overcooked and thus maintain their surface temperatures to within a few degrees centigrade of the mean air temperature, and insulating the electronic bays and optical support structures on the PAMs.

  18. The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) apparatus for nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaughnessy, D. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Yeamans, C. B.; Moody, K. J.; Tereshatov, E.; Stoeffl, W.; Riddle, A.

    2012-10-15

    The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) diagnostic apparatus was recently installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Following a NIF shot, RAGS is used to pump the gas load from the NIF chamber for purification and isolation of the noble gases. After collection, the activated gaseous species are counted via gamma spectroscopy for measurement of the capsule areal density and fuel-ablator mix. Collection efficiency was determined by injecting a known amount of {sup 135}Xe into the NIF chamber, which was then collected with RAGS. Commissioning was performed with an exploding pusher capsule filled with isotopically enriched {sup 124}Xe and {sup 126}Xe added to the DT gas fill. Activated xenon species were recovered post-shot and counted via gamma spectroscopy. Results from the collection and commissioning tests are presented. The performance of RAGS allows us to establish a noble gas collection method for measurement of noble gas species produced via neutron and charged particle reactions in a NIF capsule.

  19. The effect of laser spot shapes on polar-direct-drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weilacher, F.; Radha, P. B. Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A.

    2015-03-15

    Ongoing polar-direct-drive (PDD) implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl and E. I. Moses, Phys. Plasmas 18, 050901 (2011)] use existing NIF hardware, including indirect-drive phase plates. This limits the performance achievable in these implosions. Spot shapes are identified that significantly improve the uniformity of PDD NIF implosions; outer surface deviation is reduced by a factor of 7 at the end of the laser pulse and hot-spot distortion is reduced by a factor of 2 when the shell has converged by a factor of ?10. As a result, the neutron yield increases by approximately a factor of 2. This set of laser spot shapes is a combination of circular and elliptical spots, along with elliptical spot shapes modulated by an additional higher-intensity ellipse offset from the center of the beam. This combination is motivated in this paper. It is also found that this improved implosion uniformity is obtained independent of the heat conduction model. This work indicates that significant improvement in performance can be obtained robustly with the proposed spot shapes.

  20. Ignition Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ignition Experiments The goal of many NIF experiments is to create a self-sustaining "burn" of fusion fuel (the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium) that produces as much or more energy than the energy required to initiate the fusion reaction-an event called ignition. In moving closer to achieving ignition, NIF researchers are fulfilling the vision of early laser pioneers who conceived of using the x rays generated by a powerful, brief laser pulse to fuse hydrogen isotopes and

  1. Design of precision mounts for optimizing the conversion efficiency of KDP crystals for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbard, R.L., LLNL

    1998-03-30

    A key design challenge for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), [Hibbard, R L , 1998], is the frequency converter consisting of two KDP crystals and a focusing lens Frequency conversion is a critical performance factor for NIF and the optical mount design for this plays a key role in meeting design specifications The frequency converter is a monolithic cell that mounts the optics and is the point on the beamline where the frequency conversion crystals are optimally aligned and the cell is focused on target The lasing medium is neodymium in phosphate glass with a fundamental frequency (1{omega}) of 1 053 {micro}m Sum frequency generation in a pair of conversion crystals (KDP/KD*P) produces 1 8 MJ of the third harmonic light (3{omega} or {lambda}=O 35 pm). The phase-matching scheme on NIF is type I second harmonic generation followed by type II sum-frequency-mixing of the residual fundamental and the second harmonic light This laser unlike previous laser system designs, must achieve high conversion efficiency, 85%, which is close to the 90 8% theoretical maximum As a result, this design is very sensitive to angular variations in beam propagation and in the crystal axes orientation. Factors that influence the phase matching angle include crystal inhomogeneity, residual and induced stress in the crystals, the crystals` natural and mounted surface figure, mounting imperfections and gravity sag These angular variations need to be controlled within a 40 {micro}rad error budget. The optical mount contributions to the angular error budget are 20 {micro}rad and are what make the frequency converter in the Final Optics Cell (FOC) such a challenging precision design. The premise of using full edge support in the FOC design is primarily driven by the spherical target chamber design that has optics mounted at multiple longitudinal angles and thus gravity sag in the crystals that needs to be minimized To meet the angular performance requirements, a precision monolithic cell with full edge support for mounting the optics to 10 {micro}rad angular and 1-5 {micro}m flatness tolerances is required The NIF frequency converter design is a major step in improving both conversion efficiency and precision of the mount design Another major consideration in the FOC design is the trade-off between cost of manufacturing the cell and the performance of the mount An interesting balance of what can be accomplished with a conventional machine tool in a commercial shop to produce prototype FOC` s will be discussed Metrology issues involved in qualifying the FOC are also discussed.

  2. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source capable of producing alternating beams of light having different wavelengths is used in tandem with one or more ignitor lasers to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using the single remote excitation light source for pumping one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones with alternating wavelengths of light.

  3. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. The beam from the excitation light source is split with a portion of it going to the ignitor laser and a second portion of it being recombined with the first portion after a delay before injection into the ignitor laser. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones.

  4. National Ignition Facility

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NIF, in particular the first Pu experiment on NIF, the return to operations of the TA-55 gas gun, a successful series of plutonium experiments on Joint Actinide Shock Physics...

  5. Small Modular Reactors, National Security and Clean Energy: A U.S. National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Strategy | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab December 12, 2012, 4:15pm MBG Auditorium Small Modular Reactors, National Security and Clean Energy: A U.S. National Strategy Dr. Victor H. Reis U.S. Department of Energy Presentation: File MS PowerPoint presentation (PPTX) Secretary Chu and President Obama have suggested that the United States' Sputnik-to-Apollo program could be a strategic model for innovation and developing clean energy in the United States. I'll use that model to analyze the

  6. Research and Medical Isotope Reactor Supply | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Research and Medical ... Research and Medical Isotope Reactor Supply Our goal is to fuel research and test reactors with low-enriched uranium. Y-12 tops the short list of the world's most secure, reliable uranium feedstock suppliers for dozens of research and test reactors on six continents. These reactors can be used to test materials, irradiate new reactor fuel designs and produce medical isotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, as examples. The LEU is used to fabricate

  7. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In the embodiment of the invention claimed herein, the beam from the excitation light source is split with a portion of it going to the ignitor laser and a second portion of it being combined with either the first portion after a delay before injection into the ignitor laser.

  8. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2003-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In a third embodiment, alternating short and long pulses of light from the excitation light source are directed into the ignitor laser. Each of the embodiments of the invention can be multiplexed so as to provide laser light energy sequentially to more than one ignitor laser.

  9. EM Removes Radioactive Components from Former Reactor at Oak Ridge National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory | Department of Energy EM Removes Radioactive Components from Former Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory EM Removes Radioactive Components from Former Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory September 24, 2015 - 12:10pm Addthis Federal and contractor employees who worked on the project to remove irradiated components from a reactor pool gather to watch the transport of the shipment offsite for disposition. Federal and contractor employees who worked on the project to remove

  10. Research and Medical Isotope Reactor Supply | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research and Medical ... Research and Medical Isotope Reactor Supply Our goal is to fuel research and test reactors with low-enriched uranium. Y-12 tops the short list of the...

  11. Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet), National Bioenergy Center, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor Investigating the core principles of in situ and ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Grant Buckingham (L) and Mark Jarvis (R) discuss the operation of the biomass feed system. Photo by David Robichaud, NREL 28346 LEFR Specifications Systems 0-50 psig, 300-700°C. Inlets for gaseous co-feeds

  12. NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Us Our Operations Management and Budget Office of Civil Rights Workforce Statistics NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for Naval Reactors NA 30 - Deputy Administrator for...

  13. DOI Designates B Reactor at DOE's Hanford Site as a National Historic

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Landmark | Department of Energy DOI Designates B Reactor at DOE's Hanford Site as a National Historic Landmark DOI Designates B Reactor at DOE's Hanford Site as a National Historic Landmark August 25, 2008 - 3:20pm Addthis DOE to offer regular public tours in 2009 WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) Deputy Secretary Lynn Scarlett and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Acting Deputy Secretary Jeffrey F. Kupfer today announced the designation of DOE's B Reactor as a National

  14. Experimental Component Characterization, Monte-Carlo-Based Image Generation and Source Reconstruction for the Neutron Imaging System of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrera, C A; Moran, M J

    2007-08-21

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is one of seven ignition target diagnostics under development for the National Ignition Facility. The NIS is required to record hot-spot (13-15 MeV) and downscattered (6-10 MeV) images with a resolution of 10 microns and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 10 at the 20% contour. The NIS is a valuable diagnostic since the downscattered neutrons reveal the spatial distribution of the cold fuel during an ignition attempt, providing important information in the case of a failed implosion. The present study explores the parameter space of several line-of-sight (LOS) configurations that could serve as the basis for the final design. Six commercially available organic scintillators were experimentally characterized for their light emission decay profile and neutron sensitivity. The samples showed a long lived decay component that makes direct recording of a downscattered image impossible. The two best candidates for the NIS detector material are: EJ232 (BC422) plastic fibers or capillaries filled with EJ399B. A Monte Carlo-based end-to-end model of the NIS was developed to study the imaging capabilities of several LOS configurations and verify that the recovered sources meet the design requirements. The model includes accurate neutron source distributions, aperture geometries (square pinhole, triangular wedge, mini-penumbral, annular and penumbral), their point spread functions, and a pixelated scintillator detector. The modeling results show that a useful downscattered image can be obtained by recording the primary peak and the downscattered images, and then subtracting a decayed version of the former from the latter. The difference images need to be deconvolved in order to obtain accurate source distributions. The images are processed using a frequency-space modified-regularization algorithm and low-pass filtering. The resolution and SNR of these sources are quantified by using two surrogate sources. The simulations show that all LOS configurations have a resolution of 7 microns or better. The 28 m LOS with a 7 x 7 array of 100-micron mini-penumbral apertures or 50-micron square pinholes meets the design requirements and is a very good design alternative.

  15. More About NNSA's Naval Reactors Office | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration About Us / Our Programs / Powering the Nuclear Navy / More About NNSA's Naval Reactors Office More About NNSA's Naval Reactors Office The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program provides militarily effective nuclear propulsion plants and ensures their safe, reliable and long-lived operation. This mission requires the combination of fully trained U.S. Navy men and women with ships that excel in endurance, stealth, speed, and independence from supply chains. Leadership Budget PDF

  16. More About NNSA's Naval Reactors Office | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Our Mission / Powering the Nuclear Navy / More About NNSA's Naval Reactors Office More About NNSA's Naval Reactors Office The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program provides militarily effective nuclear propulsion plants and ensures their safe, reliable and long-lived operation. This mission requires the combination of fully trained U.S. Navy men and women with ships that excel in endurance, stealth, speed, and independence from supply chains. Leadership Budget Executive Order 12344

  17. Laser ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2004-01-13

    Sequenced pulses of light from an excitation laser with at least two resonator cavities with separate output couplers are directed through a light modulator and a first polarzing analyzer. A portion of the light not rejected by the first polarizing analyzer is transported through a first optical fiber into a first ignitor laser rod in an ignitor laser. Another portion of the light is rejected by the first polarizing analyzer and directed through a halfwave plate into a second polarization analyzer. A first portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer passes through the second polarization analyzer to a second, oscillator, laser rod in the ignitor laser. A second portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer is redirected by the second polarization analyzer to a second optical fiber which delays the beam before the beam is combined with output of the first ignitor laser rod. Output of the second laser rod in the ignitor laser is directed into the first ignitor laser rod which was energized by light passing through the first polarizing analyzer. Combined output of the first ignitor laser rod and output of the second optical fiber is focused into a combustible fuel where the first short duration, high peak power pulse from the ignitor laser ignites the fuel and the second long duration, low peak power pulse directly from the excitation laser sustains the combustion.

  18. Laser preheat enhanced ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, J.W.

    1999-03-02

    A method for enhancing fuel ignition performance by preheating the fuel with laser light at a wavelength that is absorbable by the fuel prior to ignition with a second laser is provided. 11 figs.

  19. High Solids Enzymatic Hydrolysis Reactors (Poster), NREL (National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biorefinery Research Facility | NREL, Golden, Colorado | December 2011 | NRELPO-5100-50150 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy...

  20. Probing the deep nonlinear stage of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in indirect drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casner, A. Masse, L.; Liberatore, S.; Loiseau, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Jacquet, L.; Martinez, D.; Moore, A. S.; Seugling, R.; Felker, S.; Haan, S. W.; Remington, B. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Farrell, M.; Giraldez, E.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-05-15

    Academic tests in physical regimes not encountered in Inertial Confinement Fusion will help to build a better understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities and constitute the scientifically grounded validation complementary to fully integrated experiments. Under the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program, recent indirect drive experiments have been carried out to study the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) in transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regime [A. Casner et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 082708 (2012)]. In these experiments, a modulated package is accelerated by a 175 eV radiative temperature plateau created by a room temperature gas-filled platform irradiated by 60 NIF laser beams. The unique capabilities of the NIF are harnessed to accelerate this planar sample over much larger distances (≃1.4 mm) and longer time periods (≃12 ns) than previously achieved. This extended acceleration could eventually allow entering into a turbulent-like regime not precluded by the theory for the RTI at the ablation front. Simultaneous measurements of the foil trajectory and the subsequent RTI growth are performed and compared with radiative hydrodynamics simulations. We present RTI growth measurements for two-dimensional single-mode and broadband multimode modulations. The dependence of RTI growth on initial conditions and ablative stabilization is emphasized, and we demonstrate for the first time in indirect-drive a bubble-competition, bubble-merger regime for the RTI at ablation front.

  1. X-ray Streak Camera Cathode Development and Timing Accuracy of the 4w UV Fiducial System at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opachich, Y P; Palmer, N; Homoelle, D; Hatch, B W; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Kalantar, D; Browning, D; Landen, O

    2012-05-02

    The convergent ablator experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are designed to measure the peak velocity and remaining ablator mass of an indirectly driven imploding capsule. Such a measurement can be performed using an x-ray source to backlight the capsule and an x-ray streak camera to record the capsule as it implodes. The ultimate goal of this experiment is to achieve an accuracy of 2% in the velocity measurement, which translates to a {+-}2 ps temporal accuracy over any 300 ps interval for the streak camera. In order to achieve this, a 4-{omega} (263nm) temporal fiducial system has been implemented for the x-ray streak camera at NIF. Aluminum, Titanium, Gold and Silver photocathode materials have been tested. Aluminum showed the highest quantum efficiency, with five times more peak signal counts per fiducial pulse when compared to Gold. The fiducial pulse data was analyzed to determine the centroiding a statistical accuracy for incident laser pulse energies of 1 and 10 nJ, showing an accuracy of {+-}1.6 ps and {+-}0.7 ps respectively.

  2. Advanced ignition and propulsion technology program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenborg, R.; Early, J.; Lester, C.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Reliable engine re-ignition plays a crucial role in enabling commercial and military aircraft to fly safely at high altitudes. This project addressed research elements critical to the optimization of laser-based igniter. The effort initially involved a collaborative research and development agreement with B.F. Goodrich Aerospace and Laser Fare, Inc. The work involved integrated experiments with theoretical modeling to provide a basic understanding of the chemistry and physics controlling the laser-induced ignition of fuel aerosols produced by turbojet engine injectors. In addition, the authors defined advanced laser igniter configurations that minimize laser packaging size, weight, complexity and power consumption. These innovative ignition concepts were shown to reliably ignite jet fuel aerosols over a broad range of fuel/air mixture and a t fuel temperatures as low as -40 deg F. The demonstrated fuel ignition performance was highly superior to that obtained by the state-of-the-art, laser-spark ignition method utilizing comparable laser energy. The authors also developed a laser-based method that effectively removes optically opaque deposits of fuel hydrocarbon combustion residues from laser window surfaces. Seven patents have been either issued or are pending that resulted from the technology developments within this project.

  3. EIS-0291: High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) Transition Project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The EIS evaluates the range of reasonable alternatives and their impacts regarding the future management of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL).

  4. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT OUTSIDE AREAS BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.C. Weaver

    2010-12-15

    5098-SR-03-0 FINAL REPORT- INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT OUTSIDE AREAS, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

  5. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  6. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  7. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility 2010 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mary Catherine Thelen; Todd R. Allen

    2011-05-01

    This is the 2010 ATR National Scientific User Facility Annual Report. This report provides an overview of the program for 2010, along with individual project reports from each of the university principal investigators. The report also describes the capabilities offered to university researchers here at INL and at the ATR NSUF partner facilities.

  8. Operational Philosophy for the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Benson; J. Cole; J. Jackson; F. Marshall; D. Ogden; J. Rempe; M. C. Thelen

    2013-02-01

    In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF). At its core, the ATR NSUF Program combines access to a portion of the available ATR radiation capability, the associated required examination and analysis facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and INL staff expertise with novel ideas provided by external contributors (universities, laboratories, and industry). These collaborations define the cutting edge of nuclear technology research in high-temperature and radiation environments, contribute to improved industry performance of current and future light-water reactors (LWRs), and stimulate cooperative research between user groups conducting basic and applied research. To make possible the broadest access to key national capability, the ATR NSUF formed a partnership program that also makes available access to critical facilities outside of the INL. Finally, the ATR NSUF has established a sample library that allows access to pre-irradiated samples as needed by national research teams.

  9. CRAD, Nuclear Safety- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Nuclear Safety Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  10. CRAD, Emergency Management- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Emergency Management Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  11. CRAD, Environmental Protection- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Environmental Compliance Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  12. CRAD, Conduct of Operations- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February, 2007 assessment of the Conduct of Operations Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  13. CRAD, Maintenance- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Maintenance Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  14. CRAD, Quality Assurance- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Quality Assurance Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  15. CRAD, Conduct of Operations- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February, 2007 assessment of the Conduct of Operations Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  16. CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Occupational Safety and Health Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  17. CRAD, Emergency Management- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Emergency Management Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  18. CRAD, Radiological Controls- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Radiation Protection Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  19. CRAD, Safety Basis- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Safety Basis portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  20. CRAD, Configuration Management- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Configuration Management Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  1. CRAD, Engineering- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Engineering Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  2. CRAD, Configuration Management- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Configuration Management Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  3. CRAD, Safety Basis- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Safety Basis in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  4. CRAD, Management- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Management portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  5. CRAD, Training- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Training Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  6. CRAD, Occupational Safety & Health- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a February 2007 assessment of the Industrial Safety and Hygiene Program in preparation for restart of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  7. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. If the electrons in special glasses, crystals, or gases are energized, they will emit light photons...

  8. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nuclear astrophysics, material properties, plasma physics, nonlinear optical physics, radiation sources, radiative properties, and other areas of science. NIF will generate...

  9. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A. The goals of NIF are to provide a better understanding of the complex physics of nuclear weapons; provide scientists with the physics understanding necessary to create...

  10. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy, have been pumping out electric power for more than 50 years. But achieving nuclear fusion burn and gain has not yet been demonstrated as viable for energy...

  11. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 to 100 times more energy than the amount of laser energy required to initiate the fusion reaction. The nuclear power plants in use around the world today utilize fission,...

  12. Low profile thermite igniter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halcomb, Danny L.; Mohler, Jonathan H.

    1991-03-05

    A thermite igniter/heat source comprising a housing, high-density thermite, and low-density thermite. The housing has a relatively low profile and can focus energy by means of a torch-like ejection of hot reaction products and is externally ignitable.

  13. Domestic U.S. Reactor Conversions: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Domestic U.S. Reactor Conversions: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery

  14. Ignition and burn of a small magnetized fuel target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.

    2012-06-01

    The crucial step for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is ignition, which leads to sufficiently high gain to enable design of a power producing system. Thus far, this step has not been demonstrated. Magnetized targets may provide an alternative path to ignition. In addition, the 1-D calculations presented here suggest that this approach may provide the gain and other characteristics needed for a practical fusion reactor.

  15. Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of different fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Bei-Jing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qing-Tao

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of methane (CH{sub 4}), n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied experimentally in a Pt-coated monolith catalytic reactor. It is concluded that DME has the lowest catalytic ignition temperature and the least required H{sub 2} flow, while CH{sub 4} has the highest catalytic ignition temperature and the highest required H{sub 2} flow among the three fuels. (author)

  16. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W.; Grubelich, M.D.; Harris, S.M.; Merson, J.A.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories` semiconductor bridge, SCB, is now being used for the ignition or initiation of a wide variety of exeoergic materials. Applications of this new technology arose because of a need at the system level to provide light weight, small volume and low energy explosive assemblies. Conventional bridgewire devices could not meet the stringent size, weight and energy requirements of our customers. We present an overview of SCB technology and the ignition characteristics for a number of energetic materials including primary and secondary explosives, pyrotechnics, thermites and intermetallics. We provide examples of systems designed to meet the modern requirements that sophisticated systems must satisfy in today`s market environments.

  17. System Upgrades at the Advanced Test Reactor Help Ensure that Nuclear Energy Research Continues at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Wise

    2011-12-01

    Fully operational in 1967, the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a first-of-its-kind materials test reactor. Located on the Idaho National Laboratorys desert site, this reactor remains at the forefront of nuclear science, producing extremely high neutron irradiation in a relatively short time span. The Advanced Test Reactor is also the only U.S. reactor that can replicate multiple reactor environments concurrently. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Department of Energy recently invested over 13 million dollars to replace three of ATRs instrumentation and control systems. The new systems offer the latest software and technology advancements, ensuring the availability of the reactor for future energy research. Engineers and project managers successfully completed the four year project in March while the ATR was in a scheduled maintenance outage. These new systems represent state-of-the-art monitoring and annunciation capabilities, said Don Feldman, ATR Station Manager. They are comparable to systems currently used for advanced reactor designs planned for construction in the U.S. and in operation in some foreign countries.

  18. REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1961-10-01

    Thermonuclear reactors, methods, and apparatus are described for controlling and confining high temperature plasma. Main axial confining coils in combination with helical windings provide a rotational transform that avoids the necessity of a figure-eight shaped reactor tube. The helical windings provide a multipolar helical magnetic field transverse to the axis of the main axial confining coils so as to improve the effectiveness of the confining field by counteracting the tendency of the more central lines of force in the stellarator tube to exchange positions with the magnetic lines of force nearer the walls of the tube. (AEC)

  19. Ignition system monitoring assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brushwood, John Samuel

    2003-11-04

    An ignition system monitoring assembly for use in a combustion engine is disclosed. The assembly includes an igniter having at least one positioning guide with at least one transmittal member being maintained in a preferred orientation by one of the positioning guides. The transmittal member is in optical communication with a corresponding target region, and optical information about the target region is conveyed to the reception member via the transmittal member. The device allows real-time observation of optical characteristics of the target region. The target region may be the spark gap between the igniter electrodes, or other predetermined locations in optical communication with the transmittal member. The reception member may send an output signal to a processing member which, in turn, may produce a response to the output signal.

