Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Ionic (Proton) Transport Hydrogen Separation Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(Proton) (Proton) Transport Hydrogen Separation Systems Summary Session Participants -- Ionic Transport Balachandran, Balu Cornelius, Chris Fleming, Greg Glass, Robert Hartvigsen, Joseph Higgins, Richard King, David Paster, Mark Paul, Dilo Robbins, John Samells, Anthony Schwartz, Michael Schinski, Bill Smith, Ronald Van Bibber, Lawrence Zalesky, Rick Argonne National Laboratory Sandia National Laboratory Air Liquide Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Cerametec, Inc. CeraMem Corporation Battelle, PNNL DOE Science Applications International Corporation ExxonMobil Eltron Research, Inc. ITN Energy Systems ChevronTexaco SRI Consulting SAIC ChevronTexaco Technology Ventures Performance Goals 4-5 years (5 years upper limit) (100,000 hrs is 12 years) High durability 250-350

2

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00...

3

Reaction-Driven Ion Transport Membrane  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jenny B. Tennant Jenny B. Tennant Gasification Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 304-285-4830 jenny.tennant@netl.doe.gov Susan Maley Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 304-285-1321 susan.maley@netl.doe.gov David Studer Principal Investigator Air Products and Chemicals Inc.

4

Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E. Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospectsthem attention as “green” solvents for synthesis and

Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Ionic transport in nanocapillary membrane systems Vikhram V. Swaminathan Larry R. Gibson II  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords Membranes Á Nanostructures Á Nanofluidics Á Microfluidics Á Ion transport Á Electrokinetics Á lREVIEW Ionic transport in nanocapillary membrane systems Vikhram V. Swaminathan · Larry R. Gibson / Accepted: 23 May 2012 � Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012 Abstract Species transport

6

Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Catalytic systems based on bimetallic particles with controlled size, composition, and structure dispersed on a high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the particles, the modification of the surface structure and composition that may occur when reaction conditions change can have dramatic effects on catalyst activity and selectivity. Working at the ALS, a University of California, Berkeley-Berkeley Lab group has used an ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) apparatus to demonstrate that bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can undergo profound structural and chemical changes in response to reactive environments at ambient pressures, thereby opening the way for engineering catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity.

8

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Catalytic systems based on bimetallic particles with controlled size, composition, and structure dispersed on a high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the particles, the modification of the surface structure and composition that may occur when reaction conditions change can have dramatic effects on catalyst activity and selectivity. Working at the ALS, a University of California, Berkeley-Berkeley Lab group has used an ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) apparatus to demonstrate that bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can undergo profound structural and chemical changes in response to reactive environments at ambient pressures, thereby opening the way for engineering catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity.

9

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Catalytic systems based on bimetallic particles with controlled size, composition, and structure dispersed on a high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the particles, the modification of the surface structure and composition that may occur when reaction conditions change can have dramatic effects on catalyst activity and selectivity. Working at the ALS, a University of California, Berkeley-Berkeley Lab group has used an ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) apparatus to demonstrate that bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can undergo profound structural and chemical changes in response to reactive environments at ambient pressures, thereby opening the way for engineering catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity.

10

Microscopic Transport in Mixtures of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

andor storage of carbon dioxide. For these applications in addition to CO 2 sorption properties, also transport properties of the mixtures of CO 2 and ILs are of high...

11

Coupled ionic and electronic heat transport at the nanoscale.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In modeling thermal transport in nanoscale systems, classical molecular dynamics (MD) explicitly represents phonon modes and scattering mechanisms, but electrons and their role in energy transport are missing. Furthermore, the assumption of local equilibrium between ions and electrons often fails at the nanoscale. We have coupled MD (implemented in the LAMMPS MD package) with a partial differential equation based representation of the electrons (implemented using finite elements). The coupling between the subsystems occurs via a local version of the two-temperature model. Key parameters of the model are calculated using the Time Dependent Density Functional Theory with either explicit or implicit energy flow. We will discuss application of this work in the context of the US DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT).

