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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image Weak ignition behind a reflected Mach=1.5 shock in a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 0.1 atm initial pressure. Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Alexei Khokhlov, University of Chicago; Charles Bacon, Argonne National Laboratory, Joanna Austin, Andrew Knisely, University of Illinois at Urbanna-Champaign Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases PI Name: Alexei Khokhlov PI Email: ajk@oddjob.uchicago.edu Institution: The University of Chicago Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 130 Million Year: 2013 Research Domain: Chemistry Hydrogen is an abundant, environmentally friendly fuel with the potential

2

Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

residential rooms residential rooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-59303 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 41 Start Page Chapter Pagination 3251-3265 Keywords adsorption, hazardous air pollutants, nerve agents, sink effect, volatile organic compounds Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied ''as-is'' with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms

3

Numerical Modeling of the Turbulent Fluxes of Chemically Reactive Trace Gases in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turbulent fluxes of chemically reactive trace gases in the neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) were simulated with a one-dimensional, coupled diffusion-chemistry model. The effects of rapid chemical reactions were included with a suite of ...

W. Gao; M. L. Wesely

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were constructed with plywood under the wallboard. Theof organic gases 20.4-m 2 plywood floor was covered firstthrough the walls with plywood yields L d = 0.017-0.05 h -

Singer, Brett C.; Revzan, Kenneth L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Brown, Nancy J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-56787 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Conference Name Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate - Indoor Air 2005 Volume 2(9) Publisher Tsinghua University Press Conference Location Beijing, China Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential bedrooms (n=4), bathrooms (n=2), and a furnished test chamber. Rooms were studied "as-is" with material surfaces and furnishings unaltered. Surface materials were characterized and areas quantified. Experiments included rapid volatilization of a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture with the room closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase, followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. The mixture included n-alkanes, aromatics, glycol ethers, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, dichlorobenzene, and organophosphorus compounds. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at one surface sink and one potential embedded sink. The 2-parameter sink model tracked measurements for most compounds, but improved fits were obtained for some VOCs with a 3-parameter sink-diffusion or a 4-parameter two-sink model. Sorptive partitioning and initial adsorption rates increased with decreasing vapour pressure within each chemical class.

6

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a furnished room a furnished room Title Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-53943 Year of Publication 2004 Authors Singer, Brett C., Kenneth L. Revzan, Toshifumi Hotchi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 38 Start Page Chapter Issue 16 Pagination 2483-2494 Abstract We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m3 room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C8-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h-1 and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium

7

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m{sup 3} room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C{sub 8}-C{sub 10} aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h{sup -1} and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium.

Singer, Brett C.; Revzan, Kenneth L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Brown, Nancy J.

2003-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

8

Very high resolution etching of magnetic nanostructures in organic gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two methods for high resolution dry etching of permalloy (NiFe) and iron (Fe) nanostructures are presented and discussed. The first involves the use of carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia (NH"3) as etching gases, the second uses methane (CH"4), hydrogen ... Keywords: CH4/H2/O2, CO/NH3, Dry etching, Fe, NiFe

X. Kong; D. Krása; H. P. Zhou; W. Williams; S. McVitie; J. M. R. Weaver; C. D. W. Wilkinson

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

10

Historical (1850-2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols:methodology and application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present and discuss a new dataset of gridded emissions covering the historical period (1850-2000) in decadal increments at a horizontal resolution of 0.5° in latitude and longitude. The primary purpose of this inventory is to provide consistent gridded emissions of reactive gases and aerosols for use in chemistry model simulations needed by climate models for the Climate Model Intercomparison Program #5 (CMIP5) in support of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment report. Our best estimate for the year 2000 inventory represents a combination of existing regional and global inventories to capture the best information available at this point; 40 regions and 12 sectors were used to combine the various sources. The historical reconstruction of each emitted compound, for each region and sector, was then forced to agree with our 2000 estimate, ensuring continuity between past and 2000 emissions. Application of these emissions into two chemistry-climate models is used to test their ability to capture long-term changes in atmospheric ozone, carbon monoxide and aerosols distributions. The simulated long-term change in the Northern mid-latitudes surface and mid-troposphere ozone is not quite as rapid as observed. However, stations outside this latitude band show much better agreement in both present-day and long-term trend. The model simulations consistently underestimate the carbon monoxide trend, while capturing the long-term trend at the Mace Head station. The simulated sulfate and black carbon deposition over Greenland is in very good agreement with the ice-core observations spanning the simulation period. Finally, aerosol optical depth and additional aerosol diagnostics are shown to be in good agreement with previously published estimates.

Lamarque, J. F.; Bond, Tami C.; Eyring, Veronika; Granier, Claire; Heil, Angelika; Klimont, Z.; Lee, David S.; Liousse, Catherine; Mieville, Aude; Owen, Bethan; Schultz, Martin; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Steven J.; Stehfest, Eike; van Aardenne, John; Cooper, Owen; Kainuma, M.; Mahowald, Natalie; McConnell, J.R.; Naik, Vaishali; Riahi, Keywan; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

11

Membrane System for Recovery of Volatile Organic Compounds from Remediation Off-Gases.: Phase 1.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used methods of remediating soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration, the most common methods of treating these gas streams, suffer from significant drawbacks. This report covers the first phase of a two-phase project. The first phase involved the laboratory demonstration of the water separation section of the unit, the production and demonstration of new membrane modules to improve the separation, the design studies required for the demonstration system, and initial contacts with potential field sites. In the second phase, the demonstration system will be built and, after a short laboratory evaluation, will be tested at two field sites.

Wijmans, J.G.; Goakey, S.; Wang, X.; Baker, R.W.; Kaschemekat, J.H.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected on board the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy techniques. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and especially hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles may result in formation of organic salts that will modify acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties of aged particles.

Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Marry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, P.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

13

Chemical Analysis of Complex Organic Mixtures Using Reactive Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Reactive nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was utilized for the analysis of secondary organic aerosol produced through ozonolysis of limonene (LSOA). Previous studies showed that LSOA constituents are multifunctional compounds containing aldehyde and ketone groups. In this study, we used the selectivity of the Girard T (GT) reagent towards carbonyl compounds to examine the utility of reactive nano-DESI for the analysis of complex organic mixtures. In these experiments, 1-100 {micro}M GT solution was used as a working solvent for reactive nano-DESI analysis. Abundant products of a single addition of GT to LSOA constituents were observed at GT concentrations in excess of 10 {micro}M. We found that LSOA compounds with 18-20 carbon atoms (dimers) and 27-30 carbon atoms (trimers) react with GT through a simple addition reaction resulting in formation of the carbinolamine derivative. In contrast, reactions of GT with monomeric species result in formation of both the carbinolamine and the hydrazone derivatives. In addition, several monomers did not react with GT on the timescale of our experiment. These molecules were characterized by relatively high values of the double bond equivalent (DBE) and low oxygen content. Furthermore, because addition of a charged GT tag to a neutral molecule eliminates the discrimination against the low proton affinity compounds in the ionization process, reactive nano-DESI analysis enables quantification of individual compounds in the complex mixture. For example, we were able to estimate for the first time the amounts of dimers and trimers in the LSOA mixture. Specifically, we found that the most abundant LSOA dimer was detected at ca. 0.5 pg level and the total amount of dimers and trimers in the analyzed sample was just around 11 pg. Our results indicate that reactive nano-DESI is a valuable approach for examining the presence of specific functional groups and quantification of compounds possessing these groups in complex mixtures.

Laskin, Julia; Eckert, Peter A.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Alexander

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

14

A room temperature CuO nanowire sensor for organic volatile gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CuO nanowires have been synthesised by the thermal method in 100% oxygen ambient at 600°C. Gas sensing property has been examined by measuring the resistance change of the materials to 1% of butane gas and 1% of ethanol vapour separately under the ... Keywords: copper oxide (CuO) nanowires, room temperature gas sensor and organic volatile gas

C. F. Dee; T. Y. Tiong; M. M. Salleh; M. M. Yahya; B. Y. Majlis

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Comparison of approaches for simulating reactive solute transport involving organic degradation reactions by multiple terminal electron acceptors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reactive solute transport models are useful tools for analyzing complex geochemical behavior resulting from biodegradation of organic compounds by multiple terminal electron acceptors (TEAPs). The usual approach of simulating the reactions of multiple ... Keywords: biogeochemistry, groundwater, hydrogen, monod kinetics, thermodynamics

Gary P. Curtis

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

Kulprathipanja, S.

1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

17

Electronegative gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent knowledge on electronegative gases essential for the effective control of the number densities of free electrons in electrically stressed gases is highlighted. This knowledge aided the discovery of new gas dielectrics and the tailoring of gas dielectric mixtures. The role of electron attachment in the choice of unitary gas dielectrics or electronegative components in dielectric gas mixtures, and the role of electron scattering at low energies in the choice of buffer gases for such mixtures is outlined.

Christophorou, L.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Viscosity of ?-pinene secondary organic material and implications for particle growth and reactivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particles composed of secondary organic material (SOM) are abundant in the lower troposphere and play important roles in climate, air quality, and health. The viscosity of these particles is a fundamental property that is presently poorly quantified for conditions relevant to the lower troposphere. Using two new techniques, namely a bead-mobility technique and a poke-flow technique, in conjunction with simulations of fluid flow, we measure the viscosity of the watersoluble component of SOM produced by ?-pinene ozonolysis. The viscosity is comparable to that of honey at 90% relative humidity (RH), comparable to that of peanut butter at 70% RH and greater than or comparable to that of bitumen for ? 30% RH, implying that the studied SOM ranges from liquid to semisolid/solid at ambient relative humidities. With the Stokes-Einstein relation, the measured viscosities further imply that the growth and evaporation of SOM by the exchange of organic molecules between the gas and condensed phases may be confined to the surface region when RH ? 30%, suggesting the importance of an adsorption-type mechanism for partitioning in this regime. By comparison, for RH ? 70% partitioning of organic molecules may effectively occur by an absorption mechanism throughout the bulk of the particle. Finally, the net uptake rates of semi-reactive atmospheric oxidants such as O3 are expected to decrease by two to five orders of magnitude for a change in RH from 90% to ? 30% RH, with possible implications for the rates of chemical aging of SOM particles in the atmosphere.

Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Grayson, James W.; Bateman, Adam P.; Kuwata, Mikinori; Sellier, Mathieu; Murray, Benjamin J.; Shilling, John E.; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

19

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program established a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., can report to the EIA, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

Information Center

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Adsorption and Separation of Light Gases on an Amino-Functionalized Metal–Organic Framework: An Adsorption and In Situ XRD Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) metal-organic framework was studied for its use in the separation of CO{sub 2} from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} mixtures. Isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were measured. The atypical shape of these isotherms is attributed to the breathing properties of the material, in which a transition from a very narrow pore form to a narrow pore form and from a narrow pore form to a large pore form occurs, depending on the total pressure and the nature of the adsorbate, as demonstrated by in-situ XRD patterns measured during adsorption. Apart from CO{sub 2}, all tested gases interacted weakly with the adsorbent. As a result, they are excluded from adsorption in the narrow pore form of the material at low pressure. CO{sub 2} interacted much more strongly and was adsorbed in significant amounts at low pressure. This gives the material excellent properties to separate CO{sub 2} from other gases. The separation of CO{sub 2} from methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, or a combination of these gases has been demonstrated by breakthrough experiments using pellets of NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al). The effect of total pressure (1-30 bar), gas composition, temperature (303-403 K) and contact time has been examined. In all cases, CO{sub 2} was selectively adsorbed, whereas methane, nitrogen, and hydrogen nearly did not adsorb at all. Regeneration of the adsorbent by thermal treatment, inert purge gas stripping, and pressure swing has been demonstrated. The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) pellets retained their selectivity and capacity for more than two years.

Couck S.; Stavitski E.; Gobehiya, E.; Kirschhock, C.E.A.; Serra-Crespo, P.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Martinez Joaristi, A.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Baron, G. V.; Denayer J.F.M.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Quantifying the Reactive Uptake of OH by Organic Aerosols in a Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

O. Edney and J. B. Cohen, Aerosol Science and Technology, M.Uptake of OH by Organic Aerosols in a Continuous Flowof sub- micron organic aerosol particles using a continuous

Che, Dung L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Reactive Aging of Films of Secondary Organic Material Studied by Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition. In the case that particle composition is significantly hygroscopic, the particles take up water surface area, coupled to the moist surface properties, also increases rates of gas-particle reactions anthropogenic and natural sources.7,13,14 The presence of organic species in the particle phase tends

23

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Archive  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program established a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., can report to the EIA, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

Information Center

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

24

Biological production of products from waste gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

25

Suppressant: Inert Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Influencing the Reported Extinguishing Concentrations of Inert Gases.. ... for the Protection of Machinery Spaces and Gas Turbine Enclosures in ...

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

26

Quantum Coulomb Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lectures on Quantum Coulomb gases delivered at the CIME summer school on Quantum Many Body Systems 2010

Jan Philip Solovej

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

27

Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel carbon-conversion-fig-1.jpg Key Challenges: An important strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for capturing the greenhouse gas and converting it to fuels and chemicals. Although researchers working toward that goal demonstrated in 1992 such a reaction in the lab, a key outstanding scientific challenge was explaining the details of how the reaction took place - its "mechanism." Why it Matters: An important potential strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for capturing the greenhouse gas and converting it electrochemically to fuels and chemicals. Accomplishments: Computation to explain how carbon dioxide can be converted to small organic molecules with little energy input. The

28

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Diffusive separation of noble gases and noble gas abundance patterns in sedimentary rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

inventory of Xenon on noble gases in shales: the plastic bagnoble gas signature by shale, rock, gas, oil and or water byof noble gases on organic rich shales in the terrestrial

Torgersen, T.; Kennedy, B.M.; van Soest, M.C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet) Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: greet.es.anl.gov/main Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool, The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model, GREET References: GREET Fleet Main Page[1] Logo: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet)

32

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Greenhouse Gases Program of Greenhouse Gases Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program ***THE VOLUNTARY REPORTING OF GREENHOUSE GASES ("1605(b)") PROGRAM HAS BEEN SUSPENDED.*** This affects all survey respondents. Please visit the What's New page for full details. What Is the Voluntary Reporting Program? logo Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program encourages corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. The Program provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. More information on the program...

33

Calculation of the proportion of reactive waste for hydrogen ignition scenario  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was conducted as outlined in NHC Letter of Instruction 9751330 dated February 247 1997 and entitled {open_quotes}Analysis by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to Support a Safety Assessment for Rotary Mode Core Sampling in Flammable Gas Watchlist Tanks{close_quotes}. As prescribed in this letter, the results of this study were provided to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to revise the safety assessment document. Sampling Hanford tanks with a rotary drill could result in a drill-bit overheating accident which could ignite flammable gases present in the tanks. According to calculations, an over-heated drill bit could not get hot enough to ignite the hydrogen directly. However, an overheated drill bit could ignite saltcake waste containing high concentrations of organics, and a local organics burn would achieve sufficient temperature to ignite flammable gas present in the waste. This report estimates one quantity required to evaluate this particular accident scenario; the fraction of reactive waste in the tank waste. Reactive waste is waste that contains sufficient organic carbon and a low enough moisture content to ignite when in contact with an over-heated drill bit. This report presents a methodology to calculate the proportion of reactive waste for the 100 series tanks, using sampling data from tank characterization studies. The tanks are ranked according to their reactive waste proportions, and confidence limits are assigned to the estimates.

Gao, Feng; Heasler, P.G.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

A primer on greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a reference summarizing current understanding of basic information for information greenhouse gases. Each of the gases included is recognized to be important to the future state of global atmospheric chemistry and climate. Included as greenhouse gases are thoses of direct radiative importance to climate, thoses that act as radiative precursors, and those of importance as intermediate constitutents because of their chemical activities. Knowns, unknowns and uncertainties for each gas are described. This document focuses on information relevant to understanding the role of energy and atmospheric chemical and radiative processes in the determination of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases.

Wuebbles, D.J.; Edmonds, J.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime, high frequency, high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a plasma discharge and passing a gas to be treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases and enhanced catalyst reactivity through application of the pulsed microwave fields directly to the catalyst material sufficient to cause a polarizability catastrophe and enhanced heating of the metal crystallite particles of the catalyst, and in the presence or absence of the plasma. The invention also includes a reactor for aftertreatment of exhaust gases.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Zevenhoven, Ron

37

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Greenhouse Gases Basics Federal Requirements Guidance & Reporting Inventories & Performance Mitigation Planning Resources Contacts Water Efficiency Data Center Energy Efficiency Industrial Facilities Sustainable Federal Fleets

38

Adsorption of Atmospheric Gases on Pu Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface adsorption represents a competition between collision and scattering processes that depend on surface energy, surface structure and temperature. The surface reactivity of the actinides can add additional complexity due to radiological dissociation of the gas and electronic structure. Here we elucidate the chemical bonding of gas molecules adsorbed on Pu metal and oxide surfaces. Atmospheric gas reactions were studied at 190 and 300 K using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Evolution of the Pu 4f and O 1s core-level states were studied as a function of gas dose rates to generate a set of Langmuir isotherms. Results show that the initial gas dose forms Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the Pu metal surface followed by the formation of PuO{sub 2} resulting in a layered oxide structure. This work represents the first steps in determining the activation energy for adsorption of various atmospheric gases on Pu.

Nelson, A J; Holliday, K S; Stanford, J A; Grant, W K; Erler, R G; Allen, P G; McLean, W; Roussel, P

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

39

Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Agency/Company /Organization United States Department of Agriculture Sector Land Focus Area Agriculture Topics GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website http://globalresearchalliance. References Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases [1] Background "The Alliance is a bottom-up network, founded on the voluntary, collaborative efforts of countries. It will coordinate research on agricultural greenhouse gas emission reductions by linking up existing and new research efforts across a range of sub-sectors and work areas. It will

40

Organization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organization Print Organization Print 2012-12 org chart A complete ALS organization chart (June 2013) is available in PDF. Appointed and elected members of advisory panels provide guidance to Berkeley Lab and ALS management in developing the ALS scientific and user programs. ALS Staff Photo staff photo thumb Click on the image to see a recent photo of ALS staff in front of the dome. The photo was taken on May 14, 2013. ALS Management and Advisory Team Steve Kevan, Deputy Division Director, Science Michael J. Banda, Deputy Division Director, Operations Robert W. Schoenlein, Senior Staff Scientist, Next Generation Light Source Initiative Janos Kirz, Scientific Advisor Paul Adams, Division Deputy for Biosciences ALS Scientific, Technical, and User Support Groups Accelerator Physics

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases October 7, 2013 - 9:59am Addthis Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Basics: Read an overview of greenhouse gases. Federal Requirements: Look up requirements for agency greenhouse gas management as outlined in Federal initiatives and executive orders. Guidance and Reporting: Find guidance documents and resources for greenhouse gas accounting and reporting. GHG Inventories and Performance: See detailed comprehensive GHG inventories by Federal agency and progress toward achieving Scope 1 and 2 GHG and Scope 3 GHG reduction targets. Mitigation Planning: Learn how Federal agencies can cost-effectively meet their GHG reduction goals.

42

Utilization of the noble gases in studies of underground nuclear detonations  

SciTech Connect

From symposium on noble gases; Las Vegas, Nevada, USA (24 Sep 1973). The Livermore Gas Diagnostics Program employs a number of rare gas isotopes, both stable and radioactive, in its investigations of the phenomenology of underground nuclear detonations. Radioactive gases in a sample are radiochemically purified by elution chromatography, and the separated gases are radioassayed by gamma-ray spectrometry and by internal or thin-window beta proportional counting. Concentrations of the stable gases are determined by mass-spectrometry, following chemical removal of the reactive gases in the sample. The most general application of the noble gases is as device fraction indicators to provide a basis for estimating totals of chimney-gas components. All of the stable rare gases except argon have been used as tracers, as have /sup 127/Xe and /sup 85/Kr. /sup 37/Ar and /sup 85/Kr have proven to be of particular value in the absence of a good tracer material as reference species for studies of chimney-gas chemistry. The rate of mixing of chimney gases and the degree to which the sampled gas truly represents the underground gas mixture can be studied with the aid of the fission- product gases. /sup 222/Ra and He are released to the cavity from the surrounding rock and are therefore useful in studies of the interaction of the detonation with the surrounding medium. (auth)

Smith, C.F.

1973-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

43

Climate VISION: Greenhouse Gases Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Information GHG Information Greenhouse Gases, Global Climate Change, and Energy Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2001 [1605(a)] This report, required by Section 1605(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, provides estimates of U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, as well as information on the methods used to develop the estimates. The estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors, not on measured or metered emissions monitoring. Available Energy Footprints Industry NAICS* All Manufacturing Alumina & Aluminum 3313 Cement 327310 Chemicals 325 Fabricated Metals 332 Food and Beverages 311, 312 Forest Products 321, 322 Foundries 3315 Glass & Glass Products, Fiber Glass 3272, 3296 Iron & Steel Mills 331111 Machinery & Equipment 333, 334, 335, 336

44

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Mercury typically forms the sulfide (HgS) #12;4 because of the prevalence of sulfides in volcanic gases Aq + 2e-- ´ Hg0 Atmos Equation 1 Ionic mercury can form from the oxidation of elemental mercury Coal is known to contain mercury as a result of testing done upon the flue gas emitted from power plant

Laughlin, Robert B.

45

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools Website: greet.es.anl.gov/ This full life-cycle model evaluates the energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuels. The model allows users to evaluate various vehicle and fuel combinations. How to Use This Tool This tool is most helpful when using these strategies: Shift - Change to low-carbon modes Improve - Enhance infrastructure & policies Learn more about the avoid, shift, improve framework for limiting air

46

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Agency/Company /Organization: EPA and NHTSA Focus Area: Standards - Incentives - Policies - Regulations Topics: Policy Impacts Resource Type: Reports, Journal Articles, & Tools Website: www.epa.gov/oms/climate/regulations/420f10014.pdf This document establish a national program consisting of new standards for model year 2012 through 2016 light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. EPA is finalizing the first-ever national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards under the

47

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Trace gases could double climate warming  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentrations of several trace gases capable of changing the climate are increasing. Researchers are concerned about the trace gases despite their miniscule concentrations because they are such efficient absorbers of far-infrared radiation. The trace gases that concern climatologists are methane, nitrous oxide, and the chlorofluorocarbons or CFC's. The increase in atmospheric concentrations of these gases are discussed and atmospheric models predicting their greenhouse effect are described.

Kerr, R.A.

1983-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

49

Sustainability: Economics, Lifecycle Analysis, Green House Gases ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Report on Linking Transformational Materials and Processing for Energy and ... LIFECYCLE ANALYSIS, GREEN HOUSE GASES, AND CLIMATE CHANGE ...

50

USE OF SORBENT BEDS FOR TRANSFERRING HYDROGEN GASES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of uranium or palladium black beds for transferring hydrogen isotopes has been described. Such beds react quantitatively and rapidly with hydrogen and its isotopes, store large volumes of gas as the solid hydride, and can evolve the gas in a controlled manner to give any reasonable pressure. The uranium bed is somewhat simpler to operate since only heat need be supplied to carry out the pumping cycle, while the palladium must be cooled to approximately - -100 deg C to sorb hydrogen and heated to evolve the gas. The palladium bed is very dependable in operation; it is poisoned only by gases like H/xub 2/S and CO and, if poisoned, can be easily reactivated. Uranium is rather easily poisoned by small amounts of air; cycling in hydrogen will reactivate the uncombined uranium but the portion reacted with air will be permanently combined. (auth)

Ahmann, D.H.; Flint, P.S.; Salmon, O.N.