  20. Methane ignition catalyzed by in situ generated palladium nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, T.; Abid, A.D.; Poskrebyshev, G.; Wang, H. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Nabity, J.; Engel, J.; Yu, J. [TDA Research, Inc., 12345 W. 52nd Ave, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 (United States); Wickham, D. [Reaction Systems, LLC, 19039 E. Plaza Drive, Suite 290, Parker, CO 80134 (United States); Van Devener, B.; Anderson, S.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Williams, S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Mail Stop RZA, 1950 Fifth Street, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Catalytic ignition of methane over the surfaces of freely-suspended and in situ generated palladium nanoparticles was investigated experimentally and numerically. The experiments were conducted in a laminar flow reactor. The palladium precursor was a compound (Pd(THD){sub 2}, THD: 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione) dissolved in toluene and injected into the flow reactor as a fine aerosol, along with a methane-oxygen-nitrogen mixture. For experimental conditions chosen in this study, non-catalytic, homogeneous ignition was observed at a furnace temperature of {proportional_to}1123 K, whereas ignition of the same mixture with the precursor was found to be {proportional_to}973 K. In situ production of Pd/PdO nanoparticles was confirmed by scanning mobility, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of particles collected at the reactor exit. The catalyst particle size distribution was log-normal. Depending on the precursor loading, the median diameter ranged from 10 to 30 nm. The mechanism behind catalytic ignition was examined using a combined gas-phase and gas-surface reaction model. Simulation results match the experiments closely and suggest that palladium nanocatalyst significantly shortens the ignition delay times of methane-air mixtures over a wide range of conditions. (author)

  1. Simulation of hydrogen and hydrogen-assisted propane ignition in Pt catalyzed microchannel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seshadri, Vikram; Kaisare, Niket S.

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with self-ignition of catalytic microburners from ambient cold-start conditions. First, reaction kinetics for hydrogen combustion is validated with experimental results from the literature, followed by validation of a simplified pseudo-2D microburner model. The model is then used to study the self-ignition behavior of lean hydrogen/air mixtures in a Platinum-catalyzed microburner. Hydrogen combustion on Pt is a very fast reaction. During cold start ignition, hydrogen conversion reaches 100% within the first few seconds and the reactor dynamics are governed by the ''thermal inertia'' of the microburner wall structure. The self-ignition property of hydrogen can be used to provide the energy required for propane ignition. Two different modes of hydrogen-assisted propane ignition are considered: co-feed mode, where the microburner inlet consists of premixed hydrogen/propane/air mixtures; and sequential feed mode, where the inlet feed is switched from hydrogen/air to propane/air mixtures after the microburner reaches propane ignition temperature. We show that hydrogen-assisted ignition is equivalent to selectively preheating the inlet section of the microburner. The time to reach steady state is lower at higher equivalence ratio, lower wall thermal conductivity, and higher inlet velocity for both the ignition modes. The ignition times and propane emissions are compared. Although the sequential feed mode requires slightly higher amount of hydrogen, the propane emissions are at least an order of magnitude lower than the other ignition modes. (author)

  2. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 1, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.M. Harpenau

    2010-12-15

    5098-SR-05-0 PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 1 BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

  3. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 5, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.C. Weaver

    2010-11-03

    5098-SR-04-0 PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 5, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

  4. October 2010 | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Library / Newsletters / October 2010 October 2010 Newsletter Oct 29, 2010 In this issue: NNSA Senior Leadership Team in Place NNSA Completes Largest Fuel Return Campaign 32 Years of Reactor Conversion NNSA Committed to Energy Efficiency, Savings NNSA Nonproliferation Program Develops Cutting-edge Dental Implant Technology Pantex Authorized to Begin Work on B53 Big Month for National Ignition Facility DOE Collects 120,000 Pounds of Food for "Feds Feed Families" Campaign NNSA's Kansas

  5. homogeneous charge compression ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    homogeneous charge compression ignition - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  6. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weimin; Criddle, Craig S.

    2015-11-16

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  7. Burner ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carignan, Forest J. (Bedford, MA)

    1986-01-21

    An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

  8. Waste Stream Generated and Waste Disposal Plans for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haghighi, M. H.; Szozda, R. M.; Jugan, M. R.

    2002-02-26

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site is located in Tennessee, on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), south of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant across Haw Ridge in Melton Valley. The MSRE was run by ORNL to demonstrate the desirable features of the molten-salt concept in a practical reactor that could be operated safely and reliably. It introduced the idea of a homogeneous reactor using fuel salt media and graphite moderation for power and breeder reactors. The MSRE reactor and associated components are located in cells beneath the floor in the high-bay area of Building 7503 (Figure 1). The reactor was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. When the reactor was shut down, fuel salt was drained from the reactor circuit to two drain tanks. A ''clean'' salt was then circulated through the reactor as a decontamination measure and drained to a third drain tank. When operations ceased, the fuel and flush salts were allowed t o cool and solidify in the drain tanks. At shutdown, the MSRE facility complex was placed in a surveillance and maintenance program. As a result of the S&M program, it was discovered in 1994 that gaseous uranium (233U/232U) hexafluoride (UF6) had moved throughout the MSRE process systems. The UF6 was generated when radiolysis of the fluorine salts caused the individual constituents to dissociate to their component atoms, including free fluorine.Some of the free fluorine combined with uranium fluorides (UF4) in the salt to form UF6. UF6 is gaseous at slightly above ambient temperatures; thus, periodic heating of the fuel salts (which was intended to remedy the radiolysis problems) and simple diffusion had allowed the UF6 to move out of the salt and into the process systems of MSRE.

  9. Utilization of the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, Douglas L; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Meilleur, Flora; Jones, Amy; Bailey, William Barton; Vandergriff, David H

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of the scientific utilization of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Topics to be covered will include: 1) HFIR neutron scattering instruments and the formal instrument user program; 2) Recent upgrades to the neutron scattering instrument stations at the reactor, and 3) eMod a new tool for addressing instrument modifications and providing configuration control and design process for scientific instruments at HFIR and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). There are 15 operating neutron instrument stations at HFIR with 12 of them organized into a formal user program. Since the last presentation on HFIR instruments at IGORR we have installed a Single Crystal Quasi-Laue Diffractometer instrument called IMAGINE; and we have made significant upgrades to HFIR neutron scattering instruments including the Cold Triple Axis Instrument, the Wide Angle Neutron Diffractometer, the Powder Diffractometer, and the Neutron Imaging station. In addition, we have initiated upgrades to the Thermal Triple Axis Instrument and the Bio-SANS cold neutron instrument detector system. All of these upgrades are tied to a continuous effort to maintain a high level neutron scattering user program at the HFIR. For the purpose of tracking modifications such as those mentioned and configuration control we have been developing an electronic system for entering instrument modification requests that follows a modification or instrument project through concept development, design, fabrication, installation, and commissioning. This system, which we call eMod, electronically leads the task leader through a series of questions and checklists that then identifies such things as ES&H and radiological issues and then automatically designates specific individuals for the activity review process. The system has been in use for less than a year and we are still working out some of the inefficiencies, but we believe that this will become a very effective tool for achieving the configuration and process control believed to be necessary for scientific instrument systems.

  10. Ignition dynamics of high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, A.N.; Son, S.F.; Sander, R.K.; Asay, B.W.; Brewster, M.Q.

    1999-04-01

    The laser ignition of the explosives HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8}), {delta}-phase HMX, PBX 9501 (95% HMX, 2.5% Estane, 2.5% BDNPA/BDNPF), TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}O{sub 6}), and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F) and aged PBX 9502 has been conducted with the intent to compare the relative sensitivities of those explosives and to investigate the effect of beam profile, binder addition, and porosity. It has been found that there was little difference between a gaussian beam and a top hat profile on the laser ignition of HMX. The authors observe that the addition of binder in the amounts present in PBX 9501 resulted in longer ignition delays than that of HMX. In contrast to HMX, the addition of binder to TATB in PBX 9502 shows no measurable effect. Porosity effects were considered by comparing the ignition of granular HMX and pressed HMX pellets. Porosity appears to increase ignition delay due to an increased effective absorption scale and increased convective heat loss. This porosity effect also resulted in longer ignition delays for {delta}-phase HMX than for {beta}-phase HMX. In order to simulate ignition in voids or cracks, the standard ignition experiment was modified to include a NaCl window placed at variable distances above the sample surface. When ignition experiments were performed at 29 W/cm{sup 2} and 38 W/cm{sup 2} a critical gap distance was observed of 6 {+-} 0.4 mm below which ignition was severely inhibited. This result underscores the importance of gas phase processes in ignition and illustrates that conditions can exist where simple ignition criteria such as surface temperature is inadequate.

  11. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  12. Catalytic igniters and their use to ignite lean hydrogen-air mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, William J. (Oakland, CA); Thorne, Lawrence R. (Livermore, CA); Volponi, Joanne V. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A catalytic igniter which can ignite a hydrogen-air mixture as lean as 5.5% hydrogen with induction times ranging from 20 s to 400 s, under conditions which may be present during a loss-of-liquid-coolant accident at a light water nuclear reactor comprises (a) a perforate catalytically active substrate, such as a platinum coated ceramic honeycomb or wire mesh screen, through which heated gases produced by oxidation of the mixture can freely flow and (b) a plurality of thin platinum wires mounted in a thermally conductive manner on the substrate and positioned thereon so as to be able to receive heat from the substrate and the heated gases while also in contact with unoxidized gases.

  13. Preliminary Feasibility, Design, and Hazard Analysis of a Boiling Water Test Loop Within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A Boiling Water Test Loop (BWTL) is being designed for one of the irradiation test positions within the. The objective of the new loop will be to simulate boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions to support clad corrosion and related reactor material testing. Further it will accommodate power ramping tests of candidate high burn-up fuels and fuel pins/rods for the commercial BWR utilities. The BWTL will be much like the pressurized water loops already in service in 5 of the 9 flux traps (region of enhanced neutron flux) in the ATR. The loop coolant will be isolated from the primary coolant system so that the loops temperature, pressure, flow rate, and water chemistry can be independently controlled. This paper presents the proposed general design of the in-core and auxiliary BWTL systems; the preliminary results of the neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses; and the preliminary hazard analysis for safe normal and transient BWTL and ATR operation.

  14. Fusion and Ignition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science Fusion and Ignition What is Fusion? Fusion is the process that powers the sun and the stars. Fusion describes what happens when the nuclei of light atoms overcome the electrical resistance that keeps them apart and get close enough to activate the strong nuclear force that holds them together, or "fuse." When fused, they form a bigger nucleus; two elements combine to create a different element at the level of the nucleus. Making elements fuse requires an enormous amount of heat

  15. SRS Small Modular Reactors

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-05-21

    The small modular reactor program at the Savannah River Site and the Savannah River National Laboratory.

  16. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Ogden

    2014-10-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report October 2014 Highlights Rory Kennedy, Dan Ogden and Brenden Heidrich traveled to Germantown October 6-7, for a review of the Infrastructure Management mission with Shane Johnson, Mike Worley, Bradley Williams and Alison Hahn from NE-4 and Mary McCune from NE-3. Heidrich briefed the group on the project progress from July to October 2014 as well as the planned path forward for FY15. Jim Cole gave two invited university seminars at Ohio State University and University of Florida, providing an overview of NSUF including available capabilities and the process for accessing facilities through the peer reviewed proposal process. Jim Cole and Rory Kennedy co-chaired the NuMat meeting with Todd Allen. The meeting, sponsored by Elsevier publishing, was held in Clearwater, Florida, and is considered one of the premier nuclear fuels and materials conferences. Over 340 delegates attended with 160 oral and over 200 posters presented over 4 days. Thirty-one pre-applications were submitted for NSUF access through the NE-4 Combined Innovative Nuclear Research Funding Opportunity Announcement. Fourteen proposals were received for the NSUF Rapid Turnaround Experiment Summer 2014 call. Proposal evaluations are underway. John Jackson and Rory Kennedy attended the Nuclear Fuels Industry Research meeting. Jackson presented an overview of ongoing NSUF industry research.

  17. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  18. Ignite High Tech Startups | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Ignite High Tech Startups Place: United States Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Private family-controlled ) References: Ignite High Tech...

  19. Plasma jet ignition device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIlwain, Michael E.; Grant, Jonathan F.; Golenko, Zsolt; Wittstein, Alan D.

    1985-01-15

    An ignition device of the plasma jet type is disclosed. The device has a cylindrical cavity formed in insulating material with an electrode at one end. The other end of the cylindrical cavity is closed by a metal plate with a small orifice in the center which plate serves as a second electrode. An arc jumping between the first electrode and the orifice plate causes the formation of a highly-ionized plasma in the cavity which is ejected through the orifice into the engine cylinder area to ignite the main fuel mixture. Two improvements are disclosed to enhance the operation of the device and the length of the plasma plume. One improvement is a metal hydride ring which is inserted in the cavity next to the first electrode. During operation, the high temperature in the cavity and the highly excited nature of the plasma breaks down the metal hydride, liberating hydrogen which acts as an additional fuel to help plasma formation. A second improvement consists of a cavity insert containing a plurality of spaced, metal rings. The rings act as secondary spark gap electrodes reducing the voltage needed to maintain the initial arc in the cavity.

  20. SAS4A/SASSYS-1: Fast Reactor Safety Analysis Code | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The original code development was for sodium-cooled fast reactors, and sodium boiling can be modeled. However, basic core thermal-hydraulics and systems analysis features are ...

  1. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, Renae

    2014-11-01

    Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) Monthly Report November 2014 Highlights Rory Kennedy and Sarah Robertson attended the American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting and Nuclear Technology Expo in Anaheim, California, Nov. 10-13. ATR NSUF exhibited at the technology expo where hundreds of meeting participants had an opportunity to learn more about ATR NSUF. Dr. Kennedy briefed the Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO) on the workings of the ATR NSUF. • Rory Kennedy, James Cole and Dan Ogden participated in a reactor instrumentation discussion with Jean-Francois Villard and Christopher Destouches of CEA and several members of the INL staff. • ATR NSUF received approval from the NE-20 office to start planning the annual Users Meeting. The meeting will be held at INL, June 22-25. • Mike Worley, director of the Office of Innovative Nuclear Research (NE-42), visited INL Nov. 4-5. Milestones Completed • Recommendations for the Summer Rapid Turnaround Experiment awards were submitted to DOE-HQ Nov. 12 (Level 2 milestone due Nov. 30). Major Accomplishments/Activities • The University of California, Santa Barbara 2 experiment was unloaded from the GE-2000 at HFEF. The experiment specimen packs will be removed and shipped to ORNL for PIE. • The Terrani experiment, one of three FY 2014 new awards, was completed utilizing the Advanced Photon Source MRCAT beamline. The experiment investigated the chemical state of Ag and Pd in SiC shell of irradiated TRISO particles via X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Upcoming Meetings/Events • The ATR NSUF program review meeting will be held Dec. 9-10 at L’Enfant Plaza. In addition to NSUF staff and users, NE-4, NE-5 and NE-7 representatives will attend the meeting. Awarded Research Projects Boise State University Rapid Turnaround Experiments (14-485 and 14-486) Nanoindentation and TEM work on the T91, HT9, HCM12A and 9Cr ODS specimens has been completed at CAES by Boise State PI Janelle Wharry and Cory Dolph. PI Corey Dolph returned in early November to complete their research by performing nanoindentation on unirradiated specimens that will be used as a baseline for their research.

  2. Dismantling Structures and Equipment of the MR Reactor and its Loop Facilities at the National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' - 12051

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov, V.G.; Danilovich, A.S.; Zverkov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, O.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Lemus, A.V.; Muzrukova, V.D.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Fadin, S.Yu.; Shisha, A.D.; Chesnokov, A.V.

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 a design of decommissioning of research reactors MR and RFT has been developed in the National research Center 'Kurchatov institute'. The design has been approved by Russian State Authority in July 2009 year and has received the positive conclusion of ecological expertise. In 2009-2010 a preparation for decommissioning of reactors MR and RFT was spent. Within the frames of a preparation a characterization, sorting and removal of radioactive objects, including the irradiated fuel, from reactor storage facilities and pool have been executed. During carrying out of a preparation on removal of radioactive objects from reactor sluice pool water treating has been spent. For these purposes modular installation for clearing and processing of a liquid radioactive waste 'Aqua - Express' was used. As a result of works it was possible to lower volume activity of water on three orders in magnitude that has allowed improving essentially of radiating conditions in a reactor hall. Auxiliary systems of ventilation, energy and heat supplies, monitoring systems of radiating conditions of premises of the reactor and its loop-back installations are reconstructed. In 2011 the license for a decommissioning of the specified reactors has been received and there are begun dismantling works. Within the frames of works under the design the armature and pipelines are dismantled in a under floor space of a reactor hall where a moving and taking away pipelines of loop facilities and the first contour of the MR reactor were replaced. A dismantle of the main equipment of loop facility with the gas coolant has been spent. Technologies which were used on dismantle of the radioactive contaminated equipment are presented, the basic works on reconstruction of systems of maintenance of on the decommissioning works are described, the sequence of works on the decommissioning of reactors MR and RFT is shown. Dismantling works were carried out with application of means of a dust suppression that, in aggregate with standard means at such works of individual protection of the personnel and devices of radiating control, has allowed to lower risk of action of radiation on the personnel, the population and environment at the expense of reduction of volume activity of radioactive aerosols in air. (authors)

  3. TEMPERATURE MONITORING OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; D.L. Knudson; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; K.L Davis

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced sensors for irradiation testing. To meet recent customer requests, an array of temperature monitoring options is now available to ATR users. The method selected is determined by test requirements and budget. Melt wires are the simplest and least expensive option for monitoring temperature. INL has recently verified the melting temperature of a collection of materials with melt temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 C with a differential scanning calorimeter installed at INLs High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). INL encapsulates these melt wires in quartz or metal tubes. In the case of quartz tubes, multiple wires can be encapsulated in a single 1.6 mm diameter tube. The second option available to ATR users is a silicon carbide temperature monitor. The benefit of this option is that a single small monitor (typically 1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm or 1 mm diameter x 10 mm length) can be used to detect peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 C. Equipment has been installed at INLs HTTL to complete post-irradiation resistivity measurements on SiC monitors, a technique that has been found to yield the most accurate temperatures from these monitors. For instrumented tests, thermocouples may be used. In addition to Type-K and Type-N thermocouples, a High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouple (HTIR-TC) was developed at the HTTL that contains commercially-available doped molybdenum paired with a niobium alloy thermoelements. Long duration high temperature tests, in furnaces and in the ATR and other MTRs, demonstrate that the HTIR-TC is accurate up to 1800 C and insensitive to thermal neutron interactions. Thus, degradation observed at temperatures above 1100 C with Type K and N thermocouples and decalibration due to transmutation with tungsten-rhenium and platinum rhodium thermocouples can be avoided. INL is also developing an Ultrasonic Thermometry (UT) capability. In addition to small size, UTs offer several potential advantages over other temperature sensors. Measurements may be made near the melting point of the sensor material, potentially allowing monitoring of temperatures up to 3000 C. In addition, because no electrical insulation is required, shunting effects are avoided. Most attractive, however, is the ability to introduce acoustic discontinuities to the sensor, as this enables temperature measurements at several points along the sensor length. As discussed in this paper, the suite of temperature monitors offered by INL is not only available to ATR users, but also to users at other MTRs.

  4. MC2-3: Multigroup Cross-Sections for Fast Reactors | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory MC2-3: Multigroup Cross-Sections for Fast Reactors Slices from a full core SN2ND calculation showing the axial power distribution (log scale) in the MONJU reactor. Slices from a full core SN2ND calculation showing the axial power distribution (log scale) in the MONJU reactor. No other fast spectrum multigroup generation tool matches the demonstrated accuracy of MC2-3. It generates broad-group, cell-average microscopic cross sections from ENDF/B basic nuclear data. MC2-3 handles

  5. Small Modular Reactors - SRSCRO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    River National Laboratory (SRNL) has announced several partnerships to bring refrigerator-sized modular nuclear reactors, known as Small Modular Reactors or SMRs, to the...

  6. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  7. Video: Biofuel technology at Argonne | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    batteries --Electricity transmission --Smart Grid Environment -Biology --Computational ... Ignition Mihai Anitescu on Electric Grids Argonne National Laboratory Scientists ...

  8. Verification Survey of the Building 315 Zero Power Reactor-6 Facility, Argonne National Laboratory-East, Argonne, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. C. Adams

    2007-05-25

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) conducted independent verification radiological survey activities at Argonne National Laboratory’s Building 315, Zero Power Reactor-6 facility in Argonne, Illinois. Independent verification survey activities included document and data reviews, alpha plus beta and gamma surface scans, alpha and beta surface activity measurements, and instrumentation comparisons. An interim letter report and a draft report, documenting the verification survey findings, were submitted to the DOE on November 8, 2006 and February 22, 2007, respectively (ORISE 2006b and 2007).

  9. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-09-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  10. SCB thermite igniter studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Wackerbarth, D.E.; Mohler, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    The authors report on recent studies comparing the ignition threshold of temperature cycled, SCB thermite devices with units that were not submitted to temperature cycling. Aluminum/copper-oxide thermite was pressed into units at two densities, 45% of theoretical maximum density (TMD) or 47% of TMD. Half of each of the density sets underwent three thermal cycles; each cycle consisted of 2 hours at 74 C and 2 hours at {minus}54 C, with a 5 minute maximum transfer time between temperatures. The temperature cycled units were brought to ambient temperature before the threshold testing. Both the density and the thermal cycling affected the all-fire voltage. Using a 5.34 {micro}F CDU (capacitor discharge unit) firing set, the all-fire voltage for the units that were not temperature cycled increased with density from 32.99 V (45% TMD) to 39.32 V (47% TMD). The all-fire voltages for the thermally cycled units were 34.42 V (45% TMD) and 58.1 V (47% TMD). They also report on no-fire levels at ambient temperature for two component designs; the 5 minute no-fire levels were greater than 1.2 A. Units were also subjected to tests in which 1 W of RF power was injected into the bridges at 10 MHz for 5 minutes. The units survived and fired normally afterwards. Finally, units were subjected to pin-to-pin electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests. None of the units fired upon application of the ESD pulse, and all of the tested units fired normally afterwards.

  11. Workshops: National Ignition Facility & Photon Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    operations, governance, maintenance, diagnostics, safety and security, and technology. NIF & Jupiter User Group Meeting 2014 The meeting will describe NIF and JLF's capabilities...

  12. LOCA simulation in the national research universal reactor program: postirradiation examination results for the third materials experiment (MT-3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rausch, W.N.

    1984-04-01

    A series of in-reactor experiments were conducted using full-length 32-rod pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel bundles as part of the Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Simulation Program. The third materials experiment (MT-3) was the sixth in the series of thermal-hydraulic and materials deformation/rutpure experiments conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. The main objective of the experiment was to evaluate ballooning and rupture during active two-phase cooling in the temperature range from 1400 to 1500/sup 0/F (1030 to 1090 K). The 12 test rods in the center of the 32-rod bundle were initially pressurized to 550 psi (3.8 MPa) to insure rupture in the correct temperature range. All 12 of the rods ruptured, with an average peak bundle strain of approx. 55%. The UKAEA also funded destructive postirradiation examination (PIE) of several of the ruptured rods from the MT-3 experiment. This report describes the work performed and presents the PIE results. Information obtained during the PIE included cladding thickness measurements metallography, and particle size analysis of the cracked and broken fuel pellets.

  13. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    1998-01-01

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition.

  14. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

    1998-06-23

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

  15. Hot surface ignition system control module with accelerated igniter warm-up test program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, B.T.