Olmsted, David L.; Modine, Normand Arthur; Beck, M. J. (University of Kentucky); Jones, Reese E.; Hatcher, R. M. (Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories); Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Wagner, Gregory John

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Final Report for DE-FG02-93ER14376,Ionic Transport in Electrochemical Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was a molecular dynamics study of the relevant issues associated with the structure and transport of lithium in polymer electrolytes such as polyethylene oxide(PEO). In close collaboration with quantum chemist Larry Curtiss and neutron scatterers David Lee Price and Marie-Louise Saboungi at Argonne, we used molecular dynamics to study the local structure and dynamics and ion transport in the polymer. The studies elucidated the mechanism of Li transport in PEO, revealing that the rate limiting step is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the torsion forces in the backbone of the polymer. Because the torsion forces are difficult to manipulate chemically, this makes it easier to understand why improving the conductivity of PEO based electrolytes has proven to be very difficult. We studied the transport properties of cations in ionic liquids as possible additives to polymer membranes for batteries and fuel cells and found preliminary indications that the transport is enhanced near phase separation in acid-ionic liquid mixtures.

J. W. Halley

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

13

Portlandite content and ionic transport properties of hydrated C{sub 3}S pastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a C{sub 3}S paste characterization study. The objective was to determine the parameters needed to model the process of degradation. The experimental study focused on determining the portlandite content and the ionic diffusion coefficients of C{sub 3}S paste. The molar C/S ratio of C-S-H in hydrated C{sub 3}S pastes was also investigated. The portlandite content was determined with an experimental method based on an electron microprobe analysis. This method leads to a portlandite mass content of 24.4 {+-} 2.3%. The diffusion coefficient of each ionic species was determined by inverse analysis of diffusion test data performed on hydrated C{sub 3}S samples using a multiionic transport model.

Henocq, P., E-mail: phenocq@simcotechnologies.com [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Quebec, G1P 4R7 (Canada); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Quebec, G1P 4R7 (Canada); Marchand, J. [SIMCO Technologies Inc., 1400, boul. du Parc-Technologique, Quebec, G1P 4R7 (Canada); Department of Civil Engineering, Laval University, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Lithium Ion Transport Mechanism in Ternary Polymer Electrolyte-Ionic Liquid Mixtures - A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The lithium transport mechanism in ternary polymer electrolytes, consisting of PEO/LiTFSI and various fractions of the ionic liquid N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, are investigated by means of MD simulations. This is motivated by recent experimental findings [Passerini et al., Electrochim. Acta 2012, 86, 330-338], which demonstrated that these materials display an enhanced lithium mobility relative to their binary counterpart PEO/LiTFSI. In order to grasp the underlying microscopic scenario giving rise to these observations, we employ an analytical, Rouse-based cation transport model [Maitra at al., PRL 2007, 98, 227802], which has originally been devised for conventional polymer electrolytes. This model describes the cation transport via three different mechanisms, each characterized by an individual time scale. It turns out that also in the ternary electrolytes essentially all lithium ions are coordinated by PEO chains, thus ruling out a transport mechanism enhanced by the presence of ionic-liquid molecules. Rather, the plasticizing effect of the ionic liquid contributes to the increased lithium mobility by enhancing the dynamics of the PEO chains and consequently also the motion of the attached ions. Additional focus is laid on the prediction of lithium diffusion coefficients from the simulation data for various chain lengths and the comparison with experimental data, thus demonstrating the broad applicability of our approach.

Diddo Diddens; Andreas Heuer

2012-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

15

Coupling and Testing the Fate and Transport of Heavy Metals and Other Ionic Species in a Groundwater Setting at Oak Ridge, TN - 13498  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Historical data show that heavy metals (including mercury) were released from Y -12 National Security Complex (NSC) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to the surrounding environments during its operation in 1950's. Studies have also shown that metals accumulated in the soil, rock, and groundwater, and are, at the present time, sources of contamination to nearby rivers and creeks (e.g., East Fork Poplar Creek, Bear Creek). For instance, mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) have been found and reported on the site groundwater. The groundwater type at the site is Ca-Mg-HCO{sub 3}. This paper presents a modeling application of PHREEQC, a model that simulates geochemical processes and couples them to flow and transport settings. The objective was to assess the capability of PHREEQC to simulate the transport of ionic species in groundwater at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; data were available from core holes and monitoring wells over a 736-m distance, within 60-300 m depths. First, predictions of the transport of major ionic species (i.e., Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}) in the water were made between monitoring wells and for GW-131. Second, the model was used to assess hypotheses under two scenarios of transport for Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg, in Ca-Mg-HCO{sub 3} water, as influenced by the following solid-liquid interactions: a) the role of ion exchange and b) the role of both ion exchange and sorption, the latter via surface complexation with Fe(OH){sub 3}. The transport scenario with ion exchange suggests that significant ion exchange is expected to occur for Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations, with no significant impact on Hg, within the first 100 m. Predictions match the expected values of the exchange coefficients relative to Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} (e.g., K{sub Ca/Zn} = K{sub Ca/Cd} > K{sub Ca/Pb} > K{sub Ca/Hg}). The scenario with both ion exchange and sorption does affect the concentrations of Zn and Cd to a small extent within the first 100 m, but does more meaningfully reduce the concentration of Pb, within the same distance, and also decreases the concentration of Hg in between core holes. Analysis of the above results, in the light of available literature on the ions of this study, does fundamentally support the capability of PHREEQC to predict the transport of major ions in a groundwater setting; it also generally supports the hypothesized role of ion exchange and sorption. The results indicate the potential of the model as a tool in the screening, selection and monitoring of remediation technologies for contaminated groundwater sites. (authors)

