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1

Permeable Reactive Barriers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barrier Field Projects Durango, Colorado DOE installed a PRB in October 1995 to treat ground water from a uranium mill tailings disposal site at Durango, Colorado Read more Cañon City, Colorado ESL personnel conduct tests and help evaluate performance at other PRB sites, such as Cotter Corporation's Cañon City site in Colorado. Read more Monticello, Utah Installation of a PRB hydraulically downgradient of the Monticello, Utah, millsite was completed June 30, 1999, as an Interim Remedial Action. Read more A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is a zone of reactive material placed underground to intercept and react with a contaminant plume in ground water. Typically, PRBs are emplaced by replacing soils with reactive

2

Mineral Precipitation Upgradient from a Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier  

SciTech Connect

Core samples taken from a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB) at Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant, Nebraska, were analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics. Precipitates containing iron and sulfide were present at much higher concentrations in native aquifer materials just upgradient of the PRB than in the PRB itself. Sulfur mass balance on core solids coupled with trends in ground water sulfate concentrations indicates that the average ground water flow after 20 months of PRB operation was approximately twenty fold less than the regional ground water velocity. Transport and reaction modeling of the aquifer PRB interface suggests that, at the calculated velocity, both iron and hydrogen could diffuse upgradient against ground water flow and thereby contribute to precipitation in the native aquifer materials. The initial hydraulic conductivity (K) of the native materials is less than that of the PRB and, given the observed precipitation in the upgradient native materials, it is likely that K reduction occurred upgradient to rather than within the PRB. Although not directly implicated, guar gum used during installation of the PRB is believed to have played a role in the precipitation and flow reduction processes by enhancing microbial activity.

Johnson, R. L.; Thoms, R. B.; Johnson, R. O.; Nurmi, J. T.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

4

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update More Documents & Publications Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium

5

Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support January 2004 Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing More Documents & Publications Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

6

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update More Documents & Publications Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During Sustained Pumping at the Monticello, Utah, Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium

7

Microsoft Word - S01394_PRB_ZVI.DOC  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GJ719-2004 GJ719-2004 ESL-RPT-2004-06 Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site September 2004 Prepared by Environmental Sciences Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction, Colorado This page intentionally blank Signature Page Document Number S0139400 PRB Using Granular ZVI-2004 Annual Report U.S. Department of Energy Page iv September 2004 End of current text Document Number S0139400 Contents U.S. Department of Energy PRB Using Granular ZVI-2004 Annual Report September 2004 Page v Contents Signature Page ...............................................................................................................................

8

Early Breakthrough of Molybdenum and Uranium in a Permeable Reactive Barrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

S.M. Stoller Corporation, 2597 B 3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Colorado 81503, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8, Federal Facilities Program, Office of Environmental Protection and Remediation, 999 18th Street, Suite 300, Denver, Colorado 80202, and Cotter Corporation, 7800 East Dorado Place, Englewood, Colorado 80111 ... A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) using zerovalent iron (ZVI) was installed at a site near Caon City, CO, to treat molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) in groundwater. ... Uranium (U) mill tailings in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, contain elevated concentrations of molybdenum (Mo). ...

Stan J. Morrison; Paul S. Mushovic; Preston L. Niesen

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

9

Organic/inorganic nanocomposites, methods of making, and uses as a permeable reactive barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nanocomposite materials having a composition including an inorganic constituent, a preformed organic polymer constituent, and a metal ion sequestration constituent are disclosed. The nanocomposites are characterized by being single phase, substantially homogeneous materials wherein the preformed polymer constituent and the inorganic constituent form an interpenetrating network with each other. The inorganic constituent may be an inorganic oxide, such as silicon dioxide, formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of an inorganic precursor in the presence of the solvated polymer and metal ion sequestration constituent. The polymer constituent may be any hydrophilic polymer capable of forming a type I nanocomposite such as, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyethyleneoxide (PEO), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and combinations thereof. Nanocomposite materials of the present invention may be used as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate contaminated groundwater. Methods for making nanocomposite materials, PRB systems, and methods of treating groundwater are also disclosed.

Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Reactive barriers for {sup 137}Cs retention  

SciTech Connect

{sup 137}Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of {sup 137}Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of {sup 137}Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if {sup 137}Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with {sup 135}Cs (half life 2.3x10{sup 6} years) in addition to {sup 137}Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO{sub 3} and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt ({approximately} 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers.

KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

11

An overview of permeable reactive barriers for in situ sustainable groundwater remediation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are one of the innovative technologies widely accepted as an alternative to the pump and treat (P&T) for sustainable in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. The concept of the technology involves the emplacement of a permeable barrier containing reactive materials across the flow path of the contaminated groundwater to intercept and treat the contaminants as the plume flows through it under the influence of the natural hydraulic gradient. Since the invention of \\{PRBs\\} in the early 1990s, a variety of materials has been employed to remove contaminants including heavy metals, chlorinated solvents, aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticides. Contaminant removal is usually accomplished via processes such as adsorption, precipitation, denitrification and biodegradation. Despite wide acknowledgment, there are still unresolved issues about long term-performance of PRBs, which have somewhat affected their acceptability and full-scale implementation. The current paper presents an overview of the PRB technology, which includes the state of art, the merits and limitations, the reactive media used so far, and the mechanisms employed to transform or immobilize contaminants. The paper also looks at the design, construction and the long-term performance of PRBs.

Franklin Obiri-Nyarko; S. Johana Grajales-Mesa; Grzegorz Malina

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Reactive composite compositions and mat barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hazardous material storage area has a reactive multi-layer composite mat which lines an opening into which a reactive backfill and hazardous material are placed. A water-inhibiting cap may cover the hazardous material storage area. The reactive multi-layer composite mat has a backing onto which is placed an active layer which will neutralize or stabilize hazardous waste and a fronting layer so that the active layer is between the fronting and backing layers. The reactive backfill has a reactive agent which can stabilize or neutralize hazardous material and inhibit the movement of the hazardous material through the hazardous material storage area.

Langton, Christine A. (Aiken, SC); Narasimhan, Rajendran (Evans, GA); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Microsoft Word - S0212500_HydraulicConductivity-PRB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update January 2006 DOE-LM/GJ1086-2006 ESL-RPT-2006-01 DOE-LM/GJ1086-2006 ESL-RPT-2006-01 Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier-November 2005 Update January 2006 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado U.S. Department of Energy Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello PRB-November 2005 Update January 2006 Doc. No. S0212500 Page iii Contents 1.0 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................

14

Microsoft Word - S0212500_HydraulicConductivity-PRB.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update January 2006 DOE-LM/GJ1086-2006 ESL-RPT-2006-01 DOE-LM/GJ1086-2006 ESL-RPT-2006-01 Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier-November 2005 Update January 2006 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado U.S. Department of Energy Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello PRB-November 2005 Update January 2006 Doc. No. S0212500 Page iii Contents 1.0 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................

15

First results of operating and monitoring an innovative design of a permeable reactive barrier for the remediation of chromate contaminated groundwater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An innovative setup of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) was installed in Willisau, Switzerland to remediate chromate contaminated groundwater. Instead of a conventional continuous barrier, this PRB consists of cylinders installed in rows: a single row for lower expected CrVI-concentrations and an offset double row for higher expected CrVI-concentrations. The cylinders are filled with reactive grey cast-Fe shavings mixed with gravel to prevent extensive precipitation of secondary phases in the pore space. The treatment of the contaminants takes place both within the cylinders and in the dissolved FeII plume generated downstream of the barrier. Monitoring of the contamination situation over a period of 3 a provided evidence of the mobilization, transport and behavior of the contaminants in the aquifer. Groundwater and reactive material were sampled upstream, within and downstream of the barrier by a Multi-Port Sampling System (MPSS) that revealed the geochemical processes as a function of time and space. Comprehensive chemical analyses included sensitive parameters such as CrVI, FeII/FeIII, redox potential, dissolved O2 and pH. Several campaigns using multiple optical tracers revealed a rather complex hydrological regime at different scales, thereby complicating the barrier performance. Results from the large 3D hydrogeochemical dataset show that the double row of cylinders successfully treated the chromate contamination. Remediation by the single row was not effective enough due to insufficient lateral overlap of the cylinders and their FeII-plumes. The low amount of precipitated secondary phases observed in the pore space of the reactive material reduced the risk of clogging the system and suggested a favorable longevity of the barrier. Limiting factors for the long-term operation are inferred to be the availability and accessibility of FeII within the cylinders and the concentration within the generated FeII-plume.

Bettina Flury; Urs Eggenberger; Urs Mder

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah

17

Reactive Membrane Barriers for Containment of Subsurface Contamination  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to develop reactive membrane barriers--a new and flexible technique to contain and stabilize subsurface contaminants. Polymer membranes will leak once a contaminant is able to diffuse through the membrane. By incorporating a reactive material in the polymer, however, the contaminant is degraded or immobilized within the membrane. These processes increase the time for contaminants to breakthrough the barrier (i.e. the lag time) and can dramatically extend barrier lifetimes. In this work, reactive barrier membranes containing zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) or crystalline silicotitanate (CST) were developed to prevent the migration of chlorinated solvents and cesium-137, respectively. These studies were complemented by the development of models quantifying the leakage/kill time of reactive membranes and describing the behavior of products produced via the reactions within the membranes. First, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} and CST were prepared and tested. Although PVA is not useful in practical applications, it allows experiments to be performed rapidly and the results to be compared to theory. For copper ions (Cu{sup 2+}) and carbon tetrachloride, the barrier was effective, increasing the time to breakthrough over 300 times. Even better performance was expected, and the percentage of the iron used in the reaction with the contaminants was determined. For cesium, the CST laden membranes increased lag times more than 30 times, and performed better than theoretical predictions. A modified theory was developed for ion exchangers in reactive membranes to explain this result. With the PVA membranes, the effect of a groundwater matrix on barrier performance was tested. Using Hanford groundwater, the performance of Fe{sup 0} barriers decreased compared to solutions containing a pH buffer and high levels of chloride (both of which promote iron reactivity). For the CST bearing membrane, performance improved by a factor of three when groundwater was used in place of deionized water. The performance of high density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes containing Fe{sup 0} was then evaluating using carbon tetrachloride as the target contaminant. Only with a hydrophilic additive (glycerol), was the iron able to extend lag times. Lag times were increased by a factor of 15, but only 2-3% of the iron was used, likely due to formation of oxide precipitates on the iron surface, which slowed the reaction. With thicker membranes and lower carbon tetrachloride concentrations, it is expected that performance will improve. Previous models for reactive membranes were also extended. The lag time is a measurement of when the barrier is breached, but contaminants do slowly leak through prior to the lag time. Thus, two parameters, the leakage and the kill time, were developed to determine when a certain amount of pollutant has escaped (the kill time) or when a given exposure (concentration x time) occurs (the leakage). Finally, a model was developed to explain the behavior of mobile reaction products in reactive barrier membranes. Although the goal of the technology is to avoid such products, it is important to be able to predict how these products will behave. Interestingly, calculations show that for any mobile reaction products, one half of the mass will diffuse into the containment area and one half will escape, assuming that the volumes of the containment area and the surrounding environment are much larger than the barrier membrane. These parameters/models will aid in the effective design of barrier membranes.

William A. Arnold; Edward L. Cussler

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

18

Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah More Documents & Publications Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and

19

Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah More Documents & Publications Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive

20

Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site More Documents & Publications Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers  

SciTech Connect

Many contaminated areas consist of a source area and a plume. In the source area, the contaminant moves vertically downward from a release point through the vadose zone to an underlying saturated region. Where contaminants are organic liquids, NAPL may accumulate on the water table, or it may continue to migrate downward through the saturated region. Early developments of permeable barrier technology have focused on intercepting horizontally moving plumes with vertical structures, such as trenches, filled with reactive material capable of immobilizing or degrading dissolved contaminants. This focus resulted in part from a need to economically treat the potentially large volumes of contaminated water in a plume, and in part from the availability of construction technology to create the vertical structures that could house reactive compounds. Contaminant source areas, however, have thus far remained largely excluded from the application of permeable barrier technology. One reason for this is the lack of conventional construction methods for creating suitable horizontal structures that would place reactive materials in the path of downward-moving contaminants. Methods of hydraulic fracturing have been widely used to create flat-lying to gently dipping layers of granular material in unconsolidated sediments. Most applications thus far have involved filling fractures with coarse-grained sand to create permeable layers that will increase the discharge of wells recovering contaminated water or vapor. However, it is possible to fill fractures with other compounds that alter the chemical composition of the subsurface. One early application involved development and field testing micro-encapsulated sodium percarbonate, a solid compound that releases oxygen and can create aerobic conditions suitable for biodegradation in the subsurface for several months.

Murdoch, L. [FRx Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Siegrist, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Vesper, S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Final Report- Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

23

Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporations Caon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporations Canon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill (April 2005)

24

Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed.

Murdoch, L. [FRX Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Siegrist, B.; Meiggs, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

Reactive barrier technologies for treatment of contaminated groundwater at Rocky Flats  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is supporting the investigation of reactive barrier technologies to mitigate the risks associated with mixed organic/radioactive waste at several DOE sites. Groundwater from a small contaminated plume at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is being used to evaluate passive reactive material treatment. Permeable reactive barriers which intercept contaminants and destroy the VOC component while containing radionuclides are attractive for a number of reasons relating to public and regulatory acceptance. In situ treatment keeps contaminants away from the earth`s surface, there is no above-ground treatment equipment that could expose workers and the public and operational costs are expected to be lower than currently used technologies. This paper will present results from preliminary site characterization and in-field small-scale column testing of reactive materials at RFETS. Successful demonstration is expected to lead to full-scale implementation of the technology at several DOE sites, including Rocky Flats.

Marozas, D.C.; Bujewski, G.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Castaneda, N. [Rocky Flats Field Office, Golden, CO (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

Title: Improving Jet Engine Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings via Reactive Element Addition to the Bond Coat Alloy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: Improving Jet Engine Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings via Reactive Element Addition engine turbine blades can shield the temperature to which the underlying superalloy is exposed modifications that should inhibit the failure of these jet engine turbine thermal barrier coatings. Research

Carter, Emily A.

27

Permanganate Treatment of DNAPLs in Reactive Barriers and Source Zone Flooding Schemes  

SciTech Connect

In situ oxidation with potassium permanganate has been widely evaluated, as a potential remediation method for dissolved or pure DNAPL in groundwater system. The goals of this study are (1) to elucidate the basic mechanisms by which potassium permanganate oxidizes common chlorinated solvents, various constituents in aqueous solution, and porous medium solids, and (2) to assess the potential for chemical oxidation by potassium permanganate to serve as a remedial scheme involving either source zone flooding or reactive barriers. The study is organized with a laboratory component that looks generally at the basic reaction processes and kinetics, and a theoretical component that is developing modeling tools appropriate for designing systems under field conditions.

Schwartz, Frank W.; Zhang, Hubao

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

28

Remediation of the Highland Drive South Ravine, Port Hope, Ontario: Contaminated Groundwater Discharge Management Using Permeable Reactive Barriers and Contaminated Sediment Removal - 13447  

SciTech Connect

The Highland Drive South Ravine (HDSR) is the discharge area for groundwater originating from the Highland Drive Landfill, the Pine Street North Extension (PSNE) roadbed parts of the Highland Drive roadbed and the PSNE Consolidation Site that contain historical low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). The contaminant plume from these LLRW sites contains elevated concentrations of uranium and arsenic and discharges with groundwater to shallow soils in a wet discharge area within the ravine, and directly to Hunt's Pond and Highland Drive South Creek, which are immediately to the south of the wet discharge area. Remediation and environmental management plans for HDSR have been developed within the framework of the Port Hope Project and the Port Hope Area Initiative. The LLRW sites will be fully remediated by excavation and relocation to a new Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) as part of the Port Hope Project. It is projected, however, that the groundwater contaminant plume between the remediated LLRW sites and HDSR will persist for several hundreds of years. At the HDSR, sediment remediation within Hunt's Ponds and Highland Drive South Creek, excavation of the existing and placement of clean fill will be undertaken to remove current accumulations of solid-phase uranium and arsenic associated with the upper 0.75 m of soil in the wet discharge area, and permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) will be used for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater to prevent the ongoing discharge of uranium and arsenic to the area in HDSR where shallow soil excavation and replacement has been undertaken. Bench-scale testing using groundwater from HDSR has confirmed excellent treatment characteristics for both uranium and arsenic using permeable reactive mixtures containing granular zero-valent iron (ZVI). A sequence of three PRBs containing ZVI and sand in backfilled trenches has been designed to intercept the groundwater flow system prior to its discharge to the ground surface and the creek and ponds in the HDSR. The first of the PRBs will be installed immediately up-gradient of the wet discharge area approximately 50 m from the creek, the other two will be installed across the area of shallow soil replacement, and all will extend from ground surface to the base of the water table aquifer through which the impacted groundwater flows. The PRBs have been designed to provide the removal of uranium and arsenic for decades, although the capacity of the treatment mixture for contaminant removal suggests that a longer period of treatment may be feasible. The environmental management plan includes an allowance for on-going monitoring, and replacement of a PRB(s) as might be required. (authors)

Smyth, David; Roos, Gillian [Golder Associates Ltd., 2390 Argentia Road, Mississauga, ON L5N 5Z7 (Canada)] [Golder Associates Ltd., 2390 Argentia Road, Mississauga, ON L5N 5Z7 (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Ltd., 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON L3T 0A1 (Canada)] [MMM Group Ltd., 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON L3T 0A1 (Canada); Case, Glenn [AECL Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON L1A 3S4 (Canada)] [AECL Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON L1A 3S4 (Canada); Yule, Adam [Public Works and Government Services Canada, 4900 Yonge Street, 11th Floor, Toronto, ON, M2N 6A6 (Canada)] [Public Works and Government Services Canada, 4900 Yonge Street, 11th Floor, Toronto, ON, M2N 6A6 (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.  

SciTech Connect

A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron, hydroxyapatite, magnesium oxide, and others. As the contaminant moves through the reactive material, the contaminant is either sorbed by the reactive material or chemically reacts with the material to form a less harmful substance. Because of the high risk associated with failure of a geological repository for nuclear waste, most nations favor a near-field multibarrier engineered system using backfill materials to prevent release of radionuclides into the surrounding groundwater.

Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Microsoft Word - S01394_PRB_ZVI.DOC  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

steel wool and copper wool (PRB B). The other two PRBs were constructed in steel tanks with baffles that forced the water to flow up and down through the PRB (see Figure 2...

31

Microsoft Word - S0162200_VariationHydraulicConductivity-PRB.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

GJ803-2005 GJ803-2005 ESL-RPT-2005-01 Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier February 2005 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado U.S. Department of Energy Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier February 2005 Doc. No. S0162200 Page v Contents Executive Summary...................................................................................................................... vii 1.0 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................

32

Microsoft Word - S0162200_VariationHydraulicConductivity-PRB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GJ803-2005 GJ803-2005 ESL-RPT-2005-01 Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier February 2005 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado U.S. Department of Energy Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier February 2005 Doc. No. S0162200 Page v Contents Executive Summary...................................................................................................................... vii 1.0 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................

33

Combined use of a transformed red mud reactive barrier and electrokinetics for remediation of Cr/As contaminated soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A reactive barrier (RB) of transformed red mud (TRM), a by-product of the refinement of bauxite in alumina production, was placed adjacent to the anode of an electrokinetic (EK) system with the aim of enhancing removal of chromium or arsenic, added singly to a low permeability clayey soil, and favouring entrapment. The innovative study focused on evaluation of the synergic interaction between the EK system and the RB, and of the efficiency when compared to traditional EK remediation (control tests). The results obtained underlined the successful outcome of treatment of the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. In presence of the TRM RB, 19.4% wt. of total Cr content was detected in the anolyte and 20.6% wt. trapped in the anodic RB after 6d, versus 6.6% wt. in the anolyte and 8.8% wt. in the soil adjacent to the anode following the control run without RB. On increasing duration of treatment up to 12d, 60.8% wt. of total initial Cr was found in the anolyte and 25.5% wt. trapped in the RB, versus 9.1% wt. and 5.3% wt., respectively, after a control run of the same duration. Finally, on increasing the mass of TRM in the RB, 60.6% wt. of initial Cr content was found to have accumulated in the RB, with Cr being completely absent from the anodic chamber. Conversely, combined treatment was much less effective on As contaminated soil, at least under the operative conditions applied. Low initial As concentration and interference with iron oxides in the soil were likely the reasons underlying low efficiency while attempting As decontamination.

G. Cappai; G. De Gioannis; A. Muntoni; D. Spiga; J.J.P. Zijlstra

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

File:EIA-PRB-S-GAS.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PRB-S-GAS.pdf PRB-S-GAS.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Powder River Basin, Southern Part By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(6,600 × 5,100 pixels, file size: 13.01 MB, MIME type: application/pdf) Description Powder River Basin, Southern Part By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F. Morehouse; Jack Perrin; Robert F. King Related Technologies Oil, Natural Gas Creation Date 2005-09-01 Extent Regional Countries United States UN Region Northern America States Montana, Wyoming File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 18:35, 20 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 18:35, 20 December 2010 6,600 × 5,100 (13.01 MB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated bot upload

35

File:EIA-PRB-N-LIQ.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PRB-N-LIQ.pdf PRB-N-LIQ.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Powder River Basin, Northern Part By 2001 Liquids Reserve Class Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(6,600 × 5,100 pixels, file size: 13.85 MB, MIME type: application/pdf) Description Powder River Basin, Northern Part By 2001 Liquids Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F. Morehouse; Jack Perrin; Robert F. King Related Technologies Oil, Natural Gas Creation Date 2005-09-01 Extent Regional Countries United States UN Region Northern America States Montana, Wyoming File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 17:34, 20 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 17:34, 20 December 2010 6,600 × 5,100 (13.85 MB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated bot upload

36

File:EIA-PRB-N-BOE.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PRB-N-BOE.pdf PRB-N-BOE.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Powder River Basin, Northern Part By 2001 BOE Reserve Class Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(6,600 × 5,100 pixels, file size: 13.86 MB, MIME type: application/pdf) Description Powder River Basin, Northern Part By 2001 BOE Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F. Morehouse; Jack Perrin; Robert F. King Related Technologies Oil, Natural Gas Creation Date 2005-09-01 Extent Regional Countries United States UN Region Northern America States Montana, Wyoming File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 18:33, 20 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 18:33, 20 December 2010 6,600 × 5,100 (13.86 MB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated bot upload

37

Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing More Documents & Publications Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical

38

Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing More Documents & Publications Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

39

Sputter deposited barrier coatings on SiC monofilaments for use in reactive metallic matricesIII. Microstructural stability in composites based on magnesium and titanium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An examination has been made of the chemical stability of SiC monofilaments, with and without sputtered coatings intended to produce diffusion barrier layers of Y2O3, in contact with matrices of MgLi alloy (up to 400C) and Ti (up to 1000C). Even very thin layers were found to offer some protection in the MgLi alloy, under conditions such that the uncoated fibres suffered catastrophic embrittlement by penetration of Li into the grain boundaries. Yttrium-coated fibres in a Ti matrix were found to exhibit only marginally improved stability when compared with uncoated fibres. The probable explanation for this has been identified as a tendency for Y to penetrate into the SiC fibre before a stable Y2O3 layer could form, although high hydrogen levels in the Ti matrix (absorbed during composite fabrication) may also have impaired the interfacial stability in much of the material examined. Fibre preoxidation prior to Y coating was found to inhibit this Y penetration into the fibre material, allowing a Y2O3 barrier layer to form in situ. This barrier layer has been shown to offer considerable fibre protection.

R.R. Kieschke; C.M. Warwick; T.W. Clyne

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Establishing Policy Relevant Background (PRB) Ozone Concentrations in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, Colorado ... Processes that contribute to PRB ozone concentrations include photochemistry associated with natural emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) from sources such as biogenic emissions (not including agricultural activities), wildfires, lightning, the long-range transport of ozone and its precursors from outside of North America, and stratospheric-tropospheric exchange (STE) of ozone. ... Models generally find little ozone production in wildfire plumes for short aging times (days) because NOx emissions are low and conversion to peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) is rapid. ...

Elena C. McDonald-Buller; David T Allen; Nancy Brown; Daniel J. Jacob; Daniel Jaffe; Charles E. Kolb; Allen S. Lefohn; Samuel Oltmans; David D. Parrish; Greg Yarwood; Lin Zhang

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Reactive Maintenance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Reactive maintenance follows a run-it-until-it-breaks strategy where no actions or efforts are taken to maintain equipment as intended by the manufacturer. Studies indicate this is still the predominant mode of maintenance for Federal facilities.

42

Remediation of ground water containing chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbons, benzene and chromate by sequential treatment using ZVI and GAC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A laboratory experiment with two sequenced columns was performed as a preliminary study for the installation of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) at a site where a mixed ground water contamination exists. The...

Volkmar Plagentz; Markus Ebert; Andreas Dahmke

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Comment to the article "Temperature dependence of ultracold neutron loss rates" E.Korobkina et al., PRB 70,035409  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In work [1] ("Temperature dependence of ultracold neutron loss rates" E.Korobkina et al., PRB 70,035409) results of measurement of temperature dependence of losses of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a range from 4 K to 300 K at UCN storage in a copper trap are presented. At interpretation of experimental data it was artificially considered only the difference of losses rate 1/tau(T)= 1/tau_exp(T)- 1/tau_exp(10K), (tau - UCN storage time in the trap). It has been accepted for temperature dependence of losses which changes from 0 to 3.3*10-4 per one collision of UCN with a trap surface. However, the analysis of raw experimental data shows that in a trap at temperature 10 K there is losses 1.0*10-3 per collision. They are considerably (in 3 times) more than discussed temperature dependence and almost 10 times more than losses due to capture cross section on copper. It is the most probable that these losses are connected with leakage of UCN through a slit of trap shutter. Change of the size of a slits on 25% at change of temperature from 300K to 10K can quite explain discussed temperature dependence. Certainly, hydrogen is present on a surface, but as it was shown at work [2] (V.P.Alfimenkov et al., JETP., Vol. 55, No. 2 25 Jan.1992) temperature dependence in 3 times lower, even on the undegased surfaces than on the degassed and deuterated surface in work [1]. At last, deuteration of a trap surface allows almost completely to suppress temperature dependence connected with presence of hydrogen [2]. The conclusion of work [1] is that hydrogen is localized on a surface in the form of a film, instead of distribution in the surface substance. This conclusion contradicts results of measurement of energy dependence of UCN losses in work [2]. More detailed analysis of work [1] and works [2] is presented below.

A. Serebrov

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

44

Barriers to Interpersonal Communication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some barriers to interpersonal communications result from natural human differences such as age, experience or background. Other barriers are the result of personal habits. Changing bad habits such as jumping to conclusions can improve interpersonal...

Warren, Judith L.

2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

45

Puncture detecting barrier materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Parallel barrier effectiveness, Dulles noise barrier project.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In an effort to minimize the cost and maximize the effectiveness of highway noise barriers the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and a National Pooled Fund Panel (made up of 14 states) funded a field study program on an experimental highway noise barrier. A test barrier was constructed in 1984 at a site at Dulles International Airport in Chantilly Virginia. The study conducted from May 1989 to August 1989 by the U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration Transportation System Center (U.S. DOT/RSPA/TSC) focused on the use of absorptive treatment and tilting as a means of improving the insertion loss of two parallel highway noise barriers. Measurements were conducted with both controlled moving point sources (trucks) and an artificial fixed?point source (speaker system). Results show (1) the addition of absorptive treatment to the roadside face of two vertical parallel highway noise barriers eliminated multiple reflections and was found to improve the insertion loss (26 dB); (2) tilting proved to be an effective alternative to absorptive treatment in eliminating the multiple reflections and subsequent degradation in performance of two vertical reflective barriers; and (3) use of an artificial fixed?point source is not a viable test of barrier effectiveness.

Gregg G. Fleming; Edward J. Rickley

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: An update on Barrier Performance  

SciTech Connect

This report updates a previous report covering the performance of a permeable reactive barrier installed at 100N. In this report we re-evaluate the results after having an additional year of performance monitoring data to incorporate.

Fritz, Brad G.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA); Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

1980-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

50

Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactivating personal memory 1 RUNNING HEAD: Reactivating personal memory Modifying memory: Selectively enhancing and updating personal memories for a museum; Reactivating personal memory 2 Abstract Memory can be modified when reactivated

Schacter, Daniel

51

FOREIGN INVESTMENT: Barriers Remain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

FOREIGN INVESTMENT: Barriers Remain ... The two-volume work, titled "Obstacles and Incentives to Private Foreign Investment 1967-68," shows that barriers to private foreign investment around the world haven't really changed much overall in recent years although there have been some dramatic changes in the investment climate of a few individual nations. ... Comparison with an earlier NICB study covering 1962 to 1964 shows that economic problems are now considered a barrier to foreign investment in a greater number of countries than in the earlier period. ...

1969-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

52

Environmentally stable reactive alloy powders and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method are disclosed for making powder from a metallic melt by atomizing the melt to form droplets and reacting the droplets downstream of the atomizing location with a reactive gas. The droplets are reacted with the gas at a temperature where a solidified exterior surface is formed thereon and where a protective refractory barrier layer (reaction layer) is formed whose penetration into the droplets is limited by the presence of the solidified surface so as to avoid selective reduction of key reactive alloys needed to achieve desired powder end use properties. The barrier layer protects the reactive powder particles from environmental constituents such as air and water in the liquid or vapor form during subsequent fabrication of the powder to end-use shapes and during use in the intended service environment. 7 figs.

Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Terpstra, R.L.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

53

The Invisible Quantum Barrier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct the invisible quantum barrier which represents the phenomenon of quantum reflection using the available data. We use the Abel equation to invert the data. The resulting invisible quantum barrier is double-valued in both axes. We study this invisible barrier in the case of atom and Bose-Einstein Condensate reflection from a solid silicon surface. A time-dependent, one-spatial dimension Gross-Pitaevskii equation is solved for the BEC case. We found that the BEC behaves very similarly to the single atom except for size effects, which manifest themselves in a maximum in the reflectivity at small distances from the wall. The effect of the atom-atom interaction on the BEC reflection and correspondingly on the invisible barrier is found to be appreciable at low velocities and comparable to the finite size effect. The trapping of ultracold atoms or BEC between two walls is discussed.

J. X. de Carvalho; M. S. Hussein; Weibin Li

2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

54

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

Shurter, R.P.

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Method of installing subsurface barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID)

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

56

Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings  

SciTech Connect

Gaseous hydrogen, H2, has many physical properties that allow it to move rapidly into and through materials, which causes problems in keeping hydrogen from materials that are sensitive to hydrogen-induced degradation. Hydrogen molecules are the smallest diatomic molecules, with a molecular radius of about 37 x 10-12 m and the hydrogen atom is smaller still. Since it is small and light it is easily transported within materials by diffusion processes. The process of hydrogen entering and transporting through a materials is generally known as permeation and this section reviews the development of hydrogen permeation barriers and barrier coatings for the upcoming hydrogen economy.