    1986-10-07

    This patent describes a gas burner control system which consists of: a burner; an electrical resistance igniter for igniting the burner; valve means for controlling flow of gas to the burner; and a control module, including a microcomputer, for controlling operation of the igniter and the valve means, the microcomputer being programmed to provide a preselected igniter warm-up time period for enabling the igniter to attain a temperature sufficient to ignite gas, the microcomputer being further programmed to provide a test routine including a program for providing an accelerated igniter warm-up time period which is shorter than the preselected igniter warm-up time period but sufficiently long for enabling the igniter to attain at least the minimum temperature required to ignite gas, the program in the test routine being executed in response to a unique signal effected by the control module and a test device which is external from and detachably connected to the control module.

  16. Integral low-energy thermite igniter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, A.; Haws, L.D.; Mohler, J.H.

    1983-05-13

    In a thermite igniter/heat source comprising a container holding an internal igniter load, there is provided the improvement wherein the container consists essentially of consumable consolidated thermite having a low gas output upon combustion, whereby upon ignition, substantially all of the container and said load is consumed with low gas production.

  17. Integral low-energy thermite igniter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Albert; Haws, Lowell D.; Mohler, Jonathan H.

    1984-08-14

    In a thermite igniter/heat source comprising a container holding an internal igniter load, there is provided the improvement wherein the container consists essentially of consumable consolidated thermite having a low gas output upon combustion, whereby upon ignition, substantially all of the container and said load is consumed with low gas production.

  18. Simultaneous dual mode combustion engine operating on spark ignition and homogenous charge compression ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiveland, Scott B.; Wiggers, Timothy E.

    2004-06-22

    An engine particularly suited to single speed operation environments, such as stationary power generators. The engine includes a plurality of combustion cylinders operable under homogenous charge compression ignition, and at least one combustion cylinder operable on spark ignition concepts. The cylinder operable on spark ignition concepts can be convertible to operate under homogenous charge compression ignition. The engine is started using the cylinders operable under spark ignition concepts.

  19. Neutron scattering at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yethiraj, M.; Fernandez-Baca, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    Since its beginnings in Oak Ridge and Argonne in the late 1940`s, neutron scattering has been established as the premier tool to study matter in its various states. Since the thermal neutron wavelength is of the same order of magnitude as typical atomic spacings and because they have comparable energies to those of atomic excitations in solids, both structure and dynamics of matter can be studied via neutron scattering. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) provides an intense source of neutrons with which to carry out these measurements. This paper summarizes the available neutron scattering facilities at the HFIR.

  20. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite; McLean, Harry M.; Theobald, Wolfgang; Akli, Kramer U.; Beg, Farhat N.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Schumacher, Douglass W.; Wei, Mingsheng

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional central hot spot (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density target as well as large and erratic spread of the electron beam with increasing short pulse duration. We have demonstrated, using newly available higher contrast lasers, an improved energy coupling, painting a promising picture for FI feasibility. Our detailed experiments and analyses of fast electron transport dependence on target material have shown that it is feasible to collimate fast electron beam by self-generated resistive magnetic fields in engineered targets with a rather simple geometry. Stable and collimated electron beam with spot size as small as 50-?m after >100-?m propagation distance (an angular divergence angle of 20!) in solid density plasma targets has been demonstrated with FI-relevant (10-ps, >1-kJ) laser pulses Such collimated beam would meet the required heating beam size for FI. Our new experimental platforms developed for the OMEGA laser (i.e., i) high resolution 8 keV backlighter platform for cone-in-shell implosion and ii) the 8 keV imaging with Cu-doped shell targets for detailed transport characterization) have enabled us to experimentally confirm fuel assembly from cone-in-shell implosion with record-high areal density. We have also made the first direct measurement of fast electron transport and spatial energy deposition in integrated FI experiments enabling the first experiment-based benchmarking of integrated simulation codes. Executing this program required a large team. It was managed as a collaboration between General Atomics (GA), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). GA fulfills its responsibilities jointly with the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), The Ohio State University (OSU) and the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR). The division of responsibility was as follows: (1) LLE had primary leadership for channeling studies and the integrated energy transfer, (2) LLNL led the development of measurement methods, analysis, and deployment of diagnostics, and (3) GA together with UCSD, OSU and UNR studied the detailed energy-transfer physics. The experimental program was carried out using the Titan laser at the Jupiter Laser Facility at LLNL, the OMEGA and OMEGA EP lasers at LLE and the Texas Petawatt laser at the University of Texas, Austin. Modeling has been pursued on large computing facilities at LLNL, OSU, and UCSD using codes developed (by us and others) within the HEDLP program, commercial codes, and by leveraging existing simulations codes developed by the National Nuclear Security Administration ICF program. One important aspect of this program was the involvement and training of young scientists including postdoctoral fellows and graduate students. This project generated an impressive forty articles in high quality journals including nine (two under review) in Physical Review Letters during the three years of this grant and five graduate students completed their doctoral dissertations.

  1. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steelman, Ryan; Clark, Billy; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  2. Final Project Report "Advanced Concept Exploration For Fast Ignition Science Program"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STEPHENS, Richard B.; McLEAN, Harry M.; THEOBALD, Wolfgang; AKLI, Kramer; BEG, Farhat N.; SENTOKU, Yasuiko; SCHUMACHER, Douglas; WEI, Mingsheng S.

    2014-01-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactors. FI differs from conventional central hot spot (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using the laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10s of ns) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 ps) high intensity pulse to ignite a small region of it. There are two major physics issues concerning this concept; controlling the laser-induced generation of large electron currents and their propagation through high density plasmas. This project has addressed these two significant scientific issues in Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics. Learning to control relativistic laser matter interaction (and the limits and potential thereof) will enable a wide range of applications. While these physics issues are of specific interest to inertial fusion energy science, they are also important for a wide range of other HED phenomena, including high energy ion beam generation, isochoric heating of materials, and the development of high brightness x-ray sources. Generating, controlling, and understanding the extreme conditions needed to advance this science has proved to be challenging: Our studies have pushed the boundaries of physics understanding and are at the very limits of experimental, diagnostic, and simulation capabilities in high energy density laboratory physics (HEDLP). Our research strategy has been based on pursuing the fundamental physics underlying the Fast Ignition (FI) concept. We have performed comprehensive study of electron generation and transport in fast-ignition targets with experiments, theory, and numerical modeling. A major issue is that the electrons produced in these experiments cannot be measured directlyonly effects due to their transport. We focused mainly on x-ray continuum photons from bremsstrahlung and x-ray line radiation from K-shell fluorescence. Integrated experiments, which combine target compression with short-pulse laser heating, yield additional information on target heating efficiency. This indirect way of studying the underlying behavior of the electrons must be validated with computational modeling to understand the physics and improve the design. This program execution required a large, well-organized team and it was managed by a joint Collaboration between General Atomics (GA), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The Collaboration was formed 8 years ago to understand the physics issues of the Fast Ignition concept, building on the strengths of each partner. GA fulfills its responsibilities jointly with the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), The Ohio State University (OSU) and the University of Nevada at Reno (UNR). Since RHED physics is pursued vigorously in many countries, international researchers have been an important part of our efforts to make progress. The division of responsibility was as follows: (1) LLE had primary leadership for channeling studies and the integrated energy transfer, (2) LLNL led the development of measurement methods, analysis, and deployment of diagnostics, and (3) GA together with UCSD, OSU and UNR studied the detailed energy-transfer physics. The experimental program was carried out using the Titan laser at the Jupiter Laser Facility at LLNL, the OMEGA and OMEGA EP lasers at LLE and the Texas Petawatt laser (TPW) at UT Austin. Modeling has been pursued on large computing facilities at LLNL, OSU, and UCSD using codes developed (by us and others) within the HEDLP program, commercial codes, and by leveraging existing supercomputer codes developed by the NNSA ICF program. This Consortium brought together all the componentsresources, facilities, and personnelnecessary to accomplish its aggressive goals. The ACE Program has been strongly collaborative, taking advantage of the expertise of the participating institutions to provide a research effort

  3. Summary of the 1987 soil sampling effort at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Test Reactor Area Paint Shop Ditch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, T.R.; Knight, J.L.; Hertzler, C.L.

    1989-08-01

    Sampling of the Test Reactor Area (TRA) Paint Shop Ditch at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was initiated in compliance with the Interim Agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sampling of the TRA Paint Shop Ditch was done as part of the Action Plan to achieve and maintain compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and applicable regulations. It is the purpose of this document to provide a summary of the July 6, 1987 sampling activities that occurred in ditch west of Building TRA-662, which housed the TRA Paint Shop in 1987. This report will give a narrative description of the field activities, locations of collected samples, discuss the sampling procedures and the chemical analyses. Also included in the scope of this report is to bring together data and reports on the TRA Paint Shop Ditch for archival purposes. 6 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. High-voltage miniature igniter development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willkens, C.A.; Axelson, S.R.; Bateman, L.S.; Croucher, D.D.

    1996-09-01

    In 1988, Norton introduced its line of low-voltage 12- and 24-V miniature igniters made from a patented ceramic/intermetallic material. These igniters demonstrated superior strength and speed in a compact low-wattage assembly for gas-fired ignition. High-voltage igniters are being developed to complete the family of igniters for gas-fired ignition. These igniters have extremely low power requirements in the range of 50--100 W, are designed to operate at line voltages of 120 V, and are leading to designs for operation up to 230 V. These were developed using compositional and dimensional changes to the low voltage igniters. The 120 V igniter has exceeded 200,000 cycles in life testing and has been submitted for agency approval. These igniters are also undergoing field testing in various demanding gas-fired appliances. The evolution of the low-voltage igniter into the high-voltage model, as well as performance and material development issues are discussed.

  5. THE ODTX SYSTEM FOR THERMAL IGNITION AND THERMAL SAFETY STUDY OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P C; Hust, G; Howard, M; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-03

    Understanding the response of energetic material to thermal event is very important for the storage and handling of energetic materials. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) can precisely measure times to explosion and minimum ignition temperatures of energetic materials at elevated temperatures. These measurements provide insight into the relative ease of thermal ignition and allow for the determination of kinetic parameters. The ODTX system can potentialy be a good tool to measure violence of the thermal ignition by monitoring the size of anvil cavity. Recent ODTX experimental data on various energetic materials (solid and liquids) are reported in this paper.

  6. CRAD, DOE Oversight- Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a DOE independent oversight assessment of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory programs for oversight of its contractors.

  7. Ignition of a combustible gas mixture by a high-current electric discharge in a closed volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Gritsinin, S. I.; Kop'ev, V. A.; Kossyi, I. A.; Kuleshov, P. S.; Popov, N. A.; Starik, A. M.; Tarasova, N. M.

    2009-06-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies and numerical calculations of the ignition of a stoichiometric CH{sub 4}: O{sub 2} gas mixture by a high-current gliding discharge. It is shown that this type of discharge generates an axially propagating thermal wave (precursor) that penetrates into the gas medium and leads to fast gas heating. This process is followed by an almost simultaneous ignition of the gas mixture over the entire reactor volume.

  8. Direct-driveignition designs with mid-Z ablators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lafon, M.; Betti, R.; Anderson, K. S.; Collins, T. J. B.; Epstein, R.; McKenty, P. W.; Myatt, J. F.; Shvydky, A.; Skupsky, S.

    2015-03-15

    Achieving thermonuclear ignition using direct laser illumination relies on the capability to accelerate spherical shells to high implosion velocities while maintaining shell integrity. Ablator materials of moderate atomic number Z reduce the detrimental effects of laserplasma instabilities in direct-drive implosions. To validate the physics of moderate-Z ablator materials for ignition target designs on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), hydro-equivalent targets are designed using pure plastic (CH), high-density carbon, and glass (SiO{sub 2}) ablators. The hydrodynamic stability of these targets is investigated through two-dimensional (2D) single-mode and multimode simulations. The overall stability of these targets to laser-imprint perturbations and low-mode asymmetries makes it possible to design high-gain targets. Designs using polar-drive illumination are developed within the NIF laser system specifications. Mid-Z ablator targets are an attractive candidate for direct-drive ignition since they present better overall performance than plastic ablator targets through reduced laserplasma instabilities and a similar hydrodynamic stability.

  9. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) R&D Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) R&D 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory PDF icon 2002_deer_aceves.pdf More Documents & Publications Detailed Modeling of HCCI and PCCI combustion and Multi-cylinder HCCI Engine Control Bridging the Gap between Fundamental Physics and Chemistry and Applied Models for HCCI Engines Modeling of HCCI and PCCI Combustion Processes

  10. DOE Selects Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC to Manage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... activities; completing construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and operating NIF as a national user facility to support NNSA missions as well as the needs of ...

  11. Particle Ignition and Char Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ignition and Char Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  12. Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System A method of creating sparks in lean fuel/air mixtures without expensive,short-lifetime spark plugs National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Laser Spark Distribution and

  13. Diagnostics for Fast Ignition Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacPhee, A; Akli, K; Beg, F; Chen, C; Chen, H; Clarke, R; Hey, D; Freeman, R; Kemp, A; Key, M; King, J; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; Nakamura, N; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Phillips, T; Stephens, R; Town, R; Wei, M; VanWoerkom, L; Mackinnon, A

    2008-05-06

    The concept for Electron Fast Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion demands sufficient laser energy be transferred from the ignitor pulse to the assembled fuel core via {approx}MeV electrons. We have assembled a suite of diagnostics to characterize such transfer. Recent experiments have simultaneously fielded absolutely calibrated extreme ultraviolet multilayer imagers at 68 and 256eV; spherically bent crystal imagers at 4 and 8keV; multi-keV crystal spectrometers; MeV x-ray bremmstrahlung and electron and proton spectrometers (along the same line of sight); nuclear activation samples and a picosecond optical probe based interferometer. These diagnostics allow careful measurement of energy transport and deposition during and following laser-plasma interactions at extremely high intensities in both planar and conical targets. Augmented with accurate on-shot laser focal spot and pre-pulse characterization, these measurements are yielding new insight into energy coupling and are providing critical data for validating numerical PIC and hybrid PIC simulation codes in an area that is crucial for many applications, particularly fast ignition. Novel aspects of these diagnostics and how they are combined to extract quantitative data on ultra high intensity laser plasma interactions are discussed, together with implications for full-scale fast ignition experiments.

  14. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material - There are likely multiple phases of material in the salt (metal or compound), either suspended through the salt matrix, layered in the bottom of the tank, or both. These phases may contribute to plugging during any planned transfer. There is not enough data to know for sure. (4) Probe heat trace - The alternate transfer method does not include heat tracing of the bottom of the probe. There is a concern that this may cool the salt and other phases of materials present enough to block the flow of salt. (5) Stress-corrosion cracking - Additionally, there is a concern regarding moisture that may have been introduced into the tanks. Due to time constraints, this concern was not validated. However, if moisture was introduced into the tanks and not removed during heating the tanks before HF and F2 sparging, there would be an additional concern regarding the potential for stress-corrosion cracking of the tank walls.

  15. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  16. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  17. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  18. Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel ...

  19. Pyrotechnic ignition studies using a gun tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    A gun tunnel is being used to investigate the ignition characteristics of center-hole iron/potassium perchlorate thermal battery discs. Details are given of the construction, operation, and data reduction method for the gun tunnel. To simulate an igniter, this system can readily produce a pulse of hot argon at maximum pressures and temperatures up to P/sub max/ = 8 MPa and T/sub max/ = 4000K, respectively, with flow times of the order of 3 msec. For a single battery disc, a segment of the ignition boundary was found to lie in the region of T/sub max/ = 1200 to 1300K and 0.7 MPa < P/sub max/ < 2.0 MPa. The results also showed two types of ignition: prompt ignition, requiring an average delivered enthalpy /ovr /Delta/H//sub ig/ = 6 cal during an average flow time /ovr /Delta/t//sub ig/ = 0.7 msec, and delayed ignition, with /ovr /Delta/H//sub ig/ = 16 cal and /ovr /Delta/t//sub ig/ = 2.4 msec. In addition, near an ignition boundary, high speed motion photography showed the ignition delay increased to 6 msec with significant spatial non-uniformity. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  20. Physics of compact ignition tokamak designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, C.E.; Ku, L.P.; Bateman, G.; Seidl, F.; Sugihara, M.

    1986-03-01

    Models for predicting plasma performance in compact ignition experiments are constructed on the basis of theoretical and empirical constraints and data from tokamak experiments. Emphasis is placed on finding transport and confinement models which reproduce results of both ohmically and auxiliary heated tokamak data. Illustrations of the application of the models to compact ignition designs are given.

  1. EA-1266: Proposed Decontamination and Disassembly of the Argonne Thermal Source Reactor (ATSR) At Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal for the decontamination and disassembly of the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne Thermal Source Reactor.

  2. DOE/EA-1519: Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Zero Power Reactors (Building 315) at Argonne National Laboratory (April 2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2005-04-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to decontaminate and decommission the Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) facilities located in Building 315 at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in Argonne, Illinois (Figure 1-1). The proposed action would occur in two phases: ZPR-6 would be the focus of Phase I and ZPR-9 would be the focus of Phase II. DOE has prepared this environmental assessment (EA) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), 42 U.S.C. {section} 4321 et seq., and applicable regulations (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Parts 1500-1508 and 10 CFR Part 1021). This section describes the reactors and their current status.

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne Thermal Source Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory - East project final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellhauer, C.; Garlock, G.; Mathiesen, J.

    1998-12-02

    The ATSR D&D Project was directed toward the following goals: (1) Removal of radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the ATSR Reactor facility; (2) Decontamination of the ATSR Reactor facility to unrestricted use levels; and (3)Documentation of all project activities affecting quality (i.e., waste packaging, instrument calibration, audit results, and personnel exposure). These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the ATSR Reactor facility and to allow, upon completion of the project, unescorted and unmonitored access to the area. The reactor aluminum, reactor lead, graphite piles in room E-111, and the contaminated concrete in room E-102 were the primary areas of concern. NES, Incorporated (Danbury, CT) characterized the ATSR Reactor facility from January to March 1998. The characterization identified a total of thirteen radionuclides, with a total activity of 64.84 mCi (2.4 GBq). The primary radionuclides of concern were Co{sup 60}, Eu{sup 152}, Cs{sup 137}, and U{sup 238}. No additional radionuclides were identified during the D&D of the facility. The highest dose rates observed during the project were associated with the reactor tank and shield tank. Contact radiation levels of 30 mrem/hr (0.3 mSv/hr) were measured on reactor internals during dismantlement of the reactor. A level of 3 mrem/hr (0.03 mSv/hr) was observed in a small area (hot spot) in room E-102. DOE Order 5480.2A establishes the maximum whole body exposure for occupational workers at 5 rem/yr (50 mSv/yr); the administrative limit at ANL-E is 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr).

  4. Environmental Assessment and FONSI Proposed Decontamination and Disassembly of the Argonne Thermal Source Reactor (ATSR) at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1998-07-15

    The purpose of this project is to protect human health and the environment from risks associated with the contaminated surplus ATSR. The proposed action is needed because the ATSR, a former experimental reactor, contains residual radioactivity and hazardous materials.

  5. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Miley, Don

    2013-05-28

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing Prediction Limits for Overdispersed Count Data

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    LA-UR-11-01857 Approved for public release; distribution I unlimited. Title: Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing Prediction Limits for Overdispersed Count Data Authors: Elizabeth J. Kelly and Raymond N. Tell Intended Use: Deliverable to SB-TS: Safety Basis Technical Services Los Alamos National Laboratory, an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer, is operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the

  7. Confinement scaling and ignition in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, F.W.; Sun, Y.C.

    1985-10-01

    A drift wave turbulence model is used to compute the scaling and magnitude of central electron temperature and confinement time of tokamak plasmas. The results are in accord with experiment. Application to ignition experiments shows that high density (1 to 2) . 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/, high field, B/sub T/ > 10 T, but low temperature T approx. 6 keV constitute the optimum path to ignition.

  8. Ignition methods and apparatus using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFreitas, Dennis Michael; Migliori, Albert

    1997-01-01

    An ignition apparatus for a combustor includes a microwave energy source that emits microwave energy into the combustor at a frequency within a resonant response of the combustor, the combustor functioning as a resonant cavity for the microwave energy so that a plasma is produced that ignites a combustible mixture therein. The plasma preferably is a non-contact plasma produced in free space within the resonant cavity spaced away from with the cavity wall structure and spaced from the microwave emitter.

  9. Loss/gain on ignition test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winstead, M.L.

    1996-01-10

    Document provides the results of tests done on Product Cans from the HC-21C sludge stabilization process. Tests included running a simulated Thermogravimetric Analysis, TGA, on the processed material that have received Loss On Ignition (LOI) sample results that show a gain on ignition or a high LOI and reprocessing product cans with high LOIs. Also, boat material temperatures in the furnace were tracked during the testing.

  10. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_gustafson.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Heavy-Duty HCCI Development

  11. Infrared Thermographic Study of Laser Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohler, Jonathan H.; Chow, Charles T. S.

    1986-07-01

    Pyrotechnic ignition has been studied in the past by making a limited number of discrete temperature-time observations during ignition. Present-day infrared scanning techniques make it possible to record thermal profiles, during ignition, with high spacial and temporal resolution. Data thus obtained can be used with existing theory to characterize pyrotechnic materials and to develop more precise kinetic models of the ignition process. Ignition has been studied theoretically and experimentally using various thermal methods. It has been shown that the whole process can, ideally, be divided into two stages. In the first stage, the sample pellet behaves like an inert body heated by an external heat source. The second stage is governed by the chemical reaction in the heated volume produced during the first stage. High speed thermographic recording of the temperature distribution in the test sample during laser ignition makes it possible to calculate the heat content at any instant. Thus, one can actually observe laser heating and the onset of self-sustained combustion in the pellet. The experimental apparatus used to make these observations is described. The temperature distributions recorded are shown to be in good agreement with those predicted by heat transfer theory. Heat content values calculated from the observed temperature distributions are used to calculate thermal and kinetic parameters for several samples. These values are found to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

  12. Infrared thermographic study of laser ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohler, J.H.; Chow, C.T.S.

    1986-07-21

    Pyrotechnic ignition has been studied in the past by making a limited number of discrete temperature-time observations during ignition. Present-day infrared scanning techniques make it possible to record thermal profiles, during ignition, with high spacial and temporal resolution. Data thus obtained can be used with existing theory to characterize pyrotechnic materials and to develop more precise kinetic models of the ignition process. Ignition has been studied theoretically and experimentally using various thermal methods. It has been shown that the whole process can, ideally, be divided into two stages. In the first stage, the sample pellet behaves like an inert body heated by an external heat source. The second stage is governed by the chemical reaction in the heated volume produced during the first stage. High speed thermographic recording of the temperature distribution in the test sample during laser ignition makes it possible to calculate the heat content at any instant. Thus, one can actually observe laser heating and the onset of self-sustained combustion in the pellet.

  13. Deliberate ignition of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures in condensing steam environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Stamps, D.W.