Noosai, Nantaporn; Fuentes, Hector R. [CEE Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)] [CEE Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research and practical applications. They present a wide range of complex physical and chemical behaviors, including ambient vapor pressures ranging from UHV to weakly volatile, a substantial variety of distinct condensed phases, including multiple crystal isomorphs, glasses, amorphous plastic and liquid crystal phases, deep supercooling, and interesting dynamical and transport phenomena. Experiments and simulations have shown that their intrinsic self-organization at the nanoscale is responsible for several of these properties. The symposium will assemble an international array of speakers to discuss ionic liquids in the context of their heterogeneous environments, solvation, dynamics and transport, interfacial properties,

17

journal Solid State Ionics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic acid solutions journal Solid State Ionics year month abstract p Proton exchange membranes are key solid state ion carriers in many relevant energy technologies including flow batteries fuel cells and solar fuel generators In many of these systems the membranes are in contact with electrolyte solutions In this paper we focus on the impact of different HBr a flow battery and exemplary acid electrolyte external concentrations on the conductivity of Nafion a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane that is commonly used in many energy related applications The peak and then decrease in conductivity is correlated with measured changes in the water and HBr content within the membrane In addition small angle x ray scattering is used to probe the nanostructure to

18

Quantized ionic conductance in nanopores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic transport in nanopores is a fundamentally and technologically important problem in view of its ubiquitous occurrence in biological processes and its impact on DNA sequencing applications. Using microscopic calculations, we show that ion transport may exhibit strong non-liDearities as a function of the pore radius reminiscent of the conductance quantization steps as a function of the transverse cross section of quantum point contacts. In the present case, however, conductance steps originate from the break up of the hydration layers that form around ions in aqueous solution. Once in the pore, the water molecules form wavelike structures due to multiple scattering at the surface of the pore walls and interference with the radial waves around the ion. We discuss these effects as well as the conditions under which the step-like features in the ionic conductance should be experimentally observable.

Zwolak, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lagerqvist, Johan [UCSD; Di Ventra, Massimilliano [UCSD

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Neutron production from 7Li(d,xn) nuclear fusion reactions driven by high-intensity laser–target interactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of neutron production from deuterium–lithium nuclear fusion reactions have been performed. A set of differential cross sections for the 7Li(d,xn) reaction for incident deuteron energies of up to 50?MeV is assembled. The angular distribution of neutrons from a thick lithium target is simulated and benchmarked against experimental data. Two-stage neutron production from laser–target experiments has been studied as a function of laser intensity and energy. During the first stage a well collimated deuteron beam is generated using a high-intensity ultrashort pulse laser. During the second stage it is transported through a lithium target using a 3D Monte-Carlo ion beam–target deposition model. The neutron yield is estimated to be ~108?neutrons?J?1 laser energy. Some 1010 neutrons can be expected from a ~100?J petawatt-class laser. For incident deuteron energies above 1?MeV the proposed scheme for neutron production from d–Li reactions is superior to that from d–d reactions, producing a collimated beam of neutrons with higher neutron yield.

J Davis; G M Petrov; Tz Petrova; L Willingale; A Maksimchuk; K Krushelnick

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds are prepared. They are useful in the preparation of partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic.

Han, legal representative, Amy Qi (Hockessin, DE); Yang, Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Transportation Transportation of Depleted Uranium Materials in Support of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Program Issues associated with transport of depleted UF6 cylinders and conversion products. Conversion Plan Transportation Requirements The DOE has prepared two Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) for the proposal to build and operate depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) conversion facilities at its Portsmouth and Paducah gaseous diffusion plant sites, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The proposed action calls for transporting the cylinder at ETTP to Portsmouth for conversion. The transportation of depleted UF6 cylinders and of the depleted uranium conversion products following conversion was addressed in the EISs.