Henager, Charles H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Thermal barrier coating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Radiant Barriers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiant Barriers Radiant Barriers Radiant Barriers May 30, 2012 - 2:07pm Addthis What does this mean for me? Properly installed radiant barriers can reduce your cooling costs. Radiant barriers are easiest to install in new construction, but can be installed in your existing house, especially if it has an open attic. How does it work? Radiant barriers work by reflecting radiant heat away from living spaces. Radiant barriers are installed in homes -- usually in attics -- primarily to reduce summer heat gain and reduce cooling costs. The barriers consist of a highly reflective material that reflects radiant heat rather than absorbing it. They don't, however, reduce heat conduction like thermal insulation materials. How They Work Heat travels from a warm area to a cool area by a combination of

59

Radiant Barriers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Barriers Barriers Radiant Barriers May 30, 2012 - 2:07pm Addthis What does this mean for me? Properly installed radiant barriers can reduce your cooling costs. Radiant barriers are easiest to install in new construction, but can be installed in your existing house, especially if it has an open attic. How does it work? Radiant barriers work by reflecting radiant heat away from living spaces. Radiant barriers are installed in homes -- usually in attics -- primarily to reduce summer heat gain and reduce cooling costs. The barriers consist of a highly reflective material that reflects radiant heat rather than absorbing it. They don't, however, reduce heat conduction like thermal insulation materials. How They Work Heat travels from a warm area to a cool area by a combination of

60

Reactive Power Compensator.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Reactive power compensator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Breaking Down the Barriers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Breaking Down the Barriers Breaking Down the Barriers Engaging Agency Legal Resources to be Part of the Solution Daniel Gore US Coast Guard Energy Manager X ESPC ISC Kodiak ESPC/UESC Unit Contract Type Coast Guard Alternatively Financed Project Status Estimated Contract Value (Millions) Under Consideration Initial Proposal Delayed by lack of Contracting Officer or Champion Detailed Design Study Recently Awarded TRACEN Cape May ESPC X TRACEN Petaluma PPA X X ISC San Pedro UESC X X CG Academy ESPC X TRACEN Cape May UESC X Air Station Borenquin ESPC X X Sector New York (3 sites) ESPC X X CG Yard (BAMF) ESPC X E-City ESPC X West Coast - 9 Sites ESPC X Five Essentials for Alt. Financed Project * Site approval * Technical Champion * Contracting Officer * Financial Analyst * Legal Support

63

Underground waste barrier structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Barrier breaching device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

Honodel, Charles A. (Tracy, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Barrier breaching device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A barrier breaching device that is designed primarily for opening holes in interior walls of buildings uses detonating fuse for explosive force. The fuse acts as the ribs or spokes of an umbrella-like device that may be opened up to form a cone. The cone is placed against the wall so that detonating fuse that rings the base of the device and which is ignited by the spoke-like fuses serves to cut a circular hole in the wall.

Honodel, C.A.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Oxyferryl Heme Reactivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxyferryl Heme Reactivity Using both Radiation and Photochemical Oxyferryl Heme Reactivity Using both Radiation and Photochemical Techniques A. M. English, T. Fox, G. Tsaprailis, C. W. Fenwick, J. F. Wishart, J. T. Hazzard, and G. Tollin Adv. Chem. Ser. 254, Ch. 6, pp. 81-98 Abstract: Flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis were used to generate reductants in situ to study the electron-transfer (ET) reactivity of the FeIV=O heme centers in myoglobin and cytochrome c peroxidase. Reduction of a5RuIII groups covalently bound to surface histidines allowed intramolecular RuII --> FeIV=O ET rates to be measured. Protonation of the oxene ligand was found to be largely rate determining in myoglobin, consistent with the lack of proton donors in its heme pocket. The large distance (21-23 Å) between surface histidines and the heme in wild-type

67

Reactivity of Acid Generators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactivity of Acid Generators for Chemically Amplified Resists with Reactivity of Acid Generators for Chemically Amplified Resists with Low-Energy Electrons Atsuro Nakano, Takahiro Kozawa, Seiichi Tagawa, Tomasz Szreder, James F. Wishart, Toshiyuki Kai and Tsutomu Shimokawa Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 45, L197-L200 (2006). [Find paper at the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics] Abstract: In chemically amplified resists for ionizing radiations such as electron beams and extreme ultraviolet (EUV), low-energy electrons play an important role in the pattern formation processes. The reactivity of acid generators with low-energy electrons was evaluated using solvated electrons in tetrahydrofuran, which were generated by a pulsed electron beam. The rate constants of acid generators with the solvated electrons ranged from 0.6 to 1.9 x 1011 M-1s-1

68

FPCC Regulatory Barriers Submittal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Barriers Submittal FPCC Regulatory Barriers Submittal The Federal Performance Contracting Coalition (FPCC) appreciates the opportunity to comment on reducing regulatory...

69

Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter  

SciTech Connect

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Powers (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was metsorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.52.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The results of this project also filled a data gap for plants firing PRB coal and configured with an SCR, SDA, and FF, as many new plants are being designed today. Another goal of the project was to evaluate, on a short-term basis, the mercury removal associated with coal additives and coal blending with western bituminous coal. The additive test showed that, at this site, the coal additive known as KNX was affective at increasing mercury removal while decreasing sorbent usage. Coal blending was conducted with two different western bituminous coals, and West Elk coal increased native capture from nominally 10% to 50%. Two additional co-benefits were discovered at this site. First, it was found that native capture increased from nominally 10% at full load to 50% at low load. The effect is believed to be due to an increase in mercury oxidation across the SCR caused by a corresponding decrease in ammonia injection when the plant reduces load. Less ammonia means more active oxidation sites in the SCR for the mercury. The second co-benefit was the finding that high ammonia concentrations can have a negative impact on mercury removal by powdered activated carbon. For a period of time, the plant operated with a high excess of ammonia injection necessitated by the plugging of one-third of the SCR. Under these conditions and at high load, the mercury control system could not maintain 90% removal even at the maximum feed rate of 3.5 lb/MMacf (pounds of mercury per million actual cubic feet). The plant was able to demonstrate that mercury removal was directly related to the ammonia injection rate in a series of tests where the ammonia rate was decreased, causing a corresponding increase in mercury removal. Also, after the SCR was refurbished and ammonia injection levels returned to normal, the mercury removal performance also returned to normal. Another goal of the project was to install a commercial-grade activated carbon injection (ACI) system and integrate it with new-generation continuous emissions monitors for mercury (Hg-CEMs) to allow automatic feedback control on outlet me

Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

Reactive Power Compensating System.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

1985-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

71

Reactive power compensating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Performing a local barrier operation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value of the counter, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

73

Performing a local barrier operation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

74

Lowering Barriers | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Lowering Barriers DOE is working to improve solar market conditions in order to create green jobs and increase the availability of clean, renewable energy for Americans. Efforts...

75

Reactive Air Aluminization  

SciTech Connect

Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

76

Thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

77

Reactive Maintenance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reactive Maintenance Reactive Maintenance Reactive Maintenance October 7, 2013 - 9:40am Addthis Reactive maintenance follows a run-it-until-it-breaks strategy where no actions or efforts are taken to maintain equipment as intended by the manufacturer. Studies indicate this is still the predominant mode of maintenance for Federal facilities. Advantages Reactive maintenance advantages are a double-edged sword. Federal agencies following a purely reactive maintenance strategy can expect little expenditures for manpower or system upkeep until something breaks. However, systems do break. With new equipment, Federal agencies can expect minimal incidents of failure. However, older equipment often experiences higher failure incidents and costlier repairs. Other advantages of reactive maintenance are:

78

Free-Energy Barrier at Droplet Condensation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......2010 research-article Articles Free-Energy Barrier at Droplet Condensation...Particular emphasis is placed on the free-energy barrier associated with droplet...Physics Supplement No. 184, 2010 Free-Energy Barrier at Droplet Condensation......

Andreas Nubaumer; Elmar Bittner; Wolfhard Janke

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Vehicle barrier with access delay  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

80

Performance Testing of Radiant Barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF RADIANT BARRIERS JAMES A. HALL TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Chattanooga, Tennessee ABSTRACT TVA has conducted a study to determine the effects of radiant barriers (RBI (i.e., a mterial with a low emissivity surface facing...Conservation of Radiative Heat Transfer Tnrough Fibrous Insulation." University of Mississippi, Sponsored by Tennessee Valley Authority, Contract TV-641 l5A, December 1985. 3. Davies, &en L., I1Tne Design and Analysis of Industrial Experiments, Hafher Publishing...

Hall, J. A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Relativistic tunneling through opaque barriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose an analytical study of relativistic tunneling through opaque barriers. We obtain a closed formula for the phase time. This formula is in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations and corrects the standard formula obtained by the stationary phase method. An important result is found when the upper limit of the incoming energy distribution coincides with the upper limit of the tunneling zone. In this case, the phase time is proportional to the barrier width.

Stefano De Leo and Vincius Leonardi

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

82

Fusion under a complex barrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanism of fusion of two heavy nuclei is formulated within the concept of transmission across a mildly absorptive effective fusion barrier (EFB). The intensity of transmitted waves across such a barrier could be represented by the product TRPS where TR stands for the transmission coefficient across the corresponding real barrier and PS is a factor of survival probability against absorption under the complex barrier. The justification of this result and the physical basis of the above EFB transmission model of fusion, which is complementary to the definition of fusion based on absorption in the interior region known as the direct reaction model (DRM), are demonstrated in the case of a complex square well potential with a complex rectangular barrier. Based on a WKB approach, expressions for TR for different partial waves utilizing a realistic nucleus-nucleus potential are derived. Using the resulting expressions for the fusion cross section (?F), the experimental values of ?F and the corresponding data of the average angular momentum of the fused body are explained satisfactorily over a wide range of energy around the Coulomb barrier in various heavy ion systems such as 16O+152,154Sm, 58,64Ni+58,64Ni, 64Ni+92Zr, and 64Ni+100Mo.

Basudeb Sahu; I. Jamir; E. F. P. Lyngdoh; C. S. Shastry

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactive Reactive Maintenance to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Reactive Maintenance on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Federal Requirements Program Management Commissioning Metering Computerized Maintenance Management Systems Maintenance Types Reactive Preventive Predictive Reliability-Centered Major Equipment Types

84

MONITORING SUBSURFACE BARRIER INTEGRITY USING PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

National Laboratory, Hanford, Fernald, and Rocky Flats. Barriers are also considered an important reme

85

SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lowering Barriers to someone by Lowering Barriers to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Lowering Barriers on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Systems Integration Balance of Systems Reducing Non-Hardware Costs Lowering Barriers Fostering Growth Lowering Barriers DOE is working to improve solar market conditions in order to create green jobs and increase the availability of clean, renewable energy for Americans. Efforts to promote favorable policies and encourage easier

86

Metal-based reactive nanomaterials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent developments in materials processing and characterization resulted in the discovery of a new type of reactive materials containing nanoscaled metal components. The well-known high oxidation energies of metallic fuels can now be released very rapidly because of the very high reactive interface areas in such metal-based reactive nanomaterials. Consequently, these materials are currently being examined for an entire range of applications in energetic formulations inappropriate for conventional, micron-sized metal fuels having relatively low reaction rates. New application areas, such as reactive structural materials, are also being explored. Research remains active in manufacturing and characterization of metal-based reactive nanomaterials including elemental metal nanopowders and various nanocomposite material systems. Because of the nanometer scale of the individual particles, or phase domains, and because of the very high enthalpy of reaction between components of the nanocomposite materials, the final phase compositions, morphology, and thermodynamic properties of the reactive nanocomposite materials may be different from those of their micron-scaled counterparts. Ignition mechanisms in such materials can be governed by heterogeneous reactions that are insignificant for materials with less developed reactive interface areas. New combustion regimes are being observed that are affected by very short ignition delays combined with very high metal combustion temperatures. Current progress in this rapidly growing research area is reviewed and some potential directions for the future research are discussed.

Edward L. Dreizin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

88

Chemically Reactive Working Fluids | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chemically Reactive Working Fluids for the Capture and Transport of Concentrated Solar Thermal Energy for Power Generation Chemically Reactive Working Fluids SunShot CSP...

89

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

90

Semi-Analytical Solutions of One-Dimensional Multispecies Reactive Transport in a Permeable Reactive Barrier-Aquifer System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

equations presented by Eykholt [1997], Rabideau et al. [2005], and Park and Zhan [2009] utilize the advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with first-order reaction g4666g2019g4667 as the governing equation(s) but differ primarily in their application... of the boundary conditions. For example, the two equations of Eykholt [1997] were derived using van Genuchten?s [1981] analytical solutions of the ADE with a first-type boundary condition g1829 g46660, g1872g4667 = g1829g3036g3041 at the influent face...

Mieles, John Michael

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

91

Conservation of reactive electromagnetic energy in reactive time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The complex Poynting theorem (CPT) is extended to a canonical time-scale domain $(t,s)$. Time-harmonic phasors are replaced by the positive-frequency parts of general fields, which extend analytically to complex time $t+is$, with $s>0$ interpreted as a time resolution scale. The real part of the extended CPT gives conservation in $t$ of a time-averaged field energy, and its imaginary part gives conservation in $s$ of a time-averaged reactive energy. In both cases, the averaging windows are determined by a Cauchy kernel of width $\\Delta t\\sim \\pm s$. This completes the time-harmonic CPT, whose imaginary part is generally supposed to be vaguely `related to' reactive energy without giving a conservation law, or even an expression, for the latter. The interpretation of $s$ as reactive time, tracking the leads and lags associated with stored capacitative and inductive energy, gives a simple explanation of the volt-ampere reactive (var) unit measuring reactive power: a var is simply one Joule per reactive second. T...

Kaiser, Gerald

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications.

Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

Systems study on engineered barriers: barrier performance analysis  

SciTech Connect

A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been modified and applied to several package designs. The objective of the study was to develop information to be used in programmatic decision making concerning engineered barrier package design and development. The assessment model, BARIER, was developed in previous tasks of the System Study on Engineered Barriers (SSEB). The new version discussed in this report contains a refined and expanded corrosion rate data base which includes pitting, crack growth, and graphitization as well as bulk corrosion. Corrosion rates for oxic and anoxic conditions at each of the two temperature ranges are supplied. Other improvements include a rigorous treatment of radionuclide release after package failure which includes resistance of damaged barriers and backfill, refined temperature calculations that account for convection and radiation, a subroutine to calculate nuclear gamma radiation field at each barrier surface, refined stress calculations with reduced conservatism and various coding improvements to improve running time and core usage. This report also contains discussion of alternative scenarios to the assumed flooded repository as well as the impact of water exclusion backfills. The model was used to assess post repository closure performance for several designs which were all variation of basic designs from the Spent Unreprocessed Fuel (SURF) program. Many designs were found to delay the onset of leaching by at least a few hundreds of years in all geologic media. Long delay times for radionuclide release were found for packages with a few inches of sorption backfill. Release of uranium, plutonium, and americium was assessed.

Stula, R.T.; Albert, T.E.; Kirstein, B.E.; Lester, D.H.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity  

SciTech Connect

A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

Loewe, W.E.

2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the School conductivity of the coatings. The minimum thermal conductivity occurs at a low rotation rate and is 0.8 W intrinsic thermal conductivity, good phase stability and greater resistance to sintering and CMAS attack

Wadley, Haydn

96

Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

Waldrop, James R. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Cohen, Marshall J. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

1984-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

97

REPOSITORY ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

A Viability Assessment (VA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is being completed for delivery in September of 1998. A major element of the VA is the design of a high level waste repository on the Nevada Test Site. The repository is made up of surface and subsurface facilities. The engineered barrier includes the man-made elements of the system that act to retard the migration of radionuclides from a geologic repository. They act in conjunction with the geologic barriers present at Yucca Mountain. The engineered barrier system (EBS) consists of the Waste Package and the underground facility. The focus of this paper is the status of the design of the underground facility portion of the EBS. In addition to a robust waste package, the EBS components in the reference design include a number of features that impede naturally occurring infiltration from reaching and corroding the waste packages. In addition, and as a defense-in-depth strategy, a number of other optional features are being considered. They include drip shields above the waste packages to intercept dripping water and granular backfill around the waste packages to form a diffusion barrier. Plans are being made to test a number of the EBS materials and structures. The Viability Assessment document will discuss the various EBS options and alternative designs and lay out a plan for determining those to be included in the License Application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) scheduled for completion in 2002.

DANIEL G. MCKENZIE III PE, DR. KALYAN K. BHATTACHARYYA AND PAUL G. HARRINGTON

1998-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

98

Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic...

99

Coastal Barrier Resources Act | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Barrier Resources Act Barrier Resources Act Jump to: navigation, search Statute Name Coastal Barrier Resources Act Year 1982 Url [[File:|160px|link=]] Description References Wikipedia[1] FWS Coastal Barrier Resources Act Webpage[2] The Coastal Barrier Resources Act of the United States was enacted October 18, 1982. The United States Congress passed this Act in order to address the many problems associated with coastal barrier development. CBRA designated various undeveloped coastal barriers, which were illustrated by a set of maps adopted by law, to be included in the John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). These designated areas were made ineligible for both direct and indirect Federal expenditures and financial assistance, which are believed to encourage development of fragile,

100

Overcoming Multifamily Sector Barriers in Austin, Texas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presents techniques on overcoming the barriers of multifamily energy efficiency projects, including how to market to property managers.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fusion barriers for heavy-ion systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analytical expressions for the fusion barrier height and radius have been derived from a four-parameter empirical fusion cross section formula for heavy ions. The fusion barrier parameters calculated, using these expressions, are in good agreement with the literature values.NUCLEAR REACTIONS Fusion cross section excitation functions, fusion barrier parameters.

S. K. Gupta and S. Kailas

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

NERSC's Hopper Breaks Petaflops Barrier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NERSC's Hopper Breaks NERSC's Hopper Breaks Petaflops Barrier NERSC's Hopper Breaks Petaflops Barrier Ranks 5th in the World November 14, 2010 Media Contact: Jon Bashor, jbashor@lbl.gov, 510-486-5849 hopper1.jpg NERSC's Cray XE6-Hopper BERKELEY, Calif.-The Department of Energy's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), already one of the world's leading centers for scientific productivity, is now home to the fifth most powerful supercomputer in the world and the second most powerful in the United States, according to the latest edition of the TOP500 list, the definitive ranking of the world's top computers NERSC's newest supercomputer, a 153,408 processor-core Cray XE6 system, posted a performance of 1.05 petaflops (quadrillions of calculations per second) running the Linpack benchmark. In keeping with NERSC's tradition of

103

Multiple magnetic barriers in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the behavior of charge carriers in graphene in inhomogeneous perpendicular magnetic fields. We consider two types of one-dimensional magnetic profiles, uniform in one direction: a sequence of N magnetic barriers and a sequence of alternating magnetic barriers and wells. In both cases, we compute the transmission coefficient of the magnetic structure by means of the transfer-matrix formalism and the associated conductance. In the first case the structure becomes increasingly transparent upon increasing N at fixed total magnetic flux. In the second case we find strong wave-vector filtering and resonant effects. We also calculate the band structure of a periodic magnetic superlattice and find a wave-vector-dependent gap around zero energy.

Luca DellAnna and Alessandro De Martino

2009-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

104

Removing Barriers to Interdisciplinary Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant amount of high-impact contemporary scientific research occurs where biology, computer science, engineering and chemistry converge. Although programmes have been put in place to support such work, the complex dynamics of interdisciplinarity are still poorly understood. In this paper we interrogate the nature of interdisciplinary research and how we might measure its "success", identify potential barriers to its implementation, and suggest possible mechanisms for removing these impediments.

Naomi Jacobs; Martyn Amos

2010-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

105

Overcoming Barriers to Solar Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

---------- OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO SOLAR USE D.S. HALME AND J.R. SICOTTE PETRO-SUN INTERNATIONAL INC. / SUNSTRIP INTERNATIONAL BOUCHERVILLE, QUEBEC ABSTRACT Solar wat~r heating systems built during the past ten years represent... the beginning of a strong North American Solar Industry. The opportunities provided through Government assistance programs have enabled the Industry to develop products, standards and the research capability to the edge of commercially realisable solar...

Halme, D. S.; Sicotte, J. R.

106

Joint Energy and Reactive Power Market Considering Coupled Active and Reactive Reserve Market Ensuring System Security  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reactive power market is usually held as independent from energy and reserved active power markets; however, active and reactive power are ... synchronous generator capacity curve. Therefore, reactive power market

Hamed Ahmadi; Asghar Akbari Foroud

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementa...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation This presentation discusses...

108

Application of barrier in industrial noise control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Noise barriers have been widely used in environmental noisecontrol such as traffic and railway noise. Actually they are also cost?effective mitigation measures in industrial noise control. In this paper the applications of noise barrier in power plant are introduced. Types of barrier and barrier materials are briefly summarized and compared. A case study of noise barrier implement in a 50 MW power plant is presented. The plant is a natural gas?fired simple?cycle peaking facility and consists of two opposed gas combustion turbine directly connected through a coupling to a single generator. Some residences are located around the facility. A noise barrier wall was designed and installed surrounding the facility to control the noiseimpact of the plant on the residences. The acoustic modeling software Cadna/A was used to predict the noise insertion loss of the barrier. The prediction results were also compared with the site measurements.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Triclosan Reactivity in Chloraminated Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Triclosan Reactivity in Chloraminated Waters ... Triclosan, widely employed as an antimicrobial additive in many household personal care products, has recently been detected in wastewater treatment plant effluents and in source waters used for drinking water supplies. ... Chloramines used either as alternative disinfectants in drinking water treatment or formed during chlorination of nonnitrified wastewater effluents have the potential to react with triclosan. ...

Aimee E. Greyshock; Peter J. Vikesland

2006-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

110

Definition: Reactive Power | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reactive Power Reactive Power Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reactive Power The portion of electricity that establishes and sustains the electric and magnetic fields of alternating-current equipment. Reactive power must be supplied to most types of magnetic equipment, such as motors and transformers. It also must supply the reactive losses on transmission facilities. Reactive power is provided by generators, synchronous condensers, or electrostatic equipment such as capacitors and directly influences electric system voltage. It is usually expressed in kilovars (kvar) or megavars (Mvar).[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition In electric power transmission and distribution, volt-ampere reactive (var) is a unit used to measure reactive power in an AC electric

111

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

Chandel, Navdeep S

112

Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets Costing and Pricing of Ancillary Services Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research Center A National Science Foundation Industry Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets Costing and Pricing of Ancillary Services Project

113

Non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma induces angiogenesis through reactive oxygen species  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...treatment [56]. Non-thermal plasma devices, specifically...generated at atmospheric pressure in...58]. DBD plasma characteristics...distance [58]. Non-thermal DBD plasma...effects of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma on bacteria...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Permanganate Treatment of DNAPLs in Reactive Barriers and Source Zone Flooding Schemes  

SciTech Connect

Permanganate is a simple and common chemical, which has proven useful in oxidizing common chlorinated solvents. Due to the nature of oxidation, the byproducts and products are much less harmful than those from reduction-type remedial schemes, and the degradation process is rapid. The main goal of this project is to understand oxidative destruction of chlorinated solvents using potassium permanganate. The study has provided a theoretical basis for evaluating the feasibility of in-situ applications, to couple kinetic reaction with transport models, and to develop an appropriate field test for further assessing the approach.

Dr. Franklin Schwartz; Dr. Hubao Zhang

2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

115

Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

CX-003592: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

592: Categorical Exclusion Determination 592: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-003592: Categorical Exclusion Determination Remove a Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) Treatment System at the Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site CX(s) Applied: B1.3, B6.1 Date: 08/23/2010 Location(s): Durango, Colorado Office(s): Legacy Management The United States Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management proposes to remove all residual radioactive materials and structures associated with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) treatment system at the Durango disposal site. The materials would be disposed of at the Grand Junction, Colorado, disposal site. The entire project is expected to take approximately 8 weeks; work would begin August 30 and be completed in early November. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD

117

Field Projects: Monticello, Utah | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Long-Term Surveillance - Operations and Maintenance Long-Term Surveillance - Operations and Maintenance » Permeable Reactive Barriers » Field Projects: Monticello, Utah Field Projects: Monticello, Utah A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of zero-valent iron is helping to clean up groundwater at a former uranium and vanadium ore processing mill at Monticello, Utah. LM managed remediation of tailings and tailings-contaminated material at this site. Cleanup of the mill site is regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Arsenic, molybdenum, nitrate, selenium, uranium, and vanadium are contaminants of concern in groundwater at the site. An Interim Record of Decision designated emplacement of a PRB hydraulically downgradient of the mill site to remove these contaminants. Results of both laboratory and

118

Electrical Calcium Test for Measuring Barrier Permeability -...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Electrical Calcium Test for Measuring Barrier Permeability National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL...

119

Thermal barriers: their purpose and functioning  

SciTech Connect

This review covers the following topics: (1) thermal barrier formation, (2) ion pumping, (3) high-field throttle coil, and (4) microstability. (MOW)

Baldwin, D.E.

1983-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

120

Reactive Ion Benjamin A. Small  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(torr) plasma etching reactive ion etching ion milling m cm 100µm µm #12;5 Mechanics ~40 mTorrE380 kHz, 13.56 MHz ~30 sccm #12;6 Chemistry X X X X F- F- F-F- X F-F- F- F- F- R++ R++ R++ #12;7 Chemistry before opening · Silanes are explosive in the atmosphere #12;13 Bibliography Campbell, Stephen A

Garmestani, Hamid

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Cementitious Barriers Partnership FY2013 End-Year Report  

SciTech Connect

In FY2013, the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) demonstrated continued tangible progress toward fulfilling the objective of developing a set of software tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long?term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. In November 2012, the CBP released Version 1.0 of the CBP Software Toolbox, a suite of software for simulating reactive transport in cementitious materials and important degradation phenomena. In addition, the CBP completed development of new software for the Version 2.0 Toolbox to be released in early FY2014 and demonstrated use of the Version 1.0 Toolbox on DOE applications. The current primary software components in both Versions 1.0 and 2.0 are LeachXS/ORCHESTRA, STADIUM, and a GoldSim interface for probabilistic analysis of selected degradation scenarios. The CBP Software Toolbox Version 1.0 supports analysis of external sulfate attack (including damage mechanics), carbonation, and primary constituent leaching. Version 2.0 includes the additional analysis of chloride attack and dual regime flow and contaminant migration in fractured and non?fractured cementitious material. The LeachXS component embodies an extensive material property measurements database along with chemical speciation and reactive mass transport simulation cases with emphasis on leaching of major, trace and radionuclide constituents from cementitious materials used in DOE facilities, such as Saltstone (Savannah River) and Cast Stone (Hanford), tank closure grouts, and barrier concretes. STADIUM focuses on the physical and structural service life of materials and components based on chemical speciation and reactive mass transport of major cement constituents and aggressive species (e.g., chloride, sulfate, etc.). THAMES is a planned future CBP Toolbox component focused on simulation of the microstructure of cementitious materials and calculation of resultant hydraulic and constituent mass transfer parameters needed in modeling. Two CBP software demonstrations were conducted in FY2013, one to support the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at SRS and the other on a representative Hanford high?level waste tank. The CBP Toolbox demonstration on the SDF provided analysis on the most probable degradation mechanisms to the cementitious vault enclosure caused by sulfate and carbonation ingress. This analysis was documented and resulted in the issuance of a SDF Performance Assessment Special Analysis by Liquid Waste Operations this fiscal year. The two new software tools supporting chloride attack and dual?regime flow will provide additional degradation tools to better evaluate performance of DOE and commercial cementitious barriers. The CBP SRNL experimental program produced two patent applications and field data that will be used in the development and calibration of CBP software tools being developed in FY2014. The CBP software and simulation tools varies from other efforts in that all the tools are based upon specific and relevant experimental research of cementitious materials utilized in DOE applications. The CBP FY2013 program involved continuing research to improve and enhance the simulation tools as well as developing new tools that model other key degradation phenomena not addressed in Version 1.0. Also efforts to continue to verify the various simulation tools through laboratory experiments and analysis of field specimens are ongoing and will continue into FY2014 to quantify and reduce the uncertainty associated with performance assessments. This end?year report summarizes FY2013 software development efforts and the various experimental programs that are providing data for calibration and validation of the CBP developed software.

Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, F. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Kosson, D. S. [Vanderbilt University, School of Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Brown, K. G. [Vanderbilt University, School of Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies, Inc., Quebec (Canada); Meeussen, J. C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (The Netherlands); van der Sloot, H. A. [Hans van der Sloot Consultancy, Langedijk (The Netherlands); Garboczi, E. J. [Materials & Construction Research Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

VEHICLE-BARRIER TRACKING OF ASCALED CRASH TEST FOR ROADSIDE BARRIER DESIGN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reality of the vehicle-barrier impact. Scaled testing may thus be a cost effective method to evaluateVEHICLE-BARRIER TRACKING OF ASCALED CRASH TEST FOR ROADSIDE BARRIER DESIGN Giuseppina Amato1 Engineering, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast, BT9 5AG, UK 2 Trinity College Dublin, Dept

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Reactive capability limits of wind farms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) technology can be classified into two main types: fixed speed and variable speed. Fixed speed WECS use an induction generator connected directly to the grid while variable speed WECS use a power converter to connect the generator to the grid. Fixed speed WECS require shunt capacitors for reactive power compensation, while variable speed WECS have reactive power capability. Under the Spanish grid code, wind farms have to operate in a range of power factor values. This paper determines the reactive power capability of wind farms equipped with both fixed and variable speed WECS. The reactive power capability can be represented as a reactive capability curve. In this paper, the reactive capability curve is used to calculate the additional reactive power compensation needed to meet the requirements of the Spanish grid code.

Alberto Rios Villacorta; Santiago Arnaltes Gomez; Jose Luis Rodriguez-Amenedo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Standards for Barrier-Free Campus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Standards for Barrier-Free Campus Office for Students with Disabilities University Planning Office June 2004 F:\\PROJECTS\\Disabled\\ACCESS04.doc #12;INTRODUCTION The McGill standards for barrier-free and universal design (hereafter referred to as the McGill Standards) are the minimum requirements

Kambhampati, Patanjali

125

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop May 8 th , 2011, Arlington, VA Shimshon Gottesfeld, CTO The Fuel Cell Cost Challenge 2 CellEra's goal - achieve price parity with incumbents earlier on in market entry process ! Mainstream Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEM) Cost Barriers 3 Graphite / stainless steel hardware Acidic membrane Platinum based electrodes Cost barriers deeply embedded in core tech materials BOM-based cost barriers - 90% of stack cost Cost volatility - Platinum $500/Oz - $2,500/Oz The possibility of an OH - ion conducting membrane 4 Non-acidic membrane CellEra Took Advantage of this Opportunity A new type of membrane component with potential for strong fuel cell cost cuts was revealed in 2006, but was accompanied by general industry skepticism

126

Processing and Gas Barrier Behavior of Multilayer Thin Nanocomposite Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

barrier for goods requiring long shelf life. Current gas barrier technologies like plasma-enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD) often create high barrier metal oxide films, which are prone to cracking when flexed. Bulk composites composed of polymer...