    1997-05-01

    Large scale experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of thermal glow plug igniters to burn hydrogen in a condensing steam environment due to the presence of water sprays. The experiments were designed to determine if a detonation or accelerated flame could occur in a hydrogen-air-steam mixture which was initially nonflammable due to steam dilution but was rendered flammable by rapid steam condensation due to water sprays. Eleven Hydrogen Igniter Tests were conducted in the test vessel. The vessel was instrumented with pressure transducers, thermocouple rakes, gas grab sample bottles, hydrogen microsensors, and cameras. The vessel contained two prototypic engineered systems: (1) a deliberate hydrogen ignition system and (2) a water spray system. Experiments were conducted under conditions scaled to be nearly prototypic of those expected in Advanced Light Water Reactors (such as the Combustion Engineering (CE) System 80+), with prototypic spray drop diameter, spray mass flux, steam condensation rates, hydrogen injection flow rates, and using the actual proposed plant igniters. The lack of any significant pressure increase during the majority of the burn and condensation events signified that localized, benign hydrogen deflagration(s) occurred with no significant pressure load on the containment vessel. Igniter location did not appear to be a factor in the open geometry. Initially stratified tests with a stoichiometric mixture in the top showed that the water spray effectively mixes the initially stratified atmosphere prior to the deflagration event. All tests demonstrated that thermal glow plugs ignite hydrogen-air-steam mixtures under conditions with water sprays near the flammability limits previously determined for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures under quiescent conditions. This report describes these experiments, gives experimental results, and provides interpretation of the results. 12 refs., 127 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. My Brother's Keeper Visits the National Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    My Brother's Keeper Visits the National Labs My Brother's Keeper Visits the National Labs August 25, 2015 - 12:47pm Addthis A group of students gets a tour of the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab as part of the My Brothers Keeper Initiative. | Photo courtesy of Lawrence Livermore National Lab. A group of students gets a tour of the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab as part of the My Brothers Keeper Initiative. | Photo courtesy of Lawrence

  15. The ePLAS Code for Ignition Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Rodney J

    2012-09-20

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) presents unique opportunities for the extraction of clean energy from Fusion. Intense lasers and particle beams can create and interact with such plasmas, potentially yielding sufficient energy to satisfy all our national needs. However, few models are available to help aid the scientific community in the study and optimization of such interactions. This project enhanced and disseminated the computer code ePLAS for the early understanding and control of Ignition in ICF. ePLAS is a unique simulation code that tracks the transport of laser light to a target, the absorption of that light resulting in the generation and transport of hot electrons, and the heating and flow dynamics of the background plasma. It uses an implicit electromagnetic field-solving method to greatly reduce computing demands, so that useful target interaction studies can often be completed in 15 minutes on a portable 2.1 GHz PC. The code permits the rapid scoping of calculations for the optimization of laser target interactions aimed at fusion. Recent efforts have initiated the use of analytic equations of state (EOS), K-alpha image rendering graphics, allocatable memory for source-free usage, and adaption to the latest Mac and Linux Operating Systems. The speed and utility of ePLAS are unequaled in the ICF simulation community. This project evaluated the effects of its new EOSs on target heating, compared fluid and particle models for the ions, initiated the simultaneous use of both ion models in the code, and studied long time scale 500 ps hot electron deposition for shock ignition. ePLAS has been granted EAR99 export control status, permitting export without a license to most foreign countries. Beta-test versions of ePLAS have been granted to several Universities and Commercial users. The net Project was aimed at achieving early success in the laboratory ignition of thermonuclear targets and the mastery of controlled fusion power for the nation.

  16. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE BROOKHAVEN GRAPHITE RESEARCH REACTOR ENGINEERED CAP, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK DCN 5098-SR-07-0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-07-15

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has reviewed the project documentation and data for the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) Engineered Cap at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York. The Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA) have completed removal of affected soils and performed as-left surveys by BSA associated with the BGRR Engineered Cap. Sample results have been submitted, as required, to demonstrate that remediation efforts comply with the cleanup goal of {approx}15 mrem/yr above background to a resident in 50 years (BNL 2011a).

  17. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-04-15

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6?mg/cc {sup 4}He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6?mg/cc {sup 4}He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  18. Monitoring Uranium Transformations Determined by the Evolution of Biogeochemical Processes: Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Criddle, Craig S.; Wu, Weimin

    2013-04-17

    With funds provided by the US DOE, Argonne National Laboratory subcontracted the design of batch and column studies to a Stanford University team with field experience at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN. The contribution of the Stanford group ended in 2011 due to budget reduction in ANL. Over the funded research period, the Stanford research team characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments and set up microcosm reactors and columns at ANL to ensure that experiments were relevant to field conditions at Oak Ridge. The results of microcosm testing demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) with the addition of ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but were instead U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. The Stanford team communicated with the ANL team members through email and conference calls and face to face at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings.

  19. Analytical model for fast-shock ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghasemi, S. A. Farahbod, A. H.; Sobhanian, S.

    2014-07-15

    A model and its improvements are introduced for a recently proposed approach to inertial confinement fusion, called fast-shock ignition (FSI). The analysis is based upon the gain models of fast ignition, shock ignition and considerations for the fast electrons penetration into the pre-compressed fuel to examine the formation of an effective central hot spot. Calculations of fast electrons penetration into the dense fuel show that if the initial electron kinetic energy is of the order ?4.5 MeV, the electrons effectively reach the central part of the fuel. To evaluate more realistically the performance of FSI approach, we have used a quasi-two temperature electron energy distribution function of Strozzi (2012) and fast ignitor energy formula of Bellei (2013) that are consistent with 3D PIC simulations for different values of fast ignitor laser wavelength and coupling efficiency. The general advantages of fast-shock ignition in comparison with the shock ignition can be estimated to be better than 1.3 and it is seen that the best results can be obtained for the fuel mass around 1.5 mg, fast ignitor laser wavelength ?0.3??micron and the shock ignitor energy weight factor about 0.25.

  20. Ignition of THKP and TKP pyrotechnic powders :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maharrey, Sean P.; Erikson, William W; Highley, Aaron M.; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Kay, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    We have conducted Simultaneous Thermogravimetric Modulated Beam Mass Spectrometry (STMBMS) experiments on igniter/actuator pyrotechnic powders to characterize the reactive processes controlling the ignition and combustion behavior of these materials. The experiments showed a complex, interactive reaction manifold involving over ten reaction pathways. A reduced dimensionality reaction manifold was developed from the detailed 10-step manifold and is being incorporated into existing predictive modeling codes to simulate the performance of pyrotechnic powders for NW component development. The results from development of the detailed reaction manifold and reduced manifold are presented. The reduced reaction manifold has been successfully used by SNL/NM modelers to predict thermal ignition events in small-scale testing, validating our approach and improving the capability of predictive models.

  1. Ignition of deuterium-tritium fuel targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, D.L.; Mruzek, M.T.

    1991-08-27

    Disclosed is a method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom. 5 figures.

  2. Low current extended duration spark ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waters, Stephen Howard; Chan, Anthony Kok-Fai

    2005-08-30

    A system for firing a spark plug is disclosed. The system includes a timing controller configured to send a first timing signal and a second timing signal. The system also includes an ignition transformer having a primary winding and a secondary winding and a spark-plug that is operably associated with the secondary winding. A first switching element is disposed between the timing controller and the primary winding of the ignition transformer. The first switching element controls a supply of power to the primary winding based on the first timing signal. Also, a second switching element is disposed between the timing controller and the primary winding of the ignition transformer. The second switching element controls the supply of power to the primary winding based on the second timing signal. A method for firing a spark plug is also disclosed.

  3. Ignition of deuterium-trtium fuel targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, Donald L. (Saline, MI); Mruzek, Michael T. (Britton, MI)

    1991-01-01

    A method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom.

  4. Gas turbine igniter with ball-joint support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steber, C.E.; Travis, R.J.; Rizzo, J.A.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes a support for an igniter for a combustor of a gas turbine, the combustor being of a type including a casing and a liner within the casing. It comprises: a ball joint; means for supporting the ball joint disposed a substantial distance outward from the casing; a body section of the igniter affixed in the ball joint; means for permitting the ball joint, and the body section to rotate through a substantial range; an igniter tip on the body section; and a hole in the liner. The igniter tip entering through the hole and into an interior of the liner. The hole being a tight fit to the igniter tip, whereby leakage past the igniter tip through the hole is limited. The substantial range being sufficient to permit fitting the igniter tip in the hole in the presence of manufacturing tolerances, and to permit the igniter tip to track the hole in the presence of differential thermal expansion during operation.

  5. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  6. Advanced CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Engines Advanced CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Engines Advanced CFD models for high efficiency compression-ignition engines can be used to show how turbulence-chemistry interactions influence autoignition and combustion. PDF icon p-19_raja.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems

  7. Type A verification report for the high flux beam reactor stack and grounds, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpenau, Evan M.

    2012-01-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 requires independent verification (IV) of DOE cleanup projects (DOE 2011). The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has been designated as the responsible organization for IV of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) Stack and Grounds area at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York. The IV evaluation may consist of an in-process inspection with document and data reviews (Type A Verification) or a confirmatory survey of the site (Type B Verification). DOE and ORISE determined that a Type A verification of the documents and data for the HFBR Stack and Grounds: Survey Units (SU) 6, 7, and 8 was appropriate based on the initial survey unit classification, the walkover surveys, and the final analytical results provided by the Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA). The HFBR Stack and Grounds surveys began in June 2011 and were completed in September 2011. Survey activities by BSA included gamma walkover scans and sampling of the as-left soils in accordance with the BSA Work Procedure (BNL 2010a). The Field Sampling Plan - Stack and Remaining HFBR Outside Areas (FSP) stated that gamma walk-over surveys would be conducted with a bare sodium iodide (NaI) detector, and a collimated detector would be used to check areas with elevated count rates to locate the source of the high readings (BNL 2010b). BSA used the Mult- Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) principles for determining the classifications of each survey unit. Therefore, SUs 6 and 7 were identified as Class 1 and SU 8 was deemed Class 2 (BNL 2010b). Gamma walkover surveys of SUs 6, 7, and 8 were completed using a 2?2 NaI detector coupled to a data-logger with a global positioning system (GPS). The 100% scan surveys conducted prior to the final status survey (FSS) sampling identified two general soil areas and two isolated soil locations with elevated radioactivity. The general areas of elevated activity identified were investigated further with a collimated NaI detector. The uncollimated average gamma count rate was less than 15,000 counts per minute (cpm) for the SU 6, 7, and 8 composite area (BNL 2011a). Elevated count rates were observed in portions of each survey unit. The general areas of elevated counts near the Building 801 ventilation and operations and the entry to the Stack were determined to be directly related to the radioactive processes in those structures. To compensate for this radioactive shine, a collimated or shielded detector was used to lower the background count rate (BNL 2011b and c). This allowed the surveyor(s) to distinguish between background and actual radioactive contamination. Collimated gamma survey count rates in these shine affected areas were below 9,000 cpm (BNL 2011a). The average background count rate of 7,500 cpm was reported by BSA for uncollimated NaI detectors (BNL 2011d). The average collimated background ranged from 4,500-6,500 cpm in the westernmost part of SU 8 and from 2,000-3,500 cpm in all other areas (BNL 2011e). Based on these data, no further investigations were necessary for these general areas. SU 8 was the only survey unit that exhibited verified elevated radioactivity levels. The first of two isolated locations of elevated radioactivity had an uncollimated direct measurement of 50,000 cpm with an area background of 7,500 cpm (BNL 2011f). The second small area exhibiting elevated radiation levels was identified at a depth of 6 inches from the surface. The maximum reported count rate of 28,000 cpm was observed during scanning (BNL 2011g). The affected areas were remediated, and the contaminated soils were placed in an intermodal container for disposal. BSA's post-remediation walkover surveys were expanded to include a 10-foot radius around the excavated locations, and it was determined that further investigation was not required for these areas (BNL 2011 f and g). The post-remediation soil samples were collected and analyzed with onsite gamma spectroscopy equipment. These samples were also included with the FSS s

  8. Progress in Fast Ignition Studies with Electrons and Protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKinnon, A. J.; Chen, H.; Hey, D.; Key, M. H.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B.; Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N.; Chawla, S.; Chen, S.; Higginson, D.; King, J. A.; Ma, T.; Wei, M. S.; Chen, C. D.; Chowdhury, E.; Link, A.

    2009-09-10

    Isochoric heating of inertially confined fusion plasmas by laser driven MeV electrons or protons is an area of great topical interest in the inertial confinement fusion community, particularly with respect to the fast ignition (FI) concept for initiating burn in a fusion capsule. In order to investigate critical aspects needed for a FI point design, experiments were performed to study 1) laser-to-electrons or protons conversion issues and 2) laser-cone interactions including prepulse effects. A large suite of diagnostics was utilized to study these important parameters. Using cone--wire surrogate targets it is found that pre-pulse levels on medium scale lasers such as Titan at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory produce long scale length plasmas that strongly effect coupling of the laser to FI relevant electrons inside cones. The cone wall thickness also affects coupling to the wire. Conversion efficiency to protons has also been measured and modeled as a function of target thickness, material. Conclusions from the proton and electron source experiments will be presented. Recent advances in modeling electron transport and innovative target designs for reducing igniter energy and increasing gain curves will also be discussed. In conclusion, a program of study will be presented based on understanding the fundamental physics of the electron or proton source relevant to FI.

  9. A HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.

    2013-03-28

    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  10. Methanol with dimethyl ether ignition promotor as fuel for compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brook, D.L.; Cipolat, D.; Rallis, C.J.

    1984-08-01

    Reduction of the world dependence upon crude oil necessitates the use of long term alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Alcohols appear to offer a solution as in the short term they can be manufactured from natural gas and coal, while ultimately they may be produced from agricultural products. A fair measure of success has been achieved in using alcohols in spark ignition engines. However the more widely used compression ignition engines cannot utilize unmodified pure alcohols. The current techniques for using alcohol fuels in compression ignition engines all have a number of shortcomings. This paper describes a novel technique where an ignition promotor, dimethyl ether (DME), is used to increase the cetane rating of methanol. The systems particular advantage is that the DME can be catalyzed from the methanol base fuel, in situ. This fuel system matches the performance characteristics of diesel oil fuel.

  11. Ignition Capsules with Aerogel-Supported Liquid DT Fuel For The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, D D; Salmonson, J D; Clark, D S; Lindl, J D; Haan, S W; Amendt, P; Wu, K J

    2011-10-25

    For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to {beta}-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65-75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space) is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  12. Fundamental Studies of Ignition Process in Large Natural Gas Engines Using Laser Spark Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azer Yalin; Bryan Willson

    2008-06-30

    Past research has shown that laser ignition provides a potential means to reduce emissions and improve engine efficiency of gas-fired engines to meet longer-term DOE ARES (Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems) targets. Despite the potential advantages of laser ignition, the technology is not seeing practical or commercial use. A major impediment in this regard has been the 'open-path' beam delivery used in much of the past research. This mode of delivery is not considered industrially practical owing to safety factors, as well as susceptibility to vibrations, thermal effects etc. The overall goal of our project has been to develop technologies and approaches for practical laser ignition systems. To this end, we are pursuing fiber optically coupled laser ignition system and multiplexing methods for multiple cylinder engine operation. This report summarizes our progress in this regard. A partial summary of our progress includes: development of a figure of merit to guide fiber selection, identification of hollow-core fibers as a potential means of fiber delivery, demonstration of bench-top sparking through hollow-core fibers, single-cylinder engine operation with fiber delivered laser ignition, demonstration of bench-top multiplexing, dual-cylinder engine operation via multiplexed fiber delivered laser ignition, and sparking with fiber lasers. To the best of our knowledge, each of these accomplishments was a first.

  13. TYPE A VERIFICATION REPORT FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR STACK AND GROUNDS, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY, UPTON, NEW YORK DCN 5098-SR-08-0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 requires independent verification (IV) of DOE cleanup projects (DOE 2011). The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has been designated as the responsible organization for IV of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) Stack and Grounds area at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York. The IV evaluation may consist of an in-process inspection with document and data reviews (Type A Verification) or a confirmatory survey of the site (Type B Verification). DOE and ORISE determined that a Type A verification of the documents and data for the HFBR Stack and Grounds: Survey Units (SU) 6, 7, and 8 was appropriate based on the initial survey unit classification, the walkover surveys, and the final analytical results provided by the Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA).

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Experimental Program to Measure the Flow Phenomena in a Scaled Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor Lower Plenum for Validation of CFD Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2008-09-01

    The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a prismatic gas-cooled reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A description of the scaling analysis, experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that will be presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits high-quality measurements to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL MIR system is its large size which allows improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements reveal developing, non-uniform flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and charts that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet velocity profiles is also presented.

  15. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review, Management of the Safety-Related 480 Volt Diesel Bus Battery-Backed Power System of the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor …October 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of the Management of the Safety-Related 480 Volt Diesel Bus Battery-Backed Power System of the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho Site October 2015 Office of Nuclear Safety and Environmental Assessments Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Office of Enterprise Assessments U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents Acronyms

  16. Test report for core drilling ignitability testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-08-08

    Testing was carried out with the cooperation of Westinghouse Hanford Company and the United States Bureau of Mines at the Pittsburgh Research Center in Pennsylvania under the Memorandum of Agreement 14- 09-0050-3666. Several core drilling equipment items, specifically those which can come in contact with flammable gasses while drilling into some waste tanks, were tested under conditions similar to actual field sampling conditions. Rotary drilling against steel and rock as well as drop testing of several different pieces of equipment in a flammable gas environment were the specific items addressed. The test items completed either caused no ignition of the gas mixture, or, after having hardware changes or drilling parameters modified, produced no ignition in repeat testing.

  17. Multiple laser pulse ignition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Two or more laser light pulses with certain differing temporal lengths and peak pulse powers can be employed sequentially to regulate the rate and duration of laser energy delivery to fuel mixtures, thereby improving fuel ignition performance over a wide range of fuel parameters such as fuel/oxidizer ratios, fuel droplet size, number density and velocity within a fuel aerosol, and initial fuel temperatures.

  18. Multiple laser pulse ignition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, J.W.

    1998-05-26

    Two or more laser light pulses with certain differing temporal lengths and peak pulse powers can be employed sequentially to regulate the rate and duration of laser energy delivery to fuel mixtures, thereby improving fuel ignition performance over a wide range of fuel parameters such as fuel/oxidizer ratios, fuel droplet size, number density and velocity within a fuel aerosol, and initial fuel temperatures. 18 figs.

  19. Enhanced ignition for I. C. engines with premixed gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, J.D.; Oppenheim, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    The development of lean charge, fast burn engines depends crucially on enhanced ignition. Enhanced ignition involves not only high energies and long duration of ignition, but also a wide dispersion of its sources, so that combustion is carried out at as many sites throughout the charge as possible. Upon this premise, various ignition systems for I.C. engines, operating with premixed charge, are reviewed. The systems are grouped as follows: high energy spark plugs; plasma jet igniters; photochemical, laser, and microwave ignition concepts; torch cells; divided chamber stratified charge engines; flame jet igniters; combustion jet ignition concepts; EGR ignition system. The first three derive the power from electrical energy, the rest are powered by exothermic chemical reactions. The review emphasizes the concept of staging the processes of initiation and propagation of combustion. Relative positions of various ignition systems are expressed on the plane of relative energies (the ratio of energy consumed by the ignition system, or contained in a pre-chamber, to that of the compressed charge in the main chamber) and relative volumes (the ratio of the volume of the pre-chamber to that of the compressed charge). In principle, ignition systems for engines operating with premixed charge lie on the half-plane of relative energies below one, between 10/sup -5/ for standard spark plugs to 10/sup -1/ for divided chamber stratified charge engines, while their relative volumes extend from 0 for spark igniters to 0.2 for stratified charge engines. This suggests that proper compartmentization of the combustion process may lead to significant improvements in both pollution emissions from the cylinder and specific fuel consumption of I.C. engines.

  20. Laser spark distribution and ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven (Morgantown, WV); McIntyre, Dustin L. (Morgantown, WV)

    2008-09-02

    A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

  1. Laser–plasma interactions for fast ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, A. J.; Fiuza, F.; Debayle, A.; Johzaki, T.; Mori, W. B.; Patel, P. K.; Sentoku, Y.; Silva, L. O.

    2014-04-17

    In the electron-driven fast-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser- plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to fast ignition. Increases in computational and modeling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multidimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporal evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity, f-number and wavelength are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modeling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modeling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the comparison of simulation results with experimental observables. In particular, we address the question of surrogacy of today's experiments for the full-scale fast ignition problem.

  2. Laser–plasma interactions for fast ignition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kemp, A. J.; Fiuza, F.; Debayle, A.; Johzaki, T.; Mori, W. B.; Patel, P. K.; Sentoku, Y.; Silva, L. O.

    2014-04-17

    In the electron-driven fast-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser- plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to fast ignition. Increases in computational and modeling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multidimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporalmore » evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity, f-number and wavelength are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modeling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modeling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the comparison of simulation results with experimental observables. In particular, we address the question of surrogacy of today's experiments for the full-scale fast ignition problem.« less

  3. Foreign Research Reactor/Domestic Research Reactor Receipt Coordinator,

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Savannah River Nuclear Solutions | National Nuclear Security Administration Foreign Research Reactor/Domestic Research Reactor Receipt Coordinator, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our

  4. Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility, Appendix B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerruti, S.J.

    1997-06-26

    This Appendix contains material from the LLNL Health and Safety Manual as listed below. For sections not included in this list, please refer to the Manual itself. The areas covered are: asbestos, lead, fire prevention, lockout, and tag program confined space traffic safety.

  5. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science Seven WonderS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for NIF's optics needs in rapid- growth crystals, continuous-pour glass, optical coatings, and new finishing techniques that can withstand NIF's extremely high energies. The...

  6. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science NIF Fun Facts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    steel erected: about 5,000 * hours of craft labor worked: more than 1.7 million NIF Optics NIF is not only the world's highest-energy laser, it's also the largest optical...

  7. DOE/EIS-0236, Oakland Operations Office, National Ignition Facility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by announcements in the Federal Register (FR) on November 5, 1999, (64 FR 60430) (Attachment 4 of Volume I) and on November 12, 1999 (64 FR 61635) correcting a document title...

  8. The National Ignition Facility Data Requirements Tim Frazier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Database 12 A 30+ Year Lifetime Creates an Interesting Naming Problem urn:llnl.gov:nif:archive:534f55c6-2271-487d-9c8d-9cc20d7af3af 1 Identifies value as a Uniform Resource...

  9. Activation of Air and Utilities in the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khater, H; Pohl, B; Brererton, S

    2010-04-08

    Detailed 3-D modeling of the NIF facility is developed to accurately simulate the radiation environment within the NIF. Neutrons streaming outside the NIF Target Chamber will activate the air present inside the Target Bay and the Ar gas inside the laser tubes. Smaller levels of activity are also generated in the Switchyard air and in the Ar portion of the SY laser beam path. The impact of neutron activation of utilities located inside the Target Bay is analyzed for variety of shot types. The impact of activating TB utilities on dose received by maintenance personnel post-shot is analyzed. The current NIF facility model includes all important features of the Target Chamber, shielding system, and building configuration. Flow of activated air from the Target Bay is controlled by the HVAC system. The amount of activated Target Bay air released through the stack is very small and does not pose significant hazard to personnel or the environment. Activation of Switchyard air is negligible. Activation of Target Bay utilities result in a manageable dose rate environment post high yield (20 MJ) shots. The levels of activation generated in air and utilities during D-D and THD shots are small and do not impact work planning post shots.