1954-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

51

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Greenhouse Gases, Climate Change, and Energy Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States. Contact the 1605(b) Program ...

52

Estimating Emissions of Other Greenhouse Gases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Estimating Emissions of Other Greenhouse Gases Presentation to the Department of Energy Republic of the Philippines September 17, 1997 Arthur Rypinski Energy ...

53

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases...

54

Granular gases under extreme driving  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady-state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

W. Kang; J. Machta; E. Ben-Naim

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

55

APPARATUS FOR CATALYTICALLY COMBINING GASES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

Busey, H.M.

1958-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

56

System for reactivating catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst is provided. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Raymond P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

57

Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

59

Measurements of waste tank passive ventilation rates using tracer gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of ventilation rate studies of eight passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks using tracer gases. Head space ventilation rates were determined for Tanks A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, S-102, U-103, and U-105 using sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and/or helium (He) as tracer gases. Passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of several key safety issues. These safety issues are associated with the rates of flammable gas production and ventilation, the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out, and the estimation of organic solvent waste surface areas. This tracer gas study involves injecting a tracer gas into the tank headspace and measuring its concentration at different times to establish the rate at which the tracer is removed by ventilation. Tracer gas injection and sample collection were performed by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation and/or Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Characterization Project Operations. Headspace samples were analyzed for He and SF{sub 6} by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The tracer gas method was first demonstrated on Tank S-102. Tests were conducted on Tank S-102 to verify that the tracer gas was uniformly distributed throughout the tank headspace before baseline samples were collected, and that mixing was sufficiently vigorous to maintain an approximately uniform distribution of tracer gas in the headspace during the course of the study. Headspace samples, collected from a location about 4 in away from the injection point and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the injection of He and SF{sub 6}, indicated that both tracer gases were rapidly mixed. The samples were found to have the same concentration of tracer gases after 1 hour as after 24 hours, suggesting that mixing of the tracer gas was essentially complete within 1 hour.

Huckaby, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Remund, K.M.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Reactive based NOx sensor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diesel engines exhibit better fuel economy and emit fewer greenhouse gases than gasoline engines. Modern diesel technology has virtually eliminated carbon monoxide and particulate emissions. Sulfur oxide emissions have ...

Vassiliou, Christophoros Christou

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Investigation of the surface chemical and electronic states of pyridine-capped CdSe nanocrystal films after plasma treatments using H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and Ar gases  

SciTech Connect

Surface chemical bonding and the electronic states of pyridine-capped CdSe nanocrystal films were evaluated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy before and after plasma treatments using H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and Ar gases from the viewpoint of studying the effects of surface capping organic molecules and surface oxidation. Surface capping organic molecules could be removed during the plasma treatment due to the chemical reactivity, ion energy transfer, and vacuum UV (VUV) of the plasma gases. With O{sub 2} plasma treatment, surface capping organic molecules were effectively removed but substantial oxidation of CdSe occurred during the plasma treatment. The valence band maximum energy (E{sub VBM}) of CdSe nanocrystal films mainly depends on the apparent size of pyridine-capped CdSe nanocrystals, which controls the interparticle distance, and also on the oxidation of CdSe nanocrystals. Cd-rich surface in O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} plasma treatments partially would compensate for the decrease in E{sub VBM}. After Ar plasma treatment, the smallest value of E{sub VBM} resulted from high VUV photon flux, short wavelength, and ion energy transfer. The surface bonding states of CdSe had a strong influence on the electronic structure with the efficient strip of capping molecules as well as different surface oxidations and surface capping molecule contents.

Wang, Seok-Joo; Kim, Hyuncheol; Park, Hyung-Ho; Lee, Young-Su; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Chang, Ho Jung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Materials Science and Technology Research Division, KIST, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electronics Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan-Si Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along ...

Levine J. S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases  

SciTech Connect

Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

64

Improved correlations for retrograde gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three correlations for retrograde gases have been developed. First, a correlation was developed that relates the composition of a retrograde gas-condensate mixture at any depletion stage to the composition at its dew point pressure. This correlation is as accurate as previous correlations, and in addition, to the composition, it includes the trends for molecular weight of heptanes plus fraction (A4WC7+), specific gravity of heptanes plus fraction (SGC7+), gas produced (GP) and fraction of liquid (FL). Second, a correlation to describe the molar distribution Of C7+ of a gas-condensate mixture as a function of carbon number (CN), the C6 mole fraction and the properties Of C7+ has been developed. For comparison, the Ahmed, et aL, and Whitson methods were evaluated using a data base of 52 extended (from C]5+ and up) retrograde gascondensate samples. The evaluation of the Ahmed, et al. and Whitson methods showed that both methods are better than the new method. The Ahmed, et aL method does a better overall job than the Vvlhitson method. Comparing the relative error, Ahmed, et al. method had an error of 20.6 percent, and Whitson's method had an error of 25.1 percent. Third, a new and improved retrograde dew point pressure correlation has been developed. The new dew point correlation is an improvement of the Kennedy-Nemeth dew point correlation. Contrary to the Kennedy-Nemeth correlation, temperature is not included in the new correlation. The new dew point correlation is based on composition and the C7+ properties, molecular weight and specific gravity of the heptanes plus fraction.

Crogh, Arne

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Date: 10312013 Referring Pages: Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from...

66

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology Editorial CurtisWelcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology. Throughon greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this

Oldenburg, C.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

68

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Reporting Guidelines  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reporting Guidelines Reporting Guidelines Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Reporting Guidelines The purpose of the guidelines is to establish the procedures and requirements for filing voluntary reports, and to ensure that the annual reports of greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities submitted by corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit are complete, reliable, and consistent. Over time, it is anticipated that these reports will provide a reliable record of the contributions reporting entities have made toward reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. General Guidelines General Guidelines Technical Guidelines Technical Guidelines Appendices to the Technical Guidelines:

69

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Catalysis and Reactivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

understanding of basic principles of surface reactivity and its control by surface modification, on identification of active sites and full characterization of their electronic...

71

Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

Yang, R.T.

1980-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

72

Collection and analysis of geothermal gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rapid, reliable procedures are described for the collection and analysis of geothermal gases at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Gases covered are H/sub 2/, He, Ar, O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/S. The methods outlined are suitable for geothermal exploration. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Gritzo, L.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

Miller, R.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

SciTech Connect

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

Not Available

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

75

The safe use of low temperature liquefied gases 1. Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(5-10%) but the others are odourless. Liquefied gases ­ oxygen, nitrogen, argon, helium and carbonCare with cryogenics The safe use of low temperature liquefied gases #12;Index 1. Introduction 1.1 Objective 1.2 Gases considered and typical uses 2. Properties of low temperature liquefied atmospheric gases

Martin, Ralph R.

76

Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

77

Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab Chemical Inventory All gas bottles and cylinders at the ALS must be identified with bar code and logged into the Berkeley Lab Chemical Inventory by ALS staff. The inventory will be updated periodically; for more information contact Experiment Coordination. Gases are stored either in the racks between buildings 6 and 7; toxic and corrosive gases are stored in Building 6, room 6C across the walkway from beamline 10.0.

78

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

79

Greenhouse gases and the metallurgical process industry  

SciTech Connect

The present lecture offers a brief review of the greenhouse effect, the sources of greenhouse gases, the potential effect of these gases on global warming, the response of the international community, and the probable cost of national compliance. The specific emissions of the metallurgical process industry, particularly those of the steel and aluminum sectors, are then examined. The potential applications of life-cycle assessments and of an input-output model in programs of emissions' abatement are investigated, and, finally, a few remarks on some implications for education are presented.

Lupis, C.H.P.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Composition of gases vented from a condenser  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Designers of systems that involve condensers often need to predict the amount of process vapor that accompanies the noncondensable gases that are vented from the condensers. An approximation is given that appears to provide, in many cases, reasonably accurate values for the mole ratio of process vapor to noncondensable gases in the vented mixture. The approximation is particularly applicable to flash and direct-contact power systems for geothermal brines and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). More regorous relationships are available for exceptional cases.

Lyon, R.N.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Stationary light in cold atomic gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss stationary light created by a pair of counter-propagating control fields in Lambda-type atomic gases with electromagnetically induced transparency for the case of negligible Doppler broadening. In this case the secular approximation used in the discussion of stationary light in hot vapors is no longer valid. We discuss the quality of the effective light-trapping system and show that in contrast to previous claims it is finite even for vanishing ground-state dephasing. The dynamics of the photon loss is in general non exponential and can be faster or slower than in hot gases.

Gor Nikoghosyan; Michael Fleischhauer

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

82

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen FLUE GASES and FUEL GASES 19.6.2001 2-1 Chapter 2 Flue gases and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is combusted in a hot fuel / bed material (mostly sand) / ash mixture which is fluidised by the combustion air.8 Principle of a fuel cell (picture OECD/IEA&ETSU, 1993) Future technologies will be based increasingly on the direct oxidation of fuel gases in fuel cells, which implies direct conversion of chemical potential

Zevenhoven, Ron

83

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

84

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

85

Reactive Power Compensator.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

86

Reactive power compensator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

ACID GASES IN CO2-RICH SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of species behavior involving dilute fluid environments has been crucial for the advance of modern solvation thermodynamics through molecular-based formalisms to guide the development of macroscopic regression tools in the description of fluid behavior and correlation of experimental data (Chialvo 2013). Dilute fluid environments involving geologic formations are of great theoretical and practical relevance regardless of the thermodynamic state conditions. The most challenging systems are those involving highly compressible and reactive confined environments, i.e., where small perturbations of pressure and/or temperature can trigger considerable density changes. This in turn can alter significantly the species solvation, their preferential solvation, and consequently, their reactivity with one another and with the surrounding mineral surfaces whose outcome is the modification of the substrate porosity and permeability, and ultimately, the integrity of the mineral substrates. Considering that changes in porosity and permeability resulting from dissolution and precipitation phenomena in confined environments are at the core of the aqueous CO2-mineral interactions, and that caprock integrity (e.g., sealing capacity) depends on these key parameters, it is imperative to gain fundamental understanding of the mineral-fluid interfacial phenomena and fluid-fluid equilibria under mineral confinement at subsurface conditions. In order to undertand the potential effects of acid gases as contaminants of supercritical CO2 streams, in the next section we will discuss the thermodynamic behavior of CO2 fluid systems by addressing two crucial issues in the context of carbon capture, utilization and sequestration (CCUS) technologies: (i) Why should we consider (acid gas) CO2 impurities? and (ii) Why are CO2 fluid - mineral interactions of paramount relevance?

Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL] [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Oxyferryl Heme Reactivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxyferryl Heme Reactivity Using both Radiation and Photochemical Oxyferryl Heme Reactivity Using both Radiation and Photochemical Techniques A. M. English, T. Fox, G. Tsaprailis, C. W. Fenwick, J. F. Wishart, J. T. Hazzard, and G. Tollin Adv. Chem. Ser. 254, Ch. 6, pp. 81-98 Abstract: Flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis were used to generate reductants in situ to study the electron-transfer (ET) reactivity of the FeIV=O heme centers in myoglobin and cytochrome c peroxidase. Reduction of a5RuIII groups covalently bound to surface histidines allowed intramolecular RuII --> FeIV=O ET rates to be measured. Protonation of the oxene ligand was found to be largely rate determining in myoglobin, consistent with the lack of proton donors in its heme pocket. The large distance (21-23 Ã…) between surface histidines and the heme in wild-type

89

Reactivity of Acid Generators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactivity of Acid Generators for Chemically Amplified Resists with Reactivity of Acid Generators for Chemically Amplified Resists with Low-Energy Electrons Atsuro Nakano, Takahiro Kozawa, Seiichi Tagawa, Tomasz Szreder, James F. Wishart, Toshiyuki Kai and Tsutomu Shimokawa Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 45, L197-L200 (2006). [Find paper at the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics] Abstract: In chemically amplified resists for ionizing radiations such as electron beams and extreme ultraviolet (EUV), low-energy electrons play an important role in the pattern formation processes. The reactivity of acid generators with low-energy electrons was evaluated using solvated electrons in tetrahydrofuran, which were generated by a pulsed electron beam. The rate constants of acid generators with the solvated electrons ranged from 0.6 to 1.9 x 1011 M-1s-1

90

Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Data Sources for High-GWP Gases from Aerosols..... 163 Table 4-5. Data Sources for High-GWP Gases from Solvent Applications ..... 164 Table 4-6. Data Sources for High ...

91

BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH Jump to: navigation, search Name BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) Place Taipei, Taiwan Sector Solar Product BOCLH is a joint venture between the Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation and the BOC Group in the United Kingdom and produces high-purity gases used in solar component production. References BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) is a company located in Taipei, Taiwan . References ↑ "BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=BOC_Lienhwa_Industrial_Gases_BOCLH&oldid=342956

92

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Why Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Why Report Why Report Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Why Report What Is the Purpose of Form EIA-1605? Form EIA-1605 provides the means for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, reductions, and sequestration under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The purpose of the Voluntary Reporting Program is to encourage corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. Form EIA-1605 provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. How Will My Entity Benefit From Reporting? There are a number of ways for your entity to benefit from reporting, including:

93

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

Turick, C.E.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

94

JILA Team Finds New Parallel Between Cold Gases and 'Hot' ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... theorists, have discovered another notable similarity between ultracold atomic gases and high-temperature superconductors, suggesting there may ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

95

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

MEASUREMENT OF RADIOIODINE IN PUREX STACK GASES  

SciTech Connect

The chemical behavior of iodine-131 in stack air from this site's Purex process is reported. The radioiodine in the stack gases apparently consists of variable proportions of molecular vapor and other forms of iodine, thus causing the efficiencies for most collection media to vary widely. Activated charcoal is a satisfactory collection medium although Process gases (ammonia and oxides of nitrogen) lower the efficiency of the charcoal from 99 to 88%. Ambient temperature and humidity had no effect on deposition and retention of iodine in long stainless steel sampling lines. Process conditions did have an effect and estimates of iodine released were 10 to 15% low due to this line loss. (auth)

Jacobsen, W.R.; Jolly, L. Jr.

1963-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Cycling with air and other nonhydrocarbon gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Injecting lean gas into condensate reservoirs is a practice currently used to increase recovery. The process reduces condensation and increases liquid recovery by revaporization. However, delaying natural gas sales for long periods of time is economically unattractive. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of nonhydrocarbon gases (i.e., air, N/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/) for improving recovery from retrograde condensate reservoirs. A compositional model that uses the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) was developed to evaluate condensate reservoir performance. A 15-component hydrocarbon system and extensive experimental data were used in the study. The simulator was tuned to match the available experimental data. The model shows that nonhydrocarbon gases can vaporize hydrocarbon liquids effectively, with CO/sub 2/ the most effective nonhydrocarbon for vaporizing heavy fractions.

Striefel, M.A.; Ahmed, T.H.; Cady, G.V.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Reactive Power Compensating System.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

1985-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

99

Reactive power compensating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

102

Grid Shunt Reactive Power Compensation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides essential information on transmission grid shunt reactive power compensation, with particular focus on controllable reactive power sources such as the static var controller (SVC). Applying the information presented in this report can help electric utilities planning grid shunt reactive power compensation strategies or operating shunt reactive power compensation equipment to increase grid reliability, improve grid performance and prevent costly cascading outages. The report is intende...

2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

103

Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases in simulated waste solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The radiolytic generation of gases in simulated mixed waste solutions was studied. Computer modeling of the non-homogeneous kinetic processes in these highly concentrated homogeneous solutions was attempted. The predictions of the modeling simulations were verified experimentally. Two sources for the radiolytic generation of H{sub 2} are identified: direct dissociation of highly energetic water molecules and hydrogen abstraction from the organic molecules by hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation of the homogeneous kinetics of the NO{sub X} system indicate that no N{sub 2}O will be produced in the absence of organic solutes and none was experimentally detected. It was also found that long term pre-irradiation of the simulated waste solutions leads to enhanced thermal production of these two gases. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.; Diamond, H.; Matheson, M.S.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

104

Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases in simulated waste solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The radiolytic generation of gases in simulated mixed waste solutions was studied. Computer modeling of the non-homogeneous kinetic processes in these highly concentrated homogeneous solutions was attempted. The predictions of the modeling simulations were verified experimentally. Two sources for the radiolytic generation of H{sub 2} are identified: direct dissociation of highly energetic water molecules and hydrogen abstraction from the organic molecules by hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation of the homogeneous kinetics of the NO{sub X} system indicate that no N{sub 2}O will be produced in the absence of organic solutes and none was experimentally detected. It was also found that long term pre-irradiation of the simulated waste solutions leads to enhanced thermal production of these two gases. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.; Diamond, H.; Matheson, M.S.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Reactive Air Aluminization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

106

U.S. Exports of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Exports; Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Supply and Disposition;

107

An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One fundamental property and limitation of grid based models is their inability to identify spatial details smaller than the grid cell size. While decades of work have gone into developing sub-grid treatments for clouds and land surface processes in climate models, the quantitative understanding of sub-grid processes and variability for aerosols and their precursors is much poorer. In this study, WRF-Chem is used to simulate the trace gases and aerosols over central Mexico during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign, with multiple spatial resolutions and emission/terrain scenarios. Our analysis focuses on quantifying the sub-grid variability (SGV) of trace gases and aerosols within a typical global climate model grid cell, i.e. 75x75 km2. Our results suggest that a simulation with 3-km horizontal grid spacing adequately reproduces the overall transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols downwind of Mexico City, while 75-km horizontal grid spacing is insufficient to represent local emission and terrain-induced flows along the mountain ridge, subsequently affecting the transport and mixing of plumes from nearby sources. Therefore, the coarse model grid cell average may not correctly represent aerosol properties measured over polluted areas. Probability density functions (PDFs) for trace gases and aerosols show that secondary trace gases and aerosols, such as O3, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, are more likely to have a relatively uniform probability distribution (i.e. smaller SGV) over a narrow range of concentration values. Mostly inert and long-lived trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC, are more likely to have broad and skewed distributions (i.e. larger SGV) over polluted regions. Over remote areas, all trace gases and aerosols are more uniformly distributed compared to polluted areas. Both CO and O3 SGV vertical profiles are nearly constant within the PBL during daytime, indicating that trace gases are very efficiently transported and mixed vertically by turbulence. But, simulated horizontal variability indicates that trace gases and aerosols are not well mixed horizontally in the PBL. During nighttime the SGV for trace gases is maximum at the surface, and quickly decreases with height. Unlike the trace gases, the SGV of BC and secondary aerosols reaches a maximum at the PBL top during the day. The SGV decreases with distance away from the polluted urban area, has a more rapid decrease for long-lived trace gases and aerosols than for secondary ones, and is greater during daytime than nighttime. The SGV of trace gases and aerosols is generally larger than for meteorological quantities. Emissions can account for up to 50% of the SGV over urban areas such as Mexico City during daytime for less-reactive trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC. The impact of emission spatial variability on SGV decays with altitude in the PBL and is insignificant in the free troposphere. The emission variability affects SGV more significantly during daytime (rather than nighttime) and over urban (rather than rural or remote) areas. The terrain, through its impact on meteorological fields such as wind and the PBL structure, affects dispersion and transport of trace gases and aerosols and their SGV.

Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.

2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

108

Traveling dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases  

SciTech Connect

Families of dark solitons exist in superfluid Fermi gases. The energy-velocity dispersion and number of depleted particles completely determine the dynamics of dark solitons on a slowly varying background density. For the unitary Fermi gas, we determine these relations from general scaling arguments and conservation of local particle number. We find solitons to oscillate sinusoidally at the trap frequency reduced by a factor of 1/{radical}(3). Numerical integration of the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation determines spatial profiles and soliton-dispersion relations across the BEC-BCS crossover, and proves consistent with the scaling relations at unitarity.

Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim [New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study and Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, Massey University, Private Bag 102904 NSMC, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Heat conduction in relativistic neutral gases revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The kinetic theory of dilute gases to first order in the gradients yields linear relations between forces and fluxes. The heat flux for the relativistic gas has been shown to be related not only to the temperature gradient but also to the density gradient in the representation where number density, temperature and hydrodynamic velocity are the independent state variables. In this work we show the calculation of the corresponding transport coefficients from the full Boltzmann equation and compare the magnitude of the relativistic correction.

A. L. Garcia-Perciante; A. R. Mendez

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

110

Efficieny handling effluent gases through chemical scrubbing  

SciTech Connect

This paper is presented as an information source for efficiencies of chemical scrubbing. In it, we will discuss the specific problems of scrubbing silane, disilane, diborane, phosphine, hydrogen selenide and arsine. We will explain the scrubber dynamics, gases and flow rates used along with liquid mediums. The equipment and procedures used for testing, as well as the determination of the results, will be discussed. We intend to give examples of possible reactions and documentation of our efficiencies. Installation and maintenance will be touched, as well as our experiments into accidental catastrophic releases. From all of this we will derive conclusions as to the best possible means of wet chemical scrubbing.

Herman, T.; Soden, S.

1988-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Reactive Maintenance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reactive Maintenance Reactive Maintenance Reactive Maintenance October 7, 2013 - 9:40am Addthis Reactive maintenance follows a run-it-until-it-breaks strategy where no actions or efforts are taken to maintain equipment as intended by the manufacturer. Studies indicate this is still the predominant mode of maintenance for Federal facilities. Advantages Reactive maintenance advantages are a double-edged sword. Federal agencies following a purely reactive maintenance strategy can expect little expenditures for manpower or system upkeep until something breaks. However, systems do break. With new equipment, Federal agencies can expect minimal incidents of failure. However, older equipment often experiences higher failure incidents and costlier repairs. Other advantages of reactive maintenance are:

112

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Greenhouse Gases and  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) (From Appendix E of the instructions to Form EIA-1605) GREENHOUSE GAS NAME GREENHOUSE GAS CODE FORMULA GWP TAR1 AR42 (1) Carbon Dioxide CO2 CO2 1 1 (2) Methane CH4 CH4 23 25 (3) Nitrous Oxide N2O N2O 296 298 (4) Hydroflourocarbons HFC-23 (trifluoromethane) 15 CHF3 12000 14800 HFC-32 (difluoromethane) 16 CH2F2 550 675 HFC-41 (monofluoromethane) 43 CH3F 97 -3 HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane) 17 CHF2CF3 3400 3500 HFC-134 (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane) 44 CHF2CHF2 1100 -3 HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) 18 CH2FCF3 1300 1430 HFC-143 (1,1,2-trifluorethane) 45 CHF2CH2F 330 -3 HFC-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane) 46 CF3CH3 4300 4470 HFC-152 (1,2-difluorethane) 47 CH2FCH2F

113

Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Apparatus for recovery of heat from exhaust gases of dryer  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and method are disclosed for recovery of heat from exhaust gases of dryers and return of heat to the dryer system. Fresh air is drawn through a plurality of tubes in heat exchange relation to heated exhaust gases and introduced into the drying system without intermingling of contaminated exhaust gases with the heated fresh air. The apparatus and method have particular utility in gas-fired commercial and industrial laundry dryers.

Winstel, F.H.

1977-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

116

Formation and Incorporation Energies of Fission Gases He, Xe, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Formation and Incorporation Energies of Fission Gases He, Xe , ... nuclear fuels are bcc alloys of uranium that swell under fission conditions, ...