Yang, You-Hao

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

127

Layered reactive particles with controlled geometries, energies, and reactivities, and methods for making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An energetic composite having a plurality of reactive particles each having a reactive multilayer construction formed by successively depositing reactive layers on a rod-shaped substrate having a longitudinal axis, dividing the reactive-layer-deposited rod-shaped substrate into a plurality of substantially uniform longitudinal segments, and removing the rod-shaped substrate from the longitudinal segments, so that the reactive particles have a controlled, substantially uniform, cylindrically curved or otherwise rod-contoured geometry which facilitates handling and improves its packing fraction, while the reactant multilayer construction controls the stability, reactivity and energy density of the energetic composite.

Fritz, Gregory M; Knepper, Robert Allen; Weihs, Timothy P; Gash, Alexander E; Sze, John S

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

128

Permeation of low-Z atoms through carbon sheets: Density functional theory study on energy barriers and deformation effects  

SciTech Connect

Energetic and geometric aspects of the permeation of the atoms hydrogen to neon neutral atoms through graphene sheets are investigated by investigating the associated energy barriers and sheet deformations. Density functional theory calculations on cluster models, where graphene is modeled by planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), provide the energies and geometries. Particularities of our systems, such as convergence of both energy barriers and deformation curves with increasing size of the PAHs, are discussed. Three different interaction regimes, adiabatic, planar and vertical, are investigated by enforcing different geometrical constraints. The adiabatic energy barriers range from 5 eV for hydrogen to 20 eV for neon. We find that the permeation of oxygen and carbon into graphene is facilitated by temporary chemical bonding while for other, in principle reactive atoms, it is not. We discuss implications of our results for modeling chemical sputtering of graphite.

Huber, Stefan E., E-mail: s.huber@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: Michael.probst@uibk.ac.at; Mauracher, Andreas; Probst, Michael, E-mail: s.huber@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: Michael.probst@uibk.ac.at [Institute of Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrae 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute of Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrae 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations  

SciTech Connect

Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan  

SciTech Connect

The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

Wing, N.R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Geothermal Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers AgencyCompany Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Geothermal...

132

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Removing Barriers...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Review 2014: Removing Barriers, Implementing Policies and Advancing Alternative Fuels Markets in New England Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Removing Barriers,...

133

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier Presentation at the AMFC Workshop, May 8, Arlington, VA amfc050811gottesfeldcellera.pdf More Documents &...

134

DOE to Address Small Businesses Barriers in Government Contracting...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

to Address Small Businesses Barriers in Government Contracting at Waste Management Conference DOE to Address Small Businesses Barriers in Government Contracting at Waste Management...

135

Regional Test Centers Breaking Down Barriers to Solar Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Regional Test Centers Breaking Down Barriers to Solar Energy Deployment Regional Test Centers Breaking Down Barriers to Solar Energy Deployment September 3, 2014 - 6:16pm Addthis...

136

Resolving Code and Standard Barriers to Building America Innovations...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Resolving Code and Standard Barriers to Building America Innovations - 2014 BTO Peer Review Resolving Code and Standard Barriers to Building America Innovations - 2014 BTO Peer...

137

Approximating European Options by Rebate Barrier Options  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When the underlying stock price is a strict local martingale process under an equivalent local martingale measure, Black-Scholes PDE associated with an European option may have multiple solutions. In this paper, we study an approximation for the smallest hedging price of such an European option. Our results show that a class of rebate barrier options can be used for this approximation, when its rebate and barrier are chosen appropriately. An asymptotic convergence rate is also achieved when the knocked-out barrier moves to infinity under suitable conditions.

Song, Qingshuo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Method for forming a barrier layer  

SciTech Connect

Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Exploring the reactivity of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Introduction: The Reactivity of Bacterial Multicomponent Monooxygenases Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases constitute a remarkable family of enzymes that oxidize small, inert hydrocarbon substrates using ...

Tinberg, Christine Elaine

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Method for reactivating catalysts and a method for recycling supercritical fluids used to reactivate the catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Raymond P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop May 8 th , 2011, Arlington, VA Shimshon Gottesfeld, CTO The Fuel Cell Cost Challenge 2 CellEra's goal - achieve price parity with...

142

Communicating across barriers at home and abroad  

SciTech Connect

This paper intends to catalyze the exchange of experience among technical communicators in meeting the challenge of communicating across a multitude of barriers: linguistic, disciplinary, cultural, political, intellectual, and emotional.

McDonald, J.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS  

SciTech Connect

This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

DeScioli, Derek

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force (''normal'' free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing ''intrinsic'' barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes. 39 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.; Creutz, C.; Winkler, J.R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Promotion of RETs: Policies for Overcoming Barriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Barriers impeding RETs widespread utilization can be mastered with targeted policies. As a matter of fact, many of the solutions for greater penetration of renewable energy technologies are not technical but p...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS  

SciTech Connect

This poster describes the 3M Ultra-Barrier Solar Film and its application; production scale-up and data; reliability and qualification testing; and improvements in the next generation.

Alan, Nachtigal; Berniard, Tracie; Murray, Bill; Roehrig, Mark; Schubert, Charlene; Spagnola, Joseph; Weigel, Mark

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Sunk Costs and Antitrust Barriers to Entry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

US antitrust policy takes as its objective consumer welfare, not total economic welfare. With that objective, Joe Bain's definition of entry barriers is more useful than George Stigler's or definitions ...

Schmalensee, Richard

2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

148

Sunk Costs and Antitrust Barriers to Entry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

US antitrust policy takes as its objective consumer welfare, not total economic welfare. With that objective, Joe Bain's definition of entry barriers is more useful than George Stigler's or definitions based on economic ...

Schmalensee, Richard

2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

149

Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Modeling of Residential Attics with Radiant Barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper gives a summary of the efforts at ORNL in modeling residential attics with radiant barriers. Analytical models based on a system of macroscopic heat balances have been developed. Separate models have been developed for horizontal radiant...

Wilkes, K. E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Fusion Barriers in Heavy-Ion Reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present experimental fusion barriers for S32 ions on Mg24, Al27, Ca40, and Ni58. These and published data for Ar and Kr ion-induced reactions are analyzed in terms of a simple classical formula for barrier heights. A prescription based on equivalent uniform charge radii from electron scattering is shown to reproduce all results to within the experimental uncertainty.

H. H. Gutbrod; W. G. Winn; M. Blann

1973-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

152

Psychological barriers in oil futures markets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract WTI and Brent futures are tested for the presence of psychological barriers around $10 price levels, applying a multiple hypothesis testing approach for statistical robustness. Psychological barriers are found to be present in Brent prices but not in WTI prices, which is argued to be due to the more prominent role that Brent plays as a global benchmark and, based on recent behavioural finance research, the greater complexity inherent in Brent fundamental value determination. Brent particularly displays evidence that when breaching a $10 barrier level from below with rising prices, the trend is for prices to fall on average subsequently. Similar behavioural-based patterns are evidenced at the $1 barrier level for the WTIBrent spread. We show that psychological barriers only appear to influence prices in the pre-credit crisis period of 19902006, with such effects dissipating during the crisis and as markets reverted back to wider economy focused fundamentals. A range of reaction windows are applied with the main finding being that the trading potential around such psychological barrier levels is primarily in the immediate 15 days following a breach. The research contributes to the scant existing research on psychological influences on energy market traders, and suggests strong potential for further application of behavioural finance theories to improving understanding of energy markets price dynamics.

Michael Dowling; Mark Cummins; Brian M. Lucey

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Reactivity of calcium sulfate from FBC systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A relative estimate of the reactivity of calcium sulfate in a number of coal combustion ash samples was obtained, using the rate of solution in water as a parameter. Measurements were also performed on standard samples of calcium sulfate prepared in different ways, for comparison. The temperature of previous treatment appeared as the most important factor determining the reactivity of CaSO4; the grain size distribution was less important, and the duration of heating (even to 105 days) had very little influence. No correlation between specific surface of ash samples and their reactivity was apparent. Calcium sulfate in FBC ash samples was much more reactive than that contained in high-temperature ashes, and than calcium sulfate heated, alone or with various additions, at 850C for 2 days. Of the six FBC samples tested, five showed similar behaviour, including a sample from a pressurized system; only a deposit from 96 days operation of an industrial CFBC boiler burning petroleum coke showed considerably less reactivity. Surprisingly, CaSO4 from two FBC samples placed in an oven for 60 days under sulfating conditions showed a very similar rate of solution to that of the other FBC samples, while a third sample kept in the oven for 105 days also showed no decrease in reactivity. Only when one of these samples had agglomerated (which occurred between 60 and 105 days) did it show decreased reactivity, suggesting that the agglomeration process rather than duration is significant in promoting sintering and reducing the sulfate reactivity.

Agripanea P. Iribarne; Julio V. Iribarne; Edward J. Anthony

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

ELECTROSTATICALLY ENHANCED BARRIER FILTER COLLECTION  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed through the University of North Dakota (UND) Chemical Engineering Department with assistance from UND's Energy & Environmental Research Center. This research was undertaken in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Technology Center Program Solicitation No. DE-PS26-99FT40479, Support of Advanced Coal Research at U.S. Universities and Colleges. Specifically, this research was in support of the UCR Core Program and addressees Topic 1, Improved Hot-Gas Contaminant and Particulate Removal Techniques, introducing an advanced design for particulate removal. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) offers the potential for very high efficiency and clean electric generation. In IGCC, the product gas from the gasifier needs to be cleaned of particulate matter to avoid erosion and high-temperature corrosion difficulties arising with the turbine blades. Current methods involve cooling the gases to {approx}100 C to condense alkalis and remove sulfur and particulates using conventional scrubber technology. This ''cool'' gas is then directed to a turbine for electric generation. While IGCC has the potential to reach efficiencies of over 50%, the current need to cool the product gas for cleaning prior to firing it in a turbine is keeping IGCC from reaching its full potential. The objective of the current project was to develop a highly reliable particulate collector system that can meet the most stringent turbine requirements and emission standards, can operate at temperatures above 1500 F, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, is compatible with various sorbent injection schemes for sulfur and alkali control, can be integrated into a variety of configurations for both pressurized gasification and combustion, increases allowable face velocity to reduce filter system capital cost, and is cost-competitive with existing technologies. The collector being developed is a new concept in particulate control called electrostatically enhanced barrier filter collection (EBFC). This concept combines electrostatic precipitation (ESP) with candle filters in a single unit. Similar technology has been recently proven on a commercial scale for atmospheric applications, but needed to be tested at high temperatures and pressures. The synergy obtained by combining the two control technologies into a single system should actually reduce filter system capital and operating costs and make the system more reliable. More specifically, the ESP is expected to significantly reduce candle filter load and also to limit ash reintrainment, allowing for full recovery of baseline pressure drop during backpulsing of the filters.

John Erjavec; Michael D. Mann; Ryan Z. Knutson; Michael L. Swanson; Michael E. Collings

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Energy Efficiency Projects: Overcoming Internal Barriers to Implementation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation discusses overcoming internal barriers to funding and/or implementing energy efficiency projects.

156

In Situ Reactivity and TOF SIMS Analysis of Surfaces Prepared...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactivity and TOF SIMS Analysis of Surfaces Prepared by Soft and Reactive Landing of Mass Selected Ions. In Situ Reactivity and TOF SIMS Analysis of Surfaces Prepared by Soft and...

157

Schottky barrier MOSFET systems and fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

(MOS) device systems-utilizing Schottky barrier source and drain to channel region junctions are disclosed. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate operation of fabricated N-channel and P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices, and of fabricated single devices with operational characteristics similar to (CMOS) and to a non-latching (SRC) are reported. Use of essentially non-rectifying Schottky barriers in (MOS) structures involving highly doped and the like and intrinsic semiconductor to allow non-rectifying interconnection of, and electrical accessing of device regions is also disclosed. Insulator effected low leakage current device geometries and fabrication procedures therefore are taught. Selective electrical interconnection of drain to drain, source to drain, or source to source, of N-channel and/or P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices formed on P-type, N-type and Intrinsic semiconductor allows realization of Schottky Barrier (CMOS), (MOSFET) with (MOSFET) load, balanced differential (MOSFET) device systems and inverting and non-inverting single devices with operating characteristics similar to (CMOS), which devices can be utilized in modulation, as well as in voltage controled switching and effecting a direction of rectification.

Welch, James D. (10328 Pinehurst Ave., Omaha, NE 68124)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Enhanced Densification of SDC Barrier Layers  

SciTech Connect

This technical report explores the Enhanced Densification of SCD Barrier Layers A samaria-doped ceria (SDC) barrier layer separates the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode from the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to prevent the formation of electrically resistive interfacial SrZrO{sub 3} layers that arise from the reaction of Sr from the LSCF with Zr from the YSZ. However, the sintering temperature of this SDC layer must be limited to {approx}1200 C to avoid extensive interdiffusion between SDC and YSZ to form a resistive CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution. Therefore, the conventional SDC layer is often porous and therefore not as impervious to Sr-diffusion as would be desired. In the pursuit of improved SOFC performance, efforts have been directed toward increasing the density of the SDC barrier layer without increasing the sintering temperature. The density of the SDC barrier layer can be greatly increased through small amounts of Cu-doping of the SDC powder together with increased solids loading and use of an appropriate binder system in the screen print ink. However, the resulting performance of cells with these barrier layers did not exhibit the expected increase in accordance with that achieved with the prototypical PLD SDC layer. It was determined by XRD that increased sinterability of the SDC also results in increased interdiffusivity between the SDC and YSZ, resulting in formation of a highly resistive solid solution.

Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

159

Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI)...

160

COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Barriers for Residential and Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings Diana Hun, PhD Oak Ridge National Laboratory dehun@ornl.gov 865-574-5139 April 4, 2013 BTO Program Peer Review 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Problem Statement & Project Focus - Air leakage is a significant contributor to HVAC loads - ~50% in residential buildings (Sherman and Matson 1997) - ~33% of heating loads in office buildings (Emmerich et al. 2005) - Airtightness of buildings listed in BTO prioritization tool

162

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

Carver, D.W.

1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

163

Radiant Barrier Performance during the Heating Season  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Combination with R-II and R-30 Ceiling Insulation." ORNLICON 239, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 13. Ober D.G. and Volckhausen T.W., 1988, "Radiant Barrier Insulation Performance in Full-Scale Attics with Soffit and Ridge Venting... in Combination with R-II and R-30 Ceiling Insulation." ORNLICON 239, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 13. Ober D.G. and Volckhausen T.W., 1988, "Radiant Barrier Insulation Performance in Full-Scale Attics with Soffit and Ridge Venting...

Medina, M. A.; O'Neal, D. L.; Turner, W. D.

164

Transmission line including support means with barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas insulated transmission line includes an elongated outer sheath, a plurality of inner conductors disposed within and extending along the outer sheath, and an insulating gas which electrically insulates the inner conductors from the outer sheath. A support insulator insulatably supports the inner conductors within the outer sheath, with the support insulator comprising a main body portion including a plurality of legs extending to the outer sheath, and barrier portions which extend between the legs. The barrier portions have openings therein adjacent the main body portion through which the inner conductors extend.

Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Barriers for Residential and Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings Diana Hun, PhD Oak Ridge National Laboratory dehun@ornl.gov 865-574-5139 April 4, 2013 BTO Program Peer Review 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Problem Statement & Project Focus - Air leakage is a significant contributor to HVAC loads - ~50% in residential buildings (Sherman and Matson 1997) - ~33% of heating loads in office buildings (Emmerich et al. 2005) - Airtightness of buildings listed in BTO prioritization tool

166

Consideration of spatial effects in reactivity measurements  

SciTech Connect

Various methods of considering spatial effects in reactivity measurements are presented. These methods are employed both at the critical (mainly fast-neutron) facilities and at the BN-600 reactor.

Matveenko, I. P., E-mail: matveenko@ippe.ru; Lititskii, V. A.; Shokod'ko, A. G. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Systematic approach for chemical reactivity evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Screening Tool (RSST) and the Automatic Pressure Tracking Adiabatic Calorimeter (APTAC) were employed to evaluate the reactive systems experimentally. The RSST detected exothermic behavior and measured the overall liberated energy. The APTAC simulated...

Aldeeb, Abdulrehman Ahmed

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor comprises supports stacked above reactor core for holding control rods. Couplers associated with the supports and a vertically movable drive shaft have lugs at their lower ends for engagement with the supports.

Bollinger, Lawrence R. (Schenectady, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Fossil plant layup and reactivation conference: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Fossil Plant Layup and Reactivation Conference was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on April 14--15, 1992. The Conference was sponsored by EPRI and hosted by Entergy Services, Inc. to bring together representatives from utilities, consulting firms, manufacturers and architectural engineers. Eighteen papers were presented in three sessions. These sessions were devoted to layup procedures and practices, and reactivation case studies. A panel discussion was held on the second day to interactively discuss layup and reactivation issues. More than 80 people attended the Conference. This report contains technical papers and a summary of the panel discussion. Of the eighteen papers, three are related to general, one is related to regulatory issues, three are related to specific equipment, four are related to layup procedures and practices, and seven are layup and reactivation case studies.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Groundwater well with reactive filter pack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Holdren, Jr., George R. (Kennewick, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Groundwater well with reactive filter pack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

172

A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Reactive Attachment Disorder: Concepts, Treatment, and Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a disorder characterized by controversy, both with respect to its definition and its treatment. By definition, the RAD diagnosis attempts to characterize and explain the origin of ...

Walter, Uta M.; Petr, Chris

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

FIRE IMPACTS ON AN ENGINEERED BARRIERS PERFORMANCE: THE HANFORD BARRIER ONE YEAR AFTER A CONTROLLED BURN  

SciTech Connect

A critical unknown for long-term engineered barrier performance is the effect of wild fire during a post-institutional control environment where routine maintenance may be limited or non-existent. In September 2008, a controlled burn was conducted on one half of a vegetated, multilayered capillary barrier emplaced over a Hanford waste site. The effects on barrier performance have been monitored and documented over the past year. Soil physical, chemical, and hydrologic properties; plant floristics and density; and animal-use were characterized before and after the fire with the unburned half of the barrier serving as a control. Temperatures during the controlled burn ranged from 250 oC at 1.5 cm below the surface to over 700 oC at 1 m above the surface. Significant decreases in hydraulic conductivity and surface-soil wettability were observed immediately after the fire due primarily to hydrophobic conditions created by the fire. Major soil nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity remain elevated post-fire. Up until June 2009, post-burn soil moisture content in the 0-1 m depth interval was significantly lower on the burned section than the unburned section and is attributed to differences in surface evaporation. Higher soil moisture contents in the 1-2 m interval on the burned section are attributed to insignificant water uptake owing to the absence of deep-rooted shrubs. Moisture profiles reversed after June to show lower water contents throughout the profile on the unburned section. Dense stands of sagebrush were destroyed from the fire allowing many more species to emerge thereby increasing species diversity. Seed sources contributing to this species diversification were from either the existing seedbank and/or wind-blown sources. Measurements are ongoing and the results are expected to help close a knowledge gap about barrier recovery after major disturbances.

Ward, Anderson L.; Link, Steven O.; Leary, Kevin D.; Berlin, Gregory T.

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

Electrical Transport in Schottky Barrier MOSFETs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Barrier (SB) MOSFET is one such device. It consists of metallic silicide source and drain contacts' that result in a reduced local potential at the abrupt metal/semiconductor interface. At relatively high at the Metal/Semiconductor Interface 66 4.3. Current Transport Limits 69 4.4. Sub-threshold Regime 72 4

Reed, Mark

176

Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70`s by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also to provide protection. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the thermal barrier coatings will be to reduce thermal fatigue as the engine peak cylinder pressure will nearly be doubled. As the coatings result in higher available energy in the exhaust gas, efficiency gains are achieved through use of this energy by turbochargers, turbocompounding or thermoelectric generators.

Fairbanks, J.W.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Model Studies of Pore Stability and Evolution in Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N. Katz, Advanced Ceramics: Thermal Barrier Coatings BeatConductivity of Advanced Ceramic Thermal Barrier CoatingsFatigue Testing of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings, NASA/

Glaeser, A M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Chemical vapor deposition of refractory ternary nitrides for advanced diffusion barriers  

SciTech Connect

Refractory ternary nitride films for diffusion barriers in microelectronics have been grown using chemical vapor deposition. Thin films of titanium-silicon-nitride, tungsten-boron-nitride, and tungsten-silicon-nitride of various compositions have been deposited on 150 mm Si wafers. The microstructure of the films are either fully amorphous for the tungsten based films, or nauocrystalline TiN in an amorphous matrix for titanium-silicon-nitride. All films exhibit step coverages suitable for use in future microelectronics generations. Selected films have been tested as diffusion barriers between copper and silicon, and generally perform extremely weH. These fiIms are promising candidates for advanced diffusion barriers for microelectronics applications. The manufacturing of silicon wafers into integrated circuits uses many different process and materials. The manufacturing process is usually divided into two parts: the front end of line (FEOL) and the back end of line (BEOL). In the FEOL the individual transistors that are the heart of an integrated circuit are made on the silicon wafer. The responsibility of the BEOL is to wire all the transistors together to make a complete circuit. The transistors are fabricated in the silicon itself. The wiring is made out of metal, currently aluminum and tungsten, insulated by silicon dioxide, see Figure 1. Unfortunately, silicon will diffuse into aluminum, causing aluminum spiking of junctions, killing transistors. Similarly, during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten from ~fj, the reactivity of the fluorine can cause "worn-holes" in the silicon, also destroying transistors. The solution to these problems is a so-called diffusion barrier, which will allow current to pass from the transistors to the wiring, but will prevent reactions between silicon and the metal.

Custer, Jonathan S.; Fleming, James G.; Roherty-Osmun, Elizabeth; Smith, Paul Martin

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

179

Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country  

SciTech Connect

This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

180

Multifunctional Nanoclay Hybrids of High Toughness, Thermal, and Barrier Performances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multifunctional Nanoclay Hybrids of High Toughness, Thermal, and Barrier Performances ... functionalization of nanofillers, nanoclays or other compds. ...

Houssine Sehaqui; Joby Kochumalayil; Andong Liu; Tanja Zimmermann; Lars A. Berglund

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

RAFT: A simulator for ReActive Flow and Transport of groundwater contaminants  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the use of the simulator RAFT for the ReActive flow and Transport of groundwater contaminants. RAFT can be used as a predictive tool in the design and analysis of laboratory and field experiments or it can be used for the estimation of model/process parameters from experiments. RAFT simulates the reactive transport of groundwater contaminants in one, two-, or three-dimensions and it can model user specified source/link configurations and arbitrary injection strategies. A suite of solvers for transport, reactions and regression are employed so that a combination of numerical methods best suited for a problem can be chosen. User specified coupled equilibrium and kinetic reaction systems can be incorporated into RAFT. RAFT is integrated with a symbolic computational language MAPLE, to automate code generation for arbitrary reaction systems. RAFT is expected to be used as a simulator for engineering design for field experiments in groundwater remediation including bioremediation, reactive barriers and redox manipulation. As an integrated tool with both the predictive ability and the ability to analyze experimental data, RAFT can help in the development of remediation technologies, from laboratory to field.

Chilakapati, A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Pricing European Barrier Options Peter W.Buchen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

barrier options which incorporate a con- stant rebate. The method exploits the symmetries and properties of elemen- tary solutions of the Black-Scholes partial differential equation. The rebate and non-rebate. If rebates apply then the first exit time densities through the barrier are also required. Barrier option

Sydney, University of

183

Near-infrared spectroscopy of HD the barrier to linearity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near-infrared spectroscopy of HD 3 above the barrier to linearity BY JENNIFER L. GOTTFRIED, transitions of HC 3 above the barrier to linearity have been observed. A highly sensitive near-infrared-adiabatic and radiative corrections is revealed. Keywords: HD 3 ; near-infrared spectroscopy; barrier to linearity 1

Oka, Takeshi

184

Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

185

Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

186

Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

Weil, Kenneth Scott (Richland, WA); Hardy, John S. (Richland, WA); Kim, Jin Yong (Richland, WA); Choi, Jung-Pyung (Richland, WA)

2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

187

Natural Gas Vehicles: Status, Barriers, and Opportunities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ESD/10-4 ESD/10-4 Natural Gas Vehicles: Status, Barriers, and Opportunities Energy Systems Division About Argonne National Laboratory Argonne is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. The Laboratory's main facility is outside Chicago, at 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439. For information about Argonne and its pioneering science and technology programs, see www.anl.gov.

188

Train derailment and railroad barrier interaction simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or eliminate the risk of the passenger track intrusion by derailing cars on adjacent track is of concern to the railroad authorities. The purpose of this study is through computer simulation to investigate the behavior of the train derailment and to determine... the feasibility of the use of a barrier wall to restrain derailing railroad cars. An analytical model has been developed for the simulation. In the theoretical analysis the equation of motion in the horizontal plane for each derailed car was derived...

Zhang, Heping

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

189

Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines  

SciTech Connect

Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70`s by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his `Adiabatic Diesel Engine` in the late 70`s. Kamo`s concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo`s work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as `convection vive.` Woschni`s work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components.

Fairbanks, J.W.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

1981-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

191

Design and synthesis of reactive separation systems  

SciTech Connect

During the last decade there has been a rapid upturn in interest in reactive distillation. The chemical process industry recognizes the favorable economics of carrying out reaction simultaneously with distillation for certain classes of reacting systems, and many new processes have been built based on this technology. Interest is also increasing by academics and software vendors. Systematic design methods for reactive distillation systems have only recently begun to emerge. In this report we survey the available design techniques and point out the contributions made by our group at the University of Massachusetts.

Doherty, M.F.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

193

Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

194

Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response Title Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-2294e Year of Publication 2009 Authors Rubinstein, Francis M., Girish Ghatikar, Jessica Granderson, Paul Haugen, Carlos Romero, and David S. Watson Keywords technologies Abstract Various wireless technologies were field-tested in a six-story laboratory building to identify wireless technologies that can scale for future DR applications through very low node density power consumption, and unit cost. Data analysis included analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), packet loss, and link quality at varying power levels and node densities. The narrowband technologies performed well, penetrating the floors of the building with little loss and exhibiting better range than the wideband technology. 900 MHz provided full coverage at 1 watt and substantially complete coverage at 500 mW at the test site. 900 MHz was able to provide full coverage at 100 mW with only one additional relay transmitter, and was the highest-performing technology in the study. 2.4 GHz could not provide full coverage with only a single transmitter at the highest power level tested (63 mW). However, substantially complete coverage was provided at 2.4 GHz at 63 mW with the addition of one repeater node.

195

ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

R. Jarek

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

196

TMX-U thermal-barrier experiments  

SciTech Connect

This review of thermal-barrier experiments in the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U) describes our progress at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in plasma confinement and central-cell heating. Thermal barriers in TMX-U improved axial confinement by two orders of magnitude over a limited range of densities, compared with confinement in single-cell mirrors at the same ion temperature. Our study shows that central-cell radial nonambipolar confinement scales as neoclassical theory and can be eliminated by floating the end walls. Radial ambipolar losses can also be measured and reduced. The electron energy balance is improved in tandem mirrors to near classical, resulting in T/sub e/ up to 0.28 keV. Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) efficiencies up to 42 percent, with low levels of electron microinstability, were achieved when hot electrons in the thermal barrier were heated to average betas as large as 15 percent. The hot-electron distribution is measured from X rays and is modeled by a Fokker-Planck code that includes heating from cavity radio-frequency (RF) fields. Neutral-beam injection in the central cell created average ion betas up to 5 percent with radial profiles of hot ions that are modeled accurately by a radial Fokker-Planck code. Gas fueling between two fundamental ion cyclotron heating (ICH) resonances resulted in symmetrical heating of passing ions toward both ends.

Simonen, T.C.; Allen, S.L.; Barter, J.D.; Casper, T.A.; Correll, D.L.; Carter, M.R.; Clauser, J.F.; Dimonte, G.; Foote, J.H.; Futch, A.H.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Performing a global barrier operation in a parallel computer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Executing computing tasks on a parallel computer that includes compute nodes coupled for data communications, where each compute node executes tasks, with one task on each compute node designated as a master task, including: for each task on each compute node until all master tasks have joined a global barrier: determining whether the task is a master task; if the task is not a master task, joining a single local barrier; if the task is a master task, joining the global barrier and the single local barrier only after all other tasks on the compute node have joined the single local barrier.

Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

198

Biointrusion test plan for the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Prototype  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a testing and monitoring plan for the biological component of the prototype barrier slated for construction at the Hanford Site. The prototype barrier is an aboveground structure engineered to demonstrate the basic features of an earthen cover system. It is designed to permanently isolate waste from the biosphere. The features of the barrier include multiple layers of soil and rock materials and a low-permeability asphalt sublayer. The surface of the barrier consists of silt loam soil, covered with plants. The barrier sides are reinforced with rock or coarse earthen-fill to protect against wind and water erosion. The sublayers inhibit plant and animal intrusion and percolation of water. A series of tests will be conducted on the prototype barrier over the next several years to evaluate barrier performance under extreme climatic conditions. Plants and animals will play a significant role in the hydrologic and water and wind erosion characteristics of the prototype barrier. Studies on the biological component of the prototype barrier will include work on the initial revegetation of the surface, continued monitoring of the developing plant community, rooting depth and dispersion in the context of biointrusion potential, the role of plants in the hydrology of the surface and toe regions of the barrier, the role of plants in stabilizing the surface against water and wind erosion, and the role of burrowing animals in the hydrology and water and wind erosion of the barrier.

Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Brandt, C.A.; Downs, J.L.; Rossi, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

A hypersonic plasma bullet train traveling in an atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharge jet  

SciTech Connect

An experimental observation of fast-moving plasma bullets produced in an atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharge jet is reported in this paper. Nanosecond imaging suggests that the atmospheric discharge jet consists of a plasma bullet train traveling at a hypersonic speed from 7.0 km/s to 43.1 km/s. Yet on a millisecond scale, the bullet train appears as a plasma jet of several centimeters long. The plasma bullets are produced through several possible mechanisms, the most likely of which is related to the ionization wave. Time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy show that reactive plasma species can be delivered to different spatial sites with varying quantities.

Shi Jianjun; Zhong Fangchun; Zhang Jing; Liu, D. W.; Kong, M. G. [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Microminerals  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of the project is to explore and quantify the processes that control the formation and reactivity of biogenic iron microminerals and their impact on the solubility of metal contaminants. The research addresses how surface components of bacterial cells, extracellular organic material, and the aqueous geochemistry of the DIRB microenvironment impacts the mineralogy, chemical state and micromorphology of reduced iron phases.