  10. Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerruti, S.J.

    1997-06-26

    The Construction Safety Program (CSP) for NIF sets forth the responsibilities, guidelines, rules, policies and regulations for all workers involved in the construction, special equipment installation, acceptance testing, and initial activation and operation of NIF at LLNL during the construction period of NIF.

  11. Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerruti, S.J.

    1997-06-26

    Topics covered in this appendix include: General Rules-Code of Safe Practices; 2. Personal Protective Equipment; Hazardous Material Control; Traffic Control; Fire Prevention; Sanitation and First Aid; Confined Space Safety Requirements; Ladders and Stairways; Scaffolding and Lift Safety; Machinery, Vehicles, and Heavy Equipment; Welding and Cutting-General; Arc Welding; Oxygen/Acetylene Welding and Cutting; Excavation, Trenching, and Shoring; Fall Protection; Steel Erection; Working With Asbestos; Radiation Safety; Hand Tools; Electrical Safety; Nonelectrical Work Performed Near Exposed High-Voltage Power-Distribution Equipment; Lockout/Tagout Requirements; Rigging; A-Cranes; Housekeeping; Material Handling and Storage; Lead; Concrete and Masonry Construction.

  12. National Ignition Facility & Photon Science NIF AT A GLANCe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    similar to those that exist only in the cores of stars and giant planets and inside nuclear weapons. The resulting fusion reaction will release many times more energy than...

  13. Delivering Innovations That Create Jobs: National Lab Ignites...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technology behind smartphones and tablet computers, new generations of pharmaceuticals and a brand new perspective on how we see our own planet via the Google Earth application. ...

  14. Ignitor with stable low-energy thermite igniting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Michael D. (West Alexandria, OH); Munger, Alan C. (Miamisburg, OH)

    1991-02-05

    A stable compact low-energy igniting system in an ignitor utilizes two components, an initiating charge and an output charge. The initiating charge is a thermite in ultra-fine powder form compacted to 50-70% of theoretical maximum density and disposed in a cavity of a header of the ignitor adjacent to an electrical ignition device, or bridgewire, mounted in the header cavity. The initiating charge is ignitable by operation of the ignition device in a hot-wire mode. The output charge is a thermite in high-density consoladated form compacted to 90-99% of theoretical maximum density and disposed adjacent to the initiating charge on an opposite end thereof from the electrical ignition device and ignitable by the initiating charge. A sleeve is provided for mounting the output charge to the ignitor header with the initiating charge confined therebetween in the cavity.

  15. Experimental demonstration of early time, hohlraum radiation symmetry tuning for indirect drive ignition experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewald, E. L.; Milovich, J.; Thomas, C.; Sorce, C.; Glenn, S.; Landen, O. L.; Kline, J.

    2011-09-15

    Early time radiation symmetry at the capsule for indirect drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] will be inferred from the instantaneous soft x-ray re-emission pattern of a high-Z sphere replacing the ignition capsule. This technique was tested on the OMEGA laser facility [J. M. Soures, R. L. McCrory, T. Boehly et al., Laser Part. Beams 11, 317 (1991)] in near full ignition scale vacuum hohlraums using an equivalent experimental setup to the one planned for NIF. Two laser cones entering each laser entrance hole heat the hohlraums to radiation temperatures of 100 eV, mimicking the NIF ignition pulse foot drive. The experiments have demonstrated accuracies of {+-}1.5% ({+-}2%) in inferred P{sub 2}/P{sub 0} (P{sub 4}/P{sub 0}) Legendre mode incident flux asymmetry and consistency between 900 eV and 1200 eV re-emission patterns. We have also demonstrated the expected tuning capability of P{sub 2}/P{sub 0}, from positive (pole hot) to negative (waist hot), decreasing linearly with the inner/outer beams power fraction. P{sub 4}/P{sub 0} on the other hand shows very little variation with power fraction. We developed a simple analytical viewfactor model that is in good agreement with both measured P{sub 2}/P{sub 0} and P{sub 4}/P{sub 0} and their dependence on inner beam power fraction.

  16. Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Prediction Limits for Overdispersed Count Data | Department of Energy the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing Prediction Limits for Overdispersed Count Data Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing Prediction Limits for Overdispersed Count Data Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing Prediction Limits for Overdispersed Count Data Authors: Elizabeth J. Kelly and Raymond N. Tell PDF icon Modeling the Number of

  17. High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion An optimized dual-fuel PCCI concept, RCCI, is proposed. PDF icon deer10_reitz.pdf More Documents & Publications Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Comparison of Conventional Diesel and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI)

  18. High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Most accurate and detailed chemical kinetic models for fuels of practical interest to engine manufacturers and fuels developers are applied for high fidelity engine analysis of premixed charge compression ignition engines. PDF icon deer08_aceves.pdf More Documents & Publications Numerical Modeling of HCCI Combustion Modeling of high

  19. EBDI® - Application of a High BMEP Downsized Spark Ignited Engine |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy EBDI® - Application of a High BMEP Downsized Spark Ignited Engine EBDI® - Application of a High BMEP Downsized Spark Ignited Engine Application of a High BMEP Downsized Spark Ignited Engine PDF icon deer09_beazley.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel-Induced System Responses The Role Unconventional Fuels May Play in Altering Exhaust Conditions from Conventional and Low Temperature Modes of Combustion Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load

  20. Effects of Ignition Quality and Fuel Composition on Critical Equivalence

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ratio | Department of Energy Effects of Ignition Quality and Fuel Composition on Critical Equivalence Ratio Effects of Ignition Quality and Fuel Composition on Critical Equivalence Ratio Our research shows that fuel can be blended to have a low ignition quality, which is desirable for high-efficiency advanced combustion, and with a high n-paraffin content to reduce CO and THC. PDF icon deer12_lilik.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel

  1. Stoichiometric Compression Ignition (SCI) Engine Concept | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Stoichiometric Compression Ignition (SCI) Engine Concept Stoichiometric Compression Ignition (SCI) Engine Concept Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_winsor.pdf More Documents & Publications An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy

  2. Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Developing Prediction Limits for Overdispersed Count Data Authors: Elizabeth J. Kelly and Raymond N. Tell PDF icon Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake:...

  3. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  4. Radiochemical tracers as a mix diagnostic for the ignition double...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the ignition double-shell capsule One of the most important challenges confronting laser-driven capsule implosion experiments will be a quantitative evaluation of the...

  5. Advanced CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency GDI Engine Research, with Emphasis on Ignition Systems Advanced Combustion Modeling with STAR-CD using Transient ...

  6. Effects of Ignition Quality and Fuel Composition on Critical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines

  7. Cosmos Ignite Innovations Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Innovations Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cosmos Ignite Innovations Pvt Ltd Place: Delhi (NCT), India Zip: 110017 Product: Company started by two Stanford and New Delhi...

  8. Laser Ignition and Diagnostic Systems Delivered by Flexible Optical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (441 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Laser-based ignition systems based on state-of-the-art optical fibers and sophisticated new delivery strategies that provide both engine...

  9. A Concept Exploration Program in Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion — Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Richarad Burnite; Freeman, Richard R.; Van Woekom, L. D.; Key, M.; MacKinnon, Andrew J.; Wei, Mingsheng

    2014-02-27

    The Fast Ignition (FI) approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) holds particular promise for fusion energy because the independently generated compression and ignition pulses allow ignition with less compression, resulting in (potentially) higher gain. Exploiting this concept effectively requires an understanding of the transport of electrons in prototypical geometries and at relevant densities and temperatures. Our consortium, which included General Atomics (GA), The Ohio State University (OSU), the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), University of California, Davis (UC-Davis), and Princeton University under this grant (~$850K/yr) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under a companion grant, won awards in 2000, renewed in 2005, to investigate the physics of electron injection and transport relevant to the FI concept, which is crucial to understand electron transport in integral FI targets. In the last two years we have also been preparing diagnostics and starting to extend the work to electron transport into hot targets. A complementary effort, the Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program for Fast Ignition, was funded starting in 2006 to integrate this understanding into ignition schemes specifically suitable for the initial fast ignition attempts on OMEGA and National Ignition Facility (NIF), and during that time these two programs have been managed as a coordinated effort. This result of our 7+ years of effort has been substantial. Utilizing collaborations to access the most capable laser facilities around the world, we have developed an understanding that was summarized in a Fusion Science & Technology 2006, Special Issue on Fast Ignition. The author lists in the 20 articles in that issue are dominated by our group (we are first authors in four of them). Our group has published, or submitted 67 articles, including 1 in Nature, 2 Nature Physics, 10 Physical Review Letters, 8 Review of Scientific Instruments, and has been invited to give numerous talks at national and international conferences (including APS-DPP, IAEA, FIW). The advent of PW capabilities – at Rutherford Appleton Lab (UK) and then at Titan (LLNL) (2005 and 2006, respectively), was a major step toward experiments in ultra-high intensity high-energy FI relevant regime. The next step comes with the activation of OMEGA EP at LLE, followed shortly by NIF-ARC at LLNL. These capabilities allow production of hot dense material for electron transport studies. In this transitional period, considerable effort has been spent in developing the necessary tools and experiments for electron transport in hot and dense plasmas. In addition, substantial new data on electron generation and transport in metallic targets has been produced and analyzed. Progress in FI detailed in §2 is related to the Concept Exploration Program (CEP) objectives; this section is a summary of the publications and presentations listed in §5. This work has benefited from the synergy with work on related Department of Energy (DOE) grants, the Fusion Science Center and the Fast Ignition Advanced Concept Exploration grant, and from our interactions with overseas colleagues, primarily at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, and the Institute for Laser Engineering in Japan.

  10. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2012–October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater was discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  11. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2013October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Permit required groundwater monitoring data; Status of compliance activities; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts. During the 2014 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the downgradient monitoring wells.

  12. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  13. Modeling the Fuel Spray and Combustion Process of the Ignition Quality Tester with KIVA-3V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogin, G. E. Jr.; DeFilippo, A.; Chen, J. Y.; Chin, G.; Luecke, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.; Dean, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Discusses the use of KIVA-3V to develop a model that reproduces ignition behavior inside the Ignition Quality Tester, which measures the ignition delay of low-volatility fuels.

  14. Low emissions compression ignited engine technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Gerald N. (Dunlap, IL); Kilkenny, Jonathan P. (Peoria, IL); Fluga, Eric C. (Dunlap, IL); Duffy, Kevin P. (East Peoria, IL)

    2007-04-03

    A method and apparatus for operating a compression ignition engine having a cylinder wall, a piston, and a head defining a combustion chamber. The method and apparatus includes delivering fuel substantially uniformly into the combustion chamber, the fuel being dispersed throughout the combustion chamber and spaced from the cylinder wall, delivering an oxidant into the combustion chamber sufficient to support combustion at a first predetermined combustion duration, and delivering a diluent into the combustion chamber sufficient to change the first predetermined combustion duration to a second predetermined combustion duration different from the first predetermined combustion duration.

  15. Enhanced ignition for I. C. engines with premixed charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, J.D.; Oppenheim, A.K.

    1980-10-01

    The development of lean charge, fast burn engines depends crucially on enhanced ignition, since one can obtain thereby proper means for increasing the rate of burn in mixtures characterized notoriously by low normal burning speeds. Enhanced ignition involves a wide dispersion of its sources so that combustion is carried out at as many sites throughout the charge as possible. Upon this premise, various ignition systems for I.C. engines, operating with premixed charge, are reviewed. The systems are grouped within the following categories: (1) high energy spark plugs; (2) plasma jet igniters; (3) photochemical, laser, and microwave ignition concepts; (4) torch cells; (5) divided chamber stratified charge engines; (6) flame jet igniters; (7) combustion jet ignition concepts; (8) EGR ignition system. The first three derive the power from electrical energy, the rest are powered by exothermic chemical reactions at a significantly lower, practically negligible, fuel consumption. The concept of staging the processes of initiation and propagation of combustion is emphasized. Relative positions of various ignition systems are expressed on the plane of relative energies and relative volumes. In principle, ignition systems for engines operating with premixed charge lie on the half-plane of relative energies below one, between 10/sup -5/ for standard spark plugs to 10/sup -1/ for divided chamber stratified charge engines, while their relative volumes extend from 0 for spark igniters to 0.2 for stratified charge engines. This suggests that proper compartmentization of the combustion process may lead to significant improvements in both pollution emissions from the cylinder and specific fuel consumption of I.C. engines.

  16. In Situ Grouting of Liquid Waste Disposal Trenches and Experimental Reactor Fuel Disposal Wells at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Ch.; Cange, J.; Lambert, R. [Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trujillo, E. [BWXT Pantex, LLC, Amarillo, TX (United States); Julius, J. [U.S. DOE, Oak Ridge Operations Office, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    In the early to mid-1960's, liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were disposed of in specially-constructed, gravel-filled trenches within the Melton Valley watershed at the lab. The initial selected remedy for Trenches 5 and 7 was in situ vitrification; however, an amendment to the record of decision changed the remedy to in situ grouting of the trenches. The work was accomplished by filling the void space within the crushed stone section of each trench with cementitious grout. The contaminated soil surrounding the trenches (1-m perimeter) was then grouted with acrylamide grout. At the HRE fuel wells, a 1-m ring of soil surrounding the fuel wells was grouted with acrylamide. The results of the hydraulic conductivity tests ranged from 4.74 x 10{sup -6} to 3.60 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec, values that were well below the 1 x 10{sup -5} cm/sec design criterion. In summary: The ISG Project was conducted to decrease hydraulic conductivity and thereby decrease water flow and contaminate migration from the area of the trenches. The initial remedy for Trenches 5 and 7 in the Melton Valley ROD was for in situ vitrification of the trench matrix. The remedy was changed to in situ grouting of the trenches and HRE fuel wells through an amendment to the ROD after moisture was found in the trenches. The grouting of the trenches was accomplished by filling the void space within the crushed stone section of each trench with cementitious grout. The contaminated soil surrounding the trenches (1-m perimeter) was then grouted with acrylamide grout to further reduce water infiltration. Soil backfill above each of the seven HRE fuel wells was removed to a depth of approximately 1 m by augering, and the soils were replaced with a cement plug to prevent water infiltration from migrating down the original borehole. Soil surrounding the fuel wells was then grouted with acrylamide to ensure water infiltration through the HRE fuel wells is prevented. A summary of the quantities used is shown. After completion of grouting, in-situ hydraulic conductivities of the grouted materials were measured to verify attainment of the design objective. The areas were then covered with multi-layer caps as part of the MV hydrologic isolation project. (authors)

  17. PBXN-9 Ignition Kinetics and Deflagration Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E; Maienschein, J; Burnham, A; Koerner, J; Hsu, P; Wemhoff, A

    2008-04-24

    The ignition kinetics and deflagration rates of PBXN-9 were measured using specially designed instruments at LLNL and compared with previous work on similar HMX based materials. Ignition kinetics were measured based on the One Dimensional Time-to-Explosion combined with ALE3D modeling. Results of these experiments indicate that PBXN-9 behaves much like other HMX based materials (i.e. LX-04, LX-07, LX-10 and PBX-9501) and the dominant factor in these experiments is the type of explosive, not the type of binder/plasticizer. In contrast, the deflagration behavior of PBXN-9 is quite different from similar high weight percent HMX based materials (i.e LX-10, LX-07 and PBX-9501). PBXN-9 burns in a laminar manner over the full pressure range studied (0-310 MPa) unlike LX-10, LX-07, and PBX-9501. The difference in deflagration behavior is attributed to the nature of the binder/plasticizer alone or in conjunction with the volume of binder present in PBXN-9.

  18. SCB ignition of pyrotechnics, thermites and intermetallics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1996-09-01

    We investigated ignition of pyrotechnics, metal-fuel/metal-oxide compositions (thermites), and exothermic alloy compositions (intermetallics) using a semiconductor bridge (SCB). It was shown that these materials could be ignited at low energy levels with an appropriately designed SCB, proper loading density, and good thermal isolation. Materials tested included Al/CuO, B/BaCrO{sub 4}, TiH{sub 1.65}/KClO{sub 4}, Ti/KClO{sub 4}, Zr/BaCrO{sub 4}, Zr/CuO, Zr/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Zr/KClO{sub 4}, and 100-mesh Al/Pd. Firing set was a capacitor discharge unit with charge capacitors ranging from 3 to 20,000 {mu}F at charge voltages 5-50 V. Devices functioned a few miliseconds after onset of current pulse at input energies as low as 3 mJ. We also report on a thermite torch design.

  19. Igniter for gas discharge pipe with a flame detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerra, R.E.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes a method of burning waste gas, using an igniter of the type having a nozzle, a main gas conduit extending to the nozzle, and an electrical spark means for creating a spark in the nozzle. It comprises: mounting the igniter to a waste gas discharge pipe with the nozzle directed across the opening of the gas discharge pipe; supplying a gaseous fuel to the main gas conduit; igniting the gaseous fuel with the electrical spark means, creating a flame for igniting the waste gas being discharged from the gas discharge pipe; providing the igniter with an auxiliary gas line extending to the vicinity of the nozzle; and supplying a second and lower volume source of waste gas to the auxiliary gas line for burning at the nozzle.

  20. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  1. Radiation dosimetry at the BNL reactor facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.; Greenberg, D.D.; Sengupta, S.; Farrell, K.; Greenwood, L.R.

    1999-07-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry measurements have been performed at various facilities in the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) and in the Brookhaven National Laboratory Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). These experimental results are discussed.

  2. In Situ NDA Conformation Measurements Performed at Auxiliary Charcoal Bed and Other Main Charcoal Beds After Uranium Removal from Molten Salt Reactor Experiment ACB at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haghighi, M. H.; Kring, C. T.; McGehee, J. T.; Jugan, M. R.; Chapman, J.; Meyer, K. E.

    2002-02-26

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) site is located in Tennessee, on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The MSRE was run by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the desirable features of the molten-salt concept in a practical reactor that could be operated safely and reliably. It introduced the idea of a homogeneous reactor using fuel salt media and graphite moderation for power and breeder reactors. The MSRE reactor and associated components are located in cells beneath the floor in the high-bay area of Building 7503. The reactor was operated from June 1965 to December 1969. When the reactor was shut down, fuel salt was drained from the reactor circuit to two drain tanks. A ''clean'' salt was then circulated through the reactor as a decontamination measure and drained to a third drain tank. When operations ceased, the fuel and flush salts were allowed to cool and solidify in the drain tanks. At shutdown, the MSRE facility complex was placed in a surveillance and maintenance program. Beginning in 1987, it was discovered that gaseous uranium (U-233/U-232) hexafluoride (UF6) had moved throughout the MSRE process systems. The UF6 had been generated when radiolysis in the fluorine salts caused the individual constituents to dissociate to their component atoms, including free fluorine. Some of the free fluorine combined with uranium fluorides (UF4) in the salt to produce UF6. UF6 is gaseous at slightly above ambient temperatures; thus, periodic heating of the fuel salts (which was intended to remedy the radiolysis problems) and simple diffusion had allowed the UF6 to move out of the salt and into the process systems of MSRE. One of the systems that UF6 migrated into due to this process was the offgas system which is vented to the MSRE main charcoal beds and MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). Recently, the majority of the uranium laden-charcoal material residing within the ACB was safely and successfully removed using the uranium deposit removal system and equipment. After removal a series of NDA measurements was performed to determine the amount of uranium material remaining in the ACB, the amount of uranium material removed from the ACB, and the amount of uranium material remaining in the uranium removal equipment due to removal activities.

  3. Fuel quantity modulation in pilot ignited engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    May, Andrew

    2006-05-16

    An engine system includes a first fuel regulator adapted to control an amount of a first fuel supplied to the engine, a second fuel regulator adapted to control an amount of a second fuel supplied to the engine concurrently with the first fuel being supplied to the engine, and a controller coupled to at least the second fuel regulator. The controller is adapted to determine the amount of the second fuel supplied to the engine in a relationship to the amount of the first fuel supplied to the engine to operate in igniting the first fuel at a specified time in steady state engine operation and adapted to determine the amount of the second fuel supplied to the engine in a manner different from the relationship at steady state engine operation in transient engine operation.

  4. Pre-ignition laser ablation of nanocomposite energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacy, S. C.; Massad, R. A.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-06-07

    Laser ignition of energetic material composites was studied for initiation with heating rates from 9.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} to 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K/s. This is a unique heating rate regime for laser ignition studies because most studies employ either continuous wave CO{sub 2} lasers to provide thermal ignition or pulsed Nd:YAG lasers to provide shock ignition. In this study, aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) nanoparticle powders were pressed into consolidated pellets and ignited using a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength) with varied pulse energy. Results show reduced ignition delay times corresponding to laser powers at the ablation threshold for the sample. Heating rate and absorption coefficient were determined from an axisymmetric heat transfer model. The model estimates absorption coefficients from 0.1 to 0.15 for consolidated pellets of Al + MoO{sub 3} at 1064 nm wavelength. Ablation resulted from fracturing caused by a rapid increase in thermal stress and slowed ignition of the pellet.

  5. Nuclear imaging of the fuel assembly in ignition experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Merrill, F. E.; Morgan, G. L.; Danly, C. R.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H.; Wilson, D. C.; Clark, D. S.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Raman, K. S.; Izumi, N.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Drury, O. B.; Alger, E. T.; Arnold, P. A.; Ashabranner, R. C.; Atherton, L. J.; Barrios, M. A.; Batha, S.; Bell, P. M.; Benedetti, L. R.; Berger, R. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Berzins, L. V.; Betti, R.; Bhandarkar, S. D.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Boehly, T. R.; Bond, E. J.; Bowers, M. W.; Bradley, D. K.; Brunton, G. K.; Buckles, R. A.; Burkhart, S. C.; Burr, R. F.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Castro, C.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C. J.; Chandler, G. A.; Choate, C.; Cohen, S. J.; Collins, G. W.; Cooper, G. W.; Cox, J. R.; Cradick, J. R.; Datte, P. S.; Dewald, E. L.; Di Nicola, P.; Di Nicola, J. M.; Divol, L.; Dixit, S. N.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Dzenitis, E. G.; Eckart, M. J.; Eder, D. C.; Edgell, D. H.; Edwards, M. J.; Eggert, J. H.; Ehrlich, R. B.; Erbert, G. V.; Fair, J.; Farley, D. R.; Felker, B.; Fortner, R. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Frieders, G.; Friedrich, S.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gibson, C. R.; Giraldez, E.; Glebov, V. Y.; Glenn, S. M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gururangan, G.; Haan, S. W.; Hahn, K. D.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Haynam, C.; Hermann, M. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hicks, D. G.; Holder, J. P.; Holunga, D. M.; Horner, J. B.; Hsing, W. W.; Huang, H.; Jackson, M. C.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kalantar, D. H.; Kauffman, R. L.; Kauffman, M. I.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kimbrough, J. R.; Kirkwood, R.; Kline, J. L.; Knauer, J. P.; Knittel, K. M.; Koch, J. A.; Kohut, T. R.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Krauter, K.; Krauter, G. W.; Kritcher, A. L.; Kroll, J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Fortune, K. N. La; LaCaille, G.; Lagin, L. J.; Land, T. A.; Landen, O. L.; Larson, D. W.; Latray, D. A.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, T. L.; LePape, S.; Lindl, J. D.; Lowe-Webb, R. R.; Ma, T.; MacGowan, B. J.; MacKinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Malone, R. M.; Malsbury, T. N.; Mapoles, E.; Marshall, C. D.; Mathisen, D. G.; McKenty, P.; McNaney, J. M.; Meezan, N. B.; Michel, P.; Milovich, J. L.; Moody, J. D.; Moore, A. S.; Moran, M. J.; Moreno, K.; Moses, E. I.; Munro, D. H.; Nathan, B. R.; Nelson, A. J.; Nikroo, A.; Olson, R. E.; Orth, C.; Pak, A. E.; Palma, E. S.; Parham, T. G.; Patel, P. K.; Patterson, R. W.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prasad, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Regan, S. P.; Rinderknecht, H.; Robey, H. F.; Ross, G. F.; Ruiz, C. L.; Se?guin, F. H.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Sater, J. D.; Saunders, R. L.; Schneider, M. B.; Schneider, D. H.; Shaw, M. J.; Simanovskaia, N.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.; Stoeckl, C.; Stoeffl, W.; Suter, L. J.; Thomas, C. A.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P.; Traille, A. J.; Wonterghem, B. Van; Wallace, R. J.; Weaver, S.; Weber, S. V.; Wegner, P. J.; Whitman, P. K.; Widmann, K.; Widmayer, C. C.; Wood, R. D.; Young, B. K.; Zacharias, R. A.; Zylstra, A.