117

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration / Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1999 iii ... The 1.1-percent average annual growth in U.S. green-

118

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program -Data and...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Home > Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > Data and Reports Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Data and Reports The first reporting cycle under the revised...

119

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Contact  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Mail: Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Energy Information Administration, EI-81 U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave, SW Washington, DC 20585...

120

Swapping Global Warming Gases for Methane in Gas Hydrate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Swapping Global Warming Gases for Methane in Gas Hydrate Layer ... would serve as energy sources as well as carbon dioxide storage sites in the ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Interface: Spreadsheet Website: greet.es.anl.govmain Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool, The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation...

122

Graphics: Atmospheric Trace Gases in Whole-Air Samples  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Graphics graphics Graphics: Atmospheric Trace Gases in Whole-Air Samples The following links are for methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, alkyl nitrates, and chlorinated carbon...

123

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Bulletin 627 Bulletin 627 BUREAU o b MINES FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS By Michael G. Zabetakis DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

124

Refinery Yield of Liquefied Refinery Gases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refinery Yield Refinery Yield (Percent) Product: Liquefied Refinery Gases Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.1 3.9 1993-2013 PADD 1 4.4 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.6 2.1 1993-2013 East Coast 4.4 5.3 5.1 5.1 4.9 2.2 1993-2013

125

Quantum oscillations in ultracold Fermi gases : realizations with rotating gases or artificial gauge fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the angular momentum of a harmonically trapped, noninteracting Fermi gas subject to either rotation or to an artificial gauge field. The angular momentum of the gas is shown to display oscillations as a function of the particle number or chemical potential. This phenomenon is analogous to the de Haas - van Alphen oscillations of the magnetization in the solid-state context. However, key differences exist between the solid-state and ultracold atomic gases that we point out and analyze. We explore the dependence of the visibility of these oscillations on the physical parameters and propose two experimental protocols for their observation. Due to the very strong dependence of the amplitude of the oscillations on temperature, we propose their use as a sensitive thermometer for Fermi gases in the low temperature regime.

Charles Grenier; Corinna Kollath; Antoine Georges

2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

126

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - About the 1605(b)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

About the 1605(b) Program About the 1605(b) Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program About the 1605(b) Program History Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (also known as the 1605(b) Program) encourages corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. The Program provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. The Voluntary Reporting Program began operations in 1994 under the auspices of the Energy Information Administration, the statistical branch of the Department of Energy. Under the original guidelines, the Program released annual reports and a public database for each reporting cycle from the 1994 through the 2005 data years.

127

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wuebbles, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

131

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. High-GWP gases 5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA Vintaging Model. Emissions from manufacturing and utilities are derived by the EPA from a mix of public and proprietary data, including from the EPA's voluntary emission reduction partnership programs. For this year's EIA inventory, 2008 values for HFC-23 from HCFC-22

132

Experimental investigation of the chemistry of excited states of rare gases. First quarterly progress report, 15 October 1978--15 January 1979. [Kr* + Cl/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of XeF(B) and XeF(C) state quenching from photodissociation of XeF/sub 2/ was continued and progress was made on reactive quenching of the resonance states, Xe(/sup 3/P/sub 1/) and Kr(/sup 3/P/sub 1/). The study of the reactions of the resonance states of the rare gases was concentrated on the Kr* + Cl/sub 2/ reaction.

Setser, D.W.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Reactive rules on the web  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reactive rules are used for programming rule-based, reactive systems, which have the ability to detect events and respond to them automatically in a timely manner. Such systems are needed on the Web for bridging the gap between the existing, passive ...

Bruno Berstel; Philippe Bonnard; François Bry; Michael Eckert; Paula-Lavinia P?trânjan

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

A Tariff for Reactive Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce system losses, increase circuit capacity, increase reliability, and improve efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, fuel cells, microturbines, and adjustable-speed drives. However, the installation is usually only economical if reactive power supply is considered during the design and construction phase. In this report, we find that if the inverters of PV systems or the generators of combined heat and power (CHP) systems were designed with capability to supply dynamic reactive power, they could do this quite economically. In fact, on an annualized basis, these inverters and generators may be able to supply dynamic reactive power for about $5 or $6 per kVAR. The savings from the local supply of dynamic reactive power would be in reduced losses, increased capacity, and decreased transmission congestion. The net savings are estimated to be about $7 per kVAR on an annualized basis for a hypothetical circuit. Thus the distribution company could economically purchase a dynamic reactive power service from customers for perhaps $6/kVAR. This practice would provide for better voltage regulation in the distribution system and would provide an alternate revenue source to help amortize the cost of PV and CHP installations. As distribution and transmission systems are operated under rising levels of stress, the value of local dynamic reactive supply is expected to grow. Also, large power inverters, in the range of 500 kW to 1 MW, are expected to decrease in cost as they become mass produced. This report provides one data point which shows that the local supply of dynamic reactive power is marginally profitable at present for a hypothetical circuit. We expect that the trends of growing power flow on the existing system and mass production of inverters for distributed energy devices will make the dynamic supply of reactive power from customers an integral component of economical and reliable system operation in the future.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactive Reactive Maintenance to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Federal Requirements Program Management Commissioning Metering Computerized Maintenance Management Systems Maintenance Types Reactive Preventive Predictive Reliability-Centered Major Equipment Types

136

Carbonaceous material for production of hydrogen from low heating value fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the catalytic production of hydrogen, from a wide variety of low heating value fuel gases containing carbon monoxide, comprises circulating a carbonaceous material between two reactors--a carbon deposition reactor and a steaming reactor. In the carbon deposition reactor, carbon monoxide is removed from a fuel gas and is deposited on the carbonaceous material as an active carbon. In the steaming reactor, the reactive carbon reacts with steam to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbonaceous material contains a metal component comprising from about 75% to about 95% cobalt, from about 5% to about 15% iron, and up to about 10% chromium, and is effective in suppressing the production of methane in the steaming reactor.

Koutsoukos, Elias P. (Los Angeles, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Method of activating limestone for enhanced capture of sulfur from post combustion gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Calcium based sulfur sorbent is prepared in a highly reactive form for use in removing gaseous sulfur species from coal combustion gases by heating finely divided limestone particles at a temperature of at least 2,000 K for a period of 5 to 50 milliseconds and quenching the particles by bringing them to a temperature below 1,400 K before they become sintered. For application to a coal combustion system, the quenching step may be carried out in the post coal combustion zone along with the reaction of the particles with sulfur. The initial heating step is performed outside of the zone because of the high temperatures required in that step, which would result in decomposition of the calcium-sulfur product.

Abichandan, J.S.; Holcombe, N.T.; Litka, A.F.; Woodroffe, J.A.

1991-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

138

Reactivity of heat treated chars  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reactivities of a number of chars produced from American coals varying in rank from lignite to anthracite have been measured in air, CO/sub 2/, steam and H/sub 2/. The variables chosen for the study were: rank of the parent coal, inorganic matter content, particle size, reaction temperature and pressure as well as heat treatment conditions used during char preparation. In all gasification atmospheres studied, reactivity plots for different chars are essentially of the same general shape and have three distinct regions. The reaction rate first increases slowly with time. The plot then goes through a maximum in slope, followed by a lengthy region of decreasing slope as burn-off approaches 100 percent. The shape of the burn-off curves can be explained on the basis of what is known about the development of porosity and surface area in microporous chars as they undergo gasification. Using an adjustable time parameter, equations have been developed which successfully correlate the reactivity data. Char reactivity decreases, in general, with increase in rank of the parent coal. Reactivities of chars in air, CO/sub 2/ and steam increase over 150-fold in going from a low volatile bituminous to a lignite parent coal; the spread in char reactivities in H/sub 2/ is only 30-fold. Removal of inorganic matter from coal precursors prior to their charring or from chars produced from the raw coals has a marked effect on char reactivity and surface area. Removal of inorganic matter (by acid washing) decreases, in general, reactivity of chars produced from lower rank coals, whereas reactivities of chars derived from higher rank coals increase.

Mahajan, O. P.; Walker, Jr., P. L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Mission The team establishes an energy conservation program as defined in Executive Order (EO) 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, and (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, and approved by LM. The team incorporates requirements for energy efficiency and reductions in greenhouse gases, and it advocates conserving environmental resources and improving operational capabilities and mission sustainability. Scope The team evaluates how to maintain and operate its buildings and facilities in a resource-efficient, sustainable, and economically viable manner. The

140

Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

1980-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Radiolytic generation of gases from synthetic waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Yields of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}, in simulated waste solutions, containing high nitrate, nitrite, hydroxide and aluminate, were experimentally measured in the presence and absence of moderate concentrations of organic chelators and some of their degradation products. These yields were measured at 30 and 60{degrees}C. No effect of dose rate on yield of H{sub 2} was observed and the amount of H{sub 2} increases linearly with dose and with the concentration of the organic additive. The generation of N{sub 2}O was observed only when organic solutes were present and its yield was dose rate dependent. Rate constants for H atom abstraction from the organic component by free H atoms were determined and these were correlated with the efficiency of the organic solute and in the generation of H{sub 2}. The rate of thermal generation of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O was also measured and was found to substantially increase in solutions that were preirradiated, presumably due to the generation of radiolytic degradation products. Computer modeling of the radiolytic precesses show the yield of H{sub 2} is strongly dependent on the nitrite concentration; the yield decreases with increasing nitrite concentration. The yield will be only weakly dependent on nitrate concentration above 0.5 M. Simulation of the homogeneous reactions that describe the chemistry of the NO{sub x} system indicate that: no N{sub 2}O will be formed in the absence of NO{sub x}-organic reactions. 18 refs., 41 figs., 13 tabs.

Meisel, D.; Diamond, H.; Horwitz, E.P.; Jonah, C.D.; Matheson, M.S.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Sullivan, J.C.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.D.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

143

Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases." The technology, which is a spinoff of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) GP-254 Process (U.S. patent 6,576,092), is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's NETL. Overview This invention discloses a method for the quantitative detection of heavy metals, especially mercury, in effluent gas streams. The method employs photo-deposition and an array of surface acoustic wave sensors where each sensor monitors a specific metal. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a national regulation for mercury removal from coal-derived flue and fuel gases in December 2011,

144

Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

145

Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

Beverly, Claude R. (Paducah, KY); Ernstberger, Harold G. (Paducah, KY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Conference report for nuclear fusion phenomena in ionized gases  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, is given. In particular, the format of the conference and the content of the review papers are summarized. (auth)

Porkolab, M.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2004  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

150

World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS+) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

151

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2002  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2005  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

153

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1996  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1995  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1994  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1999  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2000  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1997  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1998  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2001  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2003  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report presents the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Radio-frequency spectroscopy of ultracold atomic Fermi gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents experiments investigating the phase diagram of ultracold atomic Fermi gases using radio-frequency spectroscopy. The tunability of many experimental parameters including the temperature, the interparticle ...

Schirotzek, Andre

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Development of laser absorption sensors for combustion gases.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In situ sensors based on laser absorption spectroscopy are developed to monitor key species in combustion exhaust gases. Direct absorption (DA) and wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy (WMS) strategies… (more)

Chao, Xing.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

166

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work completed during the fifth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. Work this quarter focused on analytical characterization of untreated and treated Wyodak subbituminous coal and Illinois {number sign}6 bituminous coal. Mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of methanol/HCl pretreatment on the composition of each coal's inorganic phase. Results from these studies indicated that calcite is largely removed during pretreatment, but that other mineral species such as pyrite are unaffected. This finding is significant, since calcite removal appears to directly correlate with low severity liquefaction enhancement. Further work will be performed to study this phenomenon in more detail.

Miller, R.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC NEUTRONIC REACTIVITY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for production-line determination of the specific neutronic reactivity of such objects as individual nuclear fuel or neutron absorber elements and is notable for rapidity and apparatus simplicity. The object is incorporated in a slightly sub-critical chain fission reactive assembly having a discrete neutron source, thereby establishing a K/sub eff/ within the crucial range of 0.95 to 0.995. The range was found to afford, uniquely, flux- transient damped response in a niatter of seconds simultaneously with acceptable analytical sensitivity. The resulting neutron flux measured at a situs spaced from both object and source within the assembly serves as a calibrable indication of said reactivity.

Dessauer, G.

1960-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

169

The Speciation and reactivity of wastewater-derived organic nitrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effluent is disinfected with chlorine. It also can be formedtreatment plants still use chlorine for disinfection.flow) frequently employ chlorine disinfection. Chlorination

Sedlak, David L; Pehlivanoglu, Elif

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

The Speciation and reactivity of wastewater-derived organic nitrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

inhibition of planktonic algae due to surfactants used innutrient for the growth of algae and phytoplankton ini.e. , excessive growth of algae and plankton related to

Sedlak, David L; Pehlivanoglu, Elif

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity Factors  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emission Coefficients) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Emission Coefficients Table 1: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion Table 2: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Transportation Fuels Table 3: Generic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Stationary Fuel Combustion Table 4: Specific Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Biogenic Fuel Sources Table 5: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Factors for Highway Vehicles Table 6: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Alternative Fuel Vehicles Table 7: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Non-Highway Mobile Combustion

172

NRC symposium explores links between greenhouse gases, stratospheric ozone  

SciTech Connect

Two important climatic issues stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increase and the apparent connection between them led to the holding in March 1988 of a Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change. This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Bridgman method is used to grow especially undoped and doped single crystals of GaSe. Composition and impurity content of the grown crystals were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), and IR transmission measurements were performed at room temperature. The long wavelength lattice vibrations of four modifications of GaSe were described in the framework of modified one-layer linear-chain model which also takes into consideration the interaction of the selenium (Se) atom with the second nearest neighbor gallium (Ga) atom in the same layer. The existence of an eight-layer modification of GaSe is suggested and the vibrational frequencies of this modification are explained in the framework of a lattice dynamical model considered in the present work. Frequencies and the type of vibrations (gap, local, or resonance) for the impurity atoms were calculated and compared with the experimental results.

Allakhverdiev, K. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey) and Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: kerim.allahverdi@mam.gov.tr; Baykara, T. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Ellialtioglu, S. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Hashimzade, F. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Huseinova, D. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Kawamura, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Kaya, A.A. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Kulibekov, A.M. [Department of Physics, Mugla University, Mugla 48000 (Turkey); Onari, S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

174

Sampling and analysis methods for geothermal fluids and gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sampling procedures for geothermal fluids and gases include: sampling hot springs, fumaroles, etc.; sampling condensed brine and entrained gases; sampling steam-lines; low pressure separator systems; high pressure separator systems; two-phase sampling; downhole samplers; and miscellaneous methods. The recommended analytical methods compiled here cover physical properties, dissolved solids, and dissolved and entrained gases. The sequences of methods listed for each parameter are: wet chemical, gravimetric, colorimetric, electrode, atomic absorption, flame emission, x-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, spark source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, and emission spectrometry. Material on correction of brine component concentrations for steam loss during flashing is presented. (MHR)

Watson, J.C.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Spinor Bose gases: Explorations of symmetries, magnetism and quantum dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spinor Bose gases form a family of quantum fluids manifesting both magnetic order and superfluidity. This article reviews experimental and theoretical progress in understanding the static and dynamic properties of these fluids. The connection between system properties and the rotational symmetry properties of the atomic states and their interactions are investigated. Following a review of the experimental techniques used for characterizing spinor gases, their mean-field and many-body ground states, both in isolation and under the application of symmetry-breaking external fields, are discussed. These states serve as the starting point for understanding low-energy dynamics, spin textures and topological defects, effects of magnetic dipole interactions, and various non-equilibrium collective spin-mixing phenomena. The paper aims to form connections and establish coherence among the vast range of works on spinor Bose gases, so as to point to open questions and future research opportunities.

Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

Richardson, J.H.; Monaco, S.B.; Sanborn, R.H.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Taylor, J.R.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

“Hard probes” of strongly-interacting atomic gases  

SciTech Connect

We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

Nishida, Yusuke [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

180

Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 513 491 515 539 557 534 541 579 574 585 558 573 1998 578 536 591 581 517 456 486 486 471 477 457 468 1999 466 438 489 495 499 510 547 557 544 555 541 579 2000 587 539 605 587 615 570 653 629 591 627 609 611 2001 658 591 677 690 718 694 692 679 686 697 688 700 2002 639 591 587 621 622 605 654 639 649 650 623 638 2003 689 624 649 676 702 691 733 732 704 734 719 748 2004 741 697 727 692 692 688 718 729 706 723 711 718

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis To support planning for using renewable energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the Federal agency or program-level, it is important to consider what changes to the agencies building or land-holding portfolio may have on opportunities for renewable energy. Changes to consider include: Addition of new buildings or sites to the agencies portfolio Major renovations to existing buildings Office moves into or out of agency-owned or leased space. As is the case with planning energy efficiency measures, planning for renewable energy in new construction can be more cost-effective than

182

Treating water-reactive wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated.

Lussiez, G.W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Treating water-reactive wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated.

Lussiez, G.W.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Metal-Organic Frameworks for Highly Selective Separations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This grant was focused on the study of metal-organic frameworks with these specific objectives. (1) To examine the use of MOFs with well-defined open metal sites for binding of gases and small organics. (2) To develop a strategy for producing MOFs that combine large pore size with high surface area for their use in gas adsorption and separation of polycyclic organic compounds. (3) To functionalize MOFs for the storage of inert gases such as methane. A brief outline of our progress towards these objectives is presented here as it forms part of the basis for the ideas to be developed under the present proposal.

Omar M. Yaghi

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

185

MST: Organizations: Organic Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adhesive Bonding Adhesive Bonding Composites Encapsulation Materials Characterization Mechanical Testing Molding, Thermoforming, & Compounding Organizations Organic Materials Composite-to-metal adhesive bond Experimental/analytical study of composit-to-metal adhesive bond. The Organic Materials department in the Advanced Manufacturing and Processing Laboratory provides innovative prototype fabrication, full service small lot production, materials technology, processing expertise, and a broad range of organic material characterization and mechanical testing techniques. We encapsulate, we join and bond, we foam, we analyze and image, we build composite structures. We strive to make you, our customers, successful! We partner with you to find the right combination of materials, processing, and fixturing that will result in the highest value

186

Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Mitigation Options for Mitigation Options for Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, N Y 11973 ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies indude: secondary confinement, de- inventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented. 1. ACCIDENT PREVENTION & MITIGATION OPTIONS Accident prevention and mitigation in the process industries is based on the military concept of defense in

187

Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

188

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

SciTech Connect

This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

192

Nano Materials – Permeable Reactive Barrier  

Scientists at Idaho National Laboratory have developed improved nano-composite materials composed of an organic polymer constituent, an inorganic ...

193

Definition: Reactive Power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reactive Power Reactive Power Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reactive Power The portion of electricity that establishes and sustains the electric and magnetic fields of alternating-current equipment. Reactive power must be supplied to most types of magnetic equipment, such as motors and transformers. It also must supply the reactive losses on transmission facilities. Reactive power is provided by generators, synchronous condensers, or electrostatic equipment such as capacitors and directly influences electric system voltage. It is usually expressed in kilovars (kvar) or megavars (Mvar).[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition In electric power transmission and distribution, volt-ampere reactive (var) is a unit used to measure reactive power in an AC electric

194

Particle Swarm Optimization Based Reactive Power Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactive power plays an important role in supporting the real power transfer by maintaining voltage stability and system reliability. It is a critical element for a transmission operator to ensure the reliability of an electric system while minimizing the cost associated with it. The traditional objectives of reactive power dispatch are focused on the technical side of reactive support such as minimization of transmission losses. Reactive power cost compensation to a generator is based on the incurred cost of its reactive power contribution less the cost of its obligation to support the active power delivery. In this paper an efficient Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based reactive power optimization approach is presented. The optimal reactive power dispatch problem is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. The objective of the proposed PSO is to minimize the total support cost from generators and reactive compensators. It is achieved by maintaining the whole system power loss as minimum...

Sujin, P R; Linda, M Mary

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

196

Environ. Sc/. Techno/.1993, 27, 2593-2605 Transport and Fate of Reactive Trace Gases in Red Spruce Needles. 2.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. For in- stance, the Microsoft MFC GUI framework and OCX com- ponents are de facto industry standards will be automatically acquired and released, ACE provides a helper class called ACE Guard, which is defined as follows: template class ACE_Guard { public: ACE_Guard (MUTEX &m): lock (m) { this

Aneja, Viney P.

197

Ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climate change: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations in these proceedings review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere. Some of the questions and answers that followed the presentations have been included when they highlight noteworthy points that were not covered in the presentation itself. The request by the National Climate Program Office for a symposium on the above related issues is included. The symposium agenda and participants are given. As well as a glossary of special terms and abbreviations. In summary, the Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases, and Climate Change reviewed the magnitude and causes of stratospheric ozone depletion and examined the connections that exist between this problem and the impending climate warming to increasing greenhouse gases. The presentations of these proceedings indicate that the connections are real and important, and that the stratospheric ozone depletion and tropospheric greenhouse warming problems must be studied as parts of an interactive global system rather than as more or less unconnected events.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

National Waste Processing Conference Proceedings ASME 1994 ACID GASES, MERCURY,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and elemental mercury (Hg«» under oxidizing conditions of the off-gases downstream of the refuse incinerator), sulfur dioxide (S02)' nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), PCDDs/PCDFs, cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg emission regulations. Mercury Control in MWCs The capture of Hg in flue gas cleaning devices depends on the

Columbia University

200

Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Noble gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates Gisela Winckler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Noble gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates Gisela Winckler Lamont-Doherty Earth 2001; published 24 May 2002. [1] In samples of pure natural gas hydrates from Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia of rigid cages of water molecules that enclose guest gas molecules. The gas component of natural hydrates

Winckler, Gisela

202

Reactive and Catalytic Air Purification Materials - Energy ...  

Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency; Electricity Transmission; ... Target selectivity can be controlled through selection of reactive components.

203

Directional Reactive Power Ground Plane Transmission  

Directional Reactive Power Ground Plane Transmission Technology Summary ... The invention can transmit electrical power through the surface of the ...

204

Partnering Today: Technology Transfer Highlights Reactive ...  

THE LLNL TECHNOLOGY COMPANY PRODUCT Partnering Today: Technology Transfer Highlights Reactive NanoTechnologies Inc.: Temperature-controlled Precision Bonding

205

Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at...

206

Source Footprint Considerations in the Determination of Volatile Organic Compound Fluxes from Forest Canopies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Above-canopy sampling of trace gases to determine volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions should be interpreted in terms of footprint considerations. This can be accomplished by defining the upwind canopy areas effectively sampled under the ...

S. K. Kaharabata; P. H. Schuepp; J. D. Fuentes

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

Carr; Jeffrey W. (Livermore, CA)

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

208

Program on Technology Innovation: Health Effects of Organic Aerosols: An EPRI/NARSTO Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI-NARSTO Health Effects of Organic Aerosols Workshop was held in Palo Alto, California on October 24-25, 2006. The workshop was intended to further our understanding of the organic fraction of ambient particulate matter (PM) and associated organic gases. The composition of organic aerosol is very complex, varying in accordance with physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere and comprising numerous organic compounds of both anthropogenic and natural origin. The workshop focused on organic ae...