Beveridge, Terrance J.; Glasauer, Susan; Korenevsky, Anton; Ferris, F. Grant

2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the last decade. Most of their work involves depleted uranium, a more common form of uraniumMarch 2008 Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008 Uranium is an often misunderstood metal uranium research. In reality, uranium presents a wealth of possibilities for funda- mental chemistry. Many

Meyer, Karsten

202

Disposal systems evaluations and tool development : Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evaluation.  

SciTech Connect

Key components of the nuclear fuel cycle are short-term storage and long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The latter encompasses the immobilization of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and radioactive waste streams generated by various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the safe and permanent disposition of these waste forms in geological repository environments. The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a very important role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. EBS concepts and their interactions with the natural barrier are inherently important to the long-term performance assessment of the safety case where nuclear waste disposition needs to be evaluated for time periods of up to one million years. Making the safety case needed in the decision-making process for the recommendation and the eventual embracement of a disposal system concept requires a multi-faceted integration of knowledge and evidence-gathering to demonstrate the required confidence level in a deep geological disposal site and to evaluate long-term repository performance. The focus of this report is the following: (1) Evaluation of EBS in long-term disposal systems in deep geologic environments with emphasis on the multi-barrier concept; (2) Evaluation of key parameters in the characterization of EBS performance; (3) Identification of key knowledge gaps and uncertainties; and (4) Evaluation of tools and modeling approaches for EBS processes and performance. The above topics will be evaluated through the analysis of the following: (1) Overview of EBS concepts for various NW disposal systems; (2) Natural and man-made analogs, room chemistry, hydrochemistry of deep subsurface environments, and EBS material stability in near-field environments; (3) Reactive Transport and Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) processes in EBS; and (4) Thermal analysis toolkit, metallic barrier degradation mode survey, and development of a Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF). This report will focus on the multi-barrier concept of EBS and variants of this type which in essence is the most adopted concept by various repository programs. Empasis is given mainly to the evaluation of EBS materials and processes through the analysis of published studies in the scientific literature of past and existing repository research programs. Tool evaluations are also emphasized, particularly on THCM processes and chemical equilibria. Although being an increasingly important aspect of NW disposition, short-term or interim storage of NW will be briefly discussed but not to the extent of the EBS issues relevant to disposal systems in deep geologic environments. Interim storage will be discussed in the report Evaluation of Storage Concepts FY10 Final Report (Weiner et al. 2010).

Rutqvist, Jonny (LBNL); Liu, Hui-Hai (LBNL); Steefel, Carl I. (LBNL); Serrano de Caro, M. A. (LLNL); Caporuscio, Florie Andre (LANL); Birkholzer, Jens T. (LBNL); Blink, James A. (LLNL); Sutton, Mark A. (LLNL); Xu, Hongwu (LANL); Buscheck, Thomas A. (LLNL); Levy, Schon S. (LANL); Tsang, Chin-Fu (LBNL); Sonnenthal, Eric (LBNL); Halsey, William G. (LLNL); Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wolery, Thomas J. (LLNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Cell Comp't Thermal Reactivity & Improvements | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Comp't Thermal Reactivity & Improvements Cell Comp't Thermal Reactivity & Improvements Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on...

204

Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper formates on a CuSiO2 catalyst. Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper formates on a...

205

Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of the reactive distillation line diagrams, it can be decided whether a column with two feed stages is required. On the basis of the reaction space concept, a procedure for identification of reactive distillation processes is developed, in which the reactive distillation column has to be divided into reactive and nonreactive sections. This can be necessary to overcome the limitations in separation which result from the chemical equilibrium. The concentration profile of this combined reactive/nonreactive distillation column is estimated using combined reactive/nonreactive distillation lines.

Bessling, B. [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development] [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development; Schembecker, G.; Simmrock, K.H. [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

94E 94E Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response F. Rubinstein, G. Ghatikar, J. Granderson, D. Watson Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory P. Haugen, C. Romero Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory February 2009 DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe

207

High-resolution photoemission studies of the interfacial reactivity and interfacial energetics of Au and Cu Schottky barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.elsevier.com/locate/susc Surface Science 601 (2007) 2896­2907 #12;Fermi-level pinning and metal silicide formation are both, the formation of about one monolayer of gold silicide, SiAu3, with a Si 2p chemical shift of +0.75(2) eV chemically shifted Si 2p component attributable to an interfacial copper silicide phase, SiCu3. Hence

Webb, Lauren J.

208

Tuning Reactivity and Electronic Properties through Ligand Reorganization within a Cerium Heterobimetallic Framework  

SciTech Connect

Cerium compounds have played vital roles in organic, inorganic, and materials chemistry due to their reversible redox chemistry between trivalent and tetravalent oxidation states. However, attempts to rationally access molecular cerium complexes in both oxidation states have been frustrated by unpredictable reactivity in cerium(III) oxidation chemistry. Such oxidation reactions are limited by steric saturation at the metal ion, which can result in high energy activation barriers for electron transfer. An alternative approach has been realized using a rare earth/alkali metal/1,1'-BINOLate (REMB) heterobimetallic framework, which uses redox-inactive metals within the secondary coordination sphere to control ligand reorganization. The rational syntheses of functionalized cerium(IV) products and a mechanistic examination of the role of ligand reorganization in cerium(III) oxidation are presented.

Robinson, Jerome R.; Gordon, Zachary; Booth, Corwin H.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

209

DOE Discussion on Small Business Contract Barriers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Discussion on Small Business Contract Barriers Discussion on Small Business Contract Barriers DOE Discussion on Small Business Contract Barriers March 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis EM Deputy Assistant Secretary for Acquisition and Project Management Jack Surash speaks during the session on barriers small businesses face competing for prime contracts. EM Deputy Assistant Secretary for Acquisition and Project Management Jack Surash speaks during the session on barriers small businesses face competing for prime contracts. Pictured at the session on barriers in small business contracting, left to right, are Jim Fiore of Fiore Consulting; John Coffman of DeNuke Contracting Services, Inc.; John Hale III of the DOE Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization; Jack Surash of EM; and Matt Moeller of Dade Moeller.

210

Corrosion of barrier materials in seawater environments  

SciTech Connect

A brief review has been carried out on the performance of barrier materials for low-level radioactive wastes in seawater environments. The environments include those for shallower coastal waters as well as the deep ocean (down to 3800 m). The review is mainly focused on metallic materials since they are the most common for seawater service and they have the largest data base. Information from the literature is usually pertinent to shallower coastal locations, but there is a valuable source of corrosion data obtained from several studies of metallic specimens exposed to ocean-bed conditions. In addition, the corrosion of carbon steel barriers has been evaluated for actual waste containers that were retrieved from previously-used disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Of the metallic materials studied, carbon steel showed the least corrosion resistance. Failure by non-uniform attack in a typical waste container could occur in as little as 25 y in some ocean environments ` Penetration by local attack, such as pitting and crevice corrosion resistance was also observed for more expensive materials such as low-alloy steels, stainless steels, titanium alloys, zirconium alloys, copper alloys, nickel alloys, aluminum alloys, and lead alloys.

Heiser, J.H.; Soo, P.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

Bollinger, L.R.

1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

212

Mined land reclamation by biological reactivation  

SciTech Connect

A mine reclamation technique, developed in Europe, restores land to full productivity within two years without topsoil replacement. The method deliberately reestablishes within one year following mining, the required biological balance between microbes, enzymes, and trace elements in the rock spoil rather than waiting five or more years for natural processes to restore balance. The technique is called Biological Reactivation (BR). This paper discusses the feasibility of BR reclamation after surface mining operations in the US. Staff of the Ohio Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute completed an OSM-sponsored research project on BR in which physical and chemical tests characterized 140 spoil samples obtained from 10 surface mining operations. Test results indicated that Biological Reactivation technology could be effectively applied, at least in the test areas sampled within Appalachia. Preliminary estimates make clear that the new technique reduces reclamation costs on prime farmland by approximately 95% compared to topsoil segregation and replacement methods.

Gozon, J.S.; Konya, C.J.; Lukovic, S.S.; Lundquist, R.G.; Olah, J.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

214

New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: 3M - Minneapolis, MN DOE Funding:...

215

Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Air Sealing for New Home Construction Insulation Types of Insulation Insulation and Air Sealing Products and Services External Resources Find a Local AirVapor Barrier...

216

Phoenix Overcomes Barriers and Energizes Homeowners to Make Upgrades...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

which caused confusion about program eligibility and made it difficult to conduct advertising. Other obstacles in the community include language barriers and a lack of energy...

217

Barriers to CHP with Renewable Portfolio Standards, Draft White...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

helped spur the growth of renewable energy projects, including solar, wind, and biomass power. This report aims to determine the barriers to CHP that exist within state RPS...

218

February 20, 2014 Webinar- Performance of Engineered Barriers: Lessons Learned  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

P&RA CoP Webinar - 2/20/2014 - Performance of Engineered Barriers: Lessons Learned Craig H. Benson (University of Wisconsin-Madison/CRESP)

219

The Effects of the "Ike Dike" barriers on Galveston Bay:.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In 2008 Hurricane Ike flooded large parts of the barrier islands in front of the Galveston Bay near Houston, Texas. The storm surge also entered (more)

Ruijs, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Superluminal transmission of light pulses through optically opaque barriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using simple considerations of causal electrodynamics we analyze the occurrence of superluminal transmission of light pulses through optically opaque barriers. We find that the phenomenon appears whenever the main frequency components of the pulse are confined to frequency regions where the presence of the barrier decreases the density of states of the electromagnetic modes of the system. We also show that these frequency regions correspond to the transmission gaps of sufficiently wide barriers. We discuss a simple theory for the density of states of the barrier system and compare the results of such a theory with exact numerical calculations.

V. Romero-Rochn; R. P. Duarte-Zamorano; S. Nilsen-Hofseth; R. G. Barrera

2001-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

222

Moving North Texas Forward by Addressing Alternative Fuel Barriers...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MOVING NORTH TEXAS FORWARD BY ADDRESSING ALTERANATIVE FUEL BARRIERS Presenter: Pamela Burns North Central Texas Council of Governments June 20, 2014 P.I. Mindy Mize Project ID...

223

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

61 - 19370 of 29,416 results. 61 - 19370 of 29,416 results. Article Early Detection Saves Lives Former Department of Energy (DOE) workers tell how medical screening helped them lead healthier and longer lives. http://energy.gov/hss/articles/early-detection-saves-lives Page Permeable Reactive Barriers A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is a zone of reactive material placed underground to intercept and react with a contaminant plume in ground water. Typically, PRBs are emplaced by replacing soils... http://energy.gov/lm/services/long-term-surveillance-and-maintenance-ltsm-operations-and-maintenance/permeable Download Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium, Thorium, and Potassium (June 1994) Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium,

224

BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early with biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the boiler, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value, which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior.

Jay R. Gunderson; Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs documents. The updates have no impact on the model developed in this report.

R. Jarek

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

226

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities In Assessing The Degradation Of Cementitious Barriers  

SciTech Connect

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in Kd/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP software tools. Modification of the existing tools can provide many opportunities to bring defense in depth in prediction of the performance of cementitious barriers over time.

Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, F. G. III [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Brown, K. G. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Kosson, D. S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Garrabrants, A. C. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); van der Sloot, H. [Hans van der Sloot Consultancy (The Netherlands); Meeussen, J. C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (The Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies Inc. , 1400, boul. du Parc - Technologique , Suite 203, Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW , Washington, DC (United States); Suttora, L. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW , Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D. W. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States); Fuhrmann, M. J. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States); Philip, J. [U .S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission , Washington, DC (United States)

2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

227

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Software Toolbox Capabilities in Assessing the Degradation of Cementitious Barriers - 13487  

SciTech Connect

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Tank Waste and Nuclear Materials Management. The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that help improve understanding and predictions of the long-term structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program have been used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to 100 years and longer for operating facilities and longer than 1000 years for waste disposal. The CBP Software Toolbox has produced tangible benefits to the DOE Performance Assessment (PA) community. A review of prior DOE PAs has provided a list of potential opportunities for improving cementitious barrier performance predictions through the use of the CBP software tools. These opportunities include: 1) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, 2) prediction of changes in K{sub d}/mobility as a function of time that result from changing pH and redox conditions, 3) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, 4) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage and 5) degradation due to sulfate attack. The CBP has already had opportunity to provide near-term, tangible support to ongoing DOE-EM PAs such as the Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) by providing a sulfate attack analysis that predicts the extent and damage that sulfate ingress will have on the concrete vaults over extended time (i.e., > 1000 years). This analysis is one of the many technical opportunities in cementitious barrier performance that can be addressed by the DOE-EM sponsored CBP software tools. Modification of the existing tools can provide many opportunities to bring defense in depth in prediction of the performance of cementitious barriers over time. (authors)

Flach, G.P.; Burns, H.H.; Langton, C.; Smith, F.G. III [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States); Brown, K.G.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.C.; Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Van der Sloot, H. [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy (Netherlands)] [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy (Netherlands); Meeussen, J.C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands)] [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Suite 203, Quebec (Canada)] [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Suite 203, Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P.; Suttora, L. [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC (United States)] [United States Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D.W.; Fuhrmann, M.J.; Philip, J. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Containment analysis of the 9975 transportation package with multiple barriers  

SciTech Connect

A containment analysis has been performed for the scenario of non-routine transfer of a damaged 9975 package containing plutonium metal from K-area monitored storage to F-area on the Savannah River Site. A multiple barrier system with each barrier having a defined leakage rate of less than 1{times}10{sup {minus}3} cm{sup 3}/sec of air at Standard Temperature and Pressure was analyzed to determine the number of barriers needed to transport the package under normal transportation conditions to meet transportation requirements for containment. The barrier system was analyzed parametrically to achieve a composite system that met the federal requirements for the maximum permissible release rate given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The multiple barrier system acts to retard the release of radioactivity. That is, a build-up in the radioactivity release rate occurs with time. For example, a system with three barriers (e.g., sealed plastic barrier) with a total free volume of 4,500 cm{sup 3} could be transported for a total time of up to approximately 10 days with a release rate within the permissible rate. Additional number of barriers, or volume of the barriers, or both, would extend to this period of time. For example, a system with seven barriers with a total free volume of 4,500 cm{sup 3} could be transported for up to 100 days. Plastic bags are one type of barrier used in movement of radioactive materials and capable of achieving a leak rate of 1{times}10{sup {minus}3} cm{sup 3}/sec of air at STP. Low-density polyethylene bags can withstand high temperature (up to 180 degrees C); a barrier thickness of 10 mils should be suitable for the barrier system. Additional requirements for barriers are listed in Section 4.2 of this report. Container testing per ANSI N14.5 is required to demonstrate leak rates for the individual barriers of less than 1{times}10{sup {minus}3} cm{sup 3}/sec.

Vinson, D.W.

2000-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

229

Fragmentation Barriers of Toroidal and Bubble Nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

those estimated recently from liquid-drop models [24,25]. We simulate the dynamics of nucleus-nucleus collisions with the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation [27] Bt " (27r)s dB+ v V?f~ ?V?U V'zfq ? d k2dO ""v12[fsf4(l ?f1)(1?f2) ?f~f2(1 ?fs)(1 ?f4.../49(4)/1778(5)/$06. 00 R1778 1994 The American Physical Society 49 FRAGMENTATION BARRIERS OF TOROIDAL AND BUBBLE NUCLEI R1779 TOP VIEW FRONT VIEW and 2 for 2Mo+ 2Mo collisions at E/A =75 MeV and b=0, for both the stifF (Fig. 1) and the soft (Fig. 2) equa- tions...

Xu, HM; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.; Wong, C. Y.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Thermal barrier coatings for turbine components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine component, such as a turbine blade having a metal substrate (22) is coated with a metal MCrAlY alloy layer (24) and then a thermal barrier layer (20) selected from LaAlO.sub.3, NdAlO.sub.3, La.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7, Dy.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12, HO.sub.3 Al.sub.3 O.sub.12, ErAlO.sub.3, GdAlO.sub.3, Yb.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 O.sub.7, LaYbO.sub.3, Gd.sub.2 Hf.sub.2 O.sub.7 or Y.sub.3 Al.sub.5 O.sub.12.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Bethesda, MD); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9/2011 9/2011 1 BASF Fuel Cell, Inc. Manufacturing Barriers to high temperature PEM commercialization 39 Veronica Ave Somerset , NJ 08873 Tel : (732) 545-5100 9/9/2011 2 Background on BASF Fuel Cell  BASF Fuel Cell was established in 2007, formerly PEMEAS Fuel Cells (including E-TEK)  Product line is high temperature MEAs (Celtec ® P made from PBI-phosphoric acid)  Dedicated a new advanced pilot manufacturing facility in Somerset NJ May 2009. Ribbon-cutting hosted by Dr. Kreimeyer (BASF BoD, right) and attended by various US pubic officials including former NJ Governor Jon Corzine (left) 9/9/2011 3 Multi-layer product of membrane (polybenzimidazole and phosphoric acid), gas diffusion material and catalysts Unique characteristics:  High operating temperature

232

Vapor deposited samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal barrier coatings The rare earth zirconates (M2Zr2O7, M=LaGd) have a low intrinsic thermal conductivity and high temperature phase stability making them attractive candidates for thermal barrier coating conditions and the coating composition, structure, texture, pore morphology, and thermal conductivity

Wadley, Haydn

233

Barriers that impact on the implementation of sustainable design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

page 1 Barriers that impact on the implementation of sustainable design Michelle Hankinson, Amanda of sustainable design and barriers that influence their sustainable design practices. The paper reflects showed that education and experience informs a designer's understanding and values towards sustainable

234

Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan Financial Incentives And Barriers; And  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan Financial Incentives And Barriers; And Other Funding Sources Prepared Summary The goal of this section of the Hawaii Bioenergy Master Plan is to identify and evaluate financial incentives and barriers at points along the bioenergy industry value chain (feedstock production, feedstock

235

Delamination resistance of thermal barrier coatings containing embedded ductile layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-tempera- ture exposure to oxygen, and an outer low thermal conduc- tivity ceramic coating, such as ytrriaDelamination resistance of thermal barrier coatings containing embedded ductile layers Matthew R layers upon thermal cycling delamination failure of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) driven by thickening

Wadley, Haydn

236

Placement of Traffic Barriers on Roadside and Median Slopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the findings obtained from crash tests performed on flat terrain. For barriers placed on roadside and median slopes, vehicle impact height varies depending on the trajectory of the vehicle along the ditch section and lateral offset of the barrier. Thus...

Ferdous, Md Rubiat

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

237

Cooling Energy Measurements of Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the magnitude of the energy savings brought about by installing radiant barriers in the attics of single-family houses. The radiant barrier used for this test was a product...

Levins, W. P.; Karnitz, M. A.; Knight, D. K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Nucleosome positioning by genomic excluding-energy barriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...genomic excluding-energy barriers 10.1073...Vaillant Benjamin Audit Zofia Haftek-Terreau...Sequence motifs and free energies of selected natural and non-natural...174 . 14 Vaillant C Audit B Arneodo A ( 2007...excluding genomic energy barriers Pascale Milani...Vaillant, Benjamin Audit, Zofia Haftek-Terreau...

Pascale Milani; Guillaume Chevereau; Cdric Vaillant; Benjamin Audit; Zofia Haftek-Terreau; Monique Marilley; Philippe Bouvet; Franoise Argoul; Alain Arneodo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies Agency/Company /Organization: UNEP-Risoe Centre Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Topics: Technology characterizations Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual, Training materials Website: uneprisoe.org/ Cost: Free Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies Screenshot References: UNEP-Risoe[1] Logo: Overcoming Barriers to the Transfer and Diffusion of Climate Technologies This guidebook deals with the transfer of proven technologies both between countries and within them. "The purpose of the TNA project is to assist participant developing country

240

Removing Barriers to Innovations: Related Codes and Standards CSI Team  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Removing Barriers to Innovation Removing Barriers to Innovation Related Codes and Standards CSI Team PAM COLE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Building America Technical Update Meeting, April 29-30, 2013, Denver, CO PNNL-SA-95120 Background/History Transformation of U.S. housing markets to favor high- performance homes faces significant challenges, from education to technology to infrastructure and cost barriers. Some of the most difficult challenges involve industry codes and standards that may prevent or slow the innovation process. Building America Research has a history of: Successful market innovations and transformation and overcoming codes and standards barriers. Top 3 Existing Innovations C/S Challenges Thermal Bypass Air Barrier Requirements: Building America research teams effectively

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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241

Reactive sticking coefficients of silane on silicon  

SciTech Connect

Reactive sticking coefficients (RSCs) were measured for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon for a wide range of temperature and flux (pressure) conditions. The data were obtained from deposition rate measurements using molecular beam scattering and a very low pressure cold wall reactor. The RSCs have non-Arrhenius temperature dependences and decreases with increasing flux at low (710/sup 0/) temperatures. A simple model involving dissociative adsorption of silane is consistent with these results. The results are compared with previous studies of the SiH/sub 4//Si(s) reaction.

Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1988-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Cellular-automaton model for reactive systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for constructing a variety of probabilistic lattice-gas cellular automata for chemically reacting systems is described. The microscopic reactive dynamics give rise to a general fourth-order polynomial rate law for the average particle density. The reduction of the microdynamical equations to a discrete or continuous Boltzmann equation is presented. Connection between the linearized Boltzmann equations and a reaction-diffusion macroscopic equation is discussed. As an example of the general formalism a set of cellular automata rules that yield the Schlgl phenomenological model is constructed. Simulation results are presented.

David Dab; Anna Lawniczak; Jean-Pierre Boon; Raymond Kapral

1990-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

243

Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Chemical Reactivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

released and the rate of energy released for a specific reactive chemical. 2.1 DSC DSC is a popular screening tool (safe and fast) and can provide an overall indication of exothermic activity of the chemical being tested. In a DSC, a sample and a... endothermic or exothermic reaction. When the rate of heat generation in the sample exceeds a particular value, the heat supply to the sample is cut off and this additional heat gain is attributed to exothermic activity within the sample.17 From the DSC...

Wang, Qingsheng

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

244

Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850.degree.-1000.degree. C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

Shen, Ming-Shing (Laramie, WY, NJ); Chen, James M. (Rahway, NJ); Yang, Ralph T. (Amherst, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 ``Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core`` problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

IAEA sodium void reactivity benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the IAEA-1 992 Benchmark Calculation of Sodium Void Reactivity Effect in Fast Reactor Core'' problem is evaluated. The proposed design is a large axially heterogeneous oxide-fueled fast reactor as described in Section 2; the core utilizes a sodium plenum above the core to enhance leakage effects. The calculation methods used in this benchmark evaluation are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the calculated core performance results for the benchmark reactor model are presented; and in Section 5, the influence of steel and interstitial sodium heterogeneity effects is estimated.

Hill, R.N.; Finck, P.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

GIS for All: Exploring the Barriers and Opportunities for Underexploited GIS Applications GIS for All: Exploring the Barriers and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GIS for All: Exploring the Barriers and Opportunities for Underexploited GIS Applications GIS for All: Exploring the Barriers and Opportunities for Underexploited GIS Applications by Hao Ye1 , Michael that adoption of GIS technologies still remains relatively low in many sectors. We will explore both the bar

Köbben, Barend

248

CONTAINMENT EVALUATION OF PU-METAL TRANSPORT USING MULTIPLE BARRIERS  

SciTech Connect

A methodology was developed previously by SRNL to show that Al-SNF with cladding breaches can be directly transported in standard casks and maintained within the allowable release rates. This novel approach may be extended to other nuclear material systems. Utilizing an adaptation to the methodology, a containment analysis has been performed for the scenario of non-routine transfer of a damaged 9975 package containing plutonium metal from K-area monitored storage to F-area on the Savannah River Site. A multiple barrier system with each barrier having a defined leakage rate of less than 1 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 3}/sec of air at Standard Temperature and Pressure was analyzed to determine the number of barriers needed to transport the package under normal transportation conditions to meet transportation requirements for containment. The barrier system was analyzed parametrically to achieve a composite system that met the federal requirements for the maximum permissible release rate. The multiple barrier system acts to retard the release of radioactivity. That is, a build-up in the radioactivity release rate occurs with time. For example, a system with three barriers (e.g., sealed plastic barrier) with a total free volume of 4,500 cm{sup 3} could be transported for a total time of up to approximately 10 days with a release rate within the permissible rate. Additional number of barriers, or volume of the barriers, or both, would extend to this period of time. For example, a system with seven barriers with a total free volume of 4,500 cm{sup 3} could be transported for up to 100 days. Plastic bags are one type of barrier used in movement of radioactive materials and capable of achieving a leak rate of 1 x 10{sup -3} cm{sup 3}/sec of air at STP. Low-density polyethylene bags can withstand high temperature (up to 180 C); a barrier thickness of 10 mils should be suitable for the barrier system.

Vinson, D.

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

249

Atmospheric reactivity of gaseous dimethyl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric reactivity of dimethyl sulfate (DMS) with a series of atmospheric species has been investigated. Upper limits to the rate constants for the homogeneous gas-phase reactions of DMS with O{sub 3}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O have been determined by using FTIR spectroscopy and are <1.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}21}, <1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}21}, and <1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}23} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The reactivity of DMS toward ON radicals and Cl atoms has been determined by using relative rate techniques, and the rate constants for those reactions are <5 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} and (4.2 {plus minus} 0.5) {times} 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}, respectively. These rate constants correspond to atmospheric lifetimes ranging from >23 days with respect to reaction with OH radicals to >33 years with respect to reaction with ozone. With the possible exception of its reaction with water, for which the calculated lifetime of DMS is >2 days, these results indicate that the atmospheric fate of DMS is not determined by its homogeneous gas-phase reactions with any of the atmosphere species studied.

Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Andino, J.M.; Ball, J.C. (Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has completed a project to examine fundamental issues that could limit the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC attempted to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience problematic fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive coal-biomass blends. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause increased clinkering or slagging at the grate due to higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start much earlier for biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates, various chlorides, and phosphates. These species in combination with different flue gas temperatures, because of changes in fuel heating value, can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project was to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project were: (1) Modification of an existing pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system. (2) Verification testing of the simulator. (3) Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to determine ash formation and potential fouling mechanisms and to optimize activities in the modified pilot-scale system. (4) Pilot-scale testing in the grate-fired system. The resulting data were used to elucidate ash-related problems during coal-biomass cofiring and offer a range of potential solutions.

Bruce C. Folkedahl; Jay R. Gunderson; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS  

SciTech Connect

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early for biomass fuels compared to the design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides, in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project is to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project are: Modification of an existing EERC pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system; Verification testing of the simulator; Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to determine ash formation and potential fouling mechanisms and to optimize activities in the modified pilot-scale system; and Pilot-scale testing in the grate-fired system. The resulting data will be collected, analyzed, and reported to elucidate ash-related problems during biomass-coal cofiring and offer a range of potential solutions.

Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Hanford prototype-barrier status report: FY 1995  

SciTech Connect

Surface barriers (or covers) have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site as a means to isolate certain waste sites that, for reasons of cost or worker safety or both, may not be exhumed. Surface barriers are intende to isolated the wastes from the accessible environment and to provide long-term protection to future populations that might use the Hanford Site. Currently, no ``proven`` long-term barrier system is available. For this reason, the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface-Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Designs have been proposed to meet the most stringent needs for long-term waste disposal. The objective of the current barrier design is to use natural materials to develop a protective barrier system that isolates wastes for at least 1000 years by limiting water, plant, animal, and human intrusion; and minimizing erosion. The design criteria for water drainage has been set at 0.5 mm/yr. While other design criteria are more qualitative, it is clear that waste isolation for an extended time is the prime objective of the design. Constructibility and performance. are issues that can be tested and dealt with by evaluating prototype designs prior to extensive construction and deployment of covers for waste sites at Hanford.

Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Gilmore, B.G.; Ligotke, M.W.; Link, S.O.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Measurement of VOC reactivities using a photochemical flow reactor  

SciTech Connect

A commercial ambient air monitoring instrument, the Airtrak 2000, has been modified for use as a photochemical flow reactor and used to measure the absolute and incremental reactivity of 18 single test VOCs and the incremental reactivity of six multicomponent VOC mixtures. A flow technique is a useful supplement to traditional static chamber experiments. The static chamber technique involves periodic sampling of an irradiated mixture in a photochemical chamber. Under these conditions, the irradiated mixture is always in transition. Using a flow system, a steady-state condition is established within the flow reactor that is representative, in this case, of the early stages of the smog forming process in the atmosphere. The measurement technique also allows changes in the background chamber reactivity to be monitored and taken into account. The incremental reactivity of 13 of the 18 test compounds measured is compared with previously reported results from a static chamber experiment, and the two data sets are generally in good agreement. The additivity of reactivity was tested by measuring the incremental reactivity of six multicomponent mixtures, the components being compounds measured individually in this study. The measured reactivity of a mixture was compared to that calculated from the sum of the measured reactivity of the mixture`s individual components. The results show that reactivity is additive for the concentration range studied.

Hurley, M.D.; Chang, T.Y.; Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.] [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Reactive Dehydration technology for Production of Fuels and Chemicals...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Catalytic and Reactive Distillation) for compact, inexpensive production of biomass-based chemicals from complex aqueous mixtures. SeparationPurification of Biomass...

255

Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plus OH sign), reactiv- propane ing different gases gases atisoprene (plus sign), propane (star) and propene (triangle).NMHC includes ethane, ethene, propane, propene, i-butane, n-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Reactive Landing of Peptide Ions on Self-Assembled Monolayer...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

were characterized ex situ using time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). We demonstrate that reactive...

257

Probing the structure and reactivity of gaseous ions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Studying ions in the gas phase provides the opportunity to observe their intrinsic structure and reactivity without extraneous perturbations such as solvent effects, aggregation or (more)

Meyer, Matthew Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Chemically Reactive Working Fluids for the Capture and Transport...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Optical Waveguide Coupler Transformers for High-Power Solar Enegy Collection and Transmission Chemically Reactive Working Fluids Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators...

259

Monitoring Single Molecule Reactivity On a Carbon Nanotube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LETTERS Monitoring Single-Molecule Reactivity on a Carbondevice directly transduces single-molecule attachments andoptical methods in single-molecule research. Compared to

Collins, Philip G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Physical Organic Chemistry of Reactive Intermediates | The Ames...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physical Organic Chemistry of Reactive Intermediates The Jenks group specializes in physical organic chemistry, the "how" of organic reactions. Much of the work has centered on...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Chemical Analysis of Complex Organic Mixtures Using Reactive...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Reactive nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry was utilized for the analysis of...

262

Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

263

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloy tunneling barrier Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

through an insulating barrier with magnetic impurities O. Vvra,1,2, Summary: Josephson junction with a tunneling barrier formed by a paramagnetic insulator. We demonstrate......