    2013-01-01

    First results from the analysis of neutron image data collected on implosions of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium capsules during the 2011-2012 National Ignition Campaign are reported. The data span a variety of experimental designs aimed at increasing the stagnation pressure of the central hotspot and areal density of the surrounding fuel assembly. Images of neutrons produced by deuteriumtritium fusion reactions in the hotspot are presented, as well as images of neutrons that scatter in the surrounding dense fuel assembly. The image data are compared with 1D and 2D model predictions, and consistency checked using other diagnostic data. The results indicate that the size of the fusing hotspot is consistent with the model predictions, as well as other imaging data, while the overall size of the fuel assembly, inferred from the scattered neutron images, is systematically smaller than models prediction. Preliminary studies indicate these differences are consistent with a significant fraction (20%25%) of the initial deuterium-tritium fuel mass outside the compact fuel assembly, due either to low mode mass asymmetry or high mode 3D mix effects at the ablator-ice interface.

  6. Distributed ignition method and apparatus for a combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willi, Martin L.; Bailey, Brett M.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Gong, Weidong

    2006-03-07

    A method and apparatus for operating an internal combustion engine is provided. The method comprises the steps of introducing a primary fuel into a main combustion chamber of the engine, introducing a pilot fuel into the main combustion chamber of the engine, determining an operating load of the engine, determining a desired spark plug ignition timing based on the engine operating load, and igniting the primary fuel and pilot fuel with a spark plug at the desired spark plug ignition timing. The method is characterized in that the octane number of the pilot fuel is lower than the octane number of the primary fuel.

  7. Ignitability testing for core drilling system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K.L.; Furno, A.; Green, G.M.; Thomas, R.A.; Witwer, K.S.

    1995-06-15

    As part of a study of the hazards of the inspection of nuclear waste material stored at the Hanford, WA site, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) have developed a core drilling system to sample the material in large waste storage tanks. In support of this work, the US Bureau of Mines has studied the probability of ignition while core drilling into simulated salt cake that was permeated with a flammable gas mixture. No ignitions were observed while core drilling into the saltcake with or without a purge gas and no ignitions were observed while drilling into a steel plate.

  8. Independent Oversight Review, Oak Ridge National Laboratory- January 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Implementation Verification Review Processes

  9. Independent Oversight Inspection, Idaho National Laboratory- June 2005

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Inspection of Environment, Safety, and Health Programs at the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor

  10. Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Reitz, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines

  11. National Nuclear Science Week Day 5: NNSA Highlights Cutting...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    to spark the reaction. The result is ignition - the same life force that powers the sun and the stars. The Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories and the Dual-Axis...

  12. Energetics Measurements of Silver Halfraum Targets at the National...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Energetics Measurements of Silver Halfraum Targets at the National Ignition Facility Authors: May, M J ; Fournier, K B ; Brown, C G ; Dunlop, W H ; Kane, J O ; Mirkarimi, P ...

  13. Electricity Generating Portfolios with Small Modular Reactors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A paper by Geoffrey Rothwell, Ph.D., Stanford University (retired), and Francesco Ganda, Ph.D., Argonne National Laboratory on "Electricity Generating Portfolios with Small Modular Reactors".

  14. Modeling the Number of Ignitions Following an Earthquake: Developing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the likelihood of various fire scenarios. The first component of the approach is a statistical model to predict the number of ignitions for a new earthquake event. This model is...

  15. Compact Ignition Tokamak Program: status of FEDC studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Compact Ignition Tokamak Program comprise the report. The technical areas discussed are the mechanical configuration status, magnet analysis, stress analysis, cooling between burns, TF coil joint, and facility/device layout options. (WRF)

  16. Gasoline Compression Ignition - Start of Injection Timing Sweep...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Us For more information, contact Greg Cunningham at (630) 252-8232 or media@anl.gov. Gasoline Compression Ignition - Start of Injection Timing Sweep (VERIFI) Share Topic...

  17. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  18. Special Feature: Energy - The Spark that Ignited DOE Supercomputing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy - The Spark that Ignited DOE Supercomputing Special Feature: Energy - The Spark that Ignited DOE Supercomputing Scientific Computing for Energy Independence and a Clean Energy Future September 16, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 1280px-OREGONSODD-EVENPLANREDUCEDTHELINESATGASSTATIONSDURINGTHEFUELCRISISINTHEFALLANDWINTEROF1973-74....-NARA-555498.jpg Oregon's odd-even plan reduced the lines at gas stations during the fuel crisis in the fall and winter of 1973-74. This

  19. Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO)

    1983-01-01

    A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

  20. Improving the Efficiency of Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines | Department of Energy Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines Improving the Efficiency of Spark Ignited, Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines This work focused on using camless engine technology to improve the efficiency of a natural gas engine. Late intake close timing and cylinder deactivation were utilized to meet a peak BTE > 40%. PDF icon p-09_giordano.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines (ARES) - Presentation by Cummins,

  1. High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition Engines High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_potter.pdf More Documents & Publications Visualization of UHC Emissions for Low-Temperature Diesel Engine Combustion Sources and

  2. Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (PCCI) combustion | Department of Energy fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion Analyzed the effects of higher hydrocarbon emissions from PCCI combustion on SCR catalysts in operating a light-duty 1.9-liter GM diesel engine in both PCCI and conventional combustion modes PDF icon deer11_parks.pdf More Documents & Publications Efficient Emissions Control for

  3. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tools for Physics-Based Model Development. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development. We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties during shock

  4. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tools for Physics-Based Model Development. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development. × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office

  5. Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel | Department of Energy Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel This study uses numerical simulations to explore the use of wet ethanol as the low-reactivity fuel and diesel as the high-reactivity fuel for RCCI operation in a heavy-duty diesel engine. PDF icon

  6. Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion | Department of Energy Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-06_jacobs.pdf More Documents & Publications Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

  7. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tools for Physics-Based Model Development. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development. We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties

  8. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The US | Department of Energy Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged SIDI is the most promising advanced gasoline technology; combines existing & proven technologies in a synergistic manner, offers double digit fuel economy benefits, much lower cost than diesel or hybrid. PDF icon deer09_whitaker.pdf More Documents & Publications E85 Optimized Engine

  9. Department of Energy Designates the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reactor as a National Scientific User Facility | Department of Energy Designates the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor as a National Scientific User Facility Department of Energy Designates the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor as a National Scientific User Facility April 23, 2007 - 12:36pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today designated the Idaho National Laboratory's (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User

  10. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  11. Pneumatic solids feeder for coal gasification reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Notestein, J.E.; Halow, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a pneumatic feeder system for a coal gasification reactor which includes one or more feeder tubes entering the reactor above the level of the particle bed inside the reactor. The tubes are inclined downward at their outer ends so that coal particles introduced into the tubes through an aperture at the top of the tubes slides downward away from the reactor and does not fall directly into the reactor. Pressurized gas introduced into, or resulting from ignition of recycled combustible gas in a chamber adjacent to the tube ends, propels the coal from the tube into the reactor volume and onto the particle bed. Leveling of the top of the bed is carried out by a bladed rotor mounted on the reactor stirring shaft. Coal is introduced into the tubes from containers above the tubes by means of rotary valves placed across supply conduits. This system avoids placement of feeder hardware in the plenum above the particle bed and keeps the coal from being excessively heated prior to reaching the particle bed.

  12. Fuel burner having a intermittent pilot with pre-ignition testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, S.M.

    1991-07-30

    This patent describes improvement in a fuel burner having a main burner and a pilot burner for lighting the main burner, an electrically-powered igniter for lighting the pilot burner, a source of electric energy, an igniter power supply receiving a demand signal and supplying power to the igniter responsive to the demand signal, a pilot sensor adjacent to the pilot burner and supplying a pilot signal responsive to presence of a pilot flame, and a main burner valve controlling flow of fuel to the main burner and opening responsive to the pilot signal. The improvement comprises: a pilot burner valve controlling flow of fuel to the pilot burner and opening responsive to a pilot valve control signal; igniter sensing means in sensing relation to the igniter for providing an igniter signal responsive to operation of the igniter; and pilot valve control means receiving the igniter signal, for providing the pilot valve control signal responsive to the igniter signal.

  13. Department of Energy Designates the Idaho National Laboratory...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Designates the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor as a National Scientific User Facility Department of Energy Designates the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test ...

  14. Using indium tin oxide material to implement the imaging of microwave plasma ignition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Hou, Lingyun; Zhang, Guixin Zhang, Boya; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Jian

    2014-02-17

    In this paper, a method is introduced to get global observation of microwave plasma ignition process at high pressure. A microwave resonator was designed with an indium tin oxide coated glass at bottom. Microwave plasma ignition was implemented in methane and air mixture at 10 bars by a 2?ms-3?kW-2.45?GHz microwave pulse, and the high speed images of the ignition process were obtained. The images visually proved that microwave plasma ignition could lead to a multi-point ignition. The system may also be applied to obtain Schlieren images, which is commonly used to observe the development of flame kernel in an ignition process.

  15. Controlling the Electrostatic Discharge Ignition Sensitivity of Composite Energetic Materials Using Carbon Nanotube Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kade H. Poper; Eric S. Collins; Michelle L. Pantoya; Michael Daniels

    2014-10-01

    Powder energetic materials are highly sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD) ignition. This study shows that small concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to the highly reactive mixture of aluminum and copper oxide (Al + CuO) significantly reduces ESD ignition sensitivity. CNT act as a conduit for electric energy, bypassing energy buildup and desensitizing the mixture to ESD ignition. The lowest CNT concentration needed to desensitize ignition is 3.8 vol.% corresponding to percolation corresponding to an electrical conductivity of 0.04 S/cm. Conversely, added CNT increased Al + CuO thermal ignition sensitivity to a hot wire igniter.

  16. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  17. Final Report Independent Verification Survey of the High Flux Beam Reactor, Building 802 Fan House Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpeneau, Evan M.

    2011-06-24

    On May 9, 2011, ORISE conducted verification survey activities including scans, sampling, and the collection of smears of the remaining soils and off-gas pipe associated with the 802 Fan House within the HFBR (High Flux Beam Reactor) Complex at BNL. ORISE is of the opinion, based on independent scan and sample results obtained during verification activities at the HFBR 802 Fan House, that the FSS (final status survey) unit meets the applicable site cleanup objectives established for as left radiological conditions.

  18. Method for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janikowski, Stuart K. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A waste destruction method using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  19. Data Analysis, Pre-Ignition Assessment, and Post-Ignition Modeling of the Large-Scale Annular Cookoff Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Terrones; F.J. Souto; R.F. Shea; M.W.Burkett; E.S. Idar

    2005-09-30

    In order to understand the implications that cookoff of plastic-bonded explosive-9501 could have on safety assessments, we analyzed the available data from the large-scale annular cookoff (LSAC) assembly series of experiments. In addition, we examined recent data regarding hypotheses about pre-ignition that may be relevant to post-ignition behavior. Based on the post-ignition data from Shot 6, which had the most complete set of data, we developed an approximate equation of state (EOS) for the gaseous products of deflagration. Implementation of this EOS into the multimaterial hydrodynamics computer program PAGOSA yielded good agreement with the inner-liner collapse sequence for Shot 6 and with other data, such as velocity interferometer system for any reflector and resistance wires. A metric to establish the degree of symmetry based on the concept of time of arrival to pin locations was used to compare numerical simulations with experimental data. Several simulations were performed to elucidate the mode of ignition in the LSAC and to determine the possible compression levels that the metal assembly could have been subjected to during post-ignition.

  20. WILDFIRE IGNITION RESISTANCE ESTIMATOR WIZARD SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, M.; Robinson, C.; Gupta, N.; Werth, D.

    2012-10-10

    This report describes the development of a software tool, entitled WildFire Ignition Resistance Estimator Wizard (WildFIRE Wizard, Version 2.10). This software was developed within the Wildfire Ignition Resistant Home Design (WIRHD) program, sponsored by the U. S. Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate, Infrastructure Protection & Disaster Management Division. WildFIRE Wizard is a tool that enables homeowners to take preventive actions that will reduce their homes vulnerability to wildfire ignition sources (i.e., embers, radiant heat, and direct flame impingement) well in advance of a wildfire event. This report describes the development of the software, its operation, its technical basis and calculations, and steps taken to verify its performance.

  1. Stratified-charge glow plug ignition engine experiments. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thring, R.H.; Leet, J.A.

    1991-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the feasibility of operating a natural gas two-stroke engine using glow plug ignition with very lean mixtures. The term Stratified-Charge Glow Plus Ignition (SCGI) was coined to describe the engine. A JLO DL 365 single-cylinder, two-stroke, diesel engine was converted first to a natural gas fueled spark-ignited engine for the baseline tests, and then to the SCGI engine. The engine was successfully run, but was found to be sensitive to various conditions such as the glow plug temperature. The engine ran very lean, to an equivalence ratio of 0.33, offering the potential of good fuel economy and low NOx emissions. Numerous photographs, diagrams, and charts are included.

  2. IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) You are here: DOE-ID Home > Inside ID > Brief History Site History The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), an 890-square-mile section of desert in southeast Idaho, was established in 1949 as the National Reactor Testing Station. Initially, the missions at the INL were the development of civilian and defense nuclear reactor technologies and management of spent nuclear fuel. Fifty-two reactors—most of them first-of-a-kind—were built, including the Navy’s

  3. Correlating cookoff violence with pre-ignition damage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wente, William Baker; Hobbs, Michael L.; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro

    2010-03-01

    Predicting the response of energetic materials during accidents, such as fire, is important for high consequence safety analysis. We hypothesize that responses of ener-getic materials before and after ignition depend on factors that cause thermal and chemi-cal damage. We have previously correlated violence from PETN to the extent of decom-position at ignition, determined as the time when the maximum Damkoehler number ex-ceeds a threshold value. We seek to understand if our method of violence correlation ap-plies universally to other explosive starting with RDX.

  4. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  5. Ignition feedback regenerative free electron laser (FEL) amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Kwang-Je (Burr Ridge, IL); Zholents, Alexander (Walnut Creek, CA); Zolotorev, Max (Oakland, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An ignition feedback regenerative amplifier consists of an injector, a linear accelerator with energy recovery, and a high-gain free electron laser amplifier. A fraction of the free electron laser output is coupled to the input to operate the free electron laser in the regenerative mode. A mode filter in this loop prevents run away instability. Another fraction of the output, after suitable frequency up conversion, is used to drive the photocathode. An external laser is provided to start up both the amplifier and the injector, thus igniting the system.

  6. Features of a point design for fast ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabak, M; Clark, D; Town, R J; Key, M H; Amendt, P; Ho, D; Meeker, D J; Shay, H D; Lasinski, B F; Kemp, A; Divol, L; Mackinnon, A J; Patel, P; Strozzi, D; Grote, D P

    2009-10-26

    Fast Ignition is an inertial fusion scheme in which fuel is first assembled and then heated to the ignition temperature with an external heating source. In this note we consider cone and shell implosions where the energy supplied by short pulse lasers is transported to the fuel by electrons. We describe possible failure modes for this scheme and how to overcome them. In particular, we describe two sources of cone tip failure, an axis jet driven from the compressed fuel mass and hard photon preheat leaking through the implosion shell, and laser prepulse that can change the position of laser absorption and the angular distribution of the emitted electrons.

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  8. Optimization of the process of plasma ignition of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peregudov, V.S.

    2009-04-15

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical investigations of plasma ignition of coal as a result of its thermochemical preparation in application to the processes of firing up a boiler and stabilizing the flame combustion. The experimental test bed with a commercial-scale burner is used for determining the conditions of plasma ignition of low-reactivity high-ash anthracite depending on the concentration of coal in the air mixture and velocity of the latter. The calculations produce an equation (important from the standpoint of practical applications) for determining the energy expenditure for plasma ignition of coal depending on the basic process parameters. The tests reveal the difficulties arising in firing up a boiler with direct delivery of pulverized coal from the mill to furnace. A scheme is suggested, which enables one to reduce the energy expenditure for ignition of coal and improve the reliability of the process of firing up such a boiler. Results are given of calculation of plasma thermochemical preparation of coal under conditions of lower concentration of oxygen in the air mixture.

  9. Safety analysis of optically ignited explosive and pyrotechnic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Holswade, S.

    1994-05-01

    The future of optical ordnance depends on the acceptance, validation and verification of the stated safety enhancement claims of optical ordnance over existing electrical explosive devices (EED`s). Sandia has been pursuing the development of optical ordnance, with the primary motivation of this effort being the enhancement of explosive safety by specifically reducing the potential of premature detonation that can occur with low energy electrically ignited explosive devices. By using semiconductor laser diodes for igniting these devices, safety improvements can be made without being detrimental to current system concerns since the inputs required for these devices are similar to electrical systems. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) of the energetic material provides the opportunity to remove the bridgewire and electrically conductive pins from the charge cavity, creating a Faraday cage and thus isolating the explosive or pyrotechnic materials from stray electrical ignition sources. Recent results from our continued study of safety enhancements are presented. The areas of investigation which are presented include: (1) unintended optical source analysis, specifically lightning insensitivity, (2) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and electrostatic discharge (ESD) insensitivity analysis, and (3) powder safety.

  10. CO/sub 2/-laser ignition of DAPP targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brannon, P.J.

    1981-07-01

    A pulse derived by shuttering a CO/sub 2/ laser operating in the cw mode has been used to ignite a diallyl phthalate pyrotechnic (DAPP) material. Data from this work along with some data taken earlier, while operating the laser in the pulse mode, are presented. When operating in the cw mode, a pulse is mechanically chopped out of the beam and focussed onto the DAPP material. It was found that the shuttered cw mode of operation gives a more reproducible pulse and a more accurate determination of the incident energy than the pulse mode does. The pulse widths for threshold ignition (50% ignitions) at different power levels have been determined for 254 and 127 mm-focal-length lenses which were used to focus the beam on the target. It was also found that targets could be penetrated without ignition of the DAPP material. A 2.54 mm-thick DAPP target is penetrated by the laser beam if the energy per unit area exceeds 29 +1 J/mm/sup 2/. Based on this study, recommendations are given for improving the present test procedures used for DAPP material.

  11. Drying low rank coal and retarding spontaneous ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixel, J.C.; Bellow, E.J.; Heaney, W.F.; Facinelli, S.H.

    1989-05-09

    A method is described of producing a dried particulate coal fuel having a reduced tendency to ignite spontaneously comprising spraying and intimately mixing the dried coal with an aqueous emulsion of a material selected from the group consisting of foots oils, petrolatum filtrate, and hydrocracker recycle oil.

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wigner, E.P.

    1960-11-22

    A nuclear reactor is described wherein horizontal rods of thermal- neutron-fissionable material are disposed in a body of heavy water and extend through and are supported by spaced parallel walls of graphite.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  14. Reactor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A reactor apparatus for hydrocracking a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous feedstock to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the hydrocarbonaceous feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst.

  15. In-Reactor Experiment

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Update on the TMIST-3 In-Reactor Experiment Tritium Release and Speciation from LiAlO 2 and LiAlO 2 /Zr Cermets DJ SENOR 1 , WG LUSCHER 1 , AND KK CLAYTON 2 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 2 Idaho National Laboratory Tritium Focus Group Meeting, Princeton, NJ 5 May 2015 1 PNNL-SA-109847 Tritium Production Enterprise: Background Tritium is required for US nuclear weapons stockpile Tritium has a 12.3 year half-life and must be replenished 1988: DOE ceased production of tritium at SRS

  16. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of inherent safety concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and thermophysical properties of the fuel and their compatibility with the reactor coolant, with corresponding differences in the challenges presented to the reactor developers. Accident phenomena are discussed for the sodium-cooled fast reactor based on the mechanistic progression of conditions from accident initiation to accident termination, whether a benign state is achieved or more severe consequences are expected. General principles connecting accident phenomena and fuel properties are developed from the oxide and metal fuel safety analyses, providing guidelines that can be used as part of the evaluation for selection of fuel type for the sodium-cooled fast reactor.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, H.C.

    1959-01-13

    A neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled tvpe is described. The reactor is comprised of a pressure vessel containing the moderator and a plurality of vertically disposed channels extending in spaced relationship through the moderator. Fissionable fuel material is placed within the channels in spaced relationship thereto to permit circulation of the coolant fluid. Separate means are provided for cooling the moderator and for circulating a fluid coolant thru the channel elements to cool the fuel material.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Reactor Technologies » Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is developing the scientific basis to extend existing nuclear power plant operating life beyond the current 60-year licensing period and ensure long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. The program is conducted in collaboration with national

  20. Addendum to Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Guy

    2009-10-06

    The purpose of this addendum is to graphically publish data which indicate moisture in leakage and corrosion may have occurred during heating of the tanks at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) for and during hydrofluorination, fluorination and transfer of uranium. Corrosion, especially by hydrofluoric acid, is not expected to occur uniformly over the tank and piping inner surfaces and therefore is not easily measured by nondestructive techniques that can measure only limited areas. The rate of corrosion exponentially escalates with both temperature and moisture. The temperature, pressure, and concentration data in this addendum indicate periods when elevated corrosion rates were likely to have been experienced. This data was not available in time to be considered as part of the evaluation that was the focus of the report. Pressure and temperature data were acquired via the LabView{trademark} Software, while concentration data was acquired from the Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) system.

  1. Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source Development at the National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ignition Facility (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source Development at the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source Development at the National Ignition Facility Authors: May, M J ; Fournier, K B ; Colvin, J D ; Barrios, M A ; Dewald, E ; Hohenberger, M ; Moody, J ; Patterson, J R ; Schneider, M ; Widmann, K ; Regan, S P Publication Date: 2015-01-30 OSTI Identifier: 1234624

  2. Idaho National Laboratory/Nuclear Power Industry Strategic Plan for Light Water Reactor Research and Development An Industry-Government Partnership to Address Climate Change and Energy Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Electric Power Research

    2007-11-01

    The dual issues of energy security and climate change mitigation are driving a renewed debate over how to best provide safe, secure, reliable and environmentally responsible electricity to our nation. The combination of growing energy demand and aging electricity generation infrastructure suggests major new capacity additions will be required in the years ahead.