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

209

Alcohol fuel use: Implications for atmospheric levels of aldehydes, organic nitrates, pans, and peroxides: Separating sources using carbon isotopes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed DiNitroPhenylHydrazone (DNPH) derivatization--high performance liquid chromatographic methods for measuring aldehydes in ambient samples with detection limits of approximately 1ppbV. These methods can be used for air or precipitation studies, and have been used for indoor measurements at much higher levels using shorter integration times. We are using gas chromatographs with electron capture detection (GCECD) to measure ambient levels of peroxyacyl nitrates and organic nitrates. Diffusion tubes with synthetically produced organic nitrates in n-tridecane solution are used to calibrate these systems. These compounds are important means of transporting NO/sub x/ over large scales due to their reduced tropospheric reactivity, low water solubilities, photolytic, and thermal stability. Their chemistries are coupled to aldehyde chemistry and are important greenhouse gases as well as phytotoxins. We have completed preliminary studies in Rio de Janeiro examining the atmospheric chemistry consequences of ethanol fuel usage. The urban air mass has been effected by the direct uncontrolled usage of ethanolgasoline and ethanoldiesel mixtures. We are exploring the use of luminol chemiluminescent detection of peroxides using gas chromatography to separate the various organic and inorganic peroxides. These compounds are coupled to the aldehyde chemistry, particularly in remote chemistries down-wind of urban sources. 13 refs.

Gaffney, J.S.; Tanner, R.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

USE OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and R. E. Poulson. Mercury Emissions From A Simulated In-for the Measurement of Mercury in Oil Shale Gases D. GirvinJFOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN OIL SHALE GASES D. C.

Girvin, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Permeable Reactive Barriers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barrier Field Projects Durango, Colorado DOE installed a PRB in October 1995 to treat ground water from a uranium mill tailings disposal site at Durango, Colorado Read more Cañon City, Colorado ESL personnel conduct tests and help evaluate performance at other PRB sites, such as Cotter Corporation's Cañon City site in Colorado. Read more Monticello, Utah Installation of a PRB hydraulically downgradient of the Monticello, Utah, millsite was completed June 30, 1999, as an Interim Remedial Action. Read more A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is a zone of reactive material placed underground to intercept and react with a contaminant plume in ground water. Typically, PRBs are emplaced by replacing soils with reactive

212

System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

Vogel, John S. (San Jose, CA); Ognibene, Ted J. (Oakland, CA); Bench, Graham S. (Livermore, CA); Peaslee, Graham F. (Holland, MI)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

213

Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases from synthetic wastes. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To better understand the processes leading to the generation and release of gases from waste tanks, the authors studied the radiolytic and thermal generation of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3} in nonradioactive waste simulant solutions and slurries. The radiolytic sources for H{sub 2} are e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} and its predecessors and H atoms. Radiolysis of the water generates some H{sub 2} and an additional amount comes from the hydrogen abstraction reaction H + RH{yields}H{sub 2}+R{center_dot}. Nitrate scavenges e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} and its predecessors whereas nitrite is the major H-atom scavenger. Computer modeling shows that if [NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}] is above 0.5 M, and [NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}] is above 2M, the addition of other scavengers will have little effect on the yield of H{sub 2}. In the presence of organic molecules O{sub 2} is efficiently destroyed. Small yields of ammonia were measured and the yields increase linearly with dose. The nitrogen in NH{sub 3} comes from organic chelators. The yields of gases in solution depend only weakly on temperature. The rate of thermal generation of gases increases upon preirradiation, reaches a maximum, and then declines. The known radiolytic degradation products of chelators, NTA, IDA, glycolate, glyoxylate, formaldehyde, formate, oxalate, and hydroxylainine were examined for their roles in the thermal generation of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O at 60{degrees}C. In solution or slurry only radiolytically produced Pd intermediate strongly retains H{sub 2}. Radiolytic yields of N{sub 2}O are strongly reduced by Cr(III). In irradiated slurry, loose and tight gas were found. The loose gas could be removed by bubbling from the slurry, but the tight gas could be released only by dissolution of the slurry.

Meisel, D.; Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M.S.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

PPPL Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has received a federal Sustainability Award for reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions 48 percent since 2008 - far exceeding the U.S. government's goal of a 28 percent reduction. Members of the PPPL staff were among the 20 recipients of the Sustainability Awards in a ceremony in Washington, D.C., on Thursday, Sept.

215

Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options Keith Paustian (keithp@nrel.colostate.edu; 970-491-1547) Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory Colorado State University Ft. Collins, CO 80523 Bruce Babcock (babcock@iastate.edu; 515-294-6785) Cathy Kling (ckling@iastate.edu; 515-294-5767) Center for Agriculture and Rural Development Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-1070 Jerry Hatfield (hatfield@nstl.gov; 515-294-5723) USDA - National Soil Tilth Laboratory Ames, IA 50011 Rattan Lal (lal.1@osu.edu; 614-292-9069) School of Natural Resources The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210-1085 Bruce McCarl (mccarl@tamu.edu; 979-845-1706) Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-2124 Sandy McLaughlin (un4@ornl.gov; 865-574-7358)

216

CO2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,842,126 entitled "Co 2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases." Disclosed in this patent are novel methods for processing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from combustion gas streams. Researchers at NETL are focused on the development of novel sorbent systems that can effectively remove CO 2 and other gases in an economically feasible manner with limited impact on energy production cost. The current invention will help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions by using an improved, regenerable aqueous amine and soluble potassium carbonate sorbent system. This novel solvent system may be capable of achieving CO 2 capture from larger emission streams at lower overall cost. Overview Sequestration of CO

217

EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses by sector were obtained from the January 2011 Monthly Energy Review (MER). In keeping with current international practice, this report presents data on greenhouse gas emissions in million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data can be converted to carbon equivalent units by

218

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Getting Started  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Getting Started Getting Started Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Getting Started Form EIA-1605 may seem daunting at first, even for entities that have reported under the original program. That's why EIA has developed the Getting Started page to help entities take a systematic approach to reporting their emissions and reductions. The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program suggests that prospective reporters familiarize themselves with the specific requirements for reporting their entity's inventory and reductions by answering the questions embodied in the 10 steps below. In addition, EIA has prepared the interactive Getting Started tool to help reporters determine what parts of Form EIA-1605 they need to complete. Getting Started Tool Getting Started PDF Tables

219

Transporting & Shipping Hazardous Materials at LBNL: Compressed Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Compressed Gases Compressed Gases Self-Transport by Hand & Foot Self-Transport by Vehicle Ship by Common Carrier Conduct Field Work Return Cylinders Self-Transport by Hand & Foot Staff may personally move (self-transport) compressed gas cylinders by hand & foot between buildings and in connecting spaces (i.e., hallways, elevators, etc.) within buildings provided it can be done safely. The following safety precautions apply: Use standard cylinder dollies to transport compressed gas cylinders. While dollies are preferred, cylinders weighing 11 Kg (25 lbs) or less may be hand-carried. Never move a cylinder with a regulator connected to it. Cylinder valve-protection caps and valve-opening caps must be in place when moving cylinders. Lecture bottles and other cylinders that are

220

Recovery of CO2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan G. Chapel (dan.chapel@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) Carl L. Mariz (carl.mariz@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) FluorDaniel One Fluor Drive Aliso Viejo CA, 92698 John Ernest (john.ernest@minimed.com; 818-576-4293) Advanced Quality Services Inc 11024 Balboa Blvd. PMB154, Granada Hills, CA 91344-5007 1 Recovery of CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan Chapel - Fluor Daniel Inc., Senior Vice President Technology; Oil, Gas & Power John Ernest - Advanced Quality Services Inc., Validation Engineer

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon dioxide. PPPL reduced leaks of SF6 by 65 percent over three years - reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions by 48 percent between 2008 and 2011. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon

222

Reading Comprehension - Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases A solid has a definite _________ mass texture volume and a _________ 3D irregular definite shape. The particles in a solid are _________ free to move around motionless packed tightly together . Particles in a solid move by _________ sliding past one another vibrating back and forth slightly jiggling around . _________ Viscosity Amorphous Crystalline solids soften before melting. The particles in this type of solid are not arranged in regular pattern. Amorphous solids _________ do don't have a distinct melting point. Crystalline solids have a _________ distinct color and shape distinct pattern and melting point . Liquids have no _________ volume mass shape of their own. A liquid takes the shape of its container. Without a container liquids spread into a wide,

223

Volatile oils and retrograde gases - What's the difference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part 1 showed that at reservoir conditions, volatile oils exhibit bubble points and retrograde gases exhibit dew points. The article contained a graph of initial producing gas-oil ratio plotted against concentration of heptanes plus in the fluid. This paper reproduces a portion of that graph with the data points indicating that the fluid had a dew point or a bubble point at reservoir conditions. The scatter in the data reflects the compositional differences among the fluids and the differences in surface separation facilities and conditions. In this graph, only three fluids have dew points and initial producing gas-oil ratios less than 3,200 scf/STB, and only one fluid reaches a bubble point above this value. Therefore, a value of 3,200 scf/STB appears to be a good cutoff between volatile oils and retrograde gases.

McCain, W.D. Jr. (S.A. Holditch and Associates, College Station, TX (United States)); Bridges, B. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Measurement of biocarbon in flue gases using 14C  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary investigation of the biocarbon fraction in carbon dioxide emissions of power plants using both fossil- and biobased fuels is presented. Calculation of the biocarbon fraction is based on radiocarbon content measured in power plant flue gases. Samples were collected directly from the chimneys into plastic sampling bags. The C-14 content in CO{sub 2} was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Flue gases from power plants that use natural gas, coal, wood chips, bark, plywood residue, sludge from the pulp factory, peat, and recovered fuel were measured. Among the selected plants, there was one that used only fossil fuel and one that used only biofuel; the other investigated plants burned mixtures of fuels. The results show that C-14 measurement provides the possibility to determine the ratio of bio and fossil fuel burned in power plants.

Haemaelaeinen, K.M.; Jungner, H.; Antson, O.; Rasanen, J.; Tormonen, K.; Roine, J. [University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland). Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required.

Kang, Michael (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants:April 1999 - March 2000 Dataset Summary Description This dataset corresponds to the final report on a screening study to compare six methods of removing noncondensable gases from direct-use geo-thermal steam power plants. This report defines the study methodologies and compares the performance and economics of selected gas-removal systems. Recommendations are presented for follow-up investigations and implementation of some of the technologies discussed. The specific gas-removal methods include five vacuum system configurations using the conventional approach of evacuating gas/vapor mixtures from the power plant condenser system and a system for physical separation of steam and gases upstream of the power turbine. The study focused on flashed-steam applications, but the results apply equally well to flashed-steam and dry-steam geothermal power plant configurations. Two gas-removal options appear to offer profitable economic potential. The hybrid vacuum system configurations and the reboiler process yield positive net present value results over wide-ranging gas concentrations. The hybrid options look favorable for both low-temperature and high-temperature resource applications. The reboiler looks profitable for low-temperature resource applications for gas levels above about 20,000 parts per million by volume. A vacuum system configuration using a three-stage turbocompressor battery may be profitable for low-temperature resources, but results show that the hybrid system is more profitable. The biphase eductor alternative cannot be recommended for commercialization at this time. The report is available from NREL's publication database.

227

Bose-Einstein-condensed gases with arbitrary strong interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bose-condensed gases are considered with an effective interaction strength varying in the whole range of the values between zero and infinity. The consideration is based on the usage of a representative statistical ensemble for Bose systems with broken global gauge symmetry. Practical calculations are illustrated for a uniform Bose gas at zero temperature, employing a self-consistent mean-field theory, which is both conserving and gapless.

V. I. Yukalov; E. P. Yukalova

2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

228

Remote monitoring of volcanic gases using passive Fourier transform spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Volcanic gases provide important insights on the internal workings of volcanoes and changes in their composition and total flux can warn of impending changes in a volcano`s eruptive state. In addition, volcanoes are important contributors to the earth`s atmosphere, and understanding this volcanic contribution is crucial for unraveling the effect of anthropogenic gases on the global climate. Studies of volcanic gases have long relied upon direct in situ sampling, which requires volcanologists to work on-site within a volcanic crater. In recent years, spectroscopic techniques have increasingly been employed to obtain information on volcanic gases from greater distances and thus at reduced risk. These techniques have included UV correlation spectroscopy (Cospec) for SO{sub 2} monitoring, the most widely-used technique, and infrared spectroscopy in a variety of configurations, both open- and closed-path. Francis et al. have demonstrated good results using the sun as the IR source. This solar occultation technique is quite useful, but puts rather strong restrictions on the location of instrument and is thus best suited to more accessible volcanoes. In order to maximize the flexibility and range of FTIR measurements at volcanoes, work over the last few years has emphasized techniques which utilize the strong radiance contrast between the volcanic gas plume and the sky. The authors have successfully employed these techniques at several volcanoes, including the White Island and Ruapehu volcanoes in New Zealand, the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii, and Mt. Etna in Italy. But Popocatepetl (5452 m), the recently re-awakened volcano 70 km southeast of downtown Mexico City, has provided perhaps the best examples to date of the usefulness of these techniques.

Love, S.P.; Goff, F.; Counce, D.; Schmidt, S.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Siebe, C.; Delgado, H. [Univ. Nactional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico)

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Thermodynamic and hydrodynamic behaviour of interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data processing speed and decreased power consumption. Understanding the spin relaxation, diffusion and other transport properties is of fundamental importance this field. An important advantage of cold gases in studies of spin transport phenomena... of information [39]. Either extending conventional charge-based electronic appliances by the spin degree of free- dom, or using the spin alone can be the foundation for a new generation of “spintronic” devices. Advantages are for instance nonvolatility, increased...

Goulko, Olga

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

230

Mixtures of Bose Gases Confined in a Ring Potential  

SciTech Connect

The rotational properties of a mixture of two distinguishable Bose gases that are confined in a ring potential provide novel physical effects that we demonstrate in this study. Persistent currents are shown to be stable for a range of the population imbalance between the two components at low angular momentum. At higher values of the angular momentum, even small admixtures of a second species of atoms make the persistent currents highly fragile.

Smyrnakis, J.; Kavoulakis, G. M.; Magiropoulos, M. [Technological Education Institute of Crete, P.O. Box 1939, GR-71004, Heraklion (Greece); Bargi, S.; Kaerkkaeinen, K.; Reimann, S. M. [Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

2009-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

231

Persistent currents in Bose gases confined in annular traps  

SciTech Connect

We examine the problem of stability of persistent currents in a mixture of two Bose gases trapped in an annular potential. We evaluate the critical coupling for metastability in the transition from quasi-one- to two-dimensional motion. We also evaluate the critical coupling for metastability in a mixture of two species as a function of the population imbalance. The stability of the currents is shown to be sensitive to the deviation from one-dimensional motion.

Bargi, S.; Malet, F.; Reimann, S. M. [Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Kavoulakis, G. M. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, P.O. Box 1939, GR-71004, Heraklion (Greece)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What's New  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > What's New Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Suspended May 2011 The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases ("1605(b)") Program has been suspended. The suspension is due to recent reductions in budget appropriations and is effective immediately. Survey respondents may still submit data to the 1605(b) Program using the program's Workbook Form via EIA's Secure File Transfer mechanism. However, EIA will not be able to process and review submitted data or offer respondent support on the submitted data. Should a respondant submit data under the current collection cycle to EIA, the data will be retained in our electronic records. If the 1605(b) Program resumes normal operations, your submitted data will be reviewed and processed at that time. You will be notified in the future if the 1605(b) Program resumes normal operation. If you have any questions, please contact the survey manager, Paul McArdle, at paul.mcardle@eia.gov

236

Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment of greenhouse gases emissions associated to colombian biofuels lifecycle.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth (2012) Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment… (more)

Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Organization Chart  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Mission Organization Staff - Organization Chart About Us Bob Cottingham, 865-241-0554 Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Meghan Drake 865-241-8288 Michael...

238

Science Organizations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organizations Science Organizations National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place...

239

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials and organisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

r I- t of silica aerogels by Xe-129 NMR spectroscopy andcatalysts, ceramics, aerogels, food products, and antiquatedxenon penetration within an aerogel sample as a function of

Goodson, B.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2-  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- and Water-Based Geothermal Reservoirs Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- and Water-Based Geothermal Reservoirs Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Tracers and Tracer Interpretation Project Description The concepts and theory behind the use of heat-sensitive tracers to study the thermal evolution of geothermal reservoirs was developed in the late 1980's under the Hot Dry Rock Project. Those studies described-conceptually and mathematically-the application of reactive tracers to tracking thermal fronts and to reservoir sizing. Later mathematical treatments focused on application of a single reactive tracer test to recover the temperature profile of a single streamtube. Previous tracer work has mainly focused on identifying conservative tracers. In these studies, chemicals that degraded at reservoir temperatures were discarded. Benzoic acids and dicarboxylic acids, which were found by Adams to degrade, may be useful as reactive tracers. Organic esters and amide tracers that undergo hydrolysis have been investigated and their use as reactive tracers appears feasible over a temperature range of 100ºC to 275ºC. However their reaction rates are pH dependent and sorption reactions have not been evaluated. While reactive tracer parameters have been measured in the lab, reactive tracers have not been extensively tested in the field. Thus, while reactive tracers appear to be a promising means of monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir, the concept has yet to be tested at the scale necessary for successful implementation, and tools for analyzing results of such tracer tests under the non-ideal conditions of an actual geothermal system have yet to be developed.

242

Benchmarks for Quantifying Fuel Reactivity Depletion Uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytical methods, described in this report, are used to systematically determine experimental fuel sub-batch reactivities as a function of burnup. Fuel sub-batch reactivities are inferred using more than 600 in-core pressurized water reactor (PWR) flux maps taken during 44 cycles of operation at the Catawba and McGuire nuclear power plants. The analytical methods systematically search for fuel sub-batch reactivities that minimize differences between measured and computed reaction rates, using Studsvik ...

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

243

Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

244

ENGINE COMBUSTION CONTROL VIA FUEL REACTIVITY ...  

A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a ...

245

Electrochemistry of Enargite: Reactivity in Alkaline Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reactivity of enargite samples from Montana, US and Quiruvilca, Peru were studied under alkaline conditions, pH range of 8-13, using a cyclic voltammetry ...

246

Reactive Air Aluminizing - Energy Innovation Portal  

Reactive Air Aluminizing is a process for applying a protective coating on steel components in solid oxide fuel ... Building Energy Efficiency; ...

247

Reactive Air Aluminizing - Energy Innovation Portal  

Reactive Air Aluminizing is a process for applying a protective coating on steel components in solid oxide fuel cells and other high temperature electrochemical devices.

248

Modeling Terrestrial Biogenic Sources of Oxygenated Organic Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOCs) likeacetone have been recognized as important atmospheric constituents due to their ability to sequester reactive nitrogen in the form peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and to be a source ...

Christopher Potter; Steven Klooster; David Bubenheim; Hanwant B. Singh; Ranga Myneni

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Organization | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

About Us Organization Organization Leadership Organization History Careers Contact Us Organization...

250

Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Quarterly technical progress report, June--August 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

Miller, R.L.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory Title Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors McMeeking, Gavin R., Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Stephen Baker, Christian M. Carrico, Judith C. Chow, Jeffrey Collett L. Jr., Wei Min Hao, Amanda S. Holden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, William C. Malm, Hans Moosmuller, Amy P. Sullivan, and Cyle E. Wold Journal Journal of Geophysical Research Volume 114 Abstract We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern United States (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO2, CO, CH4, C2-4 hydrocarbons, NH3, SO2, NO, NO2, HNO3, and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO4 2, NO3, Cl, Na+, K+, and NH4 + generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed emission factors for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions for individual fuels.

252

SORPTION OF GASES BY VAPOR-DEPOSITED TITANIUM FILMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are summarized for an investigation of the sorption rates of gases on vapor-deposited titanium films. The usefulness of such films for ultrahigh speed vacuum pumping is appraised. The sorption of hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, helium, argon, and methane onto titanium films was measured for a variety of circumstances using techniques and apparatus developed for this specific purpose. The information obtained and techniques evolved in this study have shown that large-scale getter pumping is feasible and can be a very effective means of pumping many gases. Sticking fractions larger than 0.8 were obtained for hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The experiments have shown that the sticking fraction for gases on vapor-deposited films is a function of the deposition conditions. There is strong evidence to support the supposition that conditions which favor the formation of a porous, fine-grained film structure with a large surface-to-volume ratio produce films with the highest sorption rates. The technique for measuring sticking fractions is new and in many respects unique. It utilizes a very large sorption surface, thus minimizing the perturbing effect of the instrumentation and evaporation apparatus and reducing the hazard of film contamination due to small leaks in the system or outgassing of system components. The method gives especially good accuracy for measurements of sticking fractions approaching unity. The quantity of gas adsorbed, the gas flux onto the getter surface, and the gas flux leaving the getter surface are measured directly. Any two of these three independent measurements can be used to determine the sticking fraction, thereby providing a means of checking the data. The evaporation techniques, substrate surface, and substrate area were chosen to very nearly duplicate the conditions likely to be encountered in the practical application of large-scale getter pumping. (auth)

Clausing, R.E.

1964-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Supersolid phase in atomic gases with magnetic dipole interaction  

SciTech Connect

A major obstacle for the experimental realization of a supersolid phase with cold atomic gases in an optical lattice is the weakness of the nearest-neighbor interactions achievable via magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. In this paper, we show that by using a large filling of atoms within each well, the characteristic energy scales are strongly enhanced. Within this regime, the system is well described by the rotor model, and the qualitative behavior of the phase diagram derives from mean-field theory. We find a stable supersolid phase for realistic parameters with chromium atoms.

Buehler, Adam; Buechler, Hans Peter [Institute for Theoretical Physics III, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 (Germany)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Handbook of radiative heat transfer in high-temperature gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work offers both an original method for calculating optical properties of low-temperature plasma at elevated densities ... and an effective new means for calculating radiative heat transfer in hot gases and plasma with arbitrary temperature and pressure distributions. These methods allow for automatic accounting of all details of the plasma spectrum, including the line structure. This volume contains radiant transfer in problems of heat transfer; integration over frequency; methods of partial characteristics; method of effective populations; calculation of partial characteristics; appendix: tabular data.

Soloukhin, R.I.; Golovnev, I.F.; Zamurayev, V.P.; Katsnelson, S.S.; Kovalskaya, G.A.; Sevastyanenko, V.G.; Soloukhin, R.I.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

Sehmel, G.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

MAGNETIC METHOD FOR PRODUCING HIGH VELOCITY SHOCK WAVES IN GASES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is described for producing high-energy plasmas comprising a tapered shock tube of dielectric material and having a closed small end, an exceedingly low-inductance coll supported about and axially aligned with the small end of the tapered tube. an elongated multiturn coil supported upon the remninder of the exterior wall of the shock tube. a potential source and switch connected in series with the low-inductance coil, a potential source and switch connected in series with the elongated coil, means for hermetically sealing the large end of the tube, means for purging the tube of gases, and means for admitting a selected gas into the shock tube.

Josephson, V.

1960-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

257

Quantum mechanics of one-dimensional trapped Tonks gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several experimental groups are currently working towards realizing quasi-one-dimensional (1D) atom waveguides and loading them with ultracold atoms. The dynamics becomes truly 1D in a regime (Tonks gas) of low temperatures and densities and large positive scattering lengths for which the transverse mode becomes frozen, in which case the many-body Schrodinger dynamics becomes exactly soluble via a Fermi-Bose mapping theorem. In this paper we review our recent work on the exact ground state and quantum dynamics of 1D Tonks gases and assess the possibility of approaching the Tonks regime using Bessel beam optical dipole traps.