264

Microsoft Word - IG-0741 Y-12 Barrier Final 101006.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Inspection Report Concerns With Security Barriers at the Y-12 National Security Complex DOE/IG-0741 October 2006 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Inspections and Special Inquiries CONCERNS WITH SECURITY BARRIERS AT THE Y-12 NATIONAL SECURITY COMPLEX TABLE OF CONTENTS OVERVIEW Introduction and Objective 1 Observations and Conclusions 1 DETAILS OF FINDINGS Weapon Ports 2 Observations 2 RECOMMENDATIONS 5 MANAGEMENT COMMENTS 5 INSPECTOR COMMENTS 5 APPENDICES A. Scope and Methodology 8 B. Management Comments 9 Overview Page 1 Concerns with Security Barriers at the Y-12 National Security Complex INTRODUCTION The DOE Office of Inspector General received an allegation that

265

Grid composite for backfill barriers and waste applications  

SciTech Connect

A grid composite for protecting men and longwall mining equipment during longwall shield recovery includes a regular polymer geogrid structure formed by biaxially drawing a continuous sheet of select polypropylene material which is heat bonded to a polyester fabric. The grid composite is secured over caving shields of longwall mining equipment during a longwall mining operation. The polymer grid composite is ideal for waste containment structures, backfill barriers, and silt barriers in construction and mining applications. In waste containment and backfill barriers, the grid composite is used to form a containment structure. It principle function is to contain waste material usually consisting of a liquid with some percentage of solids. 10 figs.

Travis, B.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

266

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

SciTech Connect

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Method for generating a highly reactive plasma for exhaust gas aftertreatment and enhanced catalyst reactivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for non-thermal plasma aftertreatment of exhaust gases the method comprising the steps of providing short risetime (about 40 ps), high frequency (about 5G hz), high power bursts of low-duty factor microwaves sufficient to generate a dielectric barrier discharge and passing a gas to treated through the discharge so as to cause dissociative reduction of the exhaust gases. The invention also includes a reactor for generating the non-thermal plasma.

Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hanson, Gregory R. (Clinton, TN); Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Raridon, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armfield, Jeffrey S. (Upsilanti, MI); Bigelow, Timothy S. (Knoxville, TN); Graves, Ronald L. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Instrumentation @ Catalysis: Reactivity and Structure Group | Chemistry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instrumentation Instrumentation The Catalysis Group at BNL is leading research initiatives into the development of new tools and techniques that focus on the characterization of heterogeneous catalytic reactions and catalysts using imaging, spectroscopy and scattering techniques and integrated combinations of them under reaction conditions to unravel the morphology, chemical and structural properties, of catalysts, respectively. These efforts revolve around the use of synchrotron radiation (NSLS), electrons (CFN) and quantum tunneling tools with particular thrusts into imaging, spectroscopy and scattering. Groups Instrumentation(BNL) Three UHV chambers with diverse instrumentation for surface characterization: LEED, UPS, XPS, AES, TPD, ISS, PM-AP-IRRAS, Reactivity Cell. All the systems include ancillary instrumentation such as sputtering guns and metal evaporators. The IRRAS system was retrofitted with an ambient pressure (AP) cell on top of the UHV system. The sample can be prepared and characterized in UHV and then transfer in vacuum to the AP cell.

269

Review of existing reactive transport software  

SciTech Connect

Simulations of thermal and hydrological evolution following the potential emplacement of a subterranean nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV provide data that suggest the inevitability of dependent, simultaneous chemical evolution in this system. These chemical changes will modify significantly both the magnitude and structure of local porosity and permeability; hence, they will have a dynamic feedback effect on the evolving thermal and hydrological regime. Yet, despite this intimate interdependence of transport and chemical processes, a rigorous quantitative analysis of the post- emplacement environment that incorporates this critical feedback mechanism has not been completed to date. As an initial step in this direction, the present document outlines the fundamental chemical and transport processes that must be accounted for in such an analysis, and reviews the inventory of existing software that encodes these processed in explicitly coupled form. A companion report describes the prioritization of specific capabilities that are needed for modeling post-emplacement reactive transport at Yucca Mountain.

Glassley, W., LLNL

1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

270

Determine Employee Commuting Incentives and Barriers for Greenhouse Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determine Employee Commuting Incentives and Barriers for Greenhouse Determine Employee Commuting Incentives and Barriers for Greenhouse Gas Profile Determine Employee Commuting Incentives and Barriers for Greenhouse Gas Profile October 7, 2013 - 2:23pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 2 Finally, when evaluating a greenhouse gas (GHG) profile, it is important to consider what specific incentives would most influence an employee's decision to adopt an alternative to single-occupancy vehicle commuting and what employees perceive as major barriers to using certain alternatives. Agencies must determine whether they can influence commute behavior changes with the strategies described in the following section. To illustrate, survey data from Worksite B2 in Figure 1 below summarize the reasons why employees drive alone and factors that would motivate them to

271

Through-Barrier Electromagnetic Communication and Sensing: Advances in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Through-Barrier Electromagnetic Communication and Sensing: Advances in Through-Barrier Electromagnetic Communication and Sensing: Advances in Wideband Radio-Wave Communications and ..... Speaker(s): Farid Dowla Date: June 1, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Mary Ann Piette (Complete seminar title is: Through-Barrier Electromagnetic Communication and Sensing: Advances in Wideband Radio-Wave Communications and Radar Imaging, Radio-Frequency (RF) Tags and Tera-Hertz (THz) Standoff Detection Spectroscopy) In many remote sensing problems there is a critical need to detect and image objects through barriers, such as buildings, with high reliability and resolution and at long ranges. A related problem is the wireless communication and geolocation of transceivers in harsh RF environments, such as in urban areas and underground caves, where

272

Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets Title Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6155E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Cappers, Peter, Jason MacDonald, and Charles A. Goldman Date Published 03/2013 Keywords advanced metering infrastructure, aggregators of retail customers, ancillary services, demand response, electric utility regulation, electricity market rules, electricity markets and policy group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department, institutional barriers, market and value, operating reserves, retail electricity providers, retail electricity tariffs, smart grid Attachment Size

273

Commercial Air Barrier Requirements for Insulated Ceilings - Code Notes |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Barrier Requirements for Insulated Ceilings - Code Notes Air Barrier Requirements for Insulated Ceilings - Code Notes The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code requires openings in the building envelope to be sealed to prevent air leakage into and out of the space, including an air barrier at insulation installations. Publication Date: Wednesday, June 22, 2011 cn_commercial_air_barrier_requirements_for_insulated_ceilings.pdf Document Details Prepared by: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program Focus: Compliance Building Type: Commercial Code Referenced: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 2009 IECC Document type: Code Notes Target Audience: Architect/Designer Builder Code Official Contractor Engineer Contacts Web Site Policies U.S. Department of Energy USA.gov Last Updated: Thursday, September 20, 2012 - 17:25

274

Microsoft PowerPoint - Benson EM Webinar Engr Barrier Perf  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

USA (608) 262-7242 chbenson@wisc.edu Barrier Systems for Waste Containment Groundwater Gas collection Cover system monitoring well Waste G d t Native soil Groundwater Leachate...

275

Solar UV radiation reduces the barrier function of human skin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar UV radiation reduces the barrier function...Stanford, CA 94305 The ubiquitous presence of solar UV radiation in human life is essential for...defense against environmental exposures like solar UV radiation, and its effects on UV targets...

Krysta Biniek; Kemal Levi; Reinhold H. Dauskardt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Application of a cubic barrier in exotic decay studies  

SciTech Connect

In exotic decay studies, the branching ratios for spontaneous emissions of fragments heavier than alpha particle have been found to be very sensitive to the shape of the potential barrier. In order to fix the top of barrier correctly, finite range effects are included in our calculations. Experimental Q values for different decay modes are chosen so as to incorporate the shell effects. The shape of the barrier in the overlapping region is approximated by a third-order polynomial suggested by Nix. The cubic barrier is found to be more suitable near the penetrating region. This model is applied to calculate the branching ratios for the spontaneous emission of heavier fragments. The results obtained compare well with those of other theoretical models and experimental values.

Shanmugam, G.; Kamalaharan, B.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Comparison Test for Infection Control Barriers for Construction in Healthcare  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is determined from measured particle count on filter. The results show that an effective barrier manufactured from simple and readily available building supplies stops the transmission of 12-micron dust particles under a standard set of conditions. The test...

Bassett, Aimee

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

278

Sub-barrier capture with quantum diffusion approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the quantum diffusion approach the behavior of capture cross sections and mean-square angular momenta of captured systems are revealed in the reactions with deformed and spherical nuclei at sub-barrier energies. With decreasing bombarding energy under the barrier the external turning point of the nucleus-nucleus potential leaves the region of short-range nuclear interaction and action of friction. Because of this change of the regime of interaction, an unexpected enhancement of the capture cross section is found at bombarding energies far below the Coulomb barrier. This effect is shown its worth in the dependence of mean-square angular momentum on the bombarding energy. From the comparison of calculated capture cross sections and experimental capture or fusion cross sections the importance of quasifission near the entrance channel is demonstrated for the actinidebased reactions and reactions with medium-heavy nuclei at extreme sub-barrier energies.

V. V. Sargsyan; R. A. Kuzyakin; G. G. Adamian; N. V. Antonenko; W. Scheid; H. Q. Zhang

2011-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

279

Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

of thermal bypass air barriers, which led to their inclusion in ENERGY STAR for Homes Version 3 specifications in 2006 and then to inclusion in the 2009 IECC. Since...

280

Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems Addthis 1 of 3 3M has developed a primer-less self-adhered membrane that serves as an air, liquid water, and water vapor...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Fusion dynamics of symmetric systems near barrier energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion cross sections was explained as the lowering of the dynamical fusion barriers within the framework of the improved isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (ImIQMD) model. The numbers of nucleon transfer in the neck region are appreciably dependent on the incident energies, but strongly on the reaction systems. A comparison of the neck dynamics is performed for the symmetric reactions $^{58}$Ni+$^{58}$Ni and $^{64}$Ni+$^{64}$Ni at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. An increase of the ratios of neutron to proton in the neck region at initial collision stage is observed and obvious for neutron-rich systems, which can reduce the interaction potential of two colliding nuclei. The distribution of the dynamical fusion barriers and the fusion excitation functions are calculated and compared them with the available experimental data.

Zhao-Qing Feng; Gen-Ming Jin

2009-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

282

Observations on the JWKB treatment of the quadratic barrier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations on the JWKB treatment of the quadratic barrier Hujun Shen1 and Harris J. Silverstone2 June, 2006. Accepted 11 July, 2006. #12;238 Hujun Shen and Harris J. Silverstone where ±x0 = ± -2E

Silverstone, Harris J.

283

February 5, 2014 Webinar - The Cementitious Barriers Partnership...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership Toolbox, Version 2.0 David Kosson et al. (Vanderbilt UniversityCRESP) Agenda - 252014 P&RA CoP Webinar Presentation - Tools...

284

TANK FARM INTERIM SURFACE BARRIER MATERIALS AND RUNOFF ALTERNATIVES STUDY  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

HOLM MJ

2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

285

Simulation, design, and testing of a portable concrete median barrier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

highway departments are currently upgrading or expanding their major highways. This construction near a zone w1th large traff1c volumes travelling at h1gh speed creates a dangerous conflict between vehicles and workmen. To protect the vehicle occupants... Currently in Use Pacae 2 Typical Design of a Portable Barrier 3 Idealized Model of CMB System 4 Joint Spring Moment-Differential Rotation Relationship 5 Location of Vehicle Impact Force 13 Along Barrier 6 Adjustment Coefficient for Translational...

Walker, Kenneth Charles

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

286

Band Tunneling through Double Barrier in Bilayer Graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By taking into account the full four band energy spectrum, we calculate the transmission probability and conductance of electrons across symmetric and asymmetric double potential barrier with a confined interlayer potential difference in bilayer graphene. For energies less than the interlayer coupling \\gamma_{1}, E \\gamma_{1}, we obtain four possible ways for transmission resulting from the two propagating modes. We compute the associated transmission probabilities as well as their contribution to the conductance, study the effect of the double barrier geometry.

Hasan A. Alshehab; Hocine Bahlouli; Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Ahmed Jellal

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

287

Structural and safety characteristics and warrants for highway traffic barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ross Highway traffic barriers are highway appurtenances that provide vehicle occupants with a relative degree of protection from roadside hazards and from errant vehicles encroaching across a median. The six basic types of traffic barr1ers are roads... are decision criteria that 1dentify sites along highways that need traff1c barrier installations. Structural and safety character- istics of the barr1ers refer to the impact performance, the structural integrity, and the safety of the vehicle occupants upon...

Kohutek, Terry Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

288

Analysis of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using Mathematical Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center, Cape Canaveral, FL, January 1988. 3. Vilkes, K.E. and D.V. Yarbrough, "Radiant Barrier Research Plan," Draft Report, ORNL/CON-256, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, April 1988. 4. ASHRAE Aandbook of Fundamentals, American... Measurements of Single-Family Houses with Attics Containing Radiant Barriers," Final Report, ORNL/CON-200, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, July 1986. 8. Cummings, J. B., "Central Air Condi tioner Impact Upon Infiltration Rates in Florida...

Fairey, P.; Swami, M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Properties and stability of a Texas barrier beach inlet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have caused the filling of the marshy lowlands near Mitchell Cut. Such depositional patterns are likely to have resulted in the requirement that a more efficient location for the exchange of bay and gulf water be established, As indicated... OP A TEXAS BARRIER BEACH INLET (August 1971) Curtis Mason, B. A. , Oregon State University; M. S. , Texas A6M University; Directed by: Dr. Robert M. Sorensen An environmental study was conducted at Brawn Cedar Cut, a natural unstable barrier...

Mason, Curtis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

290

A Learning-Based Approach to Reactive Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Terms--Reactive security, risk management, attack graphs, online learning, adversarial learning, game vulnerability is plugged, CISOs typically perform a cost- benefit analysis to identify which risks to address of reactive strategies in an economic model of the CISO's security cost-benefit trade- offs. Unlike previously

Song, Dawn

291

A Reactive Measurement Framework Mark Allman and Vern Paxson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Reactive Measurement Framework Mark Allman and Vern Paxson International Computer Science Institute Abstract. Often when assessing complex network behavior a single measure- ment is not enough for thinking about "measurement" as a process rather than an event. We introduce reactive measurement (REM

Paxson, Vern

292

Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and absolute contributions of nitric acid (HNO3) and NOx (nitric oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) to totalTropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest A thesis. Steven C. Wofsy Cassandra Volpe Horii Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition

293

A Reactive Control Approach for Pipeline Inspection with an AUV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Reactive Control Approach for Pipeline Inspection with an AUV Pedro K. Paim, Bruno Jouvencel and research activities, performing tasks such as survey, inspection of sub-sea pipelines and object recovery of mission. This paper proposes a reactive control approach for pipeline following by a torpedo- like

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

From Teleo-Reactive specifications to architectural components: A model-driven approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Teleo-Reactive approach designed by N.J. Nilsson offers a high-level programming model that permits the development of reactive systems, such as robotic vehicles. Teleo-Reactive programs are written in a manner that allows engineers to define the ... Keywords: Component-based software development, Model-driven software development, Reactive systems, Robotics, Teleo-Reactive programs

Pedro SNchez; Diego Alonso; Jos Miguel Morales; Pedro Javier Navarro

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Ocean Barrier Layers Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification  

SciTech Connect

Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

296

Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP): Training and Release of CBP Toolbox Software, Version 1.0 - 13480  

SciTech Connect

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the Office of Tank Waste Management within the Office of Environmental Management of U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that improve understanding and predictions of the long-term hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program are intended to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to or longer than 100 years for operating facilities and longer than 1,000 years for waste management purposes. CBP software tools were made available to selected DOE Office of Environmental Management and field site users for training and evaluation based on a set of important degradation scenarios, including sulfate ingress/attack and carbonation of cementitious materials. The tools were presented at two-day training workshops held at U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Savannah River, and Hanford included LeachXS{sup TM}/ORCHESTRA, STADIUM{sup R}, and a CBP-developed GoldSim Dashboard interface. Collectively, these components form the CBP Software Toolbox. The new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency leaching test methods based on the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) were also presented. The CBP Dashboard uses a custom Dynamic-link library developed by CBP to couple to the LeachXS{sup TM}/ORCHESTRA and STADIUM{sup R} codes to simulate reactive transport and degradation in cementitious materials for selected performance assessment scenarios. The first day of the workshop introduced participants to the software components via presentation materials, and the second day included hands-on tutorial exercises followed by discussions of enhancements desired by participants. Tools were revised based on feedback obtained during the workshops held from April through June 2012. The resulting improved CBP Software Toolbox, including evaluation versions of and LeachXS{sup TM}/ORCHESTRA and STADIUM{sup R} has been made available to workshop and selected other participants for further assessment. Inquiries about future workshops and requests for access to the Toolbox software can be made via the CBP web site [1]. (authors)

Brown, K.G.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.C.; Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, School of Engineering, CRESP, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)] [Vanderbilt University, School of Engineering, CRESP, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Flach, G.; Langton, C.; Smith, F.G. III; Burns, H. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Van der Sloot, H. [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy, Dorpsstraat 216, 1721BV Langedijk (Netherlands)] [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy, Dorpsstraat 216, 1721BV Langedijk (Netherlands); Meeussen, J.C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Petten (Netherlands)] [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Petten (Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies, Inc., Quebec (Canada)] [SIMCO Technologies, Inc., Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P.; Suttora, L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D.; Fuhrmann, M.; Philip, J. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Early maturation processes in coal. Part 2: Reactive dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field on Morwell Brown coal structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Early maturation processes in coal. Part 2: Reactive dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field on Morwell Brown coal structures Elodie Salmon a , Adri C.T. van Duin b , François Lorant Brown coal using the ReaxFF reactive force field. We find that these reactive MD simulations

Goddard III, William A.

299

Verification of the integrity of barriers using gas diffusion  

SciTech Connect

In-situ barrier materials and designs are being developed for containment of high risk contamination as an alternative to immediate removal or remediation. The intent of these designs is to prevent the movement of contaminants in either the liquid or vapor phase by long-term containment, essentially buying time until the contaminant depletes naturally or a remediation can be implemented. The integrity of the resultant soil-binder mixture is typically assessed by a number of destructive laboratory tests (leaching, compressive strength, mechanical stability with respect to wetting and freeze-thaw cycles) which as a group are used to infer the likelihood of favorable long-term performance of the barrier. The need exists for a minimally intrusive yet quantifiable methods for assessment of a barrier`s integrity after emplacement, and monitoring of the barrier`s performance over its lifetime. Here, the authors evaluate non-destructive measurements of inert-gas diffusion (specifically, SF{sub 6}) as an indicator of waste-form integrity. The goals of this project are to show that diffusivity can be measured in core samples of soil jet-grouted with Portland cement, validate the experimental method through measurements on samples, and to calculate aqueous diffusivities from a series of diffusion measurements. This study shows that it is practical to measure SF{sub 6} diffusion rates in the laboratory on samples of grout (Portland cement and soil) typical of what might be used in a barrier. Diffusion of SF{sub 6} through grout (Portland cement and soil) is at least an order of magnitude slower than through air. The use of this tracer should be sensitive to the presence of fractures, voids, or other discontinuities in the grout/soil structure. Field-scale measurements should be practical on time-scales of a few days.

Ward, D.B. [SPECTRA Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, C.V. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies Dept.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film.It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered.

H Bahre; K Bahroun; H Behm; S Steves; P Awakowicz; M B?ke; Ch Hopmann; J Winter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Reactive sticking coefficients of silane on silicon  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the reaction of room-temperature silane and disilane on a hot polycrystalline silicon surface using both a collision-free molecular beam and a very low pressure CVD cell. Reactive sticking coefficients were obtained from deposition rate data over a wide range of temperatures and silane (disilane) fluxes. The RSCs are substantially less than one, ranging from 6 x 10/sup -5/ to 4 x 10/sup -2/. For silane we observed curved Arrhenius plots with slopes decreasing from approx.60 kcal mol/sup -1/ at low temperatures to approx.2 kcal mol/sup -1/ at higher temperatures. The RSCs are independent of flux (pressure) at 1040/sup 0/C, but vary as flux to the approx.-1/2 power at 710/sup 0/C. A model comprised of a dissociative adsorption mechanism with competing associative desorption and reaction was found to give reasonable agreement. For disilane, we observed RSCs that were roughly ten times higher than those for silane. We also observed a curved Arrhenius plot and a flux dependence at 710/sup 0/C for disilane. 22 refs., 5 figs.

Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

E-Print Network 3.0 - ameliorating reactive oxygen Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

structure and surface relaxation Summary: reactivity of each type of oxygen the adsorption of hydrogen over different oxygen sites is studied. Full... oxygen is the reactive...

303

Pertechnetate (TcO4-) reduction by reactive ferrous iron forms...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reduction by reactive ferrous iron forms in naturally anoxic, redox transition zone sediments from the Pertechnetate (TcO4-) reduction by reactive ferrous iron forms in naturally...

304

Metal-Pyrrolide Complexes in Three-fold Symmetry: Synthesis, Structure, Reactivity and Magnetism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structure, Reactivity and Magnetism by William Hill Harman AStructure, Reactivity and Magnetism by William Hill Harmanlost time. Dave taught me magnetism and what it takes to win

Harman, William Hill

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of iridium complexes bearing the ligand diphenylphosphidoboratabenzene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The synthesis, structure, and reactivity properties of three iridium square planar complexes bearing the anionic phosphine ligand diphenylphosphidoboratabenzene (DPB) are described. Reactivity studies show a rate enhancement ...

Arizpe, Luis (Luis Alfredo)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species andBactericidal...

307

Novel ex situMgB2 barrier for  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The in situ technique for producing MgB2 conductors consists of filling a mixture of Mg powder and B powder into a tube, deformation to the shape of the conductor, and reaction at the end of the process. To make tapes by the in situ method, a low cost and ductile sheath material is needed. Unfortunately precursor powder partially reacts with a lot of materials, such as Cu, Fe and Ni, which can be used as a sheath. In order to produce cheap, high-performance MgB2 conductors a barrier able to prevent this reaction is needed. In this study ex situ MgB2 is used as this barrier. This paper compares the effectiveness of the barrier in preventing reaction in Fe and Cu tapes heat treated under ambient pressure and under high gas pressure conditions. It was found that this barrier is effective at preventing reaction between Fe and B, and sufficient to prevent CuMg reaction in the case of high pressure sintering. This novel technique allows one to obtain good Je values in a parallel field because of the possibility of achieving a high superconductor filling factor (in excess of 60%), which is usually very challenging in powder in tube (PIT) composite conductors with a diffusion barrier.

A Kario; A Morawski; W Hler; M Herrmann; C Rodig; M Schubert; K Nenkov; B Holzapfel; L Schultz; B A Glowacki; S C Hopkins

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Wind Power Reliability: Breaking Down a Barrier | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wind Power Reliability: Breaking Down a Barrier Wind Power Reliability: Breaking Down a Barrier Wind Power Reliability: Breaking Down a Barrier June 25, 2010 - 12:16pm Addthis EnerNex Corporation is developing documentation and validating generic wind turbine and plant models that test reliability. | File photo EnerNex Corporation is developing documentation and validating generic wind turbine and plant models that test reliability. | File photo Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE The steady increase of wind power on the grid presents new challenges for power system operators charged with making sure the grid stays up and running. "We need to ensure that we are going down a path that will lead to better reliability [with wind power]," said Bob Zavadil, an executive vice

309

Energy Department Announces New Initiative to Remove Barriers for Industry  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Initiative to Remove Barriers for Initiative to Remove Barriers for Industry to Work with National Labs, Commercialize Technology Energy Department Announces New Initiative to Remove Barriers for Industry to Work with National Labs, Commercialize Technology December 8, 2011 - 12:30pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - As part of President Obama's commitment to helping U.S businesses create jobs and strengthen their competitiveness by speeding up the transfer of federal research and development from the laboratory to the marketplace, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman today announced a new pilot initiative to reduce some of the hurdles that prevent innovative companies from working with the Department of Energy's national laboratories. The new Agreements for Commercializing Technology

310

Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered Barrier  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Evaluation Disposal Systems Evaluations and Tool Development - Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Evaluation The engineered barrier system (EBS) plays a key role in the long-term isolation of nuclear waste in geological repository environments. This report focuses on the progress made in the evaluation of EBS design concepts, assessment of clay phase stability at repository-relevant conditions, thermodynamic database development for cement and clay phases, and THMC coupled phenomena along with the development of tools and methods to examine these processes. This report also documents the advancements of the Disposal System Evaluation Framework (DSEF) for the development of

311

Photon induced tunneling of electron through a graphene electrostatic barrier  

SciTech Connect

The influence of an external intense laser field on the tunneling transport (ballistic) of the Dirac fermions through a monolayer graphene electrostatic barrier is studied in the framework of the Floquet approach for a continuous wave, linearly polarized, monochromatic laser. The Klein tunneling is shown to be suppressed by the irradiation of a strong laser field, arising due to breaking of chiral symmetry. The symmetric nature of the field free angular transmission spectrum around the normal to the well-barrier interface is destroyed due to the additional coupling between the pseudo-spin and the time dependent vector potential. The energy distribution of the tunneling spectrum displays Fano resonance which is absent for a laser assisted conventional electrostatic barrier but similar to the case of quantum well structures, providing an optical tool to identify field free quasi bound states inside the graphene nanostructures.

Biswas, R. [Department of Physics, P.K. College, Contai, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal 721401 (India)] [Department of Physics, P.K. College, Contai, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal 721401 (India); Sinha, C. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)] [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

312

Characteristics Of A Dielectric Barrier Discharge In Atmospheric Air  

SciTech Connect

Parallel plate dielectric barrier discharges consisting of two electrodes with glass (epsilon{sub r} = 7.5) and alumina (epsilon{sub r} = 9.0) as the dielectric barrier were constructed. The system is powered by a variable 20 kV high voltage supply which is capable of delivering unipolar voltage pulses at frequency of 0.1-2.5 kHz and sinusoidal voltages at 6.5 kHz and above. At atmospheric pressure, the discharges exhibit either diffuse or filamentary appearance depending on parameters which include the series capacitance established by the electrodes with the dielectric barrier and varying air gap, dielectric material, and frequency of the supply voltages. This DBD system is built for the study of bacterial sterilization.

Lai, C. K.; Chin, O. H. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Thong, K. L. [Microbiology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

313

Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation  

SciTech Connect

This analysis examines activities associated with the installation of isolation barriers in the K Basins at the Hanford Reservation. This revision adds evaluation of barrier drops on stored fuel and basin floor, identifies fuel which will be moved and addresses criticality issues with sludge. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications.

Meichle, R.H.

1994-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

314

Special Presentation: Key Findings from the Barrier Immune Radio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Special Presentation: Key Findings from the Barrier Immune Radio Special Presentation: Key Findings from the Barrier Immune Radio Communications Project Speaker(s): Francis Rubinstein Girish Ghatikar Peter Haugen Date: November 29, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 The Barrier Immune Radio Communications (BIRC) Project was established in January 2007 by the Demand Response Emerging Technologies Program (DRETD) to identify radio frequency technologies that could enable the widespread deployment of Demand Response strategies in buildings. Researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will present the key findings from this project in a one-hour presentation. Researchers found that several of the RF technologies tested at LBNL's Molecular Foundry building were able to provide sufficiently

315

Photo of the Week: Reactive Ion Etching | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reactive Ion Etching Reactive Ion Etching Photo of the Week: Reactive Ion Etching October 17, 2013 - 1:26pm Addthis Have you ever heard of Laue lenses? These multilayer lenses are used to focus high-intensity x-ray beams to show the details of nano material structures. In this photo, the drop-like domes were carved through a process called reactive ion etching, which produced the striped bubbles you see in the Laue lens. The prototype in this image helped scientists perfect the process of creating lenses so precise that scientists are able to focus x-rays to within a single nanometer. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory. Have you ever heard of Laue lenses? These multilayer lenses are used to focus high-intensity x-ray beams to show the details of nano material

316

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species James F. Wishart In "Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospects" Rogers, R. D. and Seddon, K. R. , Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 856, Ch. 31, pp. 381-395, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2003. (ISBN 0-84123-856-1) [Information about the book] Abstract: An understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is important for development of their applications in radioactive material processing and for the application of pulse radiolysis techniques to the general study of chemical reactivity in ionic liquids. The distribution of primary radiolytic species and their reactivities determine the yields of ultimate products and the radiation stability of a particular ionic liquid. This chapter introduces some principles of radiation chemistry and the

317

Detoxification of hydrolysate by reactive-extraction for generating biofuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We introduce a reactive extraction to detoxify hydrolysate before fermentation to biofuels. In the selection of diluents, n-octanol showed the highest removal yield of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulini...

Gwi-Taek Jeong; Sung-Koo Kim; Don-Hee Park

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Cooperative Strategies and Reactive Search: A Hybrid Model Proposal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cooperative strategies and reactive search are very promising techniques for solving hard optimization problems, since they reduce human intervention required to set up a method when the resolution of an unknown instance is needed. However, as far as ...

Antonio D. Masegosa; Franco Mascia; David Pelta; Mauro Brunato

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Mechanisms of Photochemistry and Reactive Oxygen Production by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

photosensitizer that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of light; however, its properties medical and environmental contexts as well as the potential applications implied for industrial or water of transferring light energy to chemical oxidation potential in theformof

Alvarez, Pedro J.

320

Reactivity of the Quinone Methide of Butylated hydroxytoluene in Solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BHT is a common antioxidant in pharmaceutical formulations and when oxidized it forms a quinone methide (QM). QM is a highly reactive electrophilic species which can undergo nucleophilic addition. This research investigated ...

Willcockson, Maren Gulsrud

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The Safe Storage Study for Autocatalytic Reactive Chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) report, Improving Reactive Hazard Management, there are 37 out of 167 accidents, which occurred in a storage tank or a storage area. This fact demonstrates that thermal runaway...

Liu, Lijun

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

322

Reactive Power Compensation Strategy of DGIF Wind Park  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, two different wind park reactive power compensation strategies for the DFIG wind park connected to the sub-transmission level are proposed. Except considering DFIG wind turbines as dynamic reacti...

JingJing Zhao; Yang Fu; DongDong Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Evolution of Memory in Reactive Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the context of evolution: how reactive agents could have evolved into cognitive ones with internalized memory? This study strives to find an answer to the question by simulating neuroevolution on artificial neural networks, with the hypothesis...