  3. EIS-0144: Siting, Construction, and Operation of New Production Reactor Capacity; Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Savannah River Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to assess the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation's nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. This EIS was cancelled after the DEIS was issued.

  4. Catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaron, Timothy Mark; Shah, Minish Mahendra; Jibb, Richard John

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  5. Bioconversion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  6. Our Impact | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Our Impact Argonne is the largest federally funded R&D center in Illinois and the entire Midwest. For 65 years, our scientific and engineering research has helped drive the region's economic growth and bring high-tech workers into the state. Today, as the United States faces major challenges in energy, environment and national security, research at Argonne fuels the economic competitiveness of Illinois, the Midwest and beyond. Our goal is to ignite an innovation ecology that strengthens

  7. Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-29

    This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

  8. Nuclear Reactor Technology Subcommittee of NEAC

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Report to NEAC Mike Corradini (UW), Chair Ashok Bhatnagar (FPL), Doug Chapin (NPR), Tom Cochran (NRDC), Regis Matzie (Consultant) , Harold Ray (Consultant), Joy Rempe (Consultant) Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Meeting December 11, 2015 1 Subcommittee Scope * Congress appropriated funds for "an advanced test/demonstration reactor planning study by the national laboratories, industry, and relevant stakeholders of such a reactor in the U.S. The study will evaluate advanced reactor

  9. Small Reactor for Deep Space Exploration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-05-30

    This is the first demonstration of a space nuclear reactor system to produce electricity in the United States since 1965, and an experiment demonstrated the first use of a heat pipe to cool a small nuclear reactor and then harvest the heat to power a Stirling engine at the Nevada National Security Site's Device Assembly Facility confirms basic nuclear reactor physics and heat transfer for a simple, reliable space power system.

  10. Lessons Learned from the Application of Bulk Characterization to Individual Containers on the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor Decommissioning Project at Brookhaven National Laboratory - 12056

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneitel, Terri; Rocco, Diane

    2012-07-01

    When conducting environmental cleanup or decommissioning projects, characterization of the material to be removed is often performed when the material is in-situ. The actual demolition or excavation and removal of the material can result in individual containers that vary significantly from the original bulk characterization profile. This variance, if not detected, can result in individual containers exceeding Department of Transportation regulations or waste disposal site acceptance criteria. Bulk waste characterization processes were performed to initially characterize the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) graphite pile and this information was utilized to characterize all of the containers of graphite. When the last waste container was generated containing graphite dust from the bottom of the pile, but no solid graphite blocks, the material contents were significantly different in composition from the bulk waste characterization. This error resulted in exceedance of the disposal site waste acceptance criteria. Brookhaven Science Associates initiated an in-depth investigation to identify the root causes of this failure and to develop appropriate corrective actions. The lessons learned at BNL have applicability to other cleanup and demolition projects which characterize their wastes in bulk or in-situ and then extend that characterization to individual containers. (authors)

  11. A method and apparatus for destroying hazardous organics and other combustible materials in a subcritical/supercritical reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janikowski, Stuart K.

    1997-12-01

    A waste destruction method is described using a reactor vessel to combust and destroy organic and combustible waste, including the steps of introducing a supply of waste into the reactor vessel, introducing a supply of an oxidant into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste forming a waste and oxidant mixture, introducing a supply of water into the reactor vessel to mix with the waste and oxidant mixture forming a waste, water and oxidant mixture, reciprocatingly compressing the waste, water and oxidant mixture forming a compressed mixture, igniting the compressed mixture forming a exhaust gas, and venting the exhaust gas into the surrounding atmosphere.

  12. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastrucutre TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Morrell

    2011-03-01

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  13. Final report for miniature laser ignited bellows motor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renfro, S.L.

    1994-02-18

    A miniature optically ignited actuation device has been demonstrated using a laser diode as an ignition source. This pyrotechnic driven motor provides between 4 and 6 lbs of linear force across a 0.090 inch diameter surface. The physical envelope of the device is 1/2 inch long and 1/8 inch diameter. This unique application of optical energy can be used as a mechanical link in optical arming systems or other applications where low shock actuation is desired and space is limited. An analysis was performed to determine pyrotechnic materials suitable to actuate a bellows device constructed of aluminum or stainless steel. The aluminum bellows was chosen for further development and several candidate pyrotechnics were evaluated. The velocity profile and delivered force were quantified using an non-intrusive optical motion sensor.

  14. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL)

    2008-12-23

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, H.L.

    1958-10-01

    The design of control rods for nuclear reactors are described. In this design the control rod consists essentially of an elongated member constructed in part of a neutron absorbing material and having tube means extending therethrough for conducting a liquid to cool the rod when in use.

  16. Neutronic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wende, Charles W. J. (Augusta, GA); Babcock, Dale F. (Wilmington, DE); Menegus, Robert L. (Wilmington, DE)

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

  17. Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Livermore National Laboratory Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory December 6, 2013 - 6:18pm Addthis The photo above is of a cryogenically cooled target in the National Ignition Facility as "seen" by the laser through the hohlraum's laser entrance hole. | Photo courtesy of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The photo above is of a cryogenically cooled target in the National Ignition Facility as "seen" by

  18. Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Livermore National Laboratory Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory December 6, 2013 - 6:18pm Addthis The photo above is of a cryogenically cooled target in the National Ignition Facility as "seen" by the laser through the hohlraum's laser entrance hole. | Photo courtesy of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The photo above is of a cryogenically cooled target in the National Ignition Facility as "seen" by

  19. Pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary combustion engine and fuel injector therefor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loyd, R. W.

    1980-02-12

    For a pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary, internal combustion engine, the fuel injection system and a fuel injector therefor comprises a fuel injector having plural discharge ports with at least one of the discharge ports located to emit a ''pilot'' fuel charge (relatively rich fuel-air mixture) into a passage in the engine housing, which passage communicates with the engine combustion chambers. An ignition element is located in the passage to ignite the ''pilot'' fuel (a relatively rich fuel-air mixture) flowing through the passage. At least one other discharge port of the fuel injector is in substantially direct communication with the combustion chambers of the engine to emit a main fuel charge into the latter. The ignited ''pilot'' fuelair mixture, when ignited, flashes into the combustion chambers to ignite the main, relatively lean, fuel-air mixture which is in the combustion chambers.

  20. R- AND P- REACTOR BUILDING IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING VISUALIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobbitt, J.; Vrettos, N.; Howard, M.

    2010-06-15

    During the early 1950s, five production reactor facilities were built at the Savannah River Site. These facilities were built to produce materials to support the building of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile in response to the Cold War. R-Reactor and P-Reactor were the first two facilities completed in 1953 and 1954.

  1. Alpha storage regime in high temperature sub-ignited D-T tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweben, S.J.; Furth, H.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Redi, M.H.; Strachan, J.D.

    1988-07-01

    Alpha particle parameters in sub-ignited D-T tokamaks like TFTR can be optimized in a high temperature ''alpha storage regime '' in which the alpha particle thermalization time /tau//sub ..cap alpha../ is long (approx.1.0 sec) and in which the alpha particle source rate S/sub ..cap alpha../ is enhanced due to a beam-target and beam-beam reactions (by a factor of approx.2-3). Near reactor-level alpha instability parameters ..beta../sub ..cap alpha../(0) approx. n/sub ..cap alpha../(0)/n/sub e/(O) approx. 1% are predicted by simulation codes when Q approx. 0.5-1, while present TFTR ''supershots'' already have ..beta../sub ..cap alpha../(O) approx. n/sub /alpha/(O)/n/sub e/(O) /approx/ 0.1-0.2%. Plasmas in this regime can be used to test theories of collective alpha instabilities for the first time, and can be used to provide a strong (but transient) alpha heating pulse. An experimental scenario to exploit this regime is described. 28 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.,

  2. Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell ...

  3. REACTOR MONITORING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugbee, S.J.; Hanson, V.F.; Babcock, D.F.

    1959-02-01

    A neutron density inonitoring means for reactors is described. According to this invention a tunnel is provided beneath and spaced from the active portion of the reactor and extends beyond the opposite faces of the activc portion. Neutron beam holes are provided between the active portion and the tunnel and open into the tunnel near the middle thereof. A carriage operates back and forth in the tunnel and is adapted to convey a neutron detector, such as an ion chamber, and position it beneath one of the neutron beam holes. This arrangement affords convenient access of neutron density measuring instruments to a location wherein direct measurement of neutron density within the piles can be made and at the same time affords ample protection to operating personnel.

  4. Timeline Print | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    agency within the U.S. Department of Energy, responsible for the management and security of the nation's nuclear weapons, nuclear nonproliferation, and naval reactor programs. ...

  5. Our History | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    agency within the U.S. Department of Energy, responsible for the management and security of the nation's nuclear weapons, nuclear nonproliferation, and naval reactor programs. ...

  6. Scoping Materials | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Office of General Counsel National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) NEPA Reading Room SEIS for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor Scoping...

  7. Ion Fast Ignition-Establishing a Scientific Basis for Inertial Fusion Energy --- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite; Foord, Mark N.; Wei, Mingsheng; Beg, Farhat N.; Schumacher, Douglass W.

    2013-10-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional ?central hot spot? (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10?s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The compressed fuel is opaque to laser light. The ignition laser energy must be converted to a jet of energetic charged particles to deposit energy in the dense fuel. The original concept called for a spray of laser-generated hot electrons to deliver the energy; lack of ability to focus the electrons put great weight on minimizing the electron path. An alternative concept, proton-ignited FI, used those electrons as intermediaries to create a jet of protons that could be focused to the ignition spot from a more convenient distance. Our program focused on the generation and directing of the proton jet, and its transport toward the fuel, none of which were well understood at the onset of our program. We have developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to create a self-consistent understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our strategy was to examine the new physics emerging as we added the complexity necessary to use proton beams in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) application. From the starting point of a proton beam accelerated from a flat, isolated foil, we 1) curved it to focus the beam, 2) attached the foil to a superstructure, 3) added a side sheath to protect it from the surrounding plasma, and finally 4) studied the proton beam behavior as it passed through a protective end cap into plasma. We built up, as we proceeded, a self-consistent picture of the quasi-neutral plasma jet that is the proton beam that, for the first time, included the role of the hot electrons in shaping the jet. Controlling them?through design of the accelerating surface and its connection to the surrounding superstructure?is critical; their uniform spread across the proton accelerating area is vital, but their presence in the jet opposes focus; their electron flow away from the acceleration area reduces conversion efficiency but can also increase focusing ability. The understanding emerging from our work and the improved simulation tools we have developed allow designing structures that optimize proton beams for focused heating. Our findings include: ? The achievable focus of proton beams is limited by the thermal pressure gradient in the laser-generated hot electrons that drive the process. This bending can be suppressed using a controlled flow of hot electrons along the surrounding cone wall, which induces a local transverse focusing sheath electric field. The resultant (vacuum-focused) spot can meet IFE requirements. ? Confinement of laser-generated electrons to the proton accelerating area can be achieved by supporting targets on thin struts. That increases laser-to-proton conversion energy by ~50%. As noted above, confinement should not be total; necessary hot-electron leakage into the surrounding superstructure for proton focusing can be controlled by with the strut width/number. ? Proton jets are further modified as they enter the fuel through the superstructure?s end cap. They can generate currents during that transit that further focus the proton beams. We developed a new ion stopping module for LSP code that properly accounted for changes in stopping power with ionization (e.g. temperature), and will be using it in future studies. The improved understanding, new experimental platforms, and the self-consistent modeling capability allow researchers a new ability to investigate the interaction of large ion currents with warm dense matter. That is of direct importance to the creation and investiga

  8. IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY PROGRAM TO OBTAIN BENCHMARK DATA ON THE FLOW PHENOMENA IN A SCALED MODEL OF A PRISMATIC GAS-COOLED REACTOR LOWER PLENUM FOR THE VALIDATION OF CFD CODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2008-09-01

    The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a typical prismatic gas-cooled (GCR) reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A detailed description of the model, scaling, the experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that are presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic GCR design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements reveal undeveloped, non-uniform flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and charts that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet flow is also presented.

  9. Numerical routines for predicting ignition in pyrotechnic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, K.G.

    1986-06-01

    Two numerical models of the thermal processes leading to ignition in a pyrotechnic device have been developed. These models are based on finite difference approximations to the heat diffusion equation, with temperature-dependent thermal properties, in a single spatial coordinate. The derivation of the finite difference equations is discussed and the methods employed at boundaries and interfaces are given. The sources of the thermal-properties data are identified and how these data are used is explained. The program structure is explained and example runs of the programs are given.

  10. Ethane ignition and oxidation behind reflected shock waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Vries, Jaap; Hall, Joel M.; Simmons, Stefanie L.; Kalitan, Danielle M.; Petersen, Eric L.; Rickard, Matthew J.A.

    2007-07-15

    Several diluted C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures of varying concentrations and equivalence ratios (0.5<{phi}<2.0) were studied at temperatures between 1218 and 1860 K and at pressures between 0.57 and 3.0 atm using a shock tube. The argon dilution ranged from 91 to 98% by volume. Reaction progress was monitored using chemiluminescence emission from OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} at 307 and 431 nm, respectively. The dependence of ignition delay time on temperature, activation energy, and reactant concentrations is given in a master correlation of all the experimental data. The overall activation energy was found to be 39.6 kcal/mol over the range of conditions studied. For the first time in a shock-tube C{sub 2}H{sub 6} oxidation study, detailed species profile data and quantitative OH{sup *} time histories were documented, in addition to ignition delay times, and compared against modern detailed mechanisms. Because of the comprehensive scope of the present study and the high precision of the experimental data, several conclusions can be drawn that could not have been reached from earlier studies. Although there is some discrepancy among previous ethane oxidation data, the present work clearly shows the convergence of ignition delay time measurements to those herein and the remarkable accuracy of current kinetics models over most of the parameter space explored, despite the variation in the literature data. However, two areas shown to still need more measurements and better modeling are those of higher pressures and fuel-rich ethane-air mixtures. After appropriate OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} submechanisms are added, two modern chemical kinetics mechanisms containing high-temperature ethane chemistry are compared to the data to gauge the current state of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} oxidation modeling over the conditions of this study. The reproduction of the OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} profiles, together with {tau}{sub ign} predictions by these models, are compared against the profiles and ignition times found in the experimental data. The models are then used to identify some key reactions in ethane oxidation and CH formation under the conditions of this study. (author)

  11. Controlling And Operating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (Hcci) Engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flowers, Daniel L. (San Leandro, CA)

    2005-08-02

    A Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine system includes an engine that produces exhaust gas. A vaporization means vaporizes fuel for the engine an air induction means provides air for the engine. An exhaust gas recirculation means recirculates the exhaust gas. A blending means blends the vaporized fuel, the exhaust gas, and the air. An induction means inducts the blended vaporized fuel, exhaust gas, and air into the engine. A control means controls the blending of the vaporized fuel, the exhaust gas, and the air and for controls the inducting the blended vaporized fuel, exhaust gas, and air into the engine.

  12. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to breed nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and burn actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is fertile or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing TRU-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II EBR-II at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  13. Photocatalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bischoff, B.L.; Fain, D.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1999-01-19

    A photocatalytic reactor is described for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane. 4 figs.

  14. Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program: Full-scale testing and demonstration final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quarles, Stephen, L.; Sindelar, Melissa

    2011-12-13

    The primary goal of the Wildfire ignition resistant home design(WIRHD) program was to develop a home evaluation tool that could assess the ignition potential of a structure subjected to wildfire exposures. This report describes the tests that were conducted, summarizes the results, and discusses the implications of these results with regard to the vulnerabilities to homes and buildings.

  15. Characterization of in situ oil shale retorts prior to ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Thomas F. (Laramie, WY); Moore, Dennis F. (Laramie, WY)

    1984-01-01

    Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the retort. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition.

  16. Finite Mach number spherical shock wave, application to shock ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vallet, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2013-08-15

    A converging and diverging spherical shock wave with a finite initial Mach number M{sub s0} is described by using a perturbative approach over a small parameter M{sub s}{sup ?2}. The zeroth order solution is the Guderley's self-similar solution. The first order correction to this solution accounts for the effects of the shock strength. Whereas it was constant in the Guderley's asymptotic solution, the amplification factor of the finite amplitude shock ?(t)?dU{sub s}/dR{sub s} now varies in time. The coefficients present in its series form are iteratively calculated so that the solution does not undergo any singular behavior apart from the position of the shock. The analytical form of the corrected solution in the vicinity of singular points provides a better physical understanding of the finite shock Mach number effects. The correction affects mainly the flow density and the pressure after the shock rebound. In application to the shock ignition scheme, it is shown that the ignition criterion is modified by more than 20% if the fuel pressure prior to the final shock is taken into account. A good agreement is obtained with hydrodynamic simulations using a Lagrangian code.

  17. FIREBALL: Fusion Ignition Rocket Engine with Ballistic Ablative Lithium Liner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Adam K.; Eskridge, Richard H.; Lee, Michael H.; Fimognari, Peter J.

    2006-01-20

    Thermo-nuclear fusion may be the key to a high Isp, high specific power propulsion system. In a fusion system energy is liberated within, and imparted directly to, the propellant. In principle, this can overcome the performance limitations inherent in systems that require thermal power transfer across a material boundary, and/or multiple power conversion stages (NTR, NEP). A thermo-nuclear propulsion system, which attempts to overcome some of the problems inherent in the Orion concept, is described. A dense FRC plasmoid is accelerated to high velocity (in excess of 500 km/s) and is compressed into a detached liner (pulse unit). The kinetic energy of the FRC is converted into thermal and magnetic-field energy, igniting a fusion burn in the magnetically confined plasma. The fusion reaction serves as an ignition source for the liner, which is made out of detonable materials. The energy liberated in this process is converted to thrust by a pusher-plate, as in the classic Orion concept. However with this concept, the vehicle does not carry a magazine of autonomous pulse-units. By accelerating a second, heavier FRC, which acts as a piston, right behind the first one, the velocity required to initiate the fusion burn is greatly reduced.

  18. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R.; Overzet, L. J.

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  19. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  20. Laser-fusion targets for reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuckolls, John H. (Livermore, CA); Thiessen, Albert R. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A laser target comprising a thermonuclear fuel capsule composed of a centrally located quantity of fuel surrounded by at least one or more layers or shells of material for forming an atmosphere around the capsule by a low energy laser prepulse. The fuel may be formed as a solid core or hollow shell, and, under certain applications, a pusher-layer or shell is located intermediate the fuel and the atmosphere forming material. The fuel is ignited by symmetrical implosion via energy produced by a laser, or other energy sources such as an electron beam machine or ion beam machine, whereby thermonuclear burn of the fuel capsule creates energy for applications such as generation of electricity via a laser fusion reactor.

  1. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  2. Videos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    batteries --Electricity transmission --Smart Grid -Energy economy --Energy policy ... Education Highlights: Gasoline Compression Ignition Mihai Anitescu on Electric Grids ...

  3. Videos | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    batteries --Electricity transmission --Smart Grid -Energy economy --Energy policy ... Education Highlights: Gasoline Compression Ignition Mihai Anitescu on Electric Grids Mihai ...

  4. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Primary Reference Fuels for Diesel Cetane Number and Spark-Ignition Octane Number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Curran, H J

    2010-03-03

    For the first time, a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is developed for primary reference fuel mixtures of n-hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane for diesel cetane ratings. The mechanisms are constructed using existing rules for reaction pathways and rate expressions developed previously for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, n-heptane and iso-octane. These reaction mechanisms are validated by comparisons between computed and experimental results for shock tube ignition and for oxidation under jet-stirred reactor conditions. The combined kinetic reaction mechanism contains the submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for diesel cetane ratings and submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, all in one integrated large kinetic reaction mechanism. Representative applications of this mechanism to two test problems are presented, one describing fuel/air autoignition variations with changes in fuel cetane numbers, and the other describing fuel combustion in a jet-stirred reactor environment with the fuel varying from pure 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane (Cetane number of 15) to pure n-hexadecane (Cetane number of 100). The final reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels for diesel fuel and gasoline is available on the web.

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, H.B.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor of the type speclfically designed for the irradiation of materials is discussed. In this design a central cyllndrical core of moderating material ls surrounded by an active portlon comprlsed of an annular tank contalning fissionable material immersed ln a liquid moderator. The active portion ls ln turn surrounded by a reflector, and a well ls provided in the center of the core to accommodate the materlals to be irradiated. The over-all dimensions of the core ln at least one plane are equal to or greater than twice the effective slowing down length and equal to or less than twlce the effective diffuslon length for neutrons in the core materials.

  6. HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R

    2010-05-02

    Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions exist. Pipe ruptures at nuclear facilities were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, in nuclear facilities, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents an ignition source for hydrogen was questionable, but these accidents, demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein.

  7. Shock-ignition relevant experiments with planar targets on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Theobald, W.; Lafon, M.; Nora, R.; Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 ; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623; Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 ; Casner, A.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G.

    2014-02-15

    We report on laser-driven, strong-shock generation and hot-electron production in planar targets in the presence of a pre-plasma at shock-ignition (SI) relevant laser and pre-plasma conditions. 2-D simulations reproduce the shock dynamics well, indicating ablator shocks of up to 75 Mbar have been generated. We observe hot-electron temperatures of ?70?keV at intensities of 1.4??10{sup 15}?W/cm{sup 2} with multiple overlapping beams driving the two-plasmon decay instability. When extrapolated to SI-relevant intensities of ?10{sup 16}?W/cm{sup 2}, the hot electron temperature will likely exceed 100?keV, suggesting that tightly focused beams without overlap are better suited for launching the ignitor shock.

  8. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full-core-height diodes. Moreover, placing the fuel on the outside of the diode makes possible reactors with much higher fuel volume fractions, which enable power-flattened fast reactors scalable to very low power levels without the need for life-limiting hydride moderators or the use of efficiency-limiting driver fuel. In addition, with the fuel on the outside its swelling does not increase the emitter diameter or reduce the interelectrode gap. This should permit long lifetimes even with closer spacings, which can significantly improve the system efficiences. This was confirmed by coupled neutronic, thermal, thermionic, and electrical system analyses - some of which are presented in this paper - and by subsequent experiments. A companion paper presented next describes the fabrication and testing of full-scale converter elements, both fueled and unfueled, and summarizes the test results obtained. There is a duplicate copy in the file.

  9. Processing Plan for Potentially Reactive/Ignitable Remote Handled Transuranic Waste at the Idaho Cleanup Project - 12090

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troescher, Patrick D.; Hobbes, Tammy L.; Anderson, Scott A.