M. D. Girardeau; E. M. Wright

2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

258

Proceedings: Fossil Plant Layup and Reactivation Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, the layup and reactivation of fossil-fired power plants has become more important as increasing numbers of utilities develop a need for retaining capacity not currently needed. A 1992 EPRI conference highlighted key technical issues, focusing on proven layup procedures, descriptions of layup equipment and preservation methods, layup and reactivation case studies, and summaries of regulatory issues.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

STOMP-ECKEChem: An Engineering Perspective on Reactive Transport in Geologic Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ECKEChem (Equilibrium, Conservation, Kinetic Equation Chemistry) is a reactive transport module for the STOMP suite of multifluid subsurface flow and transport simulators that was developed from an engineering perspective. STOMP comprises a suite of operational modes that are distinguished by the solved coupled conservation equations with capabilities for a variety of subsurface applications (e.g., environmental remediation and stewardship, geologic sequestration of greenhouse gases, gas hydrate production, and oil shale production). The ECKEChem module was designed to provide integrated reactive transport capabilities across the suite of STOMP simulator operational modes. The initial application for the ECKEChem module was in the simulation of the mineralization reactions that occurred with the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into deep Columbia River basalt formations, where it was implemented in the STOMP-CO2 simulator. The STOMP-ECKEChem solution approach to modeling reactive transport in multifluid geologic media is founded on an engineering perspective: (1) sequential non-iterative coupling between the flow and reactive transport is sufficient, (2) reactive transport can be modeled by operator splitting with local geochemistry and global transport, (3) geochemistry can be expressed as a system of coupled nonlinear equilibrium, conservation and kinetic equations, (4) a limited number of kinetic equation forms are used in geochemical practice. This chapter describes the conceptual approach to converting a geochemical reaction network into a series of equilibrium, conservation and kinetic equations, the implementation of ECKEChem in STOMP, the numerical solution approach, and a demonstration of the simulator on a complex application involving desorption of uranium from contaminated field-textured sediments.

White, Mark D.; Fang, Yilin

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

260

Apparatus for dusting off gas by filtration and aspiration cleaning of filter, and application to combustion gases  

SciTech Connect

Method and apparatus for dusting off gases by filtration and cleaning of filter by aspiration and application thereof to combustion gases are disclosed. This invention relates to the filtration of dust loaded gases, and, in particular, combustion gases in the hot state. It consists of passing gases to be dusted off from top to bottom over a bed of pulverulent material, in particular, a sand bed and cleaning the upper layer of said bed by aspiration of dusts deposited thereon. This invention is particularly adapted for dusting off combustion gases from boilers or thermal power stations or gases to be supplied to gas turbines.

Merry, J.

1982-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

NIST Organization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... What We Do; Organization Chart; Budget Information; Office of the Director; Laboratories & Major Programs; Locations; Staff Directory; Working With ...

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

262

Symposium Organizer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volunteer Training Module. March 2013. 1. Your Professional Partner for Career Advancement. Symposium Organizer. Online Training Module. March 2013 ...

263

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

264

Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

265

Performance demonstration program plan for analysis of simulated headspace gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for analysis of headspace gases will consist of regular distribution and analyses of test standards to evaluate the capability for analyzing VOCs, hydrogen, and methane in the headspace of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles will provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for TRU waste characterization. Laboratory performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste drum headspace gases according to the criteria set within the text of this Program Plan. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the QAPP QAOs. The concentration of analytes in the PDP samples will encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization gas samples. Analyses which are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and which are included in the PDP must be performed by laboratories which have demonstrated acceptable performance in the PDP.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

269

Uranium Tris-aryloxide Derivatives Supported by Triazacyclononane: Engendering a Reactive Uranium(III)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Uranium Tris-aryloxide Derivatives Supported by Triazacyclononane: Engendering a Reactive Uranium-mail: kmeyer@ucsd.edu Abstract: The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of the mononuclear uranium complex [((ArO)3tacn)UIII (NCCH3)] is reported. The uranium(III) complex reacts with organic azides

Meyer, Karsten

270

Simulations of highly reactive fluids  

SciTech Connect

We report density functional molecular dynamics simulations to determine the early chemical events of hot (T = 3000 K) and dense (1.97 g/cm{sup 3}, V/V{sub 0} = 0.68) nitromethane (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}). The first step in the decomposition process is an intermolecular proton abstraction mechanism that leads to the formation of CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}H and the aci ion H{sub 2}CNO{sub 2}{sup -}, in support of evidence from static high-pressure and shock experiments. An intramolecular hydrogen transfer that transforms nitromethane into the aci acid form, CH{sub 2}NO{sub 2}H, accompanies this event. This is the first confirmation of chemical reactivity with bond selectivity for an energetic material near the condition of fully reacted specimen. We also report the decomposition mechanism followed up to the formation of H{sub 2}O as the first stable product.

Fried, L E; Manaa, M R; Reed, E J

2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

271

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

Reactive Power Measurement Using the Wavelet Transform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—This paper provides the theoretical basis for the measurement of reactive and distortion powers from the wavelet transforms. The measurement of reactive power relies on the use of broad-band phase-shift networks to create concurrent in-phase currents and quadrature voltages. The wavelet real power computation resulting from these 90 phase-shift networks yields the reactive power associated with each wavelet frequency level or subband. The distortion power at each wavelet subband is then derived from the real, reactive and apparent powers of the subband, where the apparent power is the product of the v; i element pair's subband rms voltage and current. The advantage of viewing the real and reactive powers in the wavelet domain is that the domain preserves both the frequency and time relationship of these powers. In addition, the reactive power associated with each wavelet subband is a signed quantity and thus has a direction associated with it. This permits tracking the reactive power flow in each subband through the power system. Index Terms—Digital signal processing, phase shift networks, measurement, power, RMS, subband, wavelets. I.

Weon-ki Yoon; Michael J. Devaney

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Comparison of biomass and coal char reactivities  

SciTech Connect

Char combustion is typically the rate limiting step during the combustion of solid fuels. The magnitude and variation of char reactivity during combustion are, therefore, of primary concern when comparing solid fuels such as coal and biomass. In an effort to evaluate biomass` potential as a sustainable and renewable energy source, the reactivities of both biomass and coal chars were compared using Sandia`s Captive Particle Imaging (CPI) apparatus. This paper summarizes the experimental approach used to determine biomass and coal reactivities and presents results from CPT experiments. The reactivity of six types of char particles, two high-rank coal chars, two low-rank coal chars, and two biomass chars, were investigated using the CPT apparatus. Results indicate that both of the high-rank coal chars have relatively low reactivities when compared with the higher reactivities measured for the low-rank coal and the biomass chars. In addition, extinction behavior of the chars support related investigations that suggest carbonaceous structural ordering is an important consideration in understanding particle reactivity as a function of extent of burnout. High-rank coal chars were found to have highly ordered carbon structures, where as, both low-rank coal and biomass chars were found to have highly disordered carbon structures.

Huey, S.P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, K.A. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hurt, R.H. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Systematic approach for chemical reactivity evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under certain conditions, reactive chemicals may proceed into uncontrolled chemical reaction pathways with rapid and significant increases in temperature, pressure, and/or gas evolution. Reactive chemicals have been involved in many industrial incidents, and have harmed people, property, and the environment. Evaluation of reactive chemical hazards is critical to design and operate safer chemical plant processes. Much effort is needed for experimental techniques, mainly calorimetric analysis, to measure thermal reactivity of chemical systems. Studying all the various reaction pathways experimentally however is very expensive and time consuming. Therefore, it is essential to employ simplified screening tools and other methods to reduce the number of experiments and to identify the most energetic pathways. A systematic approach is presented for the evaluation of reactive chemical hazards. This approach is based on a combination of computational methods, correlations, and experimental thermal analysis techniques. The presented approach will help to focus the experimental work to the most hazardous reaction scenarios with a better understanding of the reactive system chemistry. Computational methods are used to predict reaction stoichiometries, thermodynamics, and kinetics, which then are used to exclude thermodynamically infeasible and non-hazardous reaction pathways. Computational methods included: (1) molecular group contribution methods, (2) computational quantum chemistry methods, and (3) correlations based on thermodynamic-energy relationships. The experimental techniques are used to evaluate the most energetic systems for more accurate thermodynamic and kinetics parameters, or to replace inadequate numerical methods. The Reactive System Screening Tool (RSST) and the Automatic Pressure Tracking Adiabatic Calorimeter (APTAC) were employed to evaluate the reactive systems experimentally. The RSST detected exothermic behavior and measured the overall liberated energy. The APTAC simulated near-adiabatic runaway scenarios for more accurate thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. The validity of this approach was investigated through the evaluation of potentially hazardous reactive systems, including decomposition of di-tert-butyl peroxide, copolymerization of styrene-acrylonitrile, and polymerization of 1,3-butadiene.

Aldeeb, Abdulrehman Ahmed

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Chemical Reactivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactive chemicals are presented widely in the chemical and petrochemical process industry. Their chemical reactivity hazards have posed a significant challenge to the industries of manufacturing, storage and transportation. The accidents due to reactive chemicals have caused tremendous loss of properties and lives, and damages to the environment. In this research, three classes of reactive chemicals (unsaturated hydrocarbons, self-reacting chemicals, energetic materials) were evaluated through theoretical and experimental methods. Methylcyclopentadiene (MCP) and Hydroxylamine (HA) are selected as representatives of unsaturated hydrocarbons and self-reacting chemicals, respectively. Chemical reactivity of MCP, including isomerization, dimerization, and oxidation, is investigated by computational chemistry methods and empirical thermodynamic–energy correlation. Density functional and ab initio methods are used to search the initial thermal decomposition steps of HA, including unimolecular and bimolecular pathways. In addition, solvent effects are also examined using water cluster methods and Polarizable Continuum Models (PCM) for aqueous solution of HA. The thermal stability of a basic energetic material, Nitroethane, is investigated through both theoretical and experimental methods. Density functional methods are employed to explore the initial decomposition pathways, followed by developing detailed reaction networks. Experiments with a batch reactor and in situ GC are designed to analyze the distribution of reaction products and verify reaction mechanisms. Overall kinetic model is also built from calorimetric experiments using an Automated Pressure Tracking Adiabatic Calorimeter (APTAC). Finally, a general evaluation approach is developed for a wide range of reactive chemicals. An index of thermal risk is proposed as a preliminary risk assessment to screen reactive chemicals. Correlations are also developed between reactivity parameters, such as onset temperature, activation energy, and adiabatic time to maximum rate based on a limited number, 37 sets, of Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) data. The research shows broad applications in developing reaction mechanisms at the molecular level. The methodology of reaction modeling in combination with molecular modeling can also be used to study other reactive chemical systems.

Wang, Qingsheng

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate change due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades.

Auffhammer, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics; Ramanathan, V. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States); Vincent, J.R. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies

2007-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

278

Potential Application of Coal-Derived Fuel Gases for the Glass...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mitretek Technical Report Potential Application of Coal-Derived Fuel Gases for the Glass Industry: A Scoping Analysis December 2004 David Gray Salvatore Salerno Glen Tomlinson...

279

Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dry fuels were ignited using a butane pilot lighter applied4 H 8 (butene), and C 4 H 10 (n-butane) gases with a Hewlett

McMeeking, Gavin R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Gases other than carbon dioxide make up nearly 20% of U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

These gases are commonly used as refrigerants, aerosols, and solvents. Although PFC and SF 6 concentrations have decreased greatly since 1990, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

EIA's Energy in Brief: What are greenhouse gases and how much are ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Greenhouse gases trap heat from the sun and warm the planet's surface. Of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, 87% are related to energy consumption. Since 1990, greenhouse ...

282

COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO); Maness, Pin-Ching (Golden, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

285

Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing More Documents & Publications Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical

286

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update More Documents & Publications Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium

287

Efficient and Reliable Reactive Power Supply and Consumption...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficient and Reliable Reactive Power Supply and Consumption - Insights from an Integrated Program of Engineering and Economics Research Title Efficient and Reliable Reactive Power...

288

Olefin production via reactive distillation based Olefin metathesis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Reactive distillation is a combination of a traditional multi-stage distillation column with a chemical reaction. The primary benefits of a reactive distillation process are reduced… (more)

Morrison, Ryan Frederick

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

A Parametric Reactive Distillation Study: Economic Feasibility and Design Heuristics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The integration of reaction and distillation into a single column is called reactive distillation or catalytic distillation. Reactive distillation provides many benefits such as reduced… (more)

Hoyme, Craig Alan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Observations on the Coke Air Reactivity Test - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coke air reactivities are strongly dependent on coke calcination levels and it is possible to drive air reactivities lower by increasing calcining temperatures.

291

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Employee Commuting Employee Commuting Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Employee Commuting October 7, 2013 - 1:42pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 For employee commuting, it is important to account for any planned or expected changes in a Federal agency's size when estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential for different operating units or worksites. Considerations include: Are employment levels expected to change in the next decade at specific facilities or agency-wide? Are there any planned facility moves at major worksites? Employee commute coordinators may want to engage human resources and strategic planners in this effort to establish likely changes in employment numbers. Facility planners may be engaged to understand changes in commutes

292

Entanglement creation in cold molecular gases using strong laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While many-particle entanglement can be found in natural solids and strongly interacting atomic and molecular gases, generating highly entangled states between weakly interacting particles in a controlled and scalable way presents a significant challenge. We describe here a one-step method to generate entanglement in a dilute gas of cold polar molecules. For molecules in optical traps separated by a few micrometers, we show that maximally entangled states can be created using the strong off-resonant pulses that are routinely used in molecular alignment experiments. We show that the resulting alignment-mediated entanglement can be detected by measuring laser-induced fluorescence with single-site resolution and that signatures of this molecular entanglement also appear in the microwave absorption spectra of the molecular ensemble. We analyze the robustness of these entangled molecular states with respect to intensity fluctuations of the trapping laser and discuss possible applications of the system for quantum information processing.

Felipe Herrera; Sabre Kais; K. Birgitta Whaley

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

293

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 Planned changes in a Federal agency's size, missions, transportation needs, and vehicle inventory all impact the strategic portfolio planning efforts that target greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation for vehicles and mobile equipment. Under Section 142 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) and Section 8 of Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, agencies are required to develop a plan that will reduce fleet GHG emissions to meet Federally mandated petroleum reduction and alternative fuel increase targets. Agencies can use these plans as a basis for determining potential changes in fleet size and

294

Brownian motion in granular gases of viscoelastic particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theory is developed of Brownian motion in granular gases (systems of many macroscopic particles undergoing inelastic collisions), where the energy loss in inelastic collisions is determined by a restitution coefficient {epsilon}. Whereas previous studies used a simplified model with {epsilon} = const, the present analysis takes into account the dependence of the restitution coefficient on relative impact velocity. The granular temperature and the Brownian diffusion coefficient are calculated for a granular gas in the homogeneous cooling state and a gas driven by a thermostat force, and their variation with grain mass and size and the restitution coefficient is analyzed. Both equipartition principle and fluctuation-dissipation relations are found to break down. One manifestation of this behavior is a new phenomenon of 'relative heating' of Brownian particles at the expense of cooling of the ambient granular gas.

Bodrova, A. S., E-mail: bodrova@polly.phys.msu.ru; Brilliantov, N. V.; Loskutov, A. Yu. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Fermi gases in one dimension: From Bethe Ansatz to experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article reviews theoretical and experimental developments for one-dimensional Fermi gases. Specifically, the experimentally realized two-component delta-function interacting Fermi gas -- the Gaudin-Yang model -- and its generalisations to multi-component Fermi systems with larger spin symmetries. The exact results obtained for Bethe ansatz integrable models of this kind enable the study of the nature and microscopic origin of a wide range of quantum many-body phenomena driven by spin population imbalance, dynamical interactions and magnetic fields. This physics includes Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-like pairing, Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids, spin-charge separation, Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov-like pair correlations, quantum criticality and scaling, polarons and the few-body physics of the trimer state (trions). The fascinating interplay between exactly solved models and experimental developments in one dimension promises to yield further insight into the exciting and fundamental physics of interacting Fermi systems.

Xi-Wen Guan; Murray T. Batchelor; Chaohong Lee

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

296

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amoco Oil Company is investigating the direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels via partial oxidation. This report describes work completed in the first quarter of the two-year project (first quarter FY 1990). Task 1 of the work, preparation of the Project Management Plan, has been completed. Work was started and progress made on three other tasks during this quarter: Task 2. Modification of an existing Amoco pilot plant to handle the conditions of this project. Minor modifications were made to increase the maximum operating pressure to 1500 psig. Other more extensive modifications are being designed, including addition of an oxygen compressor and recycle system. Task 3.1. Evaluation of a Los Alamos National Laboratory methane oxidation kinetic model for suitability in guiding the experimental portions of this project. Task 3.2. Process variable (e.g. temperature, pressure, residence time) studies to determine optimal partial oxidation conditions. 1 fig.

Foral, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Onset of a Pseudogap Regime in Ultracold Fermi Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show, using an ab initio approach based on Quantum Monte Carlo technique, that the pseudogap regime emerges in ultracold Fermi gases close to the unitary point. We locate the onset of this regime at a value of the interaction strength corresponding to (k{sub F}a){sup -1}{approx_equal}-0.05 (a--scattering length). We determine the evolution of the gap as a function of temperature and interaction strength in the Fermi gas around the unitary limit and show that our results exhibit a remarkable agreement with the recent wave-vector resolved radio frequency spectroscopy data. Our results indicate that a finite temperature structure of the Fermi gas around unitarity is more complicated and involves the presence of the phase with preformed Cooper pairs, which, however, do not contribute to the long range order.

Magierski, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ulica Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); Wlazlowski, Gabriel [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ulica Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Bulgac, Aurel [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

Low-Value Waste Gases as an Energy Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waste gases with potentially useful fuel value are generated at any number of points in refineries, chemical plants and other industrial and commercial sites. The higher quality streams have been utilized successfully in fuel systems for years. Lower quality streams, often difficult to capture and sometimes limited in quantity, have often not been utilized for their fuel value. Increasing environmental and economic concerns have led to greater interest in utilizing these marginal fuel value waste gas streams as auxiliary fuels. The combustion and heat transfer characteristics of these fuels are different from normal fuels and these differences must be considered when determining if they can be fired successfully in existing furnaces or when designing new furnaces to use them. In addition, because of the difficulties in burning them and the chemical compounds that may be included in them, the potential pollutant emissions from these waste streams is also a significant consideration.

Waibel, R. T.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.

Schnacke, A.W.

1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.

Schnacke, Arthur W. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Free Energies of Dilute Bose gases: upper bound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive a upper bound on the free energy of a Bose gas system at density $\\rho$ and temperature $T$. In combination with the lower bound derived previously by Seiringer \\cite{RS1}, our result proves that in the low density limit, i.e., when $a^3\\rho\\ll 1$, where $a$ denotes the scattering length of the pair-interaction potential, the leading term of $\\Delta f$ the free energy difference per volume between interacting and ideal Bose gases is equal to $4\\pi a (2\\rho^2-[\\rho-\\rhoc]^2_+)$. Here, $\\rhoc(T)$ denotes the critical density for Bose-Einstein condensation (for the ideal gas), and $[\\cdot ]_+$ $=$ $\\max\\{\\cdot, 0\\}$ denotes the positive part.

Jun Yin

2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

302

Solubilities of gases in simulated Tank 241-SY-101 wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, methane, and nitrous oxide solubilities were evaluated as a function of temperature in SYl-SIM-93B, a homogeneous simulated waste mixture containing sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium aluminate, and sodium carbonate, the principal inorganic constituents of the wastes in Tank 241-SY-101. Ammonia solubility data for this simulated waste was obtained as a function of temperature in an earlier study. The choice of a homogeneous waste mixture in this study has the advantage of eliminating complications associated with a changing electrolyte concentration as a function of temperature that would be encountered with a slurry simulant. Dissolution is one of the means by which gases may be retained in Hanford Site wastes. While models are available to estimate gas solubilities in electrolyte solutions, few data are in existence that pertain to highly concentrated, multicomponent electrolytes such as those stored in Hanford Site waste tanks.

Norton, J.D.; Pederson, L.R.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor comprises supports stacked above reactor core for holding control rods. Couplers associated with the supports and a vertically movable drive shaft have lugs at their lower ends for engagement with the supports.

Bollinger, Lawrence R. (Schenectady, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Groundwater well with reactive filter pack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Holdren, Jr., George R. (Kennewick, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Fossil plant layup and reactivation conference: Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fossil Plant Layup and Reactivation Conference was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on April 14--15, 1992. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI and hosted by Entergy Services, Inc. to bring together representatives from utilities, consulting firms, manufacturers and architectural engineers. Eighteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to layup procedures and practices, and reactivation case studies. A panel discussion was held on the second day to interactively discuss layup and reactivation issues. More than 80 people attended the Conference. This report contains technical papers and a summary of the panel discussion. Of the eighteen papers, three are related to general, one is related to regulatory issues, three are related to specific equipment, four are related to layup procedures and practices, and seven are layup and reactivation case studies.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Oxidation Resistance of Reactive Atoms in Graphene  

SciTech Connect

We have found that reactive elements that are normally oxidized at room temperature are present as individual atoms or clusters on and in graphene. Oxygen is present in these samples but it is only detected in the thicker amorphous carbon layers present in the graphene specimens we have examined. However, we have seen no evidence that oxygen reacts with the impurity atoms and small clusters of these normally reactive elements when they are incorporated in the graphene layers. First principles calculations suggest that the oxidation resistance is due to kinetic effects such as preferential bonding of oxygen to nonincorporated atoms and H passivation. The observed oxidation resistance of reactive atoms in graphene may allow the use of these incorporated metals in catalytic applications. It also opens the possibility of designing and producing electronic, opto-electronic, and magnetic devices based on these normally reactive atoms.

Chisholm, Matthew F [ORNL; Duscher, Gerd [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Windl, Wolfgang [Ohio State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Radiative Forcing Due to Reactive Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reactive gas emissions (CO, NOx, VOC) have indirect radiative forcing effects through their influences on tropospheric ozone and on the lifetimes of methane and hydrogenated halocarbons. These effects are quantified here for the full set of ...

T. M. L. Wigley; S. J. Smith; M. J. Prather

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Organization Chart  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

spacer spacer spacer About DOE Organization News Contact Us Search Search Go spacer U.S. Department of Energy header image Science & Technology Energy Sources Energy Efficiency...

310

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, DOE...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

produced from biomass (plant) feedstocks, used primarily for transportation. Biogas: The gas produced from the anaerobic decomposition of organic material in a landfill....

311

Estimation of mass transport parameters of gases for quantifying CH{sub 4} oxidation in landfill soil covers  

SciTech Connect

Methane (CH{sub 4}), which is one of the most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is produced from landfills. CH{sub 4} is biologically oxidized to carbon dioxide, which has a lower global warming potential than methane, when it passes through a cover soil. In order to quantify the amount of CH{sub 4} oxidized in a landfill cover soil, a soil column test, a diffusion cell test, and a mathematical model analysis were carried out. In the column test, maximum oxidation rates of CH{sub 4} (V{sub max}) showed higher values in the upper part of the column than those in the lower part caused by the penetration of O{sub 2} from the top. The organic matter content in the upper area was also higher due to the active microbial growth. The dispersion analysis results for O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in the column are counter-intuitive. As the upward flow rate of the landfill gas increased, the dispersion coefficient of CH{sub 4} slightly increased, possibly due to the effect of mechanical dispersion. On the other hand, as the upward flow rate of the landfill gas increased, the dispersion coefficient of O{sub 2} decreased. It is possible that the diffusion of gases in porous media is influenced by the counter-directional flow rate. Further analysis of other gases in the column, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, may be required to support this hypothesis, but in this paper we propose the possibility that the simulations using the diffusion coefficient of O{sub 2} under the natural condition may overestimate the penetration of O{sub 2} into the soil cover layer and consequently overestimate the oxidation of CH{sub 4}.