Chung, Ji Ryang

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

324

Reactive Support and Voltage Control Service: Key Issues and Challenges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactive Support and Voltage Control Service: Key Issues and Challenges George Gross^, Paolo of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, e-mail gross@uiuc.edu ° Dipartimento di Ingegneria

Gross, George

325

Analytical methods for determining the reactivity of pyrochemical salts  

SciTech Connect

Pyrochemical processes used for the purification of plutonium have generated quantities of residue that contain varying amounts of reactive metals such as potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium. These residues are currently considered hazardous and are being managed under RCRA because of the reactivity characteristic. This designation is based solely on process knowledge. Currently there is no approved procedure for determining the reactivity of a solid with water. A method is being developed to rapidly evaluate the reactivity of pyrochemical salts with water by measuring the rate of hydrogen generation. The method was initially tested with a magnesium containing pyrochemical salt. A detection limit of approximately 0.004 g of magnesium was established. A surrogate molten salt extraction residue was also tested. Extrapolation of test data resulted in a hydrogen generation rate of 4.4 mg/(g min).

Phillips, A.G.; Stakebake, J.L.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Reactive oxygen species: a breath of life or death?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AP1, activator protein-1; ODD, oxygen-dependent degradationSignaling response when oxygen levels decrease (Fig. 1C;3. Halliwell B. Reactive oxygen species in living sys- tems:

Fruehauf, John P; Meyskens, Frank L Jr

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Local Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the re...

Turitsyn, Konstantin S; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Assessing low power reactivity levels in subcritical CANDU reactors  

SciTech Connect

A new technique has been developed for monitoring slow reactivity changes in Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) nuclear reactors during low power operation, following a sustained period of high power operation. The power doubling halving worth (PDHW) test tracks slow reactivity changes by evaluating the reactivity perturbation required by the power regulating system to halve and double reactor power over time. During low power operation of a CANDU reactor, the PDHW test is used to monitor the decay of the photoneutron precursors, so that the reactor power can be lowered using a preset amount of reactivity. The PDHW test is described in this paper and is validated by using computer simulations and operating data from a CANDU reactor.

Teare, S.W. [Corporation of the City of Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)] [Corporation of the City of Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Shanes, F.C. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hersey, M.W. [Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, Ontario (Canada)] [Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, Ontario (Canada)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

(Electronic structure and reactivities of transition metal clusters)  

SciTech Connect

The following are reported: theoretical calculations (configuration interaction, relativistic effective core potentials, polyatomics, CASSCF); proposed theoretical studies (clusters of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Os, Ru; transition metal cluster ions; transition metal carbide clusters; bimetallic mixed transition metal clusters); reactivity studies on transition metal clusters (reactivity with H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, hydrocarbons; NO and CO chemisorption on surfaces). Computer facilities and codes to be used, are described. 192 refs, 13 figs.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Design features of a cablebollard vehicle barrier system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design features of the stand-alone cablebollard vehicle barrier system (Cable-Bollard VBS) developed for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant (VY) to meet the design goals of the recent 10 CFR Part 73 rule changes are discussed. The design is based on the application of fundamental engineering principles to a dynamic system, recognizing that vehicle impact on a cable system is fundamentally different from vehicle impact on a bollard or other hard barrier. As such, rigorous attention is paid to cable anchor design and performance.

Gordon S. Bjorkman; Steven P. Harris

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Hanford prototype-barrier status report FY 1996  

SciTech Connect

A prototype surface barrier is being evaluated as part of a treatability study at the 200-BP-1 Operable Unit in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Tests include the application of irrigation water to the northern half of the barrier and subsequent measurement of water balance, wind and water erosion, subsidence, plant establishment,a nd plant and animal intrusion. The tests are designed to evaluate both irrigated and nonirrigated sideslope and vegetated surfaces over a period of 3 years. This report documents findings from the second year of testing.

Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Gilmore, B.G.; Link, S.O.; Dennis, G.W.; O`Neil, T.K.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Cathode fall measurement in a dielectric barrier discharge in helium  

SciTech Connect

A method based on the zero-length voltage extrapolation is proposed to measure cathode fall in a dielectric barrier discharge. Starting, stable, and discharge-maintaining voltages were measured to obtain the extrapolation zero-length voltage. Under our experimental conditions, the zero-length voltage gave a cathode fall of about 185 V. Based on the known thickness of the cathode fall region, the spatial distribution of the electric field strength in dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric helium is determined. The strong cathode fall with a maximum field value of approximately 9.25 kV/cm was typical for the glow mode of the discharge.

Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)] [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Development of a low-profile portable concrete barrier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A low-profile portable concrete barrier (PCB) has been developed for use in low-speed (approximately 45 mph [73 km/h] or less) work zones. The purpose of the low-profile barrier is to shield the work zone and redirect errant vehicles while.... SEQUENTIAL PHOTOGRAPHS OF CRASH TESTS APPENDIX D. ACCELEROMETER TRACES AND PLOTS OF ROLL, PITCH AND YAW RATES APPENDIX E. TEST VEHICLE PROPERTIES VITA Page 6 8 8 10 10 13 13 17 18 19 20 24 29 29 41 50 52 53 63 68 73 82 85 LIST...

Guidry, Todd Randall

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

334

Market and Policy Barriers to Deployment of Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

There has recently been resurgent interest in energy storage, due to a number of developments in the electricity industry. Despite this interest, very little storage, beyond some small demonstration projects, has been deployed recently. While technical issues, such as cost, device efficiency, and other technical characteristics are often listed as barriers to storage, there are a number of non-technical and policy-related issues. This paper surveys some of these main barriers and proposes some potential research and policy steps that can help address them. While the discussion is focused on the United States, a number of the findings and observations may be more broadly applicable.

Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.; Jenkin, T.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow  

SciTech Connect

Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described.

Phillips, S.J.; Stewart, W.E.; Alexander, R.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McLaughlin, T.J. [Bovay Northwest Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 Time-Scale Analysis for Reactive Deposition of Ozone via Passive Reactive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 Time-Scale Analysis for Reactive Deposition) homogeneous reactions with indoor pollutants. The #12;Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 336 latter

Siegel, Jeffrey

337

Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers  

SciTech Connect

More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pump systems (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pump or Geo-Exchange systems, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national energy and climate strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE s request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential and other benefits, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in a report along with conclusions and recommendations. This paper summarizes the key information from the report.

Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

File:EIA-PRB-N-GAS.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Basin, Northern Part By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Basin, Northern Part By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(6,600 × 5,100 pixels, file size: 13.87 MB, MIME type: application/pdf) Description Powder River Basin, Northern Part By 2001 Gas Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F. Morehouse; Jack Perrin; Robert F. King Related Technologies Oil, Natural Gas Creation Date 2005-09-01 Extent Regional Countries United States UN Region Northern America States Montana, Wyoming File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 18:33, 20 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 18:33, 20 December 2010 6,600 × 5,100 (13.87 MB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated bot upload

339

File:EIA-PRB-S-BOE.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Powder River Basin, Southern Part By 2001 BOE Reserve Class Powder River Basin, Southern Part By 2001 BOE Reserve Class Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(6,600 × 5,100 pixels, file size: 12.92 MB, MIME type: application/pdf) Description Powder River Basin, Southern Part By 2001 BOE Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F. Morehouse; Jack Perrin; Robert F. King Related Technologies Oil, Natural Gas Creation Date 2005-09-01 Extent Regional Countries United States UN Region Northern America States Montana, Wyoming File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 18:34, 20 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 18:34, 20 December 2010 6,600 × 5,100 (12.92 MB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated bot upload

340

The roller coaster formerly known as the PRB  

SciTech Connect

The article examines the reason for the recent spike in prices of Powder River Basin coal. Ultimately this is tied to railroad performance. 4 figs.

Medine, E.S.; Schwartz, S. [Energy Ventures Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

File:EIA-PRB-S-LIQ.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

S-LIQ.pdf S-LIQ.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Powder River Basin, Southern Part By 2001 Liquids Reserve Class Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(6,600 × 5,100 pixels, file size: 12.89 MB, MIME type: application/pdf) Description Powder River Basin, Southern Part By 2001 Liquids Reserve Class Sources Energy Information Administration Authors Samuel H. Limerick; Lucy Luo; Gary Long; David F. Morehouse; Jack Perrin; Robert F. King Related Technologies Oil, Natural Gas Creation Date 2005-09-01 Extent Regional Countries United States UN Region Northern America States Montana, Wyoming File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 18:35, 20 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 18:35, 20 December 2010 6,600 × 5,100 (12.89 MB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated bot upload

342

Quasi-bound levels, transmission and resonant tunneling in heterostructures with double and multi rectangular, trapezoidal, triangular barriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work quasi-bound level energies, energy dependence of the transmission coefficients and negative differential resistance properties are studied in double and multi-barrier structures. Various barrier types such as rectangular, trapezoidal and ... Keywords: Double-barrier structures, Peak to valley ratio, Resonant tunneling diodes, Trapezoidal barrier, Triangular barrier

F. Nutku

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Research on fuzzy logic based dynamic boundary voltage and reactive power integrated control method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aiming at the existing problems of conventional substation voltage and reactive power integrated control method, a new fuzzy logic based dynamic reactive power boundary voltage and reactive power integrated control method is proposed. Fuzzy logic control ... Keywords: dynamic boundary, fuzzy logic, reactive power, voltage

Zigang Xu; Fei Wang

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Development and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Science Reactive Plume  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for plume rise, plume visibility, and stack opacity (5). Examples of other reactive plume models include

Zhang, Yang

345

Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-1335E Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California A.T. Mc of Global Energy Partners. This work described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Demand Response in California. PIER Industrial/Agricultural/Water EndUse Energy Efficiency Program. CEC

346

Barriers to Instructional Change Action research and professional development in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Tilghman and W. B. Wood, "Education: Scientific teaching," Science. 304 (5670), 521- 522 (2004). http perspective," (Poster presented at the Foundations and Frontiers in Physics Education Research Conference, Bar1 Barriers to Instructional Change Action research and professional development in math, science

Henderson, Charles

347

Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California Geothermal Resources Development Account http://www.energy.ca.gov/geothermal/ grda.html May 2011 The Issue Ground source heat pumps can far made little impact in California. Estimates are that adoption of ground source heat pumps

348

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tech materials BOM-based cost barriers ­ 90% of stack cost Cost volatility - Platinum $500/Oz - $2 * present CCM has 265 cm2 active area Work initiated on scalable AMFC stack design & development Lab status #12;Processes in PEM and AEM Membrane Fuel Cells Anode: H2 +2OH- = 2H2O +2e Cathode: 2e + 0.5O2

349

Experimental investigation of a horizontal flexible-membrane wave barrier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of experiments is conducted in a two-dimensional glass-walled wave tank to confirm numerical solutions based on two-dimensional linear hydro-elastic theory for a horizontal flexible-membrane wave barrier. The model test is performed by a...

Choi, Hae-Jin

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

105K West Isolation Barrier Acceptance Test results  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to report and interpret the findings of the isolation barrier acceptance tests performed in 105KW/100K. The tests were performed in accordance with the test plan and acceptance test procedure. The test report contains the test data. This document compares the test data against the criteria. A discussion of the leak rate analytical characterization describes how the flow characteristics flow rate will be determined using the test data from the test report. Two modes of water loss were considered; basin and/or discharge chute leakage, and evaporation. An initial test established baseline leakage data and instrumentation performance. Test 2 evaluated the sealing performance of the isolation barrier by inducing an 11 in. (27.9 cm) level differential across the barrier. The leak rate at this 11 in. (27.9 cm) level is extrapolated to the 16 ft. (4.9 m) level differential postulated in the DBE post seismic event. If the leak rate, adjusted for evaporation and basin leakage (determined from Test 1), is less than the SAR limit of 1,500 gph (5,680 lph) at a 16 ft (4.9 m) level differential, the barriers pass the acceptance test.

McCracken, K.J. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Irwin, J.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

351

Development of a small selenium barrier layer photovoltaic cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

anther in gsetsfs1 to the Qspartuent of Hgeiea of %s 4griea1tnrn1 ang gee~ CoLhegs ?f %arse for making it passive te esrry ?n the rsesareh in desaXstdng ths ana11 eslenbin barrier leper photesektals sally te Prafsaesr 5 g, Vase@ for esggaating...

Pruett, George Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

352

The development of surface barriers at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Engineered barriers are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth`s surface at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Much of the waste that would be disposed of by in-place stabilization currently is located in relatively shallow subsurface structures such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via the following pathways: plant, animal, and human intrusion; water infiltration; erosion; and the exhalation of noxious gases. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed to protect wastes disposed of ``in place`` from the transport pathways identified previously (Figure 1). The protective barrier consists of a variety of different materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt, etc.) placed in layers to form an above-grade mound directly over the waste zone. Surface markers are being considered for placement around the periphery of the waste sites to inform future generations of the nature and hazards of the buried wastes. In addition, throughout the protective barrier, subsurface markers could be placed to warn any inadvertent human intruders of the dangers of the buried wastes (Figure 2).

Wing, N.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND RELEVANCE TO THE DOE COMPLEX  

SciTech Connect

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) was initiated to reduce risk and uncertainties in the performance assessments that directly impact U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental cleanup and closure programs. The CBP is supported by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) and has been specifically addressing the following critical EM program needs: (i) the long-term performance of cementitious barriers and materials in nuclear waste disposal facilities and (ii) increased understanding of contaminant transport behavior within cementitious barrier systems to support the development and deployment of adequate closure technologies. To accomplish this, the CBP has two initiatives: (1) an experimental initiative to increase understanding of changes in cementitious materials over long times (> 1000 years) over changing conditions and (2) a modeling initiative to enhance and integrate a set of computational tools validated by laboratory and field experimental data to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. In FY10, the CBP developed the initial phase of an integrated modeling tool that would serve as a screening tool which could help in making decisions concerning disposal and tank closure. The CBP experimental programs are underway to validate this tool and provide increased understanding of how CM changes over time and under changing conditions. These initial CBP products that will eventually be enhanced are anticipated to reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the DOE assessment process. These tools have application to low activity waste forms, high level waste tank closure, D&D and entombment of major nuclear facilities, landfill waste acceptance criteria, and in-situ grouting and immobilization of vadose zone contamination. This paper summarizes the recent work provided by the CBP to support DOE operations and regulatory compliance and the accomplishments over the past 2 years. Impacts of this work include: (1) a forum for DOE-NRC technical exchange, (2) material characterization to support PA predictions, (3) reducing uncertainty in PA predictions, (4) establishing base case performance to improve PA predictions, and (5) improving understanding and quantification of moisture and contaminant transport used in PAs. Additional CBP accomplishments include: sponsorship of a national test bed workshop to obtain collaboration in establishing the path forward in obtaining actual data to support future predictions on cementitious barrier performance evaluations, and participation in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Cooperative Research Project on the use of cementitious barriers for low-level radioactive waste treatment and disposal.

Burns, H.; Langton, C.; Flach, G.; Kosson, D.

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

StructureDiffusion Relationship of Magnetron-Sputtered WTi Barriers Used in Indium Interconnections  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tungsten-titanium (WTi) thin films are known as potential adhesion ... and diffusion barriers. The barrier efficiency of WTi thin films against indium (In) diffusion...insitu...annealing. Specific multilayered s...

A. Le Priol; E. Le Bourhis; P.-O. Renault; P. Muller

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

E-Print Network 3.0 - altered blood-brain barrier Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

blood-brain barrier Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: altered blood-brain barrier Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Applications are...

356

Layer-by-layer Assembly of Nanobrick Wall Ultrathin Transparent Gas Barrier Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin layers with high barrier to oxygen and other gases are a key component to many packaging applications, such as flexible electronics, food, and pharmaceuticals. Vapor deposited thin films provide significant gas barrier, but are prone...

Priolo, Morgan Alexander

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

357

Minimum Energy Cost k-barrier Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Barrier coverage problem is one of important issues in wireless sensor networks. In this paper we study the minimum energy cost k-barrier coverage problem in wireless sensor network in which each sensor has l...?...

Huiqiang Yang; Deying Li; Qinghua Zhu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

From blood to the brain: can systemically transplanted mesenchymal stem cells cross the blood-brain barrier?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and function of the blood-brain barrier, Neurobiology ofV. Zlokovic, The blood-brain barrier in health and chroniccell biology of the blood- brain barrier, Annual Review of

Liu, Linan; Eckert, Mark A; Riazifar, Hamidreza; Kang, Dong-Ku; Agalliu, Dritan; Zhao, Weian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Recent progress in the study of fission barriers in covariant density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent progress in the study of fission barriers of actinides and superheavy nuclei within covariant density functional theory is overviewed.

A. V. Afanasjev; H. Abusara; P. Ring

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

360

Barriers to CHP with Renewable Portfolio Standards, Draft White Paper, September 2007  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A draft white paper discussing the barriers to combine heat and power (CHP) with renewable portfolio standards

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Internal structure, hygroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Internal structure, hygroscopic and Internal structure, hygroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium methanesulfonate-sodium chloride particles Internal structure, hygroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium methanesulfonate-sodium chloride particles Print Friday, 13 May 2011 00:00 Scientists recently combined experimental approaches and molecular dynamics modeling to gain new insights into the internal structure of sea salt particles and relate it to their fundamental chemical reactivity in the atmosphere. This research shows that surface enhancement or depletion of chemical components in marine particles can occur because of the difference in the chemical nature of the species. Because the atmospheric chemistry of the salt particles takes place at the gas-particle interface, understanding their complex surfaces provides new insights about their effect on the environment and climate change. Article Link.

362

Ionic Liquids and Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Species James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 3225-3231 (2010). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request View the video on this Perspective article at The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (5:03) Selected for the ACS Special Virtual Issue on Ionic Liquids (March 2011). Abstract: Due to their unique properties, ionic liquids present many opportunities for basic research on the interactions of radiation with materials under conditions not previously available. At the same time, there are practical applied reasons for characterizing, understanding, and being able to predict how ionic-liquid-based devices and industrial-scale systems will perform under conditions of extreme reactivity, including radiation. This

363

Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design de...

Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Simulation of the high temperature impression of thermal barrier coatings with columnar microstructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the deformation resistance of actual EB-PVD layers and its application to a range of thermal barrier materials [9Simulation of the high temperature impression of thermal barrier coatings with columnar of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are affected by their high temperature mechanical properties: especially

Hutchinson, John W.

365

Multiple-humped fission and fusion barriers of the heaviest elements and ellipsoidal deformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

leading possibly to superheavy elements, double-humped potential barriers appear for cold fusionMultiple-humped fission and fusion barriers of the heaviest elements and ellipsoidal deformations G barriers and the predicted half-lives of actinides follow the experimental results. In the fusion path

Boyer, Edmond

366

Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for reducing heat load applied to a frozen barrier by a heated formation is described. The system includes heat interceptor wells positioned between the heated formation and the frozen barrier. Fluid is positioned in the heat interceptor wells. Heat transfers from the formation to the fluid to reduce the heat load applied to the frozen barrier.

McKinzie, II, Billy John (Houston, TX)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

367

Design and synthesis of reactive separation systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

During the last decade there has been a rapid upturn in interest in reactive distillation. The chemical process industry recognizes the favorable economics of carrying out reaction simultaneously with distillation for certain classes of reacting systems, and many new processes have been built based on this technology. Interest is also increasing by academics and software vendors. Systematic design methods for reactive distillation systems have only recently begun to emerge. In this report we survey the available design techniques and point out the contributions made by our group at the University of Massachusetts.

Doherty, M.F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

368

Houston We have a Solution: University Teams Tackle Efficiency's Barriers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Houston We have a Solution: University Teams Tackle Efficiency's Houston We have a Solution: University Teams Tackle Efficiency's Barriers Houston We have a Solution: University Teams Tackle Efficiency's Barriers March 5, 2012 - 11:00am Addthis Secretary Chu with students from MIT at the Better Buildings Case Competition finale, held in Washington D.C. | Photo by Ken Shipp. Secretary Chu with students from MIT at the Better Buildings Case Competition finale, held in Washington D.C. | Photo by Ken Shipp. Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs On Friday, Secretary Chu joined a group of bright, ambitious university students for the finale of the Better Buildings Case Competition in Washington, DC. The initiative, part of the President's Better Buildings Challenge, taps into the innovative, out-of-the-box thinking of university energy

369

Alaskan Ice Road Water Supplies Augmented by Snow Barriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6, 2013 6, 2013 Alaskan Ice Road Water Supplies Augmented by Snow Barriers Washington, D.C. - In a project supported and managed by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks have demonstrated that the use of artificial barriers-snow fences-can significantly increase the amount of fresh water supplies in Arctic lakes at a fraction of the cost of bringing in water from nearby lakes. The results promise to enhance environmentally sound development of Alaska's natural resources, lowering the costs of building ice roads used for exploring for oil and natural gas in Alaska. They could also be used to help augment fresh water supplies at remote villages. Researcher Joel Bailey measures the density of the snow in this snow pit to determine the amount of snow in the drift and the water equivalent of the snow drift.

370

Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Kinetic roughening-like transition with finite nucleation barrier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent observations of the growth of protein crystals have identified two different growth regimes. At low supersaturation, the surface of the crystal is smooth and increasing in size due to the nucleation of steps at defects and the subsequent growth of the steps. At high supersaturation, nucleation occurs at many places simultaneously, the crystal surface becomes rough and the growth velocity increases more rapidly with increasing supersaturation than in the smooth regime. Kinetic roughening transitions are typically assumed to be due to the vanishing of the barrier for two-dimension nucleation on the surface of the crystal. We show here, by means of both analytic mean field models and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations that a transition between different growth modes reminiscent of kinetic roughening can also arise as a kinetic effect occurring at finite nucleation barriers.

James F. Lutsko; Vasileios Basios; Gregoire Nicolis; John J. Kozak; Mike Sleutel; Dominique Maes

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

372

Ferroelectric modulation on resonant tunneling through perovskite double-barriers  

SciTech Connect

The negative differential resistance (NDR) due to resonance tunneling is achieved at room temperature in perovskite double-barrier heterostructures composed of a 10 unit-cell-thick SrTiO{sub 3} quantum well sandwiched in two 10 unit-cell-thick LaAlO{sub 3} barriers. The NDR occurs at 1.2?V and does not change with voltage cycling. When the paraelectric SrTiO{sub 3} quantum well is replaced by a ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3}, the onset of the NDR can be modulated by polarization switching in the ultrathin BaTiO{sub 3}. A polarization pointing to the collector lowers the NDR voltage but a polarization pointing to the emitter increases it. The shift of the NDR voltage is ascribed to reversal of the extra electric field in the quantum well due to the polarization switching.

Du, Ruifang; Qiu, Xiangbiao; Li, Aidong; Wu, Di, E-mail: diwu@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

373

105 K East isolation barrier acceptance analysis report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to report and interpret the findings of the isolation barrier acceptance tests performed in 105KE/100K. The tests were performed in accordance with the test plan (McCracken 1995c) and acceptance test procedure (McCracken 1995a). The test report (McCracken 1995b) contains the test data. This document compares the test data (McCracken 1995b) against the criteria (McCracken 1995a, c). A discussion of the leak rate analytical characterization (Irwin 1995) describes how the flow characteristics and the flow rate will be determined using the test data from the test report (McCracken 1995b). The barriers must adequately control the leakage from the main basin to the discharge chute to less than the 1,500 gph (5,680 lph) Safety Analysis Report (SAR 1994) limit.

McCracken, K.J. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Irwin, J.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level. 4 figs.

Brown, R.L.; Guilford, R.P.; Stichman, J.H.

1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

375

Transformer coupling for transmitting direct current through a barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The transmission system for transmitting direct current from an energy source on one side of an electrical and mechanical barrier to a load on the other side of the barrier utilizes a transformer comprising a primary core on one side of the transformer and a secondary core on the other side of the transformer. The cores are magnetically coupled selectively by moving a magnetic ferrite coupler in and out of alignment with the poles of the cores. The direct current from the energy source is converted to a time varying current by an oscillating circuit, which oscillating circuit is optically coupled to a secondary winding on the secondary core to interrupt oscillations upon the voltage in the secondary winding exceeding a preselected level.

Brown, Ralph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Guilford, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Stichman, John H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Condensation of actin filaments pushing against a barrier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a model to describe the force generated by the polymerization of an array of parallel biofilaments. The filaments are assumed to be coupled only through mechanical contact with a movable barrier. We calculate the filament density distribution and the force-velocity relation with a mean-field approach combined with simulations. We identify two regimes: a non-condensed regime at low force in which filaments are spread out spatially, and a condensed regime at high force in which filaments accumulate near the barrier. We confirm a result previously known from other related studies, namely that the stall force is equal to N times the stall force of a single filament. In the model studied here, the approach to stalling is very slow, and the velocity is practically zero at forces significantly lower than the stall force.

K. Tsekouras; D. Lacoste; K. Mallick; J. -F. Joanny

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

377

Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings  

SciTech Connect

Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. This program evaluates the bond strength of yttria stabilized zirconia coatings with MCrAlY and Pt-Al bond coats utilizing diffraction and fluorescence methods.

Gell, M.; Jordan, E.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

378

Core Internal Transport Barriers in Alcator C-Mod  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Mod Group Supported by DoE grant DE-FC02-99ER54512 #12;Alcator C-Mod Introduction Core Internal TransportAlcator C-Mod Core Internal Transport Barriers in Alcator C-Mod Catherine Fiore MIT Plasma Science types of core ITBs in Alcator C-Mod. Off-Axis ICRF generated core ITBs Spontaneous ITBs at H- to L

Fiore, Catherine L.

379

Bioenergy in India: Barriers and Policy Options | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bioenergy in India: Barriers and Policy Options Bioenergy in India: Barriers and Policy Options Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Bioenergy in India: Barriers and Policy Options Agency/Company /Organization: UNEP-Risoe Centre Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Biomass, - Biofuels Topics: Implementation, Market analysis, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learned/best practices, Case studies/examples Website: tech-action.org/Perspectives/BioenergyIndia.pdf Country: India Cost: Free UN Region: Southern Asia Coordinates: 20.593684°, 78.96288° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":20.593684,"lon":78.96288,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

380

Water-retaining barrier and method of construction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An agricultural barrier providing a medium for supporting plant life in an arid or semi-arid land region having a ground surface, the barrier being disposed on native soil of the region, the barrier including: a first layer composed of pieces of basalt, the first layer being porous and being in contact with the native soil; a porous second layer of at least one material selected from at least one of sand and gravel, the second layer being less porous than, and overlying, the first layer; and a porous third layer containing soil which favors plant growth, the third layer being less porous than, and overlying, the second layer and having an exposed upper surface, wherein the porosities of the second and third layers differ from one another by an amount which impedes transport of soil from the first layer into the second layer. Soil for the third layer may be provided by washing salinated or contaminated soil with water and using the washed soil for the third layer.

Adams, Melvin R. (Richland, WA); Field, Jim G. (Richland, WA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Water-retaining barrier and method of construction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An agricultural barrier is disclosed which provides a medium for supporting plant life in an arid or semi-arid land region having a ground surface. The barrier is disposed on native soil of the region. The barrier includes a first porous layer composed of pieces of basalt, and is in contact with the native soil. There is a less porous second layer of at least one material selected from at least one of sand and gravel. The second layer overlies the first layer. A third layer, less porous than the second layer, contains soil which favors plant growth. The third layer overlies the second layer and has an exposed upper surface. The porosities of the second and third layers differ from one another by an amount which impedes transport of soil from the first layer into the second layer. Soil for the third layer may be provided by washing salinated or contaminated soil with water and using the washed soil for the third layer. 2 figs.

Adams, M.R.; Field, J.G.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

382

Spin torque in magnetic tunnel junctions with asymmetric barriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We derive expressions for both parallel and perpendicular components of spin transfer torque (STT) in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), which have several important advantages over the currently available expressions: First they are derived in a more realistic approximation, resulting in excellent agreement with exact results even in the presence of resonant tunneling. Second, we show that they can be expressed in terms of the scattering matrix elements, which gives them a clear physical interpretation. Third, they are given entirely in terms of collinear quantities, which are readily available in existing transport codes. We use these expressions to investigate STT behavior in MTJs with asymmetric barriers at finite bias. The results show that lowering the barrier height in the bulk does not qualitatively change the behavior of STT. The absolute STT increases on account of the overall increase of the barrier transparency; however, the STT efficiency remains in the same range. At the same time, modifications of the interfaces can qualitatively change STT behavior. Thus, interface engineering can be used to control the bias dependence of STT and optimize the performance of STT-based devices.

Alan Kalitsov; Whasington Silvestre; Mairbek Chshiev; Julian P. Velev

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

In-situ chemical barrier and method of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical barrier is formed by injecting a suspension of solid particles or colloids into the subsurface. First, a stable colloid suspension is made including a surfactant and a non-Newtonian fluid. This stable colloid suspension is characterized by colloid concentration, colloid size, colloid material, solution ionic strength, and chemical composition. A second step involves injecting the optimized stable colloid suspension at a sufficiently high flow rate to move the colloids through the subsurface sediment, but not at such a high rate so as to induce resuspending indigenous soil particles in the aquifer. While injecting the stable colloid suspension, a withdrawal well may be used to draw the injected colloids in a direction perpendicular to the flow path of a contaminant plume. The withdrawal well, may then be used as an injection well, and a third well, in line with the first two wells, may then be used as a withdrawal well, thereby increasing the length of the colloid barrier. This process would continue until emplacement of the colloid barrier is complete. 7 figs.

Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

384

In-situ chemical barrier and method of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical barrier is formed by injecting a suspension of solid particles or colloids into the subsurface. First, a stable colloid suspension is made including a surfactant and a non-Newtonian fluid. This stable colloid suspension is characterized by colloid concentration, colloid size, colloid material, solution ionic strength, and chemical composition. A second step involves injecting the optimized stable colloid suspension at a sufficiently high flow rate to move the colloids through the subsurface sediment, but not at such a high rate so as to induce resuspending indigenous soil particles in the aquifer. While injecting the stable colloid suspension, a withdrawal well may be used to draw the injected colloids in a direction perpendicular to the flow path of a contaminant plume. The withdrawal well, may then be used as an injection well, and a third well, in line with the first two wells, may then be used as a withdrawal well, thereby increasing the length of the colloid barrier. This process would continue until emplacement of the colloid barrier is complete.

Cantrell, Kirk J. (West Richland, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Nucleation of Superconductivity at a Tunneling Barrier of High Transmissivity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a calculation of the parallel critical field of a plane tunneling barrier in an otherwise homogeneous superconductor, valid for Tc-T?Tc. We have found a solution of the Ginzburg-Landau equation which satisfies the semiphenomenological boundary conditions proposed by de Gennes. The critical field is significantly lower than Hc3 when the tunneling current is of the same order of magnitude as the sheath current. When the ratio (tunneling current)/(sheath current) is small, it is proportional to ?(T). Since ?(T)?? at Tc, in principle the critical field of a tunneling barrier of any transmissivity must go to Hc2 as T?Tc, although in practice this may be impossible to observe for small transmissivities because of the finite transition width at Tc. For the pure-metal, specular-barrier model at a fixed temperature T not too close to Tc, most of the drop in critical field from Hc3 to Hc2 occurs for transmissivities in the range 0.01 to 0.1.The effect we have predicted, if experimentally confirmed, may be useful as a tool for investigating the electronic properties of grain boundaries in polycrystalline metal.