    2012-07-01

    Remote Handle Transuranic (RH-TRU) Waste generated at Argonne National Laboratory - East, from the examination of irradiated and un-irradiated fuel pins and other reactor materials requires a detailed processing plan to ensure reactive/ignitable material is absent to meet WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria prior to shipping and disposal. The Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP) approach to repackaging Lot 2 waste and how we ensure prohibited materials are not present in waste intended for disposal at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 'WIPP' uses an Argon Repackaging Station (ARS), which provides an inert gas blanket. Opening of the Lot 2 containers under an argon gas blanket is proposed to be completed in the ARS. The ARS is an interim transition repackaging station that provides a mitigation technique to reduce the chances of a reoccurrence of a thermal event prior to rendering the waste 'Safe'. The consequences, should another thermal event be encountered, (which is likely) is to package the waste, apply the reactive and or ignitable codes to the container, and store until the future treatment permit and process are available. This is the same disposition that the two earlier containers in the 'Thermal Events' were assigned. By performing the initial handling under an inert gas blanket, the waste can sorted and segregate the fines and add the Met-L-X to minimize risk before it is exposed to air. The 1-gal cans that are inside the ANL-E canister will be removed and each can is moved to the ARS for repackaging. In the ARS, the 1-gal can is opened in the inerted environment. The contained waste is sorted, weighed, and visually examined for non compliant items such as unvented aerosol cans and liquids. The contents of the paint cans are transferred into a sieve and manipulated to allow the fines, if any, to be separated into the tray below. The fines are weighed and then blended with a minimum 5:1 mix of Met-L-X. Other debris materials found are segregated from the cans into containers for later packaging. Recoverable fissile waste material (Fuel and fuel-like pieces) suspected of containing sodium bonded pieces) are segregated and will remain in the sieve or transferred to a similar immersion basket in the ARS. The fuel like pieces will be placed into a container with sufficient water to cover the recoverable fissile waste. If a 'reactive characteristic' is present the operator will be able to observe the formation of 'violent' hydrogen gas bubbles. When sodium bonded fuel-like pieces are placed in water the expected reaction is a non-violent reaction that does not meet the definition of reactivity. It is expected that there will be a visible small stream of bubbles present if there is any sodium-bonded fuel-like piece placed in the water. The test will be completed when there is no reaction or the expected reaction is observed..At that point, the fuel like pieces complete the processing cycle in preparation for characterization and shipment to WIPP. If a violent reaction occurs, the fuel-like pieces will be removed from the water, split into the required fissile material content, placed into a screened basket in a 1 gallon drum and drummed out of the hot cell with appropriate RCRA codes applied and placed into storage until sodium treatment is available. These 'violent' reactions will be evidenced by gas bubbles being evolved at the specimen surface where sodium metal is present. The operators will be trained to determine if the reaction is 'violent' or 'mild'. If a 'violent' reaction occurs, the sieve will be immediately removed from the water, placed in a 1 gallon paint can, canned in the argon cover gas and removed from the hot cell to await a future treatment. If the reaction is 'mild', the sieve will then be removed from the water; the material weighed for final packaging and allowed to dry by air exposure. Lot 2 waste cans can be opened, sorted, processed, and weighed while mitigating the potential of thermal events that could occur prior to exposing to air. Exposure to air is a WIPP compliance step demonstrating the absence of react

  10. Final Scientific and Technical Report - Practical Fiber Delivered Laser Ignition Systems for Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yalin, Azer

    2014-03-30

    Research has characterized advanced kagome fiber optics for their use in laser ignition systems. In comparison to past fibers used in laser ignition, these fibers have the important advantage of being relatively bend-insensitivity, so that they can be bent and coiled without degradation of output energy or beam quality. The results are very promising for practical systems. For pulse durations of ~12 ns, the fibers could deliver >~10 mJ pulses before damage onset. A study of pulse duration showed that by using longer pulse duration (~20 – 30 ns), it is possible to carry even higher pulse energy (by factor of ~2-3) which also provides future opportunities to implement longer duration sources. Beam quality measurements showed nearly single-mode output from the kagome fibers (i.e. M2 close to 1) which is the optimum possible value and, combined with their high pulse energy, shows the suitability of the fibers for laser ignition. Research has also demonstrated laser ignition of an engine including reliable (100%) ignition of a single-cylinder gasoline engine using the laser ignition system with bent and coiled kagome fiber. The COV of IMEP was <2% which is favorable for stable engine operation. These research results, along with the continued reduction in cost of laser sources, support our commercial development of practical laser ignition systems.

  11. A simplified model of TiH1.65/KClO4 pyrotechnic ignition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ken Shuang

    2009-04-01

    A simplified model was developed and is presented in this report for simulating thermal transport coupled with chemical reactions that lead to the pyrotechnic ignition of TiH1.65/KClO4 powder. The model takes into account Joule heating via a bridgewire, thermal contact resistance at the wire/powder interface, convective heat loss to the surroundings, and heat released from the TiH1.65- and KClO4-decomposition and TiO2-oxidation reactions. Chemical kinetic sub-models were put forth to describe the chemical reaction rate(s) and quantify the resultant heat release. The simplified model predicts pyrotechnic ignition when heat from the pyrotechnic reactions is accounted for. Effects of six key parameters on ignition were examined. It was found that the two reaction-rate parameters and the thermal contact resistance significantly affect the dynamic ignition process whereas the convective heat transfer coefficient essentially has no effect on the ignition time. Effects of the initial/ambient temperature and electrical current load through the wire are as expected. Ignition time increases as the initial/ambient temperature is lowered or the wire current load is reduced. Lastly, critical needs such as experiments to determine reaction-rate and other model-input parameters and to measure temperature profiles, time to ignition and burn-rate data for model validation as well as efforts in incorporating reaction-rate dependency on pressure are pointed out.

  12. Environmental Information Document: L-reactor reactivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    Purpose of this Environmental Information Document is to provide background for assessing environmental impacts associated with the renovation, restartup, and operation of L Reactor at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). SRP is a major US Department of Energy installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. The purpose of the restart of L Reactor is to increase the production of nuclear weapons materials, such as plutonium and tritium, to meet projected needs in the nuclear weapons program.

  13. Reactor safety method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vachon, Lawrence J. (Clairton, PA)

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

  14. Nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomson, Wallace B. (Severna Park, MD)

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Idaho National Engineering...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Facility, a full-scale low-power version of the Advanced Test Reactor designed to provide physics data, and the Neutron Radiography Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory-West. ...

  16. Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.; Li, H.; Neill, S.

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this report is to develop a pathway to use easily measured ignition properties as metrics for characterizing fuels in advanced combustion engine research--correlate IQT{trademark} measured parameters with engine data. In HCCL engines, ignition timing depends on the reaction rates throughout compression stroke: need to understand sensitivity to T, P, and [O{sub 2}]; need to rank fuels based on more than one set of conditions; and need to understand how fuel composition (molecular species) affect ignition properties.

  17. Ion beam requirements for fast ignition of inertial fusion targets (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Ion beam requirements for fast ignition of inertial fusion targets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ion beam requirements for fast ignition of inertial fusion targets Ion beam requirements for fast ignition are investigated by numerical simulation taking into account new effects, such as ion beam divergence, not included before. We assume that ions are generated by the TNSA scheme in a curved foil placed inside a re-entrant cone and focused on the cone

  18. A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Hartman, J.K.; McCampbell, C.B.; Churchill, J.K.

    1993-12-31

    A conventional NSI (NASA standard initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.

  19. Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    record neutron beam at Los Alamos National Laboratory July 10, 2012 New method has potential to advance materials measurement LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, July 10, 2012-Using a one-of-a-kind laser system at Los Alamos National Laboratory, scientists have created the largest neutron beam ever made by a short-pulse laser, breaking a world record. Neutron beams are usually made with particle accelerators or nuclear reactors and are commonly used in a wide variety of scientific research, particularly in

  20. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables such as internal dilution level and charge temperature. As a result, HCCI combustion has limited robustness when variables exceed the required narrow ranges determined in this program. HCCI combustion is also not available for the entire range of production engine speeds and loads, (i.e., the dynamic range is limited). Thus, regular SI combustion must be employed for a majority of the full dynamic range of the engine. This degrades the potential fuel economy impact of HCCI combustion. Currently-available combustion control actuators for the simple valve train system engine do not have the authority for continuous air - fuel or torque control for managing the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI and thus, require further refinement to meet customer refinement expectations. HCCI combustion control sensors require further development to enable robust long-term HCCI combustion control. Finally, the added technologies required to effectively manage HCCI combustion such as electric cam phasers, central direct fuel injection, cylinder pressure sensing, high-flow exhaust gas recirculation system, etc. add excessive on-engine cost and complexity that erodes the production-viability business

  1. Transient experiments and modeling of the catalytic combustion of methane in a monolith reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, R.E.; Kolaczkowski, S.T.; Thomas, W.J.; Titiloye, J.

    1996-02-01

    The combustion of methane with an excess of oxygen was examined under transient conditions in a catalytic monolith reactor. The reaction exhibited a sharp light off in the inlet region of the reactor, and essentially complete combustion was attained. The experimental reactor was modeled using a comprehensive two-dimensional finite element simulator previously developed. Theoretical and observed temperatures were well matched in the reactor following complete combustion. The simulator predicted a response of the order of 1--2 s faster than that observed near the inlet to the reactor where the reaction was occurring. Similar agreement was found for startup and shutdown of the reactor, as well as for a situation where the supply of methane to the reactor was interrupted for a period of 16 s. Analysis of the temperature profiles during startup operation showed that the reactor exhibited light off near the entrance, with the heat wave being propagated toward the reactor exit. The Nusselt number exhibited a steady state value of the order of 4, with different values obtained during transient operation. The reaction does not become completely mass transfer controlled in spite of the rapid rise of temperature in the ignition region.

  2. Turning the Manhattan Project into a National Park | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Manhattan Project into a National Park Turning the Manhattan Project into a National Park February 23, 2015 - 3:43pm Addthis This photo shows the B Reactor -- the world’s first large-scale plutonium production reactor -- in Hanford, Washington, part of the Manhattan Project National Park. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. This photo shows the B Reactor -- the world's first large-scale plutonium production reactor -- in Hanford, Washington, part of the Manhattan Project National

  3. Development and Benchmarking of a Hybrid PIC Code For Dense Plasmas and Fast Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Welch, Dale R.; Thompson, John R.; MacFarlane, Joeseph J.; Phillips, Michael W.; Bruner, Nicki; Mostrom, Chris; Thoma, Carsten; Clark, R. E.; Bogatu, Nick; Kim, Jin-Soo; Galkin, Sergei; Golovkin, Igor E.; Woodruff, P. R.; Wu, Linchun; Messer, Sarah J.

    2014-05-20

    Radiation processes play an important role in the study of both fast ignition and other inertial confinement schemes, such as plasma jet driven magneto-inertial fusion, both in their effect on energy balance, and in generating diagnostic signals. In the latter case, warm and hot dense matter may be produced by the convergence of a plasma shell formed by the merging of an assembly of high Mach number plasma jets. This innovative approach has the potential advantage of creating matter of high energy densities in voluminous amount compared with high power lasers or particle beams. An important application of this technology is as a plasma liner for the flux compression of magnetized plasma to create ultra-high magnetic fields and burning plasmas. HyperV Technologies Corp. has been developing plasma jet accelerator technology in both coaxial and linear railgun geometries to produce plasma jets of sufficient mass, density, and velocity to create such imploding plasma liners. An enabling tool for the development of this technology is the ability to model the plasma dynamics, not only in the accelerators themselves, but also in the resulting magnetized target plasma and within the merging/interacting plasma jets during transport to the target. Welch pioneered numerical modeling of such plasmas (including for fast ignition) using the LSP simulation code. Lsp is an electromagnetic, parallelized, plasma simulation code under development since 1995. It has a number of innovative features making it uniquely suitable for modeling high energy density plasmas including a hybrid fluid model for electrons that allows electrons in dense plasmas to be modeled with a kinetic or fluid treatment as appropriate. In addition to in-house use at Voss Scientific, several groups carrying out research in Fast Ignition (LLNL, SNL, UCSD, AWE (UK), and Imperial College (UK)) also use LSP. A collaborative team consisting of HyperV Technologies Corp., Voss Scientific LLC, FAR-TECH, Inc., Prism Computational Sciences, Inc. and Advanced Energy Systems Inc. joined efforts to develop new physics and numerical models for LSP in several key areas to enhance the ability of LSP to model high energy density plasmas (HEDP). This final report details those efforts. Areas addressed in this research effort include: adding radiation transport to LSP, first in 2D and then fully 3D, extending the EMHD model to 3D, implementing more advanced radiation and electrode plasma boundary conditions, and installing more efficient implicit numerical algorithms to speed complex 2-D and 3-D computations. The new capabilities allow modeling of the dominant processes in high energy density plasmas, and further assist the development and optimization of plasma jet accelerators, with particular attention to MHD instabilities and plasma/wall interaction (based on physical models for ion drag friction and ablation/erosion of the electrodes). In the first funding cycle we implemented a solver for the radiation diffusion equation. To solve this equation in 2-D, we used finite-differencing and applied the parallelized sparse-matrix solvers in the PETSc library (Argonne National Laboratory) to the resulting system of equations. A database of the necessary coefficients for materials of interest was assembled using the PROPACEOS and ATBASE codes from Prism. The model was benchmarked against Prism's 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code HELIOS, and against experimental data obtained from HyperV's separately funded plasma jet accelerator development program. Work in the second funding cycle focused on extending the radiation diffusion model to full 3-D, continued development of the EMHD model, optimizing the direct-implicit model to speed up calculations, add in multiply ionized atoms, and improved the way boundary conditions are handled in LSP. These new LSP capabilities were then used, along with analytic calculations and Mach2 runs, to investigate plasma jet merging, plasma detachment and transport, restrike and advanced jet accelerator design. In addition, a strong linkage to diagnostic measureme

  4. Preconceptual design and assessment of a Tokamak Hybrid Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Leonard, B.R. Jr.; Aase, D.T.

    1980-09-01

    The preconceptual design of a commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (THR) power plant has been performed. The tokamak fusion driver for this hybrid is operated in the ignition mode. The D-T fusion plasma, which produces 1140 MW of power, has a major radius of 5.4 m and a minor radius of 1.0 m with an elongation of 2.0. Double null poloidal divertors are assumed for impurity control. The confining toroidal field is maintained by D-shaped Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting magnets with a maximum field of 12T at the coil. Three blankets with four associated fuel cycle alternatives have been combined with the ignited tokamak fusion driver. The engineering, material, and balance of plant design requirements for the THR are briefly described. Estimates of the capital, operating and maintenance, and fuel cycle costs have been made for the various driver/blanket combinations and an assessment of the market penetrability of hybrid systems is presented. An analysis has been made of the nonproliferation aspects of the hybrid and its associated fuel cycles relative to fission reactors. The current and required level of technology for both the fusion and fission components of the hybrid system has been reviewed. Licensing hybrid systems is also considered.

  5. Method and apparatus for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burton, Robert S. (Grand Junction, CO); Rundberg, Sten I. (Debeque, CO); Vaughn, James V. (Debeque, CO); Williams, Thomas P. (Debeque, CO); Benson, Gregory C. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1981-01-01

    A technique is provided for igniting an in situ oil shale retort having an open void space over the top of a fragmented mass of particles in the retort. A conduit is extended into the void space through a hole in overlying unfragmented formation and has an open end above the top surface of the fragmented mass. A primary air pipe having an open end above the open end of the conduit and a liquid atomizing fuel nozzle in the primary air pipe above the open end of the primary air pipe are centered in the conduit. Fuel is introduced through the nozzle, primary air through the pipe, and secondary air is introduced through the conduit for vortical flow past the open end of the primary air pipe. The resultant fuel and air mixture is ignited for combustion within the conduit and the resultant heated ignition gas impinges on the fragmented mass for heating oil shale to an ignition temperature.

  6. Effect of ignition conditions on upward flame spread on a composite material in a corner configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlemiller, T.; Cleary, T.; Shields, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper focuses on the issue of fire growth on composite materials beyond the region immediately subjected to an ignition source. Suppression of this growth is one of the key issues in realizing the safe usage of composite structural materials. A vinyl ester/glass composite was tested in the form of a 90{degrees} comer configuration with an inert ceiling segment 2.44 m above the top of the fire source. The igniter was a propane burner, either 23 or 38 cm in width with power output varied from 30 to 150 Kw. Upward flame spread rate and heat release rate were measured mainly for a brominated vinyl ester resin but limited results were also obtained for a non-flame retarded vinyl ester and a similar composite coated with an intumescent paint. Rapid fire growth beyond the igniter region was seen for the largest igniter power case; the intumescent coating successfully prevented fire growth for this case.

  7. Qualitative assessment of the ignition of highly flammable fuels by primary explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elischer, P.P.; De Yong, L.

    1983-06-01

    An assessment of the ignition of fuel/air mixtures and of fabrics soaked with different fuels (ethanol, n-hexane and diethyl ether) by primary explosives has been carried out.

  8. Tungsten bridge for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David A. (Albuquerque, NM); Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Blewer, Robert S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A tungsten bridge device for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials is disclosed. The device is fabricated on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate which has an insulating bridge element defined therein using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Then, a thin layer of tungsten is selectively deposited on the silicon bridge layer using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Finally, conductive lands are deposited on each end of the tungsten bridge layer to form the device. It has been found that this device exhibits substantially shorter ignition times than standard metal bridges and foil igniting devices. In addition, substantially less energy is required to cause ignition of the tungsten bridge device of the present invention than is required for common metal bridges and foil devices used for the same purpose.

  9. Tungsten bridge for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.A.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Blewer, R.S.

    1990-12-11

    A tungsten bridge device for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials is disclosed. The device is fabricated on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate which has an insulating bridge element defined therein using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Then, a thin layer of tungsten is selectively deposited on the silicon bridge layer using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Finally, conductive lands are deposited on each end of the tungsten bridge layer to form the device. It has been found that this device exhibits substantially shorter ignition times than standard metal bridges and foil igniting devices. In addition, substantially less energy is required to cause ignition of the tungsten bridge device of the present invention than is required for common metal bridges and foil devices used for the same purpose. 2 figs.

  10. Utilizing the Rapid Ignition Region of HCCI to Attain > 60% BTE |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Rapid Ignition Region of HCCI to Attain > 60% BTE Utilizing the Rapid Ignition Region of HCCI to Attain > 60% BTE HCCI is inherently able to produce such rapid combustion (10 … 100µs) that it is effectively constant volume combustion. Constant volume combustion offers significant opportunity for dramatically improving ICRE BTE. However, to be used with conventional ICRE slider-crank kinematics, HCCI must transformed to a moderated mode of combustion that is far

  11. Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles | Department of Energy Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles In conventional vehicles, most engine operating points over a UDDS driving cycle stay within PCCI operation limits but PCCI in HEVs is limited because of higher loads and many

  12. Spherical strong-shock generation for shock-ignition inertial fusion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Spherical strong-shock generation for shock-ignition inertial fusion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spherical strong-shock generation for shock-ignition inertial fusion Recent experiments on the Laboratory for Laser Energetics' OMEGA laser have been carried out to produce strong shocks in solid spherical targets with direct laser illumination. The shocks are launched at pressures of several hundred Mbars and reach Gbar upon convergence. The

  13. DOE/EIS-0236-S1F; National Ignition Facility Final Supplemental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    element of science-based stockpile stewardship. It will allow experimental study of thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. It will extend the range of investigations of...

  14. DOE/EIS-0236-S1F; National Ignition Facility Final Supplemental...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    practical application in nuclear weapons programs. It will allow experimental study of thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. It will extend the range of investigations of...

  15. Description and performance of the preamplifier for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crane, J.K.; Martinez, M., Moran, B.

    1996-12-01

    The authors describe the prototype preamplifier for the NIF laser system and discuss the performance of the regenerative amplifier and 4-pass laser systems that comprise the preamplifier.

  16. High-density carbon ablator experiments on the National Ignition Facilitya)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Ross, J. S.; Le Pape, S.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Divol, L.; Ho, D.; Milovich, J.; Pak, A.; Ralph, J.; Dppner, T.; Patel, P. K.; Thomas, C.; Tommasini, R.; Haan, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Bionta, R.; Ma, T.; Spears, B.; Rygg, J. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Dewald, E. L.; Fittinghoff, D.; Jones, O. S.; Robey, H. R.; Moody, J. D.; Khan, S.; Callahan, D. A.; Hamza, A.; Biener, J.; Celliers, P. M.; Braun, D. G.; Erskine, D. J.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Wallace, R. J.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Sater, J.; Collins, G.; Storm, E.; Hsing, W.; Landen, O.; Atherton, J. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Edwards, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Sguin, F. H.; Zylstra, A.; Knauer, J. P.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Merrill, F.; Olson, R.; Kyrala, G. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.; Moreno, K.; Hoover, D. E.; Wild, C.; Werner, E.

    2014-05-01

    High Density Carbon (HDC) is a leading candidate as an ablator material for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules in x-ray (indirect) drive implosions. HDC has a higher density (3.5?g/cc) than plastic (CH, 1?g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator with a larger inner radius for a given capsule scale. This leads to higher x-ray absorption and shorter laser pulses compared to equivalent CH designs. This paper will describe a series of experiments carried out to examine the feasibility of using HDC as an ablator using both gas filled hohlraums and lower density, near vacuum hohlraums. These experiments have shown that deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium gas filled HDC capsules driven by a hohlraum filled with 1.2?mg/cc He gas, produce neutron yields a factor of 2 higher than equivalent CH implosions, representing better than 50% Yield-over-Clean (YoC). In a near vacuum hohlraum (He?=?0.03?mg/cc) with 98% laser-to-hohlraum coupling, such a DD gas-filled capsule performed near 1D expectations. A cryogenic layered implosion version was consistent with a fuel velocity?=?410??20?km/s with no observed ablator mixing into the hot spot.

  17. X-ray area backlighter development at the National Ignition Facility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-656005 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments , vol....

  18. HEC-DPSSL 2012 Workshop, Agenda: National Ignition Facility & Photon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Agenda TEXT SIZE Workshops About Organizing Committee Agenda Deadlines Abstract Submission Venue NIF Tour Directions Lake Tahoe Workshop Sign-up Agenda - Click to Download Time Session Title First Name Last Name Talk Title 9/12/2012 8:00 Registration / Breakfast 9:00 Welcome Andy Bayramian 9:15 Introduction Mike Dunne 9:30 Overview session Paul Mason DiPOLE - An Efficient and Scalable HEC-DPSSL System 10:00 Marco Hornung Status of the POLARIS laser system 10:30 Mathias Siebold

  19. HEC-DPSSL 2012 Workshop, Directions: National Ignition Facility & Photon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Directions TEXT SIZE Workshops About Organizing Committee Agenda Deadlines Abstract Submission Venue NIF Tour Directions Lake Tahoe Workshop Sign-up Directions To Granilibakken Conference Center From Reno/Tahoe International Airport (approximately 1 hour, 54 miles) Take Highway 395 North on-ramp from the Airport to I-80 West/Sacramento Take Exit 185 (Truckee) toward Lake Tahoe/CA-89 S At the traffic circle take the 3rd exit onto CA-89 S Continue straight on CA-89 S Turn right on W

  20. HEC-DPSSL 2012 Workshop, Topics: National Ignition Facility & Photon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science > Abstract Submission TEXT SIZE Workshops About Organizing Committee Agenda Deadlines Abstract Submission Venue NIF Tour Directions Lake Tahoe Workshop Sign-up Abstract Submission Please submit an abstract including title, authors, and a short description (no more than ½ page) in Microsoft Word format, which will be used to establish session topics and oral vs. poster mode of presentation. Please email your abstracts to . The Deadline for abstracts is July 30, 2012. Note: Areas