Im, J.; Moon, S.; Nam, K.; Kim, Y.-J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.Y. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jaeykim@snu.ac.kr

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Enhanced Oxidative Reactivity for Anthracite Coal via a Reactive Ball Milling Pretreatment Step  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reactive ball milling in a cyclohexene solvent significantly increases the oxidative reactivity of an anthracite coal, due to the combined effects of particle size reduction, metal introduction, introduction of volatile matter, and changes in carbon structure. Metals introduced during milling can be easily removed via a subsequent demineralization process, and the increased reactivity is retained. Solvent addition alters the morphological changes that occur during pyrolysis and leads to a char with significantly increased reactivity. When the solvent is omitted, similar effects are seen for the milled product, but a significant fraction of the char is resistant to oxidation. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Angela D. Lueking; Apurba Sakti; Dania Alvarez-Fonseca; Nichole Wonderling [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States). Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Chemically reactive coatings for passive fire protection in LNG and LPG storage and transporation  

SciTech Connect

According to Van Dyke Associates and TSI Inc., supporting and containing steels used to store and transport LNG and LPG are best protected in case of fire by thermally reactive subliming compounds. When exposed to fire, such compounds undergo an endothermic reaction; thus the substrate material beneath the coating will not heat up beyond the temperature at which this reaction occurs. Gases released by the sublimation reaction pass outward through the pores of the char, breaking down further as they absorb more energy. Numerous tests confirm that in comparison with other types of coatings, subliming compounds require the smallest thickness of coating for any specified level of protection. Routine spraying application techniques further reduce the cost of this passive fire-protection method.

Van Dyke, B.H.; Kawaller, S.T.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Calibration of Nondispersive Infrared CO2 Analyzers with CO2-in-Air Reference Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of eight CO2-in-air secondary standard calibration gases has been established by NOAA/Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change (GMCC) for use in its global CO2 monitoring program. Use of these gases obviates the need for pressure ...

W. D. Komhyr; T. B. Harris; L. S. Waterman

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

The control systems analyze of the Romanian refinery gases desulphurization plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents the control aspects concerning Romanian gases desulphurization plants. The paper has been divided into four parts. First part presents the structure of the Romanian gases desulphurization plants. The second part contains the steady-state ... Keywords: absorption, control, hierarchical, identification, industrial, modeling, unisim

Cristian Patrascioiu; Daniel Mihaescu

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity  

SciTech Connect

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities  

SciTech Connect

During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Helium isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat flow, but do show a correlation with magma-based thermal activity and reservoir fluid temperature (or total convective heat discharge). Gases from high-T (> 200°C) reservoirs have 3He/4He > 2 _ the atmospheric value, with high He

320

Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

Laufhutte, D.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

review of extraction, processing, properties & applications of reactive ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

REVIEW OF EXTRACTION,. PROCESSING, PROPERTIES. & APPLICATIONS OF. REACTIVE METALS. Edited by. Brajendra Mishra ...

322

Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing More Documents & Publications Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

323

Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support January 2004 Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing More Documents & Publications Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

324

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update More Documents & Publications Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During Sustained Pumping at the Monticello, Utah, Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium

325

Transport Modeling of Reactive and Non-Reactive Constituents from Summitville,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Survey (USGS) began water- quality investigations at Summitville, Terrace #12;Figure 2. Aerial photographTransport Modeling of Reactive and Non- Reactive Constituents from Summitville, Colorado in the Wightman Fork/Alamosa River system downstream of the Summitville Mine, south-central Colorado, were

326

Transverse spin diffusion in strongly interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute spin diffusion in a dilute Fermi gas at arbitrary temperature, polarization and strong interaction in the normal phase using kinetic theory. While the longitudinal spin diffusivity depends weakly on polarization and diverges for small temperatures, the transverse spin diffusivity D_\\perp has a strong polarization dependence and approaches a finite value for T->0 in the Fermi liquid phase. For a 3D unitary Fermi gas at infinite scattering length the diffusivities reach a minimum near the quantum limit of diffusion \\hbar/m in the quantum degenerate regime and are strongly suppressed by medium scattering, and we discuss the importance of the spin-rotation effect. In two dimensions, D_\\perp attains a minimum at strong coupling -1 < ln(kFa2D) < 1 and reaches D_\\perp~0.2...0.3\\hbar/m at large polarization. These values are consistent with recent measurements of two-dimensional ultracold atomic gases in the strong coupling regime.

Tilman Enss

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

327

Coal derived fuel gases for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Product streams from state-of-the-art and future coal gasification systems are characterized to guide fuel cell program planners and researchers in establishing performance goals and developing materials for molten carbonate fuel cells that will be compatible with gasifier product gases. Results are presented on: (1) the range of gasifier raw-gas compositions available from the major classes of coal gasifiers; (2) the degree of gas clean-up achievable with state-of-the-art and future gas clean-up systems; and (3) the energy penalties associated with gas clean-up. The study encompasses fixed-bed, fluid-bed, entrained-bed, and molten salt gasifiers operating with Eastern bituminous and Western subbituminous coals. Gasifiers operating with air and oxygen blowing are evaluated, and the coal gasification product streams are characterized with respect to: (1) major gas stream constituents, e.g., CO, H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O; (2) major gas stream contaminants, e.g., H/sub 2/S, COS, particulates, tars, etc.; and (3) trace element contaminants, e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, Hg, etc.

Not Available

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Stegen, Gary E. (Richland, WA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed.

Murdoch, L. [FRX Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Siegrist, B.; Meiggs, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Zero Valent Iron: Impact of Anions Present during Synthesis on Subsequent Nanoparticle Reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Zero-valent iron particles are an effective remediation technology for groundwater contaminated with halogenated organic compounds. In particular, nano-scale zero-valent iron is a promising material for remediation due to its high specific surface area, which results in faster rate constants and more effective use of the iron. An aspect of iron nanoparticle reactivity that has not been explored is the impact of anions present during iron metal nanoparticle synthesis. Solutions containing chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and nitrate anions and ferric ions were used to generate iron oxide nanoparticles. The resulting materials were dialyzed to remove dissolved byproducts and then dried and reduced by hydrogen gas at high temperature. The reactivity of the resulting zero valent iron nanoparticles was quantified by monitoring the kinetics as well as products of carbon tetrachloride reduction, and significant differences in reactivity and chloroform yield were observed. The reactivity of nanoparticles prepared in the presence of sulfate and phosphate demonstrated the highest reactivity and chloroform yield. Furthermore, substantial variations in the solid-state products of oxidation (magnetite, iron sulfide, and goethite, among others) were also observed.

Moore, Kirsten; Forsberg, Brady; Baer, Donald R.; Arnold, William A.; Penn, R. Lee

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Nuclear engine flow reactivity shim control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear engine control system is provided which automatically compensates for reactor reactivity uncertainties at the start of life and reactivity losses due to core corrosion during the reactor life in gas-cooled reactors. The coolant gas flow is varied automatically by means of specially provided control apparatus so that the reactor control drums maintain a predetermined steady state position throughout the reactor life. This permits the reactor to be designed for a constant drum position and results in a desirable, relatively flat temperature profile across the core. (Official Gazette)

Walsh, J.M.

1973-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

332

Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Hot defluorination of reducing gases with lime pellets  

SciTech Connect

In IGCC and MCFC power generation systems the coal gas has to be purified from dust and deleterious gaseous species. Hot gas cleaning processes have advantages compared to conventional wet cleaning technologies. Losses of energy occurring during cooling and reheating of the gas can be avoided, and there is no formation of a wet slurry. In the present study the defluorination of reducing gases with dry absorbers such as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) and calcium oxide (CaO) has been investigated in the temperature range 300--700 C. Two types of experiments were carried out to clarify the reaction kinetics: thermogravimetric experiments on single (or a few) pellets in which the weight change of the absorber due to its conversion to calcium fluoride was determined, and gas cleaning experiments using a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor in which the off-gas was analyzed. The results indicate that H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-HF and CO-H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-HF gas mixtures can be defluorinated both with CaO and with CaCO{sub 3}. The calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) forms as a shell around the unreacted core of calcium carbonate of the pellet, and the reaction rate is mainly controlled by gaseous pore diffusion. This is so also with respect to calcium oxide at high temperatures (500 C). But at low temperatures (300 C) the reaction occurs within the bulk of the pellet.

Shirai, H.; Fusch, Y.; Schwerdtfeger, K.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Neutron Radiography Reactor Reactivity -- Focused Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was converted from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. After the conversion, NRAD resumed operations and is meeting operational requirements. Radiography image quality and the number of images that can be produced in a given time frame match pre-conversion capabilities. However, following the conversion, NRAD’s excess reactivity with the LEU fuel was less than it had been with the HEU fuel. Although some differences between model predictions and actual performance are to be expected, the lack of flexibility in NRAD’s safety documentation prevented adjusting the reactivity by adding more fuel, until the safety documentation could be modified. To aid future reactor conversions, a reactivity-focused Lessons Learned meeting was held. This report summarizes the findings of the lessons learned meeting and addresses specific questions posed by DOE regarding NRAD’s conversion and reactivity.

Eric Woolstenhulme; Randal Damiana; Kenneth Schreck; Ann Marie Phillips; Dana Hewit

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

LES algorithm for turbulent reactive flows simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents the development and implementation of a Large Eddy Simulation numerical algorithm for simulating turbulent reactive flows. The numerical algorithm is based on a 5 step modified Runge - Kutta numerical scheme with a dual time stepping ... Keywords: Runge - Kutta numerical scheme, large eddy simulation, linear eddy model

Ionut Porumbel; Cristian Cârl?nescu; Florin Gabriel Florean; Constantin Eusebiu Hritcu

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using organic vapor concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks has been identified as a safety issue because expanding gases could potentially affect tank dome integrity. Organic liquid waste has been found in some of the waste tanks, but most are thought to contain only trace amounts. Due to the inhomogeneity of the waste, direct sampling of the tank waste to locate organic liquids may not conclusively demonstrate that a given tank is free of risk. However, organic vapors present above the organic liquid waste can be detected with a high degree of confidence and can be used to identify problem tanks. This report presents the results of a screening test that has been applied to 82 passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site to identify those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. It includes seven tanks not addressed in the previous version of this report, Screening for Organic Solvents in Hanford Waste Tanks Using Total Non-Methane Organic Compound Vapor Concentrations. The screening test is based on a simple model of the tank headspace that estimates the effective surface area of semivolatile organic liquid waste in a tank. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Thirteen tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Most of the tanks identified as containing potentially significant quantities of organic liquid waste are in the 241-BY and 241-C tank farms, which agrees qualitatively with the fact that these tank farms received the majority of the PUREX process organic wash waste and waste organic liquids.

Huckaby, J.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999) Abstract This report tabulates an extensive geochemical database on waters, gases, scales,rocks, and hot-spring deposits from the Dixie Valley region, Nevada. The samples fromwhich the data were obtained were collected and analyzed during 1996 to 1999. Thesedata provide useful information for ongoing and future investigations on geothermalenergy, volcanism, ore deposits, environmental issues, and groundwater quality in thisregion. Authors Los Alamos National Laboratory and NM Published

338

Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Overview Of The Data, Regional Patterns Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Overview Of The Data, Regional Patterns Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Roving Automated Rare Gas Analysis (RARGA) lab of Berkeley's Physics Department was deployed in Yellowstone National Park for a 19 week period commencing in June, 1983. During this time 66 gas and water samples representing 19 different regions of hydrothermal activity within and around the Yellowstone caldera were analyzed on site. Routinely, the abundances of five stable noble gases and the isotopic compositions of He,

339

Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program tip sheet describes how to save energy and costs by using the heat in furnace flue gases to preheat material coming into the furnace to improve combustion.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Rethinking Downstream Regulation: California's Opportunity to Engage Households in Reducing Greenhouse Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

greenhouse gases. Energy Policy (2008), doi:10.1016/j.rebound effect—a survey. Energy Policy 28 (6-7), 389–401.and climate policy. Energy Policy 32 (4), 481–491. Leiby,

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Chemical analysis and sampling techniques for geothermal fluids and gases at the Fenton Hill Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A general description of methods, techniques, and apparatus used for the sampling, chemical analysis, and data reporting of geothermal gases and fluids is given. Step-by-step descriptions of the procedures are included in the appendixes.

Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Acceleration of the Brewer–Dobson Circulation due to Increases in Greenhouse Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The acceleration of the Brewer–Dobson circulation under rising concentrations of greenhouse gases is investigated using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. The circulation strengthens as a result of increased wave driving in the ...

Rolando R. Garcia; William J. Randel

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

In Situ Measurements of Long-Lived Trace Gases in the Lower Stratosphere by Gas Chromatography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed information on the four-channel Airborne Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (ACATS-IV), used to measure long-lived atmospheric trace gases, is presented. Since ACATS-IV was last described in the literature, the temporal ...

P. A. Romashkin; D. F. Hurst; J. W. Elkins; G. S. Dutton; D. W. Fahey; R. E. Dunn; F. L. Moore; R. C. Myers; B. D. Hall

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

On the Cause of the Relative Greenhouse Strength of Gases such as the Halocarbons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note examines some of the factors important in determining the large radiative impact, relative to carbon dioxide, of increased concentrations of gases in the optically thin limit (such as the halocarbons at their present day concentrations)...

Keith P. Shine

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)  

SciTech Connect

A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a well-head; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; and separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for cooling the compressed gases therefrom; and a product separator downstream of the refrigeration unit for receiving cooled and compressed gases discharged from the refrigeration unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form.

May, R.L.; Snow, N.J. Jr.

1983-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

346

Spatio-temporal theory of lasing action in optically-pumped rotationally excited molecular gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate laser emission from optically-pumped rotationally excited molecular gases confined in a metallic cavity. To this end, we have developed a theoretical framework able to accurately describe, both in the spatial ...

Chua, Song-Liang

347

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 2000 Executive Summary  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Executive Summary on the Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. These estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors and not on measured or metered emissions monitoring.

Perry Lindstrom

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Modification of the Köhler Equation to Include Soluble Trace Gases and Slightly Soluble Substances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A generalized reformulation of the Köhler theory to include the effect of soluble gases and slightly soluble aerosol substances is presented. A single equation is derived that takes into account 1) the Kelvin effect; 2) the Raoult effect caused ...

Ari Laaksonen; Pekka Korhonen; Markku Kulmala; Robert J. Charlson

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

High-sensitivity detection of trace gases using dynamic photoacoustic spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lincoln Laboratory of Massachusetts Institute of Technology has developed a technique known as dynamic photoacoustic spectroscopy (DPAS) that could enable remote detection of trace gases via a field-portable laser-based ...

Wynn, Charles M.

350

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas after treatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent application describes a method and apparatus of exhaust gas remediation that enhance the reactivity of the material catalysts found within catalytic converters of cars, trucks, and power stations.

Whealton, John H.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Storey, John M.; Raridon, Richard J.; Armfield, Jeffrey S.; Bigelow, Timothy S.; Graves, Ronald L.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Measurement of one-particle correlations and momentum distributions for trapped 1D gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

van Hove's theory of scattering of probe particles by a macroscopic target is generalized so as to relate the differential cross section for atomic ejection via stimulated Raman transitions to one-particle momentum-time correlations and momentum distributions of 1D trapped gases. This method is well suited to probing the longitudinal momentum distributions of 1D gases in situ, and examples are given for bosonic and fermionic atoms.

M. D. Girardeau; E. M. Wright

2000-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

353

Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using total non- methane organic compound vapor concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford high-level radioactive waste tanks is a safety issue because expanding gases could affect tank dome integrity. This report presents results of a screening test that was applied to 75 passively ventilated waste tanks at Hanford to determine those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. The screening test is based on a simple model of tank headspace, headspace organic vapor concentrations, and certain tank physical parameters. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Twelve tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Tank head space organic vapor concentrations and physical parameters required by the screening test have been compiled and are presented for each of the tanks studied. Estimates of the ventilation rates of the waste tanks were revised to reflect recent information obtained from hydrogen monitoring data. A simple analysis of the uncertainty in the test results suggests that the largest current uncertainty in the estimation of organic liquid surface area is that associated with knowledge of the tank ventilation rate. The uncertainty analysis is applied to determine 95% confidence limits for the estimated organic waste surface area in each tank.

Huckaby, J.L.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Sklarew, D.S.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

A reactive transport modeling approach to simulate biogeochemical processes in pore structures with pore-scale heterogeneities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Redox processes, including degradation of organic contaminants, are often controlled by microorganisms residing in natural porous media like soils or aquifers. These environments are characterized by heterogeneities at various scales which influence ... Keywords: Bioavailability, Biodegradation, Pore networks, Pore-scale heterogeneity, Reactive transport models, Spatial distributions

Mehdi Gharasoo; Florian Centler; Pierre Regnier; Hauke Harms; Martin Thullner

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROCARBON AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present period, the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) has been modified to improve its volumetric and equilibrium predictions. Specifically, the attractive term of the PGR equation was modified to enhance the flexibility of the model, and a new expression was developed for the temperature dependence of the attractive term in this segment-segment interaction model. The predictive capability of the modified PGR EOS for vapor pressure, and saturated liquid and vapor densities was evaluated for selected normal paraffins, normal alkenes, cyclo-paraffins, light aromatics, argon, carbon dioxide and water. The generalized EOS constants and substance-specific characteristic parameters in the modified PGR EOS were obtained from the pure component vapor pressures, and saturated liquid and vapor molar volumes. The calculated phase properties were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), the simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and the original PGR equations. Generally, the performance of the proposed EOS was better than the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations in predicting the pure fluid properties (%AAD of 1.3, 2.8 and 3.7 for vapor pressure, saturated liquid and vapor densities, respectively).

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

ENVIRONMENTAL REACTIVITY OF SOLID STATE HYDRIDE MATERIALS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In searching for high gravimetric and volumetric density hydrogen storage systems, it is inevitable that higher energy density materials will be used. In order to make safe and commercially acceptable condensed phase hydrogen storage systems, it is important to understand quantitatively the risks involved in using and handling these materials and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies to handle potential material exposure events. A crucial aspect of the development of risk identification and mitigation strategies is the development of rigorous environmental reactivity testing standards and procedures. This will allow for the identification of potential risks and implementation of risk mitigation strategies. Modified testing procedures for shipping air and/or water sensitive materials, as codified by the United Nations, have been used to evaluate two potential hydrogen storage materials, 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}. The modified U.N. procedures include identification of self-reactive substances, pyrophoric substances, and gas-emitting substances with water contact. The results of these tests for air and water contact sensitivity will be compared to the pure material components where appropriate (e.g. LiBH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2}). The water contact tests are divided into two scenarios dependent on the hydride to water mole ratio and heat transport characteristics. Air contact tests were run to determine whether a substance will spontaneously react with air in a packed or dispersed form. In the case of the 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} material, the results from the hydride mixture compared to the pure materials results showed the MgH{sub 2} to be the least reactive component and LiBH{sub 4} the more reactive. The combined 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} resulted in a material having environmental reactivity between these two materials. Relative to 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2}, the chemical hydride NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} was observed to be less environmentally reactive.

Gray, J; Donald Anton, D

2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

357

Radiolytic evolution of gases from Z-9 soils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The total gas evolution rate was correlated with the plutonium and combined moisture and organic soil content. The maximum measured gas evolution rate was 1.3 x 10/sup -6/ gram-mole/hour - gram of plutonium. The major components of the evolved gas were determined to be 49.5 mole percent, (M%) nitrogen, 23.3 M% hydrogen, 14.1 M% oxygen and 13.1 M% carbon dioxide. This composition was determined from gas evolved by water-rich soil. Soils which are rich in organics may evolve gas with less oxygen. The data established the magnitude of the hydrogen evolution problem. Evolution of both oxygen and hydrogen means that the gas mixture will remain within the explosive range, once the lower explosion limit is exceeded.

Pajunen, A. L.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Behavior of Laminate Reactive Materials under Dynamic Loading ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Behavior of Laminate Reactive Materials under Dynamic Loading ... Atomistically-Informed Dislocation Dynamics Simulations of High Rate  ...

359

SIC Manufature via Reactive Infiltration - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Ceramic Matrix Composites. Presentation Title, SIC Manufature via Reactive ...

360

Multiple Steady States in Azeotropic and Reactive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction . Motivation Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions . The Starting Point . Consolidation . Industrial Applications . Incorporating Reactions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation . Prediction Method . MTBE Process Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Distillation Overview . Ideal binary / multicomponent distillation . Homogeneous azeotropic distillation -- Heavy entrainer (extractive distillation) -- Intermediate entrainer -- "Boundary scheme" (ligh

Thomas E. Güttinger

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neutrons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neturons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

Bollinger, L.R.

1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

364

Treatment of Radioactive Reactive Mixed Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PacificEcoSolutions, Inc. (PEcoS) has installed a plasma gasification system that was recently modified and used to destroy a trimethyl-aluminum mixed waste stream from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL.) The unique challenge in handling reactive wastes like trimethyl-aluminum is their propensity to flame instantly on contact with air and to react violently with water. To safely address this issue, PacificEcoSolutions has developed a new feed system to ensure the safe containment of these radioactive reactive wastes during transfer to the gasification unit. The plasma gasification system safely processed the radioactively contaminated trimethyl-metal compounds into metal oxides. The waste stream came from LANL research operations, and had been in storage for seven years, pending treatment options. (authors)

Colby, S.; Turner, Z.; Utley, D. [Pacific EcoSolutions, Inc., 2025 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Duy, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory - LA-UR-05-8410, Post Office Box 1663 MS J595, Los Alamos, New Mexico 97545 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of {sup 3}He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the {sup 3}He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the {sup 3}He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neutrons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the {sup 3}He for spin-polarizing the {sup 3}He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the {sup 3}He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with {sup 3}He to spin-polarize the {sup 3}He atoms. 5 figs.

Bowman, C.D.

1989-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

366

Real time reactive programming in lucid enriched with contexts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a synchronous approach to real-time reactive programming in Lucid enriched with contexts as first class objects. The declarative intensional approach allows real-time reactive programs to manipulate both events and state-based representations ... Keywords: contexts, formal verification, intensional programming, real-time reactive programming

Kaiyu Wan; Vasu Alagar; Joey Paquet

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Applicant Organization: | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Applicant Organization: Applicant Organization: Applicant Organization: More Documents & Publications BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. Applicant Organization: Applicant Organization:...

368

Phase Behavior of Light Gases in Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Solvents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, our solubility apparatus was refurbished and restored to full service. To test the experimental apparatus and procedures used, measurements were obtained for the solubility Of C0{sub 2} in benzene at 160{degrees}F. Having confirmed the accuracy of the newly acquired data in comparison with our previous measurements and data reported in the literature for this test system, we have begun to measure the solubility of hydrogen in hexane. The measurements for this system will cover the temperature range from 160 to 280{degrees}F at pressures to 2,500 psia. As part of our model evaluation efforts, we examined the predictive abilities of an alternative approach we have proposed for calculating the phase behavior properties of highly non-ideal systems. Using this approach, the liquid phase fugacities generated from an equation of state (EOS) are augmented by a fugacity deviation function correction. The correlative abilities of this approach are compared with those of an EOS equipped with the recently introduced Wong-Sandler (MWS) mixing rules. These two approaches are compared with the current methods for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations, i.e., the EOS (0/0) approach with the van der Waals mixing rules and the split (y/0) approach. The evaluations were conducted on a database comprised of non-ideal low pressure binary systems as well as asymmetric high pressure binary systems. These systems are of interest in the coal liquefaction and utilization processes. The Peng-Robinson EOS was selected for the purposes of this evaluation.

Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L., Jr.; Trvedi, N.J., Gao, W.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROGEN AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under previous support from the US Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, the solubilities of hydrogen in n-hexane, carbon monoxide in cyclohexane, and nitrogen in phenanthrene and pyrene were measured using a static equilibrium cell over the temperature range from 344.3 to 433.2 K and pressures to 22.8 MPa. The uncertainty in these new solubility measurements is estimated to be less than 0.001 in mole fraction. The data were analyzed using the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). In general, the PR EOS represents the experimental data well when a single interaction parameter (C{sub ij}) is used for each isotherm. In addition, the predictive capability of the modified Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) was evaluated for selected carbon dioxide + normal paraffins, ethane + normal paraffins, and hydrogen + normal paraffins. A set of mixing rules was proposed for the modified EOS to extend its predictive capabilities to mixtures. The predicted bubble point pressures for the ethane + n-paraffin and carbon dioxide + n-paraffin binaries were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and original PGR equations. The predictive capability of the proposed equation is better or comparable to the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations of state for the ethane binaries (%AAD of 1.9) and carbon dioxide binaries (%AAD of 2.0). For the hydrogen binaries, the modified PGR EOS showed much better performance (%AAD of 1.7) than the original PGR equation and comparable to the PR equation.

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Evolution of Organic Aerosols in the Atmosphere.  

SciTech Connect

Organic aerosol (OA) particles affect climate forcing and human health, but their sources and evolution remain poorly characterized. We present a unifying model framework that describes the atmospheric evolution of OA and is constrained and motivated by new, high time resolution, experimental characterizations of their composition, volatility, and oxidation state. OA and OA-precursor gases evolve by becoming increasingly oxidized, less volatile, and more hygroscopic, leading to the formation of large amounts of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) mass that has comparable concentrations to sulfate aerosol over the Northern Hemisphere. Our new model framework captures the dynamic aging behavior observed in the atmosphere and the laboratory and can serve as a basis for improving parameterizations in regional and global models.

Jimenez, J. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Donahue, N. M.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Zhang, Qi; Kroll, Jesse H.; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Allan, James D.; Coe, H.; Ng, N. L.; Aiken, Allison; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Robinson, A. L.; Duplissy, J.; Smith, J. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Lanz, V. A.; Hueglin, C.; Sun, Y. L.; Tian, J.; Laaksonen, A.; Raatikainen, T.; Rautiainen, J.; Vaattovaara, P.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Collins, Donald R.; Cubison, Michael J.; Dunlea, E. J.; Huffman, John A.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Alfarra, M. R.; Williams, Paul I.; Bower, K.; Kondo, Yutaka; Schneider, J.; Drewnick, F.; Borrmann, S.; Weimer, S.; Demerjian, K.; Salcedo, D.; Cottrell, L.; Griffin, Robert; Takami, A.; Miyoshi, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Shimono, A.; Sun, J. Y.; Zhang, Y. M.; Dzepina, K.; Kimmel, Joel; Sueper, D.; Jayne, J. T.; Herndon, Scott C.; Trimborn, Achim; Williams, L. R.; Wood, Ezra C.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R.

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

371

Examination of the Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols on Southeast Texas Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite decades of study, we still do not fully understand aerosols and their interactions among gases or other aerosols in the atmosphere. Among their impacts, they influence radiative transfer in the atmosphere and contribute to cloud formation. There are many different types of aerosols, including dust particles, soot particles, and microscopic particles containing inorganic compounds such as sulfates. Most of these particles have natural origins, but many are anthropogenic. The eventual purpose of this research is to examine sea salt aerosols and their impact on polluted environments. Sea salt aerosols act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions. Such reactions have implications for trace gases such as ozone, reactive nitrogen, mercury, and sulfur containing compounds. Urban areas are most impacted by these trace gases, which is a concern because ozone especially affects the health of citizens. Experiments have three basic parts. First we generate mono-disperse 3 aerosols. That aerosol is then injected into the aerosol chambers with sea salt aerosols and prescribed concentrations of trace gases to characterize relevant interactions. However, those chambers are still under construction and not used during my study. The processed aerosols are then analyzed with a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) and other equipment. Different concentrations of sea salt aerosols, Cl, NOx, and other gases were planned to be introduced during the experiments. Concentrations of other gases and intensity of solar radiation would mimic those outside. Because these reactions have proved to increase localized concentrations of ozone in other work, this could have important implications. Future work will be designed to find study these interactions. This is important because the EPA has considered tightening the standards for both ozone and particulate matter. Industries would then need to reduce emissions or move farther from current sources of Cl or NOx pollution.

Benoit, Mark David

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Evaluation of the generation and release of flammable gases in tank 241-SY-101  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tank 241-SY-101 is a double shell, high-level waste tank located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank contains about 1 million gallons of waste that was concentrated at the 242-S Evaporator. Shortly after the waste was put in the tank, the waste began to expand because the generation of gases. In 1990 this tank was declared to have an unreviewed safety question because of the periodic release of hydrogen and nitrous oxide. A safety program was established to conduct a characterization of the waste and vented gases and to determine an effective means to prevent the accumulation of flammable gases in the tank dome space and ventilation system. Results of the expanded characterization conducted in fiscal year 1991 are presented. The use of gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, and hydrogen-specific monitors provided a greater understanding of the vented gases. Additional instrumentation placed in the tank also helped to provide more detailed information on tank temperatures, gas pressure, and gas flow rates. An extensive laboratory study involving the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Georgia Institute of Technology was initiated for the purpose of determining the mechanisms responsible for the generation of various gases. These studies evaluate both radiolytic and thermochemical processes. Results of the first series of experiments are described.

Babad, H.; Johnson, G.D.; Lechelt, J.A.; Reynolds, D.A. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)) [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pederson, L.R.; Strachan, D.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)) [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Meisel, D.; Jonah, C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)) [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ashby, E.C. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)) [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

System and method for converting wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)  

SciTech Connect

A method of converting natural wellhead gas to liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) may comprise the steps of: separating natural gas from petroleum fluids exiting a wellhead; compressing the natural gas; refrigerating the natural gas, liquefying at least a portion thereof; separating LPG from gas vapors of the refrigerated natural gas; storing the separated LPG in a storage tank with a vapor space therein; and recirculating a portion of the LPG vapors in the storage tank with the natural gas exiting the wellhead to enhance recovery of LPG. A system for performing the method may comprise: a two-stage gas compressor connected to the wellhead; a refrigeration unit downstream of the gas compressor for refrigerating the compressed gases therefrom; at least one product separator downstream of the refrigerator unit for receiving refrigerated and compressed gases discharged from the refrigerator unit and separating LPG therein from gases remaining in vapor form; and a storage tank for receiving and storing the separated LPG therein, the storage tank having a vapor space therein connected upstream of the gas compressor through a pressure regulator allowing recirculation of some LPG vapors with the natural gases through said system.

May, R.L.; Sinclair, B.W.

1984-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be as high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

Weaver, Paul F. (13130 W. 66th Pl., Golden, CO 80401)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

Weaver, P.F.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Management of radioactive waste gases from the nuclear fuel cycle. Volume I. Comparison of alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Alternatives were compared for collection and fixation of radioactive waste gases released during normal operation of the nuclear fuel cycle, and for transportation and storage/disposal of the resulting waste forms. The study used a numerical rating scheme to evaluate and compare the alternatives for krypton-85, iodine-129, and carbon-14; whereas a subjective evaluation, based on published reports and engineering judgement, was made for transportation and storage/disposal options. Based on these evaluations, certain alternatives are recommended for an integrated scheme for waste management of each of the subject waste gases. Phase II of this project, which is concerned with the development of performance criteria for the waste forms associated with the subject gases, will be completed by the end of 1980. This work will be documented as Volume II of this report.

Evans, A.G.; Prout, W.E.; Buckner, J.T.; Buckner, M.R.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2001 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on climate and vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC represents DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS). Wanda Ferrell is DOE's Program Manager with overall responsibility for CDIAC. Roger Dahlman is responsible for CDIAC's AmeriFlux tasks, and Anna Palmisano for CDIAC's Ocean Data tasks. CDIAC is made up of three groups: Data Systems, Information Services, and Computer Systems, with nineteen full-time or part-time staff. The following section provides details on CDIAC's staff and organization. The Data Systems Group identifies and obtains databases important to global-change research; analyzes data; compiles needed databases; provides data management and support to specific programs [e.g., NARSTO, Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE), AmeriFlux, Oceans]; and prepares documentation to ensure the long-term utility of CDIAC's data holdings. The Information Services Group responds to data and information requests; maintains records of all request activities; analyzes user statistics; assists in Web development and maintenance; and produces CDIAC's newsletter (CDIAC Communications), the fiscal year annual reports, and various information materials. The Computer Systems Group provides computer system support for all CDIAC and WDC activities; designs and maintains CDIAC's computing system network; ensures compliance with ORNL/DOE computing security regulations; ensures long-term preservation of CDIAC data holdings through systematic backups; evaluates, develops, and implements software; ensures standards compliance; generates user statistics; provides Web design, development, and oversight; and provides systems analysis and programming assistance for scientific data projects.

Cushman, R.M.

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global-change data and information analysis center of the Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has--since its inception in 1982--enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Acting Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC's FY 1999 budget was 2.2M dollars. CDIAC represents the DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System. Bobbi Parra, and Wanda Ferrell on an interim basis, is DOE's Program Manager with responsibility for CDIAC. CDIAC comprises three groups, Global Change Data, Computer Systems, and Information Services, with seventeen full-time and part-time staff. The Global Change Data group is responsible for identifying and obtaining databases important to global-change research, analyzing data, compiling needed databases, providing data management support to specific programs (e.g., NARSTO), and preparing documentation to ensure the long-term utility of CDIAC's data holdings. The Computer Systems group provides computer system support for all CDIAC and WDC activities, including designing and maintaining CDIAC's computing system network; ensuring compliance with ORNL/DOE computing security regulations; ensuring long-term preservation of CDIAC data holdings through systematic backups; evaluating, developing, and implementing software; ensuring standards compliance; generating user statistics; providing Web design, development, and oversight; and providing systems analysis and programming assistance for scientific data projects. The Information Services group responds to data and information requests; maintains records of all request activities; assists in Web development and maintenance; and produces CDIAC's newsletter, CDIAC Communications, catalog, glossary, and educational materials. The following section provides further details on CDIAC's organization.

Cushman, R.M.

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850.degree.-1000.degree. C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

Shen, Ming-Shing (Laramie, WY, NJ); Chen, James M. (Rahway, NJ); Yang, Ralph T. (Amherst, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica, and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane, and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850 to 1000/sup 0/C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

Shen, M.S.; Chen, J.M.; Yang, R.T.

1980-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Reactive sticking coefficients of silane on silicon  

SciTech Connect

Reactive sticking coefficients (RSCs) were measured for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon for a wide range of temperature and flux (pressure) conditions. The data were obtained from deposition rate measurements using molecular beam scattering and a very low pressure cold wall reactor. The RSCs have non-Arrhenius temperature dependences and decreases with increasing flux at low (710/sup 0/) temperatures. A simple model involving dissociative adsorption of silane is consistent with these results. The results are compared with previous studies of the SiH/sub 4//Si(s) reaction.

Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1988-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rapid development of coal-bed methane was spurred by amethane and other gases. Some of this coalbed gas is stored in the coal bed

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

K. C. Kwon

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

384

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

K.C. Kwon

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

385

Reading Comprehension - Organs and Organ Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

together in a group make up an organ system. Examples of organ systems are cats and dogs the circulatory system and the respiratory system the stomacular system and...

386

The economics of controlling stock pollutants: An efficient strategy for greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect

Optimal control theory is applied to develop an efficient strategy to control stock pollutants such as greenhouse gases and hazardous waste. The optimal strategy suggests that, at any time, the marginal costs of abatement should be equated with the present value of the marginal damage of timely unabated emission. The optimal strategy calls for increasingly tight abatement over time as the pollutant stock accumulates. The optimal policy applied to greenhouse gases suggest moderate abatement efforts, at present, with the potential for much greater future efforts. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

Falk, I. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Mendelsohn, R. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Life cycles on earth complicate climate research studies of trace gases  

SciTech Connect

The Exchange of Trace Gases between Atmosphere and Biosphere was the theme of the 57th workshop held by the Dahlem Conferences of the Stifterverband fuer die Deutsche Wissenschaft (Donors Association for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences in Germany), in which the experts focused their attention on the trace gases methane (CH{sub 4}) and the nitrous oxides (N{sub 2}O, NO, NO{sub 2}). Although these substances only exist in minute quantities in comparison to carbon dioxide, they contribute just as much to the greenhouse effect.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

389

GEI 41040G - Specification for Fuel Gases for COmbustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Turbine Gas Turbine Revised, January 2002 GEI 41040G These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment nor to provide for every possible contingency to be met in connection with installation, operation or maintenance. Should further information be desired or should particular problems arise which are not covered sufficiently for the purchaser's purposes the matter should be referred to the GE Company. © 1999 GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY Specification for Fuel Gases for Combustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines GEI 41040G Specification for Fuel Gases for Combustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

390

Absolute rate measurements of two-photon process of gases, liquids, and solids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Due to rapid improvements in high-power laser performance, two-photon absorption processes have become a very useful tool for studying the molecular structures of various gases, liquids and solids. However, measurements of absolute two-photon absorption cross sections were more or less ignored previously because of their small size. In this work, we obtained not only the two-photon absorption spectra, but also measurements of their absolute cross sections for various gases, liquids, and solids. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Chen, C.H.; McCann, M.P.; Payne, M.G.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Mechanistic Reactive Burn Modeling of Solid Explosives  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a computational framework for reactive burn modeling of solid explosives and the development of a test case where physical mechanisms represent RDX or RDX-based materials. The report is a sequel to LA-13794-MS, ''A Unifying Framework for Hot Spots and the Ignition of Energetic Materials,'' where we proposed a new approach to the building of a general purpose model that captures the essential features of the three primary origins of hot-spot formation: void collapse, shear banding, friction. The purpose of the present report is to describe the continuing task of coupling the unifying hot-spot model to hydrodynamic calculations to develop a mechanistic reactive burn model. The key components of the coupling include energy localization, the growth of hot spots, overall hot-spot behavior, and a phase-averaged mixture equation of state (EOS) in a Mie-Grueneisen form. The nucleation and growth of locally heated regions is modeled by a phenomenological treatment as well as a statistical model based on an exponential size distribution. The Mie-Grueneisen form of the EOS is one of many possible choices and is not a critical selection for implementing the model. In this report, model calculations are limited to proof-of-concept illustrations for shock loading. Results include (1) shock ignition and growth-to-detonation, (2) double shock ignition, and (3) quenching and reignition. A comparative study of Pop-plots is discussed based on the statistical model.

Y.Horie; Y.Hamate; D.Greening

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Reactive thermal waves in energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

Reactive thermal waves (RTWs) arise in several energetic material applications, including self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), high explosive cookoff, and the detonation of heterogeneous explosives. In this paper I exmaine ideal RTWs, by which I mean that (1) material motion is neglected, (2) the state dependence of reaction is Arrhenius in the temperature, and (3) the reaction rate is modulated by an arbitrary mass-fraction-based reaction progress function. Numerical simulations demonstrate that one's natural intuition, which is based mainly upon experience with inert materials and which leads one to expect diffusion processes to become relatively slow after a short time period, is invalid for high energy, state-sensitive reactive systems. Instead, theory predicts that RTWs can propagate at very high speeds. This result agrees with estimates for detonating heterogeneous explosives, which indicate that RTWs must spread from hot-spot nucleation sites at rates comparable to the detonation speed in order to produce experimentally-observed reaction zone thicknesses. Using dimensionless scaling and further invoking the high activation energy approximation, I obtain an analytic formula for the steady plane RTW speed from numerical calculations. I then compute the RTW speed for real explosives, and discuss aspects of their behavior.

Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Installation of reactive metals groundwater collection and treatment systems  

SciTech Connect

Three groundwater plumes contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site are scheduled for remediation by 1999 based on the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) (DOE, 1996). These three plumes are among the top 20 environmental cleanup sites at Rocky Flats. One of these plumes, the Mound Site Plume, is derived from a previous drum storage area, and daylights as seeps near the South Walnut Creek drainage. Final design for remediation of the Mound Site Plume has been completed based on use of reactive metals to treat the contaminated groundwater, and construction is scheduled for early 1998. The two other plumes, the 903 Pad/Ryan`s Pit and the East Trenches Plumes, are derived from VOCs either from drums that leaked or that were disposed of in trenches. These two plumes are undergoing characterization and conceptual design in 1998 and construction is scheduled in 1999. The contaminants of concern in these plumes are tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride and low levels of uranium and americium.

Hopkins, J.K.; Primrose, A.L. [Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, LLC, Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site; Vogan, J. [EnviroMetal Technologies, Inc., Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Uhland, J. [Kaiser-Hill, LLC, Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste  

SciTech Connect

As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Actinide and xenon reactivity effects in ATW high flux systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, initial system reactivity response to flux changes caused by the actinides and xenon are investigated separately for a high flux ATW system. The maximum change in reactivity after a flux change due to the effect of the changing quantities of actinides is generally at least two orders of magnitude smaller than either the positive or negative reactivity effect associated with xenon after a shutdown or start-up. In any transient flux event, the reactivity response of the system to xenon will generally occlude the response due to the actinides.

Woosley, M.; Olson, K.; Henderson, D. L.; Sailor, W. C. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1687 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1995-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Knudsen Layer Reduction of Fusion Reactivity Kim Molvig and Nelson...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fusion cross section determine Gamow peak in the fusion reactivity. 2 Inertially confined fusion systems typically have plasma fuel enveloped by a cold non-reacting region or...

398

SP-19: Electrochemistry of Enargite: Reactivity in Alkaline Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reactivity of enargite samples from Montana, US and Quiruvilca, Peru were studied under alkaline conditions, pH range of 8-13, using a cyclic voltammetry ...

399

Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

History Facebook icon Twitter icon Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution in CO2- and Water-Based Geothermal Reservoirs Geothermal Lab Call Project...

400

Chombo-Crunch: Advanced Simulation of Subsurface Flow and Reactive...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chombo-Crunch: Advanced Simulation of Subsurface Flow and Reactive Transport Processes Associated with Carbon Sequestration PI Name: David Trebotich Institution: Lawrence Berkeley...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Photoconductivity and luminescence in GaSe crystals at high levels of optical excitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The photoconductivity and luminescence of GaSe layered crystals at high levels of optical excitation are studied experimentally. The specific features observed in the photoconductivity and photoluminescence spectra are controlled by the nonlinear optical absorption in the region of excitonic resonance.

Kyazym-zade, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M., E-mail: vagif_salmanov@yahoo.com; Salmanova, A. A. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Alieva, A. M.; Ibaeva, R. Z. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Process And Apparatus For Producing A Stream Of Inert Gases From A Hydrocarbon Fuel Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental research study involving an unconventional method of producing a stream of inert gases from common hydrocarbon fuel sources has been described. Design and processing science elements from several different scientific, engineering, and ... Keywords: design, engine, fuel, hydrocarbon, inert gas, process, production, system

F. W. Giacobbe

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Group-velocity-dispersion measurements of atmospheric and combustion-related gases using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, "Dispersion measurement of inert gases and gas mixtures at 800 nm," Appl. Opt. 47(27), 4856­4863 (2008). 17. T of the gas. For each gas measurement a pressure point was randomly selected, and the dispersion was measured (), and plot dispersion as a function of gas density in Fig. 3. As expected we see the linear dependence

Dantus, Marcos

404

Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

Calabro, Paolo S. [Dipartimento di Meccanica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, via Graziella - loc. Feo di Vito, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.calabro@unirc.it

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Regenerable process for the selective removal of sulfur dioxide from effluent gases  

SciTech Connect

A regenerable process is claimed for scrubbing SO/sub 2/ from effluent gases using an aqueous alkanolamine and the corresponding sulfite as the solvent, such amine having a boiling point below about 250/sup 0/ C. At one atmosphere pressure and wherein the alkanolamine solutions containing heat stable salts (Hss) is regenerated by alkali addition, crystallization and vacuum distillation of the amine.

Atwood, G.R.; Kosseim, A.J.; Sokolik, J.E.

1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

406

Displacement of Different Gases on the Mechanism of Methane and its Experimental Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper is research how to improve the exploitation of coal bed methane rate, we discussed the flooding in the coal bed methane gas, CO2 gas with N2 gas and the effect of displacement, respectively, and summed up: With the injection of different gases ... Keywords: CBM, N2 and CO2 gas, Flow characteristics, Mechanism

E. Dong; Long Guan

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare an inventory of aggregate U.S. national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987-1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report documents the methodology for the seventeenth annual inventory, covering national emissions over the period 1990-2008.

Information Center

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

408

Assessing the environmental pollutant vector of combustion gases emission from coal-fired power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the present industrial metabolism, electric and thermal energy production is one of the main consumers of fossil fuels. Coal is a natural resource and fossil fuel used in the coal-fired power plants in Romania. Unfortunately, beyond the environmental ... Keywords: coal-fired power plant, combustion gases, environmental impact, pollutant vector

Cornelia A. Bulucea; Andreea Jeles; Nikos E. Mastorakis; Carmen A. Bulucea; Constantin Brindusa

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Biological sweetening of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters Marc Fortuny a,c  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Hydrogen sulfide; Gas sweetening; Biotrickling filter; Desulfurization; Fuel gas; Biogas 1. Introduction in energy-rich gases such as biogas from anaerobic digesters which may contain H2S concentrations exceeding ones specifically developed for the removal of high concentra- tions of H2S from biogas or fuel gas

411

Operational aspects of the desulfurization process of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters5  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Introduction Energy rich off-gases such as biogas are sometimes not used for electric power generation due impurities. H2S concentrations in biogas can range from 0.1 to 5 We dedicate this article to the memory/v (1000e20,000 ppmv), whereas the specifications for the maximum content of H2S in typical biogas

412

Most countries have made commitments to limit human-caused emissions of greenhouse gases. To  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(which is soot, rather than a greenhouse gas) would both improve our ability to manage its impact GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS There are three primary methods for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases, all be used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and sinks with sufficient accuracy at the national level

413

What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

greenhouse gas and plays an important role in regulating the climate. Changes in water vapor from human in the atmosphere, water vapor is not counted in the United States or international greenhouse gas inventories3 . Why do greenhouse gas levels matter? Atmospheric concentrations of several important greenhouse gases

414

Determination of Autoignition and Flame Speed Characteristics of Coal Gases Having Medium Heating Values  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combustion of clean, medium-Btu coal-derived gas offers a way of generating electric power from domestic coal without the sulfur oxide emissions of direct coal combustion. This initial testing yielded data on the spontaneous ignition and turbulent flame speed behavior of such gases that will be valuable for the development of low-NOx combustion systems.