R. G. Boyd

1967-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

386

Opportunities and Domestic Barriers to Clean Energy Investment in Chile |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Opportunities and Domestic Barriers to Clean Energy Investment in Chile Opportunities and Domestic Barriers to Clean Energy Investment in Chile Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Opportunities and Domestic Barriers to Clean Energy Investment in Chile Agency/Company /Organization: International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Finance, Market analysis, Background analysis Website: www.iisd.org/pdf/2010/bali_2_copenhagen_Chile_Jun2010.pdf Country: Chile UN Region: Latin America and the Caribbean Coordinates: -35.675147°, -71.542969° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":-35.675147,"lon":-71.542969,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

387

Submicrosecond pulsed atmospheric glow discharges sustained without dielectric barriers at kilohertz frequencies  

SciTech Connect

In this letter, the authors report the experimental observation of a large-volume atmospheric glow discharge sustained without dielectric barriers at 1 kHz. This barrier-free mode of operation is made possible with a submicrosecond pulsed excitation instead of the usual sinusoidal excitation. Its current-voltage characteristics are shown to be very different from conventional atmospheric dielectric barrier discharges, and its generation mechanism is studied with nanosecond resolved optical emission spectroscopy. The pulsed barrier-free atmospheric plasma is shown to produce very intense atomic oxygen emission line at 777 nm, up to one magnitude more intensive than that of a comparable atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge.

Walsh, J. L.; Shi, J. J.; Kong, M. G. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

388

Non-Energetic Reactive Armor (NERA) and Semi-Energetic Reactive Armor (SERA) FY13 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

INL researchers have proposed prototypes for future lightweight armor systems that reside in a technology gap between explosive reactive armor and passive armor. The targets were designed to react under impact and throw a steel front plate into the path of the projectile, forcing the projectile to engage more of the front plate during its penetration process. These prototypes are intended to exhibit the enhanced efficiency of explosive reactive armor without the collateral damage often associated with explosive reactive armor. One of the prototype systems, Semi Energetic Reactive Armor (SERA), functions similarly to explosive reactive armor, but features a reactive material that reacts much slower than explosive reactive armor. Two different SERA test groups were built and featuring different ratios of aluminum Teflon(copyright) powders pressed into 0.5 in. thick energetic tiles and sandwiched between 0.25 in. thick RHA plates. The other prototype system, Non Energetic Reactive Armor (NERA), utilizes the strain energy in compressed rubber to launch a front flyer plate into the path of an incoming projectile. It is comprised of a 1 in. thick rubber layer sandwiched between two 0.25 in. thick RHA plates with bolt holes around the perimeter. Bolts are inserted through the entire target and tightened to compress the rubber sheet to significant strain levels (approximately 40%). A fourth group of targets was tested as a control group. It featured a 0.5 in. thick rubber sheet sandwiched between two 0.25 in. thick RHA plates, similar to the NERA test articles, but the rubber is uncompressed. The four test groups (uncompressed rubber, compressed rubber, 70/30 Al/PTFE, 50/50 Al/PTFE) were each fabricated with three identical test articles in each group. All twelve targets were subjected to ballistic testing at the National Security Test Range on July 17, 2013. They were tested with 0.5 in. diameter steel rods shot at a consistent velocity at each target. In order to characterize the energetic materials, break wires were embedded in the targets and burn velocities were measured. The residual mass method was used to compare the target performance of each group and final performance data is presented below.

Ben Langhorst; Nikki Rasmussen; Andrew Robinson

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Reactive Search Optimization: Learning while Roberto Battiti and Mauro Brunato  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactive Search Optimization: Learning while Optimizing Roberto Battiti and Mauro Brunato 1, Universit`a di Trento, Italy, e-mail: roberto.battiti@unitn.it Mauro Brunato LION Lab, Universit`a di Trento, Italy, e-mail: mauro.brunato@unitn.it 1 #12;2 Roberto Battiti and Mauro Brunato in the loop between

Battiti, Roberto

390

Toward a new paradigm for reactive flow modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Traditional reactive flow modeling provides a computational representation of shock initiation of energetic materials. Most reactive flow models require ad hoc assumptions to obtain robust simulations, assumptions that result from partitioning energy and volume change between constituents in a reactive mixture. For example, most models assume pressure and/or temperature equilibrium for the mixture. Many mechanical insults to energetic materials violate these approximations. Careful analysis is required to ensure that the model assumptions and limitations are not exceeded. One limitation is that the shock to detonation transition is replicated only for strong planar shocks. Many models require different parameters to match data from thin pulse, ramp wave, or multidimensional loading, an approach that fails for complex loading. To accurately simulate reaction under non-planar shock impact scenarios a new formalism is required. The continuum mixture theory developed by Baer and Nunziato is used to eliminate ad hoc assumptions and limitations of current reactive flow models. This modeling paradigm represents the multiphase nature of reacting condensed/gas mixtures. Comparisons between simulations and data are presented.

Schmitt, Robert Gerard

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Resilient Intrusion Tolerance through Proactive and Reactive Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system's correct operation. We design a proactive- reactive recovery service based on a hybrid the resilience of an intrusion-tolerant firewall adequate for the protection of critical infrastructures infras- tructures like the Power grid. One approach that promises to satisfy this requirement

Neves, Nuno

392

Voltage Regulation through Smart Utilization of Potential Reactive Power Resources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The introduction of demand response concept, in addition to increment of penetration of distributed generation (DG) based on renewable energies, make opportunities for the novel control schemes to be integrated in power system on a smart grid framework. ... Keywords: Demand response, distributed generation, reactive power, renewable energy, smart grid, voltage control

H. Kazari; A. Abbaspour-Tehrani Fard; A. S. Dobakhshari; A. M. Ranjbar

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Substituent Effects on the Reactivity of the Silicon-Carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Canada L8S 4M1 Received April 28, 2000 ABSTRACT Laser flash photolysis of various organosilicon compounds as a reactive intermediate in the high-temperature pyrolysis of a silacyclobutane deriva- tive.9 Hundreds describes our efforts to employ these techniquess laser flash photolysis methods in particularsto study

Leigh, William J.

394

Surface tension in a reactive binary mixture of incompressible fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface tension in a reactive binary mixture of incompressible fluids Henning Struchtrup Institute with a distributed form of surface tension. The model describes chemistry, diffusion, viscosity and heat transfer tension at the front. Keywords: Binary mixtures, Surface tension, Irreversible thermodynamics, Hele

Struchtrup, Henning

395

Dependency Analysis for Control Flow Cycles in Reactive Communicating Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the system. The way in which cycle executions are combined is not ar- bitrary since cycles may depend are combined is certainly not arbitrary. For instance, the repetition of one cycle may rely on the repetitionsDependency Analysis for Control Flow Cycles in Reactive Communicating Processes Stefan Leue1 , Alin

Leue, Stefan

396

Dependency Analysis for Control Flow Cycles in Reactive Communicating Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

processes of the system. The way in which cycle executions are combined is not ar- bitrary since cycles may in which cycle executions are combined is certainly not arbitrary. For instance, the repetition of oneDependency Analysis for Control Flow Cycles in Reactive Communicating Processes Stefan Leue1 , Alin

Reiterer, Harald

397

Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance Muhammad A. Al and rectifying sec- tions of a reacti®e distillation column can degrade performance. This effect, if true®e distillation columns cannot use conser®ati®e estimates of tray numbers, that is, we cannot simply add excess

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

398

Reactive materials can quickly form plugs for blowout control  

SciTech Connect

Various types of reactive materials, or gunk, can react directly with produced fluids (oil, condensate, or brine) or with an additionally injected fluid to form a plug to kill blowout wells or shut off large flow paths. Several recent blowouts were successfully controlled with reactive plugs; other conventional methods would have been more difficult operationally and cost more. Several plug mixtures are available on the market and can be made to suit the type of application and any particular environmental concerns. With proper planning and application, reactive plugs should be considered as a prime well control method when injection into the blowout flow path is available. This method of blowout control can save significant time and expense. The paper discusses the two basic methods of using reactive fluids depending on the flow path available, the use of cements, application steps, environmental concerns, and three case histories: a horizontal well in Texas, a high pressure, high temperature well offshore Louisiana, and a gas blowout in Argentina.

Flak, L.H. [Wright Boots and Coots, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

399

Neutron economic reactivity control system for light water reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A neutron reactivity control system for a LWBR incorporating a stationary seed-blanket core arrangement. The core arrangement includes a plurality of contiguous hexagonal shaped regions. Each region has a central and a peripheral blanket area juxapositioned an annular seed area. The blanket areas contain thoria fuel rods while the annular seed area includes seed fuel rods and movable thoria shim control rods.

Luce, Robert G. (Glenville, NY); McCoy, Daniel F. (Latham, NY); Merriman, Floyd C. (Rotterdam, NY); Gregurech, Steve (Scotia, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Generalized Chemical Reactivity of Curved Surfaces: Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Following the decomposition, the total reaction energy Etotal, which is the index of chemical reactivity, can be divided into three terms: strain energy Estrain, C-X binding energy EC-X, and global relaxation in a CNT can enhance the hydrogenation energy at the location of the excess deformation so

Srivastava, Deepak

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators  

SciTech Connect

High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sleep & Memory/Review Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep Ken A. Paller1 and Joel L, Illinois 60208-2710, USA Do our memories remain static during sleep, or do they change? We argue here that memory change is not only a natural result of sleep cognition, but further, that such change constitutes

Paller, Ken

403

Geothermal Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Geothermal Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Geothermal Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers Agency/Company /Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Geothermal Topics: Market analysis, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: www.ornl.gov/sci/ees/etsd/btric/pdfs/geothermal_report_12-08.pdf References: Geothermal Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers[1] Overview "This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope included determining the status of global GHP markets

404

Near and sub-barrier fusion as a probe of nuclear structure Sub-barrier fusion is particularly sensitive to the tail of the nuclear matter distribution,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near and sub-barrier fusion as a probe of nuclear structure Sub-barrier fusion is particularly sensitive to the tail of the nuclear matter distribution, hence provides a good probe of the neutron and proton distributions. Measuring fusion for an isotopic chain of projectile nuclei one can sensitively

de Souza, Romualdo T.

405

Surface barrier height for different Al compositions and barrier layer thicknesses in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present a physics based analytical model for the calculation of surface barrier height for given values of barrier layer thicknesses and Al mole fractions. An explicit expression for the two dimensional electron gas density is also developed incorporating the change in polarization charges for different Al mole fractions.

Goyal, Nitin, E-mail: goyalnitin.iitr@gmail.com; Fjeldly, Tor A. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Iniguez, Benjamin [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

406

Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals synthesized by reactive laser Daria Riabinina,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals synthesized by reactive laser ablation Daria Riabinina reactive laser ablation in oxygen atmosphere followed by annealing. We observe a strong photoluminescence size, obtained independently by fitting photoluminescence spectra and from x-ray diffraction patterns

407

Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This study uses numerical simulations to explore the use of wet ethanol as the low-reactivity fuel and diesel as the high-reactivity fuel for RCCI operation in a heavy-duty diesel engine.

408

Bioinformatic analysis of xenobiotic reactive metabolite target proteins and their interacting partners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background Protein covalent binding by reactive metabolites of drugs, chemicals and natural products can lead to acute cytotoxicity. Recent rapid progress in reactive metabolite target protein identification has shown ...

Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fang, Jianwen; Koen, Yakov M.

2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

409

Chemical Reactivity of Reduced TiO2(110): The dominant role of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reactivity of Reduced TiO2(110): The dominant role of surface defects in oxygen chemisorption. Chemical Reactivity of Reduced TiO2(110): The dominant role of surface defects in...

410

Towards a specific reaction parameter density functional for reactive scattering of H{sub 2} from Pd(111)  

SciTech Connect

Recently, an implementation of the specific reaction parameter (SRP) approach to density functional theory (DFT) was used to study several reactive scattering experiments of H{sub 2} on Cu(111). It was possible to obtain chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol ? 4.2 kJ/mol), and therefore, accurately model this paradigmatic example of activated H{sub 2} dissociation on a metal surface. In this work, the SRP-DFT methodology is applied to the dissociation of hydrogen on a Pd(111) surface, in order to test whether the SRP-DFT approach is also applicable to non-activated H{sub 2}-metal systems. In the calculations, the BornOppenheimer static surface approximations are used. A comparison to molecular beam sticking experiments, performed at incidence energies ?125 meV, on H{sub 2} + Pd(111) suggested the PBE-vdW [where the Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE) correlation is replaced by van der Waals correlation] functional as a candidate SRP density functional describing the reactive scattering of H{sub 2} on Pd(111). Unfortunately, quantum dynamics calculations are not able to reproduce the molecular beam sticking results for incidence energies <125 meV. From a comparison to initial state-resolved (degeneracy averaged) sticking probabilities it seems clear that for H{sub 2} + Pd(111) dynamic trapping and steering effects are important, and that these effects are not yet well modeled with the potential energy surfaces considered here. Applying the SRP-DFT method to systems where H{sub 2} dissociation is non-activated remains difficult. It is suggested that a density functional that yields a broader barrier distribution and has more non-activated pathways than PBE-vdW (i.e., non-activated dissociation at some sites but similarly high barriers at the high energy end of the spectrum) should allow a more accurate description of the available experiments. Finally, it is suggested that new and better characterized molecular beam sticking experiments be done on H{sub 2} + Pd(111), to facilitate the development of a more accurate theoretical description of this system.

Boereboom, J. M.; Wijzenbroek, M.; Somers, M. F.; Kroes, G. J. [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)] [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

411

E-Print Network 3.0 - advected reactive scalars Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

through... reactive scalars that are initially distinct, ... Source: Crimaldi, John P. - Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of...

412

T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY08 Report  

SciTech Connect

DOEs Office of River Protection constructed a temporary surface barrier over a portion of the T Tank Farm as part of the T Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The surface barrier is designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the contaminated soil zone created by the Tank T-106 leak and minimize movement of the contamination. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier at reducing soil moisture. A solar-powered system was installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) beneath the barrier and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nest A is placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serves as a control, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barrier.

Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Migration barrier covers for radioactive and mixed waste landfills  

SciTech Connect

Migration barrier cover technology will likely serve as the remediation alternative of choice for most of DOE's radioactive and mixed waste landfills simply because human and ecological risks can be effectively managed without the use of more expensive alternatives. However, very little testing and evaluation has been done, either before or after installation, to monitor how effective they are in isolating waste or to develop data that can be used to evaluate model predictions of long term performance. Los Alamos National Laboratory has investigated the performance of a variety of landfill capping alternatives since 1981 using large field lysimeters to monitor the fate of precipitation falling on the cap surface. The objective of these studies is to provide the risk manager with a variety of field tested capping designs, of various complexities and costs, so that design alternatives can be matched to the need for hydrologic control at the site. Four different landfill cap designs, representing different complexities and costs, were constructed at Hill Air Force Base (AFB) in October and November, 1989. The designs were constructed in large lysimeters and instrumented to provide estimates of all components of water balance including precipitation, runoff (and soil erosion), infiltration, leachate production, evapotranspiration, and capillary/hydraulic barrier flow. The designs consisted of a typical soil cover to serve as a baseline, a modified EPA RCRA cover, and two versions of a Los Alamos design that contained erosion control measures, an improved vegetation cover to enhance evapotranspiration, and a capillary barrier to divert downward flow of soil water. A comprehensive summary of the Hill AFB demonstration will be available in October 1993, when the project is scheduled to terminate.

Hakonson, T.E.; Manies, K.L.; Warren, R.W.; Bostick, K.V.; Trujillo, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Kent, J.S. (Air Force Academy, CO (United States). Dept. of Biology); Lane, L.J. (Department of Agriculture, Tucson, AZ (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Migration barrier covers for radioactive and mixed waste landfills  

SciTech Connect

Migration barrier cover technology will likely serve as the remediation alternative of choice for most of DOE`s radioactive and mixed waste landfills simply because human and ecological risks can be effectively managed without the use of more expensive alternatives. However, very little testing and evaluation has been done, either before or after installation, to monitor how effective they are in isolating waste or to develop data that can be used to evaluate model predictions of long term performance. Los Alamos National Laboratory has investigated the performance of a variety of landfill capping alternatives since 1981 using large field lysimeters to monitor the fate of precipitation falling on the cap surface. The objective of these studies is to provide the risk manager with a variety of field tested capping designs, of various complexities and costs, so that design alternatives can be matched to the need for hydrologic control at the site. Four different landfill cap designs, representing different complexities and costs, were constructed at Hill Air Force Base (AFB) in October and November, 1989. The designs were constructed in large lysimeters and instrumented to provide estimates of all components of water balance including precipitation, runoff (and soil erosion), infiltration, leachate production, evapotranspiration, and capillary/hydraulic barrier flow. The designs consisted of a typical soil cover to serve as a baseline, a modified EPA RCRA cover, and two versions of a Los Alamos design that contained erosion control measures, an improved vegetation cover to enhance evapotranspiration, and a capillary barrier to divert downward flow of soil water. A comprehensive summary of the Hill AFB demonstration will be available in October 1993, when the project is scheduled to terminate.

Hakonson, T.E.; Manies, K.L.; Warren, R.W.; Bostick, K.V.; Trujillo, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kent, J.S. [Air Force Academy, CO (United States). Dept. of Biology; Lane, L.J. [Department of Agriculture, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier  

SciTech Connect

The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

K.G. Mon

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Variational calculation of the trapping rate in thermal barriers  

SciTech Connect

A variational calculation of the trapping rate and trapped ion density in thermal barriers is presented. The effects of diffusion in energy as well as pitch angle scattering are retained. The variational formulation uses the actual trapped-passing boundary in velocity space. The boundary condition is that the trapped ion distribution function matches the passing ion distribution function, which is taken to be a Maxwellian, on the boundary. The results compare well with two-dimensional Fokker-Planck code calculations by Futch and LoDestro.

Li, X.Z.; Emmert, G.A.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Surface charge in dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators  

SciTech Connect

Direct measurements of the dielectric surface potential and its dynamics in asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators show that the charge builds up at the dielectric surface and extends far downstream of the plasma. The surface charge persists for a long time (tens of minutes) after the driving voltage has been turned off. For a sinusoidal voltage waveform, the dielectric surface charges positively. With the voltage waveform consisting of nanosecond pulses superimposed on a dc bias, the sign of the dielectric surface charge is the same as the sign (polarity) of the bias voltage. The surface charging significantly affects DBD plasma actuator performance.

Opaits, D. F.; Shneider, M. N.; Miles, Richard B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Likhanskii, A. V. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Macheret, S. O. [Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Palmdale, California 93599 (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment  

SciTech Connect

A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

Hoffman, W.L.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Influence of dust on the emissivity of radiant barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Figure 5. 2. ) as F Fr-a r-r (22) where N is the number of dust particles considered in the problem and d is the total dust coverage of the barrier. This is valid when a large dust accumulation exists, and the statistical equivalent diameter... is the mean diameter. 31 Surface (Roof) Fr Fr ? i Dust Particles Fr d is calculated to all the dust particles Figure 5. 2. Shape factor from any surface to the dust particles. The shape factors from the surrounding planes (roof deck and gables...

Noboa, Homero Luis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

420

Barriers to clean development mechanism renewable energy projects in Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mexico is not reaching its full potential to capture benefits from clean development mechanism (CDM) projects because of its limited market for independent power producers (IPPs) and the barriers imposed on these entities by the state-run electric utility that controls most of the country's generation and transmission. This state-run entity has pursued CDM revenues only in isolated cases where international financial assistance was given because it is bound by law to pursue the least-cost generation option for its customers. Recent changes in Mexican legislation that provide incentives for renewable energy development could open the marketplace for these types of projects.

Elizabeth Lokey

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, methanol recovery 1. Introduction A process of producing TAME via reactive distillation has been presented the bulk of the reaction between C5 and methanol to produce TAME and a reactive distillation. MethanolDesign of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

422

Abstract This paper reviews specific issues and challenges in reactive power management within the competitive electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, points out various deficiencies in the reactive power procurement in the US markets and provides recommendations for, and lists a number of challenges in the reactive power supply and usage area. Basically of the same type as active power or active energy. Many reactive power management issues concern the static

Gross, George

423

Reactivity of Niobium?Carbon Cluster Ions with Hydrogen Molecules in Relation to Formation Mechanism of Met?Car Cluster Ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reactivity of Niobium?Carbon Cluster Ions with Hydrogen Molecules in Relation to Formation Mechanism of Met?Car Cluster Ions ... After the multiple collisions of He and H2 in the collision cell, the cluster ions entered the vacuum chamber (typically ?8 10?4 Torr) and were introduced into the differentially pumped chamber through a skimmer, where the cluster ions were accelerated orthogonally by a pulsed electric field for the time-of-flight mass analysis. ... The nonreactivity of NbnCm+ with H2 indicates that the energy barrier for the H2 attachment is high enough or the H2 attachment is energetically unfavorable (or both), meaning that NbnCm+ has a negative H2 affinity. ...

Ken Miyajima; Naoya Fukushima; Fumitaka Mafun

2008-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

Microbial safety and quality attributes of milk following treatment with atmospheric pressure encapsulated dielectric barrier discharge plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study evaluated the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of milk that was treated with encapsulated dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. Encapsulated DBD plasma was generated in a plastic container (250W, 15kHz, ambient air) and DBD plasma treatment was applied to milk samples for periods of 5 and 10min. The total aerobic bacterial count in the untreated control sample was 0.98 log CFU/mL. Following plasma treatment, no viable cells were detected in the milk samples. When milk samples were inoculated with Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium, plasma treatment for 10min resulted in a reduction in bacterial counts by approximately 2.40 log CFU/mL. The pH of the sample milk was found to decrease after the 10-min plasma treatment. Hunter color L* and b* values of milk increased, and the a* value decreased as a result of the plasma treatment. The production of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased slightly, but not significantly, following plasma treatment. The results of this study indicate that encapsulated DBD plasma treatment for less than 10min improved the microbial quality of milk with slight changes in physicochemical quality of milk.

Hyun-Joo Kim; Hae In Yong; Sanghoo Park; Kijung Kim; Wonho Choe; Cheorun Jo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Development of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Ettringite and Study of its Mechanical Failure Modes from Reactive Dynamics Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development of a ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Ettringite and Study of its Mechanical Failure Modes from Reactive Dynamics Simulations ... Ettringite is a hexacalcium aluminate trisulfate hydrate mineral that forms during Portland cement hydration. ... Here, we report on the development of this ReaxFF force field and on its validation and application using reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) simulations to characterize and understand the elastic, plastic, and failure response of ettringite at the atomic scale. ...

Lianchi Liu; Andres Jaramillo-Botero; William A. Goddard; III; Huai Sun

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

426

Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

427

Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Kinetic azeotropy and design of reactive distillation columns  

SciTech Connect

The reactive fixed points in the distillation maps of a reactive distillation column (RDC) with kinetically controlled reactions are identified and their role in deciding the design feasibility has been elucidated. The fixed points at which both reaction and distillation vectors have zero magnitudes correspond to the equilibrium fixed point. It is known that the relative positions of these points for the rectifying and stripping sections determine the value of the minimum reflux ratio. However, apart from these fixed points, there are certain fixed points in the distillation map at which, though the reaction and distillation vectors have nonzero magnitudes, they nullify the effects of each other. These points correspond to the kinetic fixed points and have a special significance. Their positions have direct influence on the feasible product composition. A simple example of an ideal ternary system undergoing a reaction 2B {longleftrightarrow} A + c has been illustrated to show the importance of kinetic azeotropy in the design aspects of RDC.

Mahajani, S.M. [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Variations in Reactivity on Different Crystallographic Orientations of Cerium Oxide  

SciTech Connect

Cerium oxide is a principal component in many heterogeneous catalytic processes. One of its key characteristics is the ability to provide or remove oxygen in chemical reactions. The different crystallographic faces of ceria present significantly different surface structures and compositions that may alter the catalytic reactivity. The structure and composition determine the number of coordination vacancies surrounding surface atoms, the availability of adsorption sites, the spacing between adsorption sites and the ability to remove O from the surface. To investigate the role of surface orientation on reactivity, CeO2 films were grown with two different orientations. CeO2(100) films were grown ex situ by pulsed laser deposition on Nb-doped SrTiO3(100). CeO2(111) films were grown in situ by thermal deposition of Ce metal onto Ru(0001) in an oxygen atmosphere. The chemical reactivity was characterized by the adsorption and decomposition of various molecules such as alcohols, aldehydes and organic acids. In general the CeO2(100) surface was found to be more active, i.e. molecules adsorbed more readily and reacted to form new products, especially on a fully oxidized substrate. However the CeO2(100) surface was less selective with a greater propensity to produce CO, CO2 and water as products. The differences in chemical reactivity are discussed in light of possible structural terminations of the two surfaces. Recently nanocubes and nano-octahedra have been synthesized that display CeO2(100) and CeO2(111) faces, respectively. These nanoparticles enable us to correlate reactions on high surface area model catalysts at atmospheric pressure with model single crystal films in a UHV environment.

Mullins, David R [ORNL] [ORNL; Albrecht, Peter M [ORNL] [ORNL; Calaza, Florencia C [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Step 6. Identify and Overcome the Barriers of Adoption | Building Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6. Identify and Overcome the Barriers of Adoption 6. Identify and Overcome the Barriers of Adoption Description It is important for a state or jurisdiction to identify and overcome a variety of political, economic, and technical challenges when adopting or updating an energy code. Confusion throughout the process and unclear adoption language are two of the most common barriers associated with code adoption. Other barriers identified by advocates and stakeholders include initial cost, limited outreach and education resources, cost and availability of code support information, and state and local confusion. These barriers are often resolved by amending the adoption process, providing code education, or selecting a model energy code for adoption. Adoption Process The adoption process itself can be a barrier to code adoption. States

431

OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND INTERNATIONAL, NATURAL BARRIERS THRUST OVERVIEW  

SciTech Connect

The Natural Barriers Thrust supports scientific studies of the natural system at the proposed repository site of Yucca Mountain. It stresses the realistic representation of the natural system with respect to processes and parameters, by means of laboratory, field, and modeling studies. It has the objectives to demonstrate that the natural barriers can make large contributions to repository performance, supporting the multiple-barrier concept for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste; and to reduce the overall cost of repository development by elimination of unnecessary engineered components, given the demonstrated natural barriers performance. In this overview we enumerate the research projects within the Natural Barriers Thrust grouped under five elements: (1) Drift Seepage, (2) In-drift Environment, (3) Drift Shadow, (4) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport, and (5) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport. The long-term strategic plan of the Natural Barriers Thrust and some key results are also briefly described.

B. Bodvarsson; Y. Tsang

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

432

Initiation and reactivation of Proterozoic aulacogen, northern Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical and petrologic affinities of late Proterozoic (approx. 1Ga) bimodal igneous rocks of the Franklin Mountains, west Texas, suggest a rift origin. Scattered occurrences of similar rocks southward into the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, indicate a southerly trend for the feature. The feature is bounded by stable blocks: the stable craton of west Texas to the east and northeast, and the Sierra del Nido block to the west and southwest. Separation of the Sierra del Nido block from the craton occurred about 1 Ga. Gravity gradients mark the boundaries of the blocks, and a northwest-trending Bouger gravity high may mark the axis of the aulacogen. The aulacogen and the Sierra del Nido block are truncated to the south by the Mesozoic Mojave-Sonora discontinuity. The aulacogen was reactivated, at least in part, in the late Paleozoic as the Pedregosa basin and in the Mesozoic as the Chihuahua trough. These reactivations were apparently not full-fledged rifting events, but did result in basin development. The Sierra del Nido block was a paleographic high throughout the Paleozoic, and the Aldama platform developed on this block during the Cretaceous. The most recent reactivation of the aulacogen is as the southern extension of the Rio Grande rift, as evidenced by trends of high heat flow, recent mafic magmatism, and regional extensional faulting.

Goodell, P.C.; Dyer, R.; Keller, G.R.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Case history: Vertical barrier wall system for Superfund Site  

SciTech Connect

Design considerations and construction aspects are presented for the installation of a vertical barrier wall system for the Boeing Company at a Superfund Site near Seattle, WA. The construction was performed during 1996. The vertical barrier wall system included: (1) a soil-bentonite (SB) slurry wall, approximately 670 meters (2200 feet) in length, ranging from 12 to 21 meters (40 to 70 feet) in depth; (2) expansion of a cover system over the area enclosed by the SB wall; and (3) surface drainage improvements. Design and construction of the system addressed requirements of a Consent Decree for the site issued in 1993. The paper discusses the development of the design to meet remedial performance goals of preventing migration of contaminants in the soil/groundwater system and aiding aquifer restoration. Secondly, the paper details installation of the SB wall, highlighting the more significant construction issues, which included excavation of the wall through glacially deposited cobbles/boulders/till as well as addressing the severe elevation changes along the wall alignment. Thirdly, the paper presents Quality Assurance (QA) monitoring and testing performed during the construction phase.

Koelling, M.A.; Kovac, C.P.; Norris, J.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Barriers to Planning for At-Risk students Implications for Teacher Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Barriers to Planning for At-Risk Students Implications for Teacher Planning Authors: B. Keith Lenz, Brenda Kissam, Janet Roth, Janis Bulgren, & Jeff Melvin The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning No. 7'J. August, 1992... Barriers to Planning for At-Risk Students Implications for Teacher Planning B. Keith Lenz Brenda Kissam Janet Roth Janis Bulgren Jeff Melvin The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning August 1992 Running Head: Barriers to Planning...

Lenz, B. Keith; Kissam, Brenda; Roth, Janet; Bulgren, Janis; Melvin, Jeff

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Ozone production by nanoporous dielectric barrier glow discharge in atmospheric pressure air  

SciTech Connect

This study is aimed at demonstrating plasma-chemical ozone production based on low temperature atmospheric pressure glow discharge through nanoporous dielectric barriers. The 20 kHz ac driven discharge is formed in air or oxygen gas flowing in the axial direction of the cylindrical plasma reactor containing four parallel aluminum rods covered with nanoporous alumina films. The discharge utilizing nanoporous dielectric barrier is more uniform and more energy efficient in ozone generation than the discharge through smooth-surface dielectric barriers.

Cho, J. H.; Koo, I. G.; Choi, M. Y.; Lee, W. M. [Department of Chemistry and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

436

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, June 1, 1996--July 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

An improved thermal barrier coating system with good reliability and thermal performance is described. The report discusses the coating process, manufacturing, repair, deposition, and microstructure of the coatings.

NONE

1996-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

437

Thermal Barrier Coatings Chemically and Mechanically Resistant to High Temperature Attack by Molten Ashes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are ceramic coatings used on component in the hottest sections of gas turbine engines, used for power generation and aviation. (more)

Gledhill, Andrew Dean

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Electrodeposited Ni/Ge and germanide schottky barriers for nanoelectronics applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In recent years metal/semiconductor Schottky barriers have found numerous applications in nanoelectronics. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the improvement of a few (more)

Husain, Muhammad Khaled

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Assessment of an active dry barrier for a landfill cover system  

SciTech Connect

A dry barrier is a layer of geologic material that is dried by air flow. An active dry barrier system can be designed, installed, and operated as part of a landfill cover system. An active system uses blowers and fans to move air through a high-permeability layer within the cover system. Depending principally on the air-flow rate, it is possible for a dry barrier to remove enough water to substantially reduce the likelihood of water percolating through the cover system. If a material with a relatively great storage capacity, such as processed tuff, is used as the coarse layer, then the efficiency of the dry barrier will be increased.

Stormont, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ankeny, M.D.; Burkhard, M.E.; Tansey, M.K.; Kelsey, J.A. [Stephens (Daniel B.) and Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

IPR Barriers in Collaboration between University and Engineering Industry in Sweden.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This thesis examines the barriers, especially intellectual property rights concerned that inhibit industry academia collaboration. By analyzing Swedish firms in the engineering industry, I (more)

Huang, Wenting

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Blood-aqueous barrier in pseudoexfoliation syndrome: evaluation by immunohistochemical staining of endogenous albumin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background: Alterations of the integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) are frequent findings in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PSX). Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for the demonstration ...

Michael Kchle; Stanley A. Vinores

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

E-Print Network 3.0 - allocation barrier concept Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Singapore Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 5 The Fuzzy Barrier: A Mechanism for High Speed Synchronization of Processors* Summary: the...

443

Atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air : plasma characterisation for skin therapy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A pulsed atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device operating in air is investigated for medical applications such as for skin disinfection and promotion of wound (more)

Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Method for applying a barrier layer to a silicon based substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for applying a barrier layer which comprises a barium-strontium aluminosilicate to a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of cracks.

Eaton, Harry E. (Woodstock, CT); Lawton, Thomas H. (Wethersfield, CT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Method for applying a barrier layer to a silicon based substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for applying a barrier layer which comprises a barium-strontium aluminosilicate to a silicon containing substrate which inhibits the formation of cracks.

Eaton, Harry E. (Woodstock, CT); Lawton, Thomas H. (Wethersfield, CT)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Energy: Workshop Report, October 28, 2010  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy's Deployment Barriers to Distributed Wind Technology Workshop, held October 28, 2010 in Denver, Colorado.

447

Overcoming Persistent Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Housing through Partnerships  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on Overcoming Persistent Barriers to Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Housing through Partnerships.

448

Hanford Site Long-term Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1994 highlights  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, plus preventing or minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. A team of scientists from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) direct the barrier development effort. ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, in conjunction with WHC and PNL, developed design drawings and construction specifications for a 5-acre prototype barrier. The highlight of efforts in FY 1994 was the construction of the prototype barrier. The prototype barrier was constructed on the Hanford Site at the 200 BP-1 Operable Unit of the 200 East Area. Construction was completed in August 1994 and monitoring instruments are being installed so experiments on the prototype barrier can begin in FY 1995. The purpose of the prototype barrier is to provide insights and experience with issues regarding barrier design, construction, and performance that have not been possible with individual tests and experiments conducted to date. Additional knowledge and experience was gained in FY 1994 on erosion control, physical stability, water infiltration control, model testing, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) comparisons, biointrusion control, long-term performance, and technology transfer.

Petersen, K.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Ionic Liquids: Radiation Chemistry, Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity Patterns  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquids (ILs) are a rapidly expanding family of condensed-phase media with important applications in energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs generally have low volatilities and are combustion-resistant, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of primary radiation chemistry, charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of reactions and product distributions. We study these issues by characterization of primary radiolysis products and measurements of their yields and reactivity, quantification of electron solvation dynamics and scavenging of electrons in different states of solvation. From this knowledge we wish to learn how to predict radiolytic mechanisms and control them or mitigate their effects on the properties of materials used in nuclear fuel processing, for example, and to apply IL radiation chemistry to answer questions about general chemical reactivity in ionic liquids that will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that the slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increase the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alter product distributions and subsequent chemistry. This difference from conventional solvents has profound effects on predicting and controlling radiolytic yields, which need to be quantified for the successful use under radiolytic conditions. Electron solvation dynamics in ILs are measured directly when possible and estimated using proxies (e.g. coumarin-153 dynamic emission Stokes shifts or benzophenone anion solvation) in other cases. Electron reactivity is measured using ultrafast kinetics techniques for comparison with the solvation process.

Wishart, J.F.

2011-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

450

Theoretical Investigation of Hydrogen Adsorption and Dissociation on Iron and Iron Carbide Surfaces Using the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Method  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe hydrogen adsorption and dissociation on iron and iron carbide surfaces relevant for simulation of FischerTropsch (FT) synthesis on iron catalysts. This force field enables large system (>>1000 atoms) simulations of hydrogen related reactions with iron. The ReaxFF force field parameters are trained against a substantial amount of structural and energetic data including the equations of state and heats of formation of iron and iron carbide related materials, as well as hydrogen interaction with iron surfaces and different phases of bulk iron. We have validated the accuracy and applicability of ReaxFF force field by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen adsorption, dissociation and recombination on iron and iron carbide surfaces. The barriers and reaction energies for molecular dissociation on these two types of surfaces have been compared and the effect of subsurface carbon on hydrogen interaction with iron surface is evaluated. We found that existence of carbon atoms at subsurface iron sites tends to increase the hydrogen dissociation energy barrier on the surface, and also makes the corresponding hydrogen dissociative state relatively more stable compared to that on bare iron. These properties of iron carbide will affect the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} and will retain more surface hydride species, thus influencing the dynamics of the FT synthesis process.

Zou, Chenyu; van Duin, Adri C.T.; Sorescu, Dan C.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Photochemical Modeling of Emissions Trading of Highly Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds in Houston, Texas. 1. Reactivity Based Trading and Potential for Ozone Hot Spot Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photochemical Modeling of Emissions Trading of Highly Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds in Houston, Texas. ... (12)?Thompson, T. M.; Wang, L.; Web, A.; McDonald-Buller, E.; Allen, D. T. Photochemical Modeling of the Air Quality Impacts of an Emissions Trading Program for Highly Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds (HRVOCs) in Texas; Air and Waste Management Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans, June, 2006. ...

Linlin Wang; Tammy Thompson; Elena C. McDonald-Buller; Alba Webb; David T. Allen

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

452

NETL: News Release - Fuel Cell Projects Address Barriers to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 1, 2006 June 1, 2006 Fuel Cell Projects Address Barriers to Commercialization Six Projects Focus on Improvements to Materials, Key Components WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy today announced the selection of six research and development (R&D) projects expected to further enhance solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, moving it one step closer to commercialization. These projects, part of DOE's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), build upon earlier Phase I research to support the development of efficient, low-cost and near-zero emissions SOFC power systems. "The projects selected reflect yet another step forward in the President's Hydrogen and Climate Initiatives, which envision a key role for fuel cells," said Jeffrey Jarrett, Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy. "These projects are expected to further push fuel cell technology toward the ultimate application of fuel cells in FutureGen, the zero-emissions coal-fired plant of the future."

453

Carbon Capture and Storage Projects Overcoming Legal and Regulatory Barriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2006/1236 2006/1236 June 23, 2006 International Carbon Capture and Storage Projects Overcoming Legal Barriers Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

454

Energy Savings Certificate Markets: Opportunities and Implementation Barriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6A2-45970 6A2-45970 July 2009 Energy Savings Certificate Markets: Opportunities and Implementation Barriers Barry Friedman and Lori Bird National Renewable Energy Laboratory Galen Barbose Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Presented at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Third International Conference on Energy Sustainability San Francisco, California July 19-23, 2009 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (ASE), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and ASE retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes.

455

Poloidal flow damping inside transport barriers in a tokamak  

SciTech Connect

The poloidal flow in a tokamak is damped by collisions. Thus, the poloidal damping can be described by the neoclassical theory. The effective poloidal Mach number, M{sub p}, can be of the order of one or higher inside transport barriers in a tokamak. It is found that the poloidal damping rate decreases exponentially as the effective poloidal Mach number increases. The poloidal damping rate is reduced by one order of magnitude in the presence of sonic M{sub p}. We also found that the ion plasma viscosity becomes negligible compared with the electron plasma viscosity when M{sub p}>1.5. In this case, the poloidal flow is damped by electron collisions rather than ion collisions.

Seol, J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Shaing, K. C. [Institute for Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Engineering Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Silicon carbide tritium permeation barrier for steel structural components.  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) has superior resistance to tritium permeation even after irradiation. Prior work has shown Ultrametfoam to be forgiving when bonded to substrates with large CTE differences. The technical objectives are: (1) Evaluate foams of vanadium, niobium and molybdenum metals and SiC for CTE mitigation between a dense SiC barrier and steel structure; (2) Thermostructural modeling of SiC TPB/Ultramet foam/ferritic steel architecture; (3) Evaluate deuterium permeation of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC; (4) D testing involved construction of a new higher temperature (> 1000 C) permeation testing system and development of improved sealing techniques; (5) Fabricate prototype tube similar to that shown with dimensions of 7cm {theta} and 35cm long; and (6) Tritium and hermeticity testing of prototype tube.

Causey, Rion A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Garde, Joseph Maurico; Buchenauer, Dean A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Calderoni, Pattrick (Idaho National Laboratory); Holschuh, Thomas, Jr.; Youchison, Dennis Lee; Wright, Matt; Kolasinski, Robert D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Ceramic thermal barrier coating for rapid thermal cycling applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal barrier coating for metal articles subjected to rapid thermal cycling includes a metallic bond coat deposited on the metal article, at least one MCrAlY/ceramic layer deposited on the bond coat, and a ceramic top layer deposited on the MCrAlY/ceramic layer. The M in the MCrAlY material is Fe, Ni, Co, or a mixture of Ni and Co. The ceramic in the MCrAlY/ceramic layer is mullite or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The ceramic top layer includes a ceramic with a coefficient of thermal expansion less than about 5.4.times.10.sup.-6 .degree.C.sup.-1 and a thermal conductivity between about 1 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1 and about 1.7 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1.

Scharman, Alan J. (Hebron, CT); Yonushonis, Thomas M. (Columbus, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Capital expenditure announcements and anti-takeover barriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we compare capital budget announcements by firms with anti-takeover mechanisms in place to announcements by firms without takeover barriers during the period 1980 to 1995. We find that anti-takeover provisions do not affect investors average reactions to investment choices. Market responses are heterogeneous; however, and differ according to size, growth opportunity, the availability of free cash flow and exposure to the capital markets. We find evidence consistent with managerial entrenchment when firms are insulated from the threat of takeover and have enough free cash flow to avoid raising external capital. We also find that for small firms, the reaction to capital investment announcements are positively related to free cash flow when managers have high growth opportunities, but negatively related when investment opportunity is small. This result is consistent with Noe (1988), who shows that restricting managers investment choices to positive NPV projects is necessary to obtain the pecking order results of Myers and Majluf (1984).

Jeffery A Born; Harley E Ryan Jr.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

A variational calculation of the trapping rate in thermal barriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A variational calculation of the trapping rate and trapped-ion density in thermal barriers is presented. The effects of diffusion in energy as well as pitch-angle scattering are retained. The variational formulation uses the actual trapped/passing boundary in velocity space. The boundary condition is that the trapped-ion distribution function match the passing-ion distribution function, which is taken to be a Maxwellian, on the boundary. The results compare well with the two-dimensional Fokker-Planck code calculations by Futch and LoDestro. The CPU time for a variational calculation is less than 0.1 s using the CRAY-I computer, while a typical Fokker-Planck code calculation takes 1020 min.

X.Z. Li; G.A. Emmert

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Real-time environmental monitoring of the Great Barrier Reef  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is the largest natural feature on earth, stretching more than 2300 km along the northeast coast of Australia. It contains a diverse array of species and habitats that are threatened by environmental and human impacts. Monitoring environmental changes would give a better understanding of the health of this ecological system. It would also help shape decision-making to ensure this important natural asset is protected into the future. This paper investigates how environmental information can be collected and brought back to the mainland from the GBR. A novel method of using the evaporation duct above the ocean surface to tunnel radio signals beyond the horizon is proposed for the link to the mainland, and the design of a hybrid power supply is also outlined. A monitoring network for use on Davies Reef, approximately 80 km off the coast of northern Queensland, is used as a case study in this paper.

Adam B. Ruxton; Graham S. Woods; Gilles Gigan; Cameron R. Huddlestone-Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Distributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anthony G. Evans* Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Thermal barrier and generating new thermal resistance solutions, as appropri- ate. A continuum heat flow analysis is usedDistributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor

Wadley, Haydn

462

ATOMIC-LEVEL PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL-CERAMIC INTERFRACES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

engines. These TBC's are comprised of ceramics, with favorably low thermal conductivity, deposited years ago.2 Hence, engineers looked to ceramic materials as a means of providing a thermal barrierChapter 1 ATOMIC-LEVEL PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS : CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL

Carter, Emily A.

463

Institutionnal dynamics and barriers to sustainable construction in France, the United Kingdom and the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resources in sustainable urban design and sustainable building design. In Britain, a broader agenda has beenInstitutionnal dynamics and barriers to sustainable construction in France, the United Kingdom). Institutionnal dynamics and barriers to sustainable construction in France, the United Kingdom

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

464

Abstract A53: Causes and barriers associated with the Pap test among Latina farmworkers in Georgia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Causes and barriers associated with the Pap test among Latina farmworkers in Georgia John...and barriers related to use of the Pap test among Mexican farmworker women in South...10 years) who had not received a Pap test in over 2 years. In a previous study using...

John S. Luque; Jonathan Maupin; Yelena Tarasenko; Moya Alfonso; Lisa Watson; Claudia Reyes-Garcia

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1992 and 1993 highlights  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company to design and test an earthen cover system that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company provided engineering design support for the program. Work on barrier design has been under way at Hanford for nearly 10 years. The comprehensive development of a long-term barrier, formerly the Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program, was initiated in FY 1986, and a general field-tested design is expected to be completed by FY 1998. Highlights of efforts in FY 1992 and FY 1993 included the resumption of field testing, the completion of the prototype barrier design, and the convening of an external peer review panel, which met twice with the barrier development team. The review panel provided helpful guidance on current and future barrier development activities, while commending the program for its significant technical contributions to innovative barrier technology development.

Cadwell, L.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W. [eds.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Sub-barrier capture reactions with $^{16,18}$O and $^{40,48}$Ca beams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various sub-barrier capture reactions with beams $^{16,18}$O and $^{40,48}$Ca are treated within the quantum diffusion approach. The role of neutron transfer in these capture reactions is discussed. The quasielastic and capture barrier distributions are analyzed and compared with the recent experimental data.

V. V. Sargsyan; G. G. Adamian; N. V. Antonenko; W. Scheid; H. Q. Zhang

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

467

Lifetime Assessment for Thermal Barrier Coatings: Tests for Measuring Mixed Mode Delamination Toughness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the thermally grown oxide (TGO), and a porous ceramic topcoat which serves as the thermal insulation. DetailsLifetime Assessment for Thermal Barrier Coatings: Tests for Measuring Mixed Mode Delamination Mechanisms leading to degradation of the adherence of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) used in aircraft

Hutchinson, John W.

468

Definition of contributions of geographic information systems for solving barrier-free environment issues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The goal of this article is to define contributions of geoinformation technologies to solving issues of barrier-free environment. Contributions were defined based on solving concrete spatial analyses in Dv?r Krlov nad Labem and Hlinsko ... Keywords: barrier-free, geoinformation technologies, physically impaired people, spatial analyses

Pavel Sedlk; Jitka Komrkov; Marek B?lohlvek; Veronika Koutnkov; Lucie Horkov; Katerina Havlckov; Karel Dlabal; Michal Caha; Tom Berkovec; Bohumr t?rba

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Electron transport measurements of Schottky barrier inhomogeneities L. E. Calvet,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of metal silicide contacts instead of p­n junctions. SBMOSFETs have been proposed as an alternative metal­oxide­semiconductor field-effect transistors. Direct tunneling through the Schottky barrier metal/semiconductor contact area. The inhomogeneities result in different average Schottky barrier

Reed, Mark

470

Design, system model and development of customized electronic light barriers for robotic and mechatronic applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent decades, indispensability of customized development of industrial-grade products has been widely recognized. The present paper describes the design, modeling and indigenous hardware development of such a product, namely, 'Electronic Light Barrier', ... Keywords: Guarding system, Industrial application, Light barrier, Mechatronics, Metrology, Model, Robotics

Debanik Roy

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Surface altered zeolites as permeable barriers for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The authors characterized surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for its ability to sorb organic and inorganic contaminants from water. The ultimate objective is to use SMZ as a permeable barrier to prevent migration of contaminants in groundwater. This report summarizes results under Phase 1 of a three-phase project leading to a full-scale field demonstration of SMZ permeable- barrier technology.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

TLSync: Support for Multiple Fast Barriers Using On-Chip Transmission Lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TLSync: Support for Multiple Fast Barriers Using On-Chip Transmission Lines Jungju Oh jungju in a transmission-line broadcast network, thus leaving the transmission line network free for non-modulated (base--Interconnection architectures General Terms Design, Performance Keywords Multi-core, Synchronization, Barrier, Transmission Line

Prvulovic, Milos

473

Deposition of WNxCy thin films for diffusion barrier application using the dimethylhydrazido (2-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thickness to the barrier scheme as well as an additional processing step. Binary transition metal compounds 13 April 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Chemical vapor deposition Metallization Tungsten nitride carbide Diffusion barrier X-ray diffraction Auger electron spectroscopy Tungsten nitride carbide

Anderson, Timothy J.

474

Impacts from Deployment Barriers on the United States Wind Power Industry: Overview & Preliminary Findings (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Regardless of cost and performance some wind projects are unable to proceed to commissioning as a result of deployment barriers. Principal deployment barriers in the industry today include: wildlife, public acceptance, access to transmission, and radar. To date, methods for understanding these non-technical barriers have failed to accurately characterize the costs imposed by deployment barriers and the degree of impact to the industry. Analytical challenges include limited data and modeling capabilities. Changes in policy and regulation, among other factors, also add complexity to analysis of impacts from deployment barriers. This presentation details preliminary results from new NREL analysis focused on quantifying the impact of deployment barriers on the wind resource of the United States, the installed cost of wind projects, and the total electric power system cost of a 20% wind energy future. In terms of impacts to wind project costs and developable land, preliminary findings suggest that deployment barriers are secondary to market drivers such as demand. Nevertheless, impacts to wind project costs are on the order of $100/kW and a substantial share of the potentially developable windy land in the United States is indeed affected by deployment barriers.

Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Heimiller, D.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

ORNL/TM-2007/124 Carbon Lock-In: Barriers To Deploying  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ORNL/TM-2007/124 Carbon Lock-In: Barriers To Deploying Climate Change Mitigation Technologies Science and Technology Division CARBON LOCK-IN: BARRIERS TO DEPLOYING CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION Carbon Lock-In Business Risks of Innovation Incumbent Technology Support Systems High Transaction Costs

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

476

Reactive multilayer synthesis of hard ceramic foils and films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for synthesizing hard ceramic materials such as carbides, borides nd aluminides, particularly in the form of coatings provided on another material so as to improve the wear and abrasion performance of machine tools, for example. The method involves the sputter deposition of alternating layers of reactive metals with layers of carbon, boron, or aluminum and the subsequent reaction of the multilayered structure to produce a dense crystalline ceramic. The material can be coated on a substrate or formed as a foil which can be coild as a tape for later use.

Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Reactive sticking coefficients for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon  

SciTech Connect

Reactive sticking coefficients (RSCs) were measured for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon for a wide range of temperature and flux (pressure) conditions. The data were obtained from deposition-rate measurements using molecular beam scattering and a very low-pressure cold-wall reactor. The RSCs have nonlinear Arrhenius temperature dependencies and decrease with increasing flux at low (710 /sup 0/C) temperatures. Several simple models are proposed to explain these observations. The results are compared with previous studies of the SiH/sub 4//Si(s) reaction and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition-rate measurements.

Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

478

Modeling biogechemical reactive transport in a fracture zone  

SciTech Connect

A coupled model of groundwater flow, reactive solute transport and microbial processes for a fracture zone of the Aspo site at Sweden is presented. This is the model of the so-called Redox Zone Experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of tunnel construction on the geochemical conditions prevailing in a fracture granite. It is found that a model accounting for microbially-mediated geochemical processes is able to reproduce the unexpected measured increasing trends of dissolved sulfate and bicarbonate. The model is also useful for testing hypotheses regarding the role of microbial processes and evaluating the sensitivity of model results to changes in biochemical parameters.

Molinero, Jorge; Samper, Javier; Yang, Chan Bing, and Zhang, Guoxiang; Guoxiang, Zhang

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

479

Drivers and Barriers in the Current Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Market  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Drivers and Barriers in the Current Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Market Drivers and Barriers in the Current Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Market (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Drivers and Barriers in the Current Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Market (Webinar) Focus Area: Solar Topics: Market Analysis Website: www.leonardo-energy.org/webinar-drivers-and-barriers-current-csp-marke Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/drivers-and-barriers-current-concentr Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: Mandates/Targets This video teaches users about the four major types of concentrating solar power technologies (CSP): parabolic trough, tower concentrators, linear Fresnel lenses and dish engine systems. It also provides an overview of the trends in the market and research that should be performed in order to make

480

Fusion of $^{6}$Li with $^{159}$Tb} at near barrier energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complete and incomplete fusion cross sections for $^{6}$Li+$^{159}$Tb have been measured at energies around the Coulomb barrier by the $\\gamma$-ray method. The measurements show that the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies are suppressed by $\\sim$34% compared to the coupled channels calculations. A comparison of the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies with the existing data of $^{11,10}$B+$^{159}$Tb and $^{7}$Li+$^{159}$Tb shows that the extent of suppression is correlated with the $\\alpha$-separation energies of the projectiles. It has been argued that the Dy isotopes produced in the reaction $^{6}$Li+$^{159}$Tb, at below-barrier energies are primarily due to the $d$-transfer to unbound states of $^{159}$Tb, while both transfer and incomplete fusion processes contribute at above-barrier energies.

M. K. Pradhan; A. Mukherjee; P. Basu; A. Goswami; R. Kshetri; R. Palit; V. V. Parkar; M. Ray; Subinit Roy; P. Roy Chowdhury; M. Saha Sarkar; S. Santra

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reactive barrier prb" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Subterranean barriers, methods, and apparatuses for forming, inspecting, selectively heating, and repairing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Walsh, Stephanie (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho, ID)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

482

Synthesis of belite cement clinker of high hydraulic reactivity  

SciTech Connect

This study is concerned with the increase of the cooling rate of belite clinker, by using the water quenching for the chemical stabilization of reactive belite, which improves the hydraulic properties of this clinker. The addition of adequate mineralizers, as NaF and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, contributes to the improvement of the clinker properties obtained at low burning temperature. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and optical microscopy were used to determine the chemical and mineralogical compositions of this clinker. The samples were analyzed by means of a scanning electronic microscope connected with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer to detect the composition of the belite phase and its morphology. Physical and mechanical properties of this clinker cement were determined. The results show that the belite clinker obtained at 1150 {sup o}C, with lime saturation factor 0.67, is characterized by a great hydraulic reactivity, similar to that of the ordinary alite clinker. The addition of 2% of NaF and the water quenching improved the chemical, mineralogical and structural properties, while improving the cement hydraulic properties.

Kacimi, Larbi [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes, Departement de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d'Oran, B.P. 1505, El-M'nouar, U.S.T. Oran (Algeria)], E-mail: kacimi20002000@yahoo.fr; Simon-Masseron, Angelique [Laboratoire des Materiaux a Porosite Controlee, CNRS UMR 7016, Universite de Haute-Alsace, 3, rue Alfred-Werner, F-68093 Mulhouse cedex (France)], E-mail: A.Simon@univ-mulhouse.fr; Salem, Souria [Departement d'Architecture, Faculte de Genie Civile, USTO-Oran (Algeria)], E-mail: zinaisalem@yahoo.fr; Ghomari, Abdelhamid [Departement de Chimie, U.A.I.B., Route de Belahcel, Mostaganem (Algeria)], E-mail: belkey@hotmail.com; Derriche, Zoubir [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes, Departement de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d'Oran, B.P. 1505, El-M'nouar, U.S.T. Oran (Algeria)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

483

Interaction phenomena at reactive metal/ceramic interfaces.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to understand the interface chemical reactions between stable ceramics and reactive liquid metals, and developing microstructure. Experiments were conducted at elevated temperatures where small metal samples of Zr and Zr-alloy were placed on top of selected oxide and non-oxide ceramic substrates (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrN, ZrC, and HfC). The sample stage was heated in high-purity argon to about 2000 C, held in most cases for five minutes at the peak temperature, and then cooled to room temperature at {approximately}20 c/min. An external video camera was used to monitor the in-situ wetting and interface reactions. Post-test examinations of the systems were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was determined that the Zr and the Zr-alloy are very active in the wetting of stable ceramics at elevated temperatures. In addition, in some systems, such as Zr/ZrN, a reactive transition phase formed between the ceramic and the metal. In other systems, such as Zr/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Zr/ZrC and Zr/HfC, no reaction products formed, but a continuous and strong joint developed under these circumstances also.

McDeavitt, S. M.; Billings, G. W.; Indacochea, J. E.

2000-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

484

REACTIVITY OF ANIONS IN INTERSTELLAR MEDIA: DETECTABILITY AND APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We propose a general rule to distinguish between detectable and undetectable astronomical anions. We believe that only few anions live long enough in the interstellar medium and thus can be detected. Our method is based on quantum mechanical calculations capable of describing accurately the evolution of electronic states during chemical processes. The still not fully understood reactivity at low temperatures is discussed considering non-adiabatic effects. The role of excited states has usually been neglected in previous works which basically focused on the ground electronic state for interpretations of experimental observations. Here, we deal with unsaturated carbon chains (e.g., C{sub n} H{sup -}), which show a high density of electronic states close to their corresponding ground electronic states, complex molecular dynamics, and non-adiabatic phenomena. Our general rule shows that it is not sufficient that anions exist in the gas phase (in the laboratory) to be present in media such as astrophysical media, since formation and decomposition reactions of these anions may allow the population of anionic electronic states to autodetach, forming neutrals. For C{sub n} H, reactivity depends strongly on n, where long and short chains behave differently. Formation of linear chains is relevant.

Senent, M. L. [Departamento de Quimica y Fisica Teoricas, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Hochlaf, M., E-mail: senent@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr [Laboratoire de Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, Universite Paris-Est, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France)

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Electrochemical behavior of reactively sputtered iron-doped nickel oxide  

SciTech Connect

Iron-doped nickel oxide films were deposited by reactive sputtering from elemental and alloy targets in a 20% oxygen/argon atmosphere and were characterized for use as oxygen evolution catalysts. The incorporation of iron reduced the overpotential required for oxygen evolution by as much as 300 mV at a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} compared to undoped nickel oxide deposited under similar conditions. Tafel slopes were reduced from 95 mV/dec in undoped NiO{sub x} films to less than 40 mV/dec for films containing 1.6 to 5.6 mole percent (m/o) iron, indicating a change in the rate-limiting step from the primary discharge of OH{sup {minus}} ions to the recombination of oxygen radicals. Resistivity, structural, and compositional measurements indicate that high oxygen content is necessary to gain the full benefit of the iron dopant. Initial tests in KOH indicate excellent long-term stability. A film deposited from the FeNi alloy target, which exhibited low oxygen overpotentials and a Tafel slope of 35 mV/dec, had not degraded appreciably following more than 7,000 h of operation at an anodic current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}. Taken together, the low oxygen evolution reaction overpotentials, the excellent stability in KOH, and the relative insensitivity to iron content indicative that reactively sputtered iron-doped nickel oxide is promising as an oxygen catalyst.

Miller, E.L.; Rocheleau, R.E. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP): Using the CBP Software Toolbox to Simulate Sulfate Attack and Carbonation of Concrete Structures - 13481  

SciTech Connect

The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Tank Waste Management. The CBP project has developed a set of integrated modeling tools and leaching test methods to help improve understanding and prediction of the long-term hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious materials used in nuclear applications. State-of-the-art modeling tools, including LeachXS{sup TM}/ORCHESTRA and STADIUM{sup R}, were selected for their demonstrated abilities to simulate reactive transport and degradation in cementitious materials. The new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency leaching test methods based on the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF), now adopted as part of the SW-846 RCRA methods, have been used to help make the link between modeling and experiment. Although each of the CBP tools has demonstrated utility as a standalone product, coupling the models over relevant spatial and temporal solution domains can provide more accurate predictions of cementitious materials behavior over relevant periods of performance. The LeachXS{sup TM}/ORCHESTRA and STADIUM{sup R} models were first linked to the GoldSim Monte Carlo simulator to better and more easily characterize model uncertainties and as a means to coupling the models allowing linking to broader performance assessment evaluations that use CBP results for a source term. Two important degradation scenarios were selected for initial demonstration: sulfate ingress / attack and carbonation of cementitious materials. When sufficient sulfate is present in the pore solution external to a concrete barrier, sulfate can diffuse into the concrete, react with the concrete solid phases, and cause cracking that significantly changes the transport and structural properties of the concrete. The penetration of gaseous carbon dioxide within partially saturated concrete usually initiates a series of carbonation reactions with both dissolved ions and the hydrated cement paste. The carbonation process itself does not have a negative effect, per se, on the paste physical properties and can even result in reduced porosity and can help form a protective layer at the surface of concrete. However, carbonation has been shown to increase leaching of some constituents and can potentially have a detrimental effect on reinforced concrete structures by lowering pH to ca. 9 and de-passivating embedded steel (e.g. rebar) and accelerating corrosion, which are important processes related to high-level waste tank integrity and closure evaluations. The use of the CBP Software Toolbox to simulate these important degradation phenomena for both concrete vaults and high-level waste tanks are demonstrated in this paper. (authors)

Brown, K.G.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.C.; Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, School of Engineering, CRESP, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)] [Vanderbilt University, School of Engineering, CRESP, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Flach, G.; Langton, C.; Smith, F.G.III; Burns, H. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Van der Sloot, H. [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy, Dorpsstraat 216, 1721BV Langedijk (Netherlands)] [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy, Dorpsstraat 216, 1721BV Langedijk (Netherlands); Meeussen, J.C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Petten (Netherlands)] [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Petten (Netherlands); Seignette, P.F.A.B. [Energy Research Center of The Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands)] [Energy Research Center of The Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies, Inc., Quebec (Canada)] [SIMCO Technologies, Inc., Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P.; Suttora, L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D.; Fuhrmann, M.; Philip, J. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)] [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin comp