1985-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

415

A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

Seager, S; Hu, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Spin waves in ultracold gases with exchange and spin-orbit interactions  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of spin waves in ultracold gases is investigated with allowance for exchange and spin-orbit interaction. The exact basis of atomic states is used taking into account all rotational quantum numbers of the atom. The dispersion relation for spin waves is obtained for fermions and bosons in the hydro-dynamic approximation.

Andreeva, T. L.; Rubin, P. L., E-mail: rubin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

Judkins, Roddie R. (9917 Rainbow Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Burchell, Timothy D. (109 Greywood Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

419

Capture and release of mixed acid gasses with binding organic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reversible acid-gas binding organic liquid systems that permit separation and capture of one or more of several acid gases from a mixed gas stream, transport of the liquid, release of the acid gases from the ionic liquid and reuse of the liquid to bind more acid gas with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems. These systems utilize acid gas capture compounds made up of strong bases and weak acids that form salts when reacted with a selected acid gas, and which release these gases when a preselected triggering event occurs. The various new materials that make up this system can also be included in various other applications such as chemical sensors, chemical reactants, scrubbers, and separators that allow for the specific and separate removal of desired materials from a gas stream such as flue gas.

Heldebrant, David J. (Richland, WA); Yonker, Clement R. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

420

Instrumentation @ Catalysis: Reactivity and Structure Group | Chemistry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instrumentation Instrumentation The Catalysis Group at BNL is leading research initiatives into the development of new tools and techniques that focus on the characterization of heterogeneous catalytic reactions and catalysts using imaging, spectroscopy and scattering techniques and integrated combinations of them under reaction conditions to unravel the morphology, chemical and structural properties, of catalysts, respectively. These efforts revolve around the use of synchrotron radiation (NSLS), electrons (CFN) and quantum tunneling tools with particular thrusts into imaging, spectroscopy and scattering. Groups Instrumentation(BNL) Three UHV chambers with diverse instrumentation for surface characterization: LEED, UPS, XPS, AES, TPD, ISS, PM-AP-IRRAS, Reactivity Cell. All the systems include ancillary instrumentation such as sputtering guns and metal evaporators. The IRRAS system was retrofitted with an ambient pressure (AP) cell on top of the UHV system. The sample can be prepared and characterized in UHV and then transfer in vacuum to the AP cell.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Atmospheric Trace Gases, Carbon Isotopes, Radionuclides, and Aerosols: Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

(Scroll down to find Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, a subheading under the broader heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases, etc.) CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to isotopes in greenhouse gases includes: • Monthly atmospheric 13C/12C isotopic ratios for 10 SIO stations, (2005) (Trends Online) • Mixing ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and isotope ratios of associated 13C, 18O, and 2H in air samples from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, and Monta±a de Oro, California, USA (2004) • Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values from Fossil-Fuel Consumption in the U.S.A., (2004) (Trends Online) ?13C in CO2 from the CSIRO GASLAB Flask Sampling Network (Trends Online) • In Situ 13CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 (2001) (Trends Online) • In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 (1995) • Carbon-13 Isotopic Abundance and concentration of Atmospheric Methane for Background Air in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres from 1978 to 1989 (1995) • Measurements of Atmospheric Methane and 13C/12C of Atmospheric Methane from Flask Air Samples (1999) • 14CO 2 Observations from Schauinsland, Germany (1997) (Trends Online) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Atmospheric CO 2 from Northern and Southern Hemisphere Sites, 1962-1992 (1996) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 (1998) (Specialized Interface)

422

Artificial bee colony algorithm solution for optimal reactive power flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honeybee swarm. Optimal reactive power flow (ORPF) based on ABC algorithm to minimize active power loss in power systems is studied in this ... Keywords: Artificial bee colony, Optimal reactive power flow, Penalty function, Power system

Kür?at Ayan; Ula? K?l?ç

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

A formal approach for the development of reactive systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Context: This paper deals with the development and verification of liveness properties on reactive systems using the Event-B method. By considering the limitation of the Event-B method to invariance properties, we propose to apply the language TLA^+ ... Keywords: Event-B method, Language TLA+, Liveness properties, Reactive systems, Refinement, Verification

Olfa Mosbahi; Leila Jemni Ben Ayed; Mohamed Khalgui

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

MARKETS FOR REACTIVE POWER AND RELIABILITY: A WHITE PAPER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 MARKETS FOR REACTIVE POWER AND RELIABILITY: A WHITE PAPER Engineering and Economics as efficient and optimal production and prices for real and reactive power. The purpose of this paper delivery of electric power. To accomplish this end, the paper opens with specification of an economic

425

Differential evolution approach for optimal reactive power dispatch  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential evolution based optimal reactive power dispatch for real power loss minimization in power system is presented in this paper. The proposed methodology determines control variable settings such as generator terminal voltages, tap positions ... Keywords: Differential evolution, Loss minimization, Optimal power flow, Penalty function, Reactive power dispatch

M. Varadarajan; K. S. Swarup

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Reactive Power Compensation Technologies, State-of-the-Art Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reactors to provide or absorb the required reactive power have been developed [7], [8], [9]. Also, the use static VAR generators, using power electronic technologies have been proposed and developed [7 compensators (SVC) consist of standard reactive power shunt elements (reactors and capacitors) which

Rudnick, Hugh

427

In situ formation of magnetite reactive barriers in soil for waste stabilization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reactive barriers containing magnetite and methods for making magnetite reactive barriers in situ in soil for sequestering soil contaminants including actinides and heavy metals, organic materials, iodine and technetium are disclosed. According to one embodiment, a two-step reagent introduction into soil takes place. In the first step, free oxygen is removed from the soil by separately injecting into the soil aqueous solutions of iron (II) salt, for example FeCl.sub.2, and base, for example NaOH or NH.sub.3 in about a 1:1 volume ratio. Then, in the second step, similar reagents are injected a second time (however, according to about a 1:2 volume ratio, iron to salt) to form magnetite. The magnetite formation is facilitated, in part, due to slow intrusion of oxygen into the soil from the surface. The invention techniques are suited to injection of reagents into soil in proximity to a contamination plume or source allowing in situ formation of the reactive barrier at the location of waste or hazardous material. Mixing of reagents to form. precipitate is mediated and enhanced through movement of reagents in soil as a result of phenomena including capillary action, movement of groundwater, soil washing and reagent injection pressure.

Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Variational reactivity estimates: new analyses and new results  

SciTech Connect

A modified form of the variational estimate of the reactivity worth ofa perturbation was previously developed to extend the range of applicability of variational perturbation theory for perturbations leading to negative reactivity worths. Recent numerical results challenged the assumptions behind the modified form. In this paper, more results are obtained, leading to the conclusion that sometimes the modified form extends the range ofapplicability of variational perturbation theory for positive reactivity worths as well, and sometimes the standard variational form is more accurate for negative-reactivity perturbations. In addition, this paper proves that using the exact generalized adjoint function would lead to an inaccurate variational reactivity estimate when the error in the first-order estimate is large; the standard generalized adjoint function, an approximation to the exact one, leads to Lore accurate results. This conclusion is also demonstrated numerically. Transport calculations use the PARTISN multi group discrete ordinates code

Favorite, Jeffrey A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Quantifying the Reactive Uptake of OH by Organic Aerosols in a Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Reactor Dung L. Che, 1,2 Jaredflow stirred tank reactor. This approach is designed totimes in a flow tube reactor. This difference suggests that

Che, Dung L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Quantifying the Reactive Uptake of OH by Organic Aerosols in a Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

determination of the n-butane + OH reaction rate coefficientof the hexane (?) and butane (?) GC peak areas during therate constant ( k but ) for the n-butane + OH reaction. The

Che, Dung L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area  

SciTech Connect

This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles: the MCMA motor vehicles produce abundant amounts of primary PM, elemental carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and a wide range of air toxics; the feasibility of using eddy covariance techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds in an urban core and a valuable tool for validating local emissions inventory; a much better understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds; the first spectroscopic detection of glyoxal in the atmosphere; a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources; characterization of ozone formation and its sensitivity to VOCs and NOx; a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distribution and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models; evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for O3 and NO2; and the implementation of an innovative Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for inorganic aerosol modeling as a powerful tool to analyze aerosol data and predict gas phase concentrations where these are unavailable. During the MILAGRO Campaign the collaborative team utilized a combination of central fixed sites and a mobile laboratory deployed throughout the MCMA to representative urban and boundary sites to measure trace gases and fine particles. Analysis of the extensive 2006 data sets has confirmed the key findings from MCMA-2002/2003; additionally MCMA-2006 provided more detailed gas and aerosol chemistry and wider regional scale coverage. Key results include an updated 2006 emissions inventory; extension of the flux system to measure fluxes of fine particles; better understanding of the sources and apportionment of aerosols, including contribution from biomass burning and industrial sources; a comprehensive evaluation of metal containing particles in a complex urban environment; identification of a close correlation between

Luisa T. Molina, Rainer Volkamer, Benjamin de Foy, Wenfang Lei, Miguel Zavala, Erik Velasco; Mario J. Molina

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

The Hydriding Kinetics of Organic Hydrogen Getters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The aging of hermetically sealed systems is often accompanied by the gradual production of hydrogen gas that is a result of the decay of environmental gases and the degradation of organic materials. In particular, the oxygen, water, hydrogen ''equilibrium'' is affected by the removal of oxygen due the oxidation of metals and organic materials. This shift of the above ''equilibrium'' towards the formation of hydrogen gas, particularly in crevices, may eventually reach an explosive level of hydrogen gas or degrade metals by hydriding them. The latter process is generally delayed until the oxidizing species are significantly reduced. Organic hydrogen getters introduced by Allied Signal Aerospace Company, Kansas City Division have proven to be a very effective means of preventing hydrogen gas accumulation in sealed containers. These getters are relatively unaffected by air and environmental gases. They can be packaged in a variety of ways to fit particular needs such as porous pellets, fine or coarse [gravel] powder, or loaded into silicone rubber. The hydrogen gettering reactions are extremely irreversible since the hydrogen gas is converted into an organic hydrocarbon. These getters are based on the palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of triple bonds to double and then single bonds in aromatic aryl compounds. DEB (1,4 bis (phenyl ethynyl) benzene) typically mixed with 25% by weight carbon with palladium (1% by weight of carbon) is one of the newest and best of these organic hydrogen getters. The reaction mechanisms are complex involving solid state reaction with a heterogeneous catalyst leading to the many intermediates, including mixed alkyl and aryl hydrocarbons with the possibilities of many isomers. The reaction kinetics mechanisms are also strongly influenced by the form in which they are packaged. For example, the hydriding rates for pellets and gravel have a strong dependence on reaction extent (i.e., DEB reduction) and a kinetic order in pressure of 0.76. Silicone rubber based DEB getters hydride at a much lower rate, have little dependence on reaction extent, have a higher kinetic order in pressure (0.87), and have a lower activation energy. The kinetics of the reaction as a function of hydrogen pressure, stoichiometry, and temperature for hydrogen and deuterium near ambient temperature (0 to 75 C) for pressures near or below 100 Pa over a wide range (in some cases, the complete) hydrogenation range are presented along with multi-dimensional rate models.

Powell, G. L.

2002-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

433

Removal of Particles and Acid Gases (SO2 or HCl) with a Ceramic Filter by Addition of Dry Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

The present investigation intends to add to the fundamental process design know-how for dry flue gas cleaning, especially with respect to process flexibility, in cases where variations in the type of fuel and thus in concentration of contaminants in the flue gas require optimization of operating conditions. In particular, temperature effects of the physical and chemical processes occurring simultaneously in the gas-particle dispersion and in the filter cake/filter medium are investigated in order to improve the predictive capabilities for identifying optimum operating conditions. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) are known as efficient sorbents for neutralizing acid flue gas components such as HCl, HF, and SO{sub 2}. According to their physical properties (e.g. porosity, pore size) and chemical behavior (e.g. thermal decomposition, reactivity for gas-solid reactions), optimum conditions for their application vary widely. The results presented concentrate on the development of quantitative data for filtration stability and overall removal efficiency as affected by operating temperature. Experiments were performed in a small pilot unit with a ceramic filter disk of the type Dia-Schumalith 10-20 (Fig. 1, described in more detail in Hemmer 2002 and Hemmer et al. 1999), using model flue gases containing SO{sub 2} and HCl, flyash from wood bark combustion, and NaHCO{sub 3} as well as Ca(OH){sub 2} as sorbent material (particle size d{sub 50}/d{sub 84} : 35/192 {micro}m, and 3.5/16, respectively). The pilot unit consists of an entrained flow reactor (gas duct) representing the raw gas volume of a filter house and the filter disk with a filter cake, operating continuously, simulating filter cake build-up and cleaning of the filter medium by jet pulse. Temperatures varied from 200 to 600 C, sorbent stoichiometric ratios from zero to 2, inlet concentrations were on the order of 500 to 700 mg/m{sup 3}, water vapor contents ranged from zero to 20 vol%. The experimental program with NaHCO{sub 3} is listed in Table 1. In addition, model calculations were carried out based on own and published experimental results that estimate residence time and temperature effects on removal efficiencies.

Hemmer, G.; Kasper, G.; Wang, J.; Schaub, G.

2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

434

Early maturation processes in coal. Part 2: Reactive dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field on Morwell Brown coal structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Early maturation processes in coal. Part 2: Reactive dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field on Morwell Brown coal structures Elodie Salmon a , Adri C.T. van Duin b , François Lorant Brown coal using the ReaxFF reactive force field. We find that these reactive MD simulations

Goddard III, William A.

435

Reactive sticking coefficients of silane on silicon  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the reaction of room-temperature silane and disilane on a hot polycrystalline silicon surface using both a collision-free molecular beam and a very low pressure CVD cell. Reactive sticking coefficients were obtained from deposition rate data over a wide range of temperatures and silane (disilane) fluxes. The RSCs are substantially less than one, ranging from 6 x 10/sup -5/ to 4 x 10/sup -2/. For silane we observed curved Arrhenius plots with slopes decreasing from approx.60 kcal mol/sup -1/ at low temperatures to approx.2 kcal mol/sup -1/ at higher temperatures. The RSCs are independent of flux (pressure) at 1040/sup 0/C, but vary as flux to the approx.-1/2 power at 710/sup 0/C. A model comprised of a dissociative adsorption mechanism with competing associative desorption and reaction was found to give reasonable agreement. For disilane, we observed RSCs that were roughly ten times higher than those for silane. We also observed a curved Arrhenius plot and a flux dependence at 710/sup 0/C for disilane. 22 refs., 5 figs.

Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Reactivity of coals under coprocessing conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the recent years greater interest has developed for processes involving coal and petroleum fractions to produce distillate fuels. Coprocessing is especially attractive as a direct liquefaction process because it involves the use of heavy petroleum fractions, so both coal and heavy petroleum resids are upgraded simultaneously. The main distinction of coprocessing from other direct liquefaction processes is that coprocessing is more complex from a chemical standpoint than direct liquefaction processes which use traditional solvents, due to the greater variety of hydrocarbons (aromatic from the coal and aliphatics from the petroleum) present in the system. Therefore, need arises for better understanding of the chemical and physical interactions during coprocessing. The aim of the present study is to examine the influence of reaction conditions, coal and petroleum resid properties as well as the compatibility of the coal/petroleum resid pairs in terms of structural components on total coal conversion. Special focus will be given to the reactivity of coals and interaction of the coal and resid which lead to anisotropic coke.

Tomic, J.; Schobert, H.H.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Reactivity of coals under coprocessing conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the recent years greater interest has developed for processes involving coal and petroleum fractions to produce distillate fuels. Coprocessing is especially attractive as a direct liquefaction process because it involves the use of heavy petroleum fractions, so both coal and heavy petroleum resids are upgraded simultaneously. The main distinction of coprocessing from other direct liquefaction processes is that coprocessing is more complex from a chemical standpoint than direct liquefaction processes which use traditional solvents, due to the greater variety of hydrocarbons (aromatic from the coal and aliphatics from the petroleum) present in the system. Therefore, need arises for better understanding of the chemical and physical interactions during coprocessing. The aim of the present study is to examine the influence of reaction conditions, coal and petroleum resid properties as well as the compatibility of the coal/petroleum resid pairs in terms of structural components on total coal conversion. Special focus will be given to the reactivity of coals and interaction of the coal and resid which lead to anisotropic coke.

Tomic, J.; Schobert, H.H.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Biomass burning and the production of greenhouse gases, in Climate Biosphere Interaction: Biogenic Emissions and the Environmental Effects of Climate Change, edited by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the

Joel S. Levine

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

,"South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030sd2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030sd2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9030SD2" "Date","South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)" 33253,0 33284,0 33312,0 33343,0 33373,0

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441

Anyon-Fermion Mapping and Applications to Ultracold Gases in Tight Waveguides  

SciTech Connect

The Fermi-Bose mapping method for one-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases with zero-range interactions is generalized to an anyon-fermion mapping and applied to exact solution of several models of ultracold gases with anyonic exchange symmetry in tight waveguides: anyonic Calogero-Sutherland model, anyons with point hard-core interaction (anyonic Tonks-Girardeau gas), and spin-aligned anyon gas with infinite zero-range odd-wave attractions (attractive anyonic Tonks-Girardeau, or AATG, gas). It is proved that for even N{>=}4 there are states of the AATG gas on A, with anyonic phase slips which are odd integral multiples of {pi}/(N-1), of energy lower than that of the corresponding fermionic ground state. A generalization to a spinor Fermi gas state with anyonic symmetry under purely spatial exchange enables energy lowering by the same mechanism.

Girardeau, M. D. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

442

,"Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030oh2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030oh2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:25 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030OH2" "Date","Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0 33284,0 33312,0

443

,"Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030tn2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030tn2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:27 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030TN2" "Date","Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0 33284,0

444

,"Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2010 Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030tn2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030tn2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:27 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030TN2" "Date","Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 35611,0 35976,0 37802,0 38898,0

445

,"Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030va2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030va2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:29 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030VA2" "Date","Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0 33284,0

446

Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, DOE/EIA-0573(2009)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

March 2011 www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009 ii Contacts This report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, was prepared under the general direction of John Conti, Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis, and Paul Holtberg, Team Leader, Analysis Integration Team. General questions concerning the content of this report may be directed to the Office of Communications at 202/586-8800. Technical information concerning the content of the report may be obtained from Perry Lindstrom at 202/586-0934 (email, perry. lindstrom@eia.gov). Without the assistance of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), this report would not have

447

,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2010 Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030pa2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030pa2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030PA2" "Date","Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 35611,0 35976,0 37802,0

448

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

June 2000 * NREL/SR-550-28329 June 2000 * NREL/SR-550-28329 Martin Vorum, P.E. Englewood, Colorado Eugene A. Fritzler, P.E. Fort Morgan, Colorado Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants April 1999-March 2000 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute * * * * Battelle * * * * Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 June 2000 * NREL/SR-550-28329 Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants April 1999-March 2000 Martin Vorum, P.E. Englewood, Colorado Eugene A. Fritzler, P.E. Fort Morgan, Colorado NREL Technical Monitor: C. Kutscher

449

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

450

Field evaluation of sampling methods for pressurized geothermal liquids, gases, and suspended solids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many different sampling methods were tested and compared for collecting samples for measurement of brine chemistry, gases, and suspended solids from pressurized geothermal systems. The tests were conducted on the 6-2 wellhead and a test loop at the Department of Energy's Geothermal Test Facility at East Mesa, California. The recommended methods for single-phase liquid or single-phase steam (with gases) are presented, together with detailed procedures. The results of testing methods for sampling two phase liquid-steam systems showed significant errors can result. It was recommended that two-phase flowing wells be directed to a full flow separator and the single-phase liquid and single-phase steam sampled separately using the recommended methods.

Shannon, D.W.; Cole, M.W.; DeMonia, D.D.; Divine, J.R.; Jensen, G.A.; Kindle, C.H.; Koski, O.H.; Smith, R.P.; Woodruff, E.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

Clay, David T. (Longview, WA); Lynn, Scott (Walnut Creek, CA)

1976-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

453

An equation of state from cool-dense fluids to hot gases for mixed elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An equation of state for the domain extending from hot gases to cool-dense fluids is formulated for a hydrogen-helium mixture. The physical processes take account of temperature ionization and dissociation, electron degeneracy, Coulomb coupling and pressure ionization. Pressure ionization and Coulomb coupling are studied with simple and comprehensive modeling. A single and complete algorithm is achieved with explicit expressions available for the whole domain from hot gases to cool dense fluids ($T>10^2% K$). Pressure ionization and Coulomb coupling have been examined for their contributions to the pressure and internal energy. The result reveals that their contributions smooth the variation of the pressure and internal energy in the region of pressure ionization even at very low temperatures.

G. Q. Luo

1997-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

454

An equation of state from cool-dense fluids to hot gases for mixed elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An equation of state for the domain extending from hot gases to cool-dense fluids is formulated for a hydrogen-helium mixture. The physical processes take account of temperature ionization and dissociation, electron degeneracy, Coulomb coupling and pressure ionization. Pressure ionization and Coulomb coupling are studied with simple and comprehensive modeling. A single and complete algorithm is achieved with explicit expressions available for the whole domain from hot gases to cool dense fluids ($T>10^2% K$). Pressure ionization and Coulomb coupling have been examined for their contributions to the pressure and internal energy. The result reveals that their contributions smooth the variation of the pressure and internal energy in the region of pressure ionization even at very low temperatures.

Luo, G Q

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

A comprehensive study of different gases in inductively coupled plasma torch operating at one atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

A numerical study is done to understand the possible operating regimes of RF-ICP torch (3 MHz, 50 kW) using different gases for plasma formation at atmospheric pressure. A two dimensional numerical simulation of RF-ICP torch using argon, nitrogen, oxygen, and air as plasma gas has been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software fluent{sup (c)}. The operating parameters varied here are central gas flow, sheath gas flow, RF-power dissipated in plasma, and plasma gas. The temperature contours, flow field, axial, and radial velocity profiles were investigated under different operating conditions. The plasma resistance, inductance of the torch, and the heat distribution for various plasma gases have also been investigated. The plasma impedance of ICP torch varies with different operating parameters and plays an important role for RF oscillator design and power coupling. These studies will be useful to decide the design criteria for ICP torches required for different material processing applications.

Punjabi, Sangeeta B. [Electrical Engineering Department, V. J.T.I, Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India); Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Santacruz(E) 400098 (India); Joshi, N. K. [Faculty of Engineering and technology, MITS, lakshmangarh, (Sikar), Rajasthan 332311 (India); Mangalvedekar, H. A.; Lande, B. K. [Electrical Engineering Department, V. J.T.I, Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India); Das, A. K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kothari, D. C. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Santacruz(E) 400098 (India)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Method and apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fluidized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen- containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bissett, L.A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Method and apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fluidized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen- containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Bissett, L.A.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

458

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor. 2 figs.

Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

459

,"Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2010 Annual",2010 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030va2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030va2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:29 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030VA2" "Date","Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 35611,0 35976,0 37802,0 38898,0

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EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original 1605(b)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Program Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Original 1605(b) Program Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 established the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program. The Program operated under the original 1994 guidelines through the 2005 data year (for reports containing data through 2005). Reports containing data through 2007 and beyond submitted beginning in 2008 will be conducted under the revised General and Technical Guidelines issued in 2006 and 2007, respectively. More about the original 1605(b) Program. Old Program Reporting Guidelines Old Program Electricity Emissions Factors Old Program Calculation Tools Old Program Forms and Software Old Program Reports for the reporting years 1994 to 2004. Old Program Data for the reporting years 1994 to 2005.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive organic gases" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are