22

Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Health Risks » Transportation Health Risks » Transportation DUF6 Health Risks line line Accidents Storage Conversion Manufacturing Disposal Transportation Transportation A discussion of health risks associated with transport of depleted UF6. Transport Regulations and Requirements In the future, it is likely that depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinders will be transported to a conversion facility. For example, it is currently anticipated that the cylinders at the ETTP Site in Oak Ridge, TN, will be transported to the Portsmouth Site, OH, for conversion. Uranium hexafluoride has been shipped safely in the United States for over 40 years by both truck and rail. Shipments of depleted UF6 would be made in accordance with all applicable transportation regulations. Shipment of depleted UF6 is regulated by the

23

Intermolecular Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids Edward W. Castner, Jr., James F. Wishart, and Hideaki Shirota Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 1217-1227 (2007). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Ionic liquids can simultaneously assume multiple solvent roles, because they are strongly polar and polarizable solvents and binary solutions and frequently contain very hydrophobic components. When the cation and anion functional groups are tuned appropriately, ionic liquids can be used as designer solvents for a broad range of applications. In this Account, we discuss our spectroscopic studies on the intermolecular interactions, dynamics, solvation, transport, and friction in ionic liquids, as compared with information obtained from macroscopic experiments including viscometry

24

Understanding and engineering ion transport in conducting polymers.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Many organic electronic and bioelectronics devices rely on mixed (electronic and ionic) transport within a single organic layer. Although electronic transport in these materials is… (more)

Stavrinidou, Eleni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Transportation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The romantic rides in Sandburg’s “eagle-car” changed society. On the one hand, motor vehicle transportation is an integral thread of society’s fabric. On the other hand, excess mobility fractures old neighborh...

David Hafemeister

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Super ionic conductive glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Due to limited parking, all visitors are strongly encouraged to: Due to limited parking, all visitors are strongly encouraged to: 1) car-pool, 2) take the Lab's special conference shuttle service, or 3) take the regular off-site shuttle. If you choose to use the regular off-site shuttle bus, you will need an authorized bus pass, which can be obtained by contacting Eric Essman in advance. Transportation & Visitor Information Location and Directions to the Lab: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is located in Berkeley, on the hillside directly above the campus of University of California at Berkeley. The address is One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720. For comprehensive directions to the lab, please refer to: http://www.lbl.gov/Workplace/Transportation.html Maps and Parking Information: On Thursday and Friday, a limited number (15) of barricaded reserved parking spaces will be available for NON-LBNL Staff SNAP Collaboration Meeting participants in parking lot K1, in front of building 54 (cafeteria). On Saturday, plenty of parking spaces will be available everywhere, as it is a non-work day.

28

Sandia National Laboratories: ionic liquid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

liquid Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks On February 26, 2013, in Biofuels, Biomass, Energy,...

29

Ionically Conducting Membranes for Hydrogen Production and Separation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND SEPARATION Presented by Tony Sammells Eltron Research Inc. Boulder, Colorado www.eltronresearch.com Presented at DOE Hydrogen Separations Workshop Arlington, Virginia September 8, 2004 ELTRON RESEARCH INC. TO BE DISCUSSED * Membranes for Hydrogen Production - Compositions - Feedstocks - Performance - Key Technical Hurdles * Membranes for Hydrogen Separation - Compositions - Ex Situ vs. In Situ WGS - Performance - Key Technical Hurdles ELTRON RESEARCH INC. OVERALL SCHEME FOR CONVERTING FEEDSTOCK TO HYDROGEN WITH SIMULTANEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION Oxygen Transport Membrane Hydrogen Transport Membrane Natural Gas Coal Biomass Syngas CO/H 2 WGS H 2 O CO 2 /H 2 1618afs.dsf H 2 CO 2 ELTRON RESEARCH INC. INCENTIVES FOR OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR

30

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquids Liquids James F. Wishart, Alison M. Funston, and Tomasz Szreder in "Molten Salts XIV" Mantz, R. A., et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2006) pp. 802-813. [Information about the volume (look just above this link)] Abstract: Ionic liquids have potentially important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments will require an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of ionic liquid radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material

31

ESM of Ionic and Electrochemical Phenomena on the Nanoscale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operation of energy storage and conversion devices is ultimately controlled by series of intertwined ionic and electronic transport processes and electrochemical reactions at surfaces and interfaces, strongly mediated by strain and mechanical processes [1-4]. In a typical fuel cell, these include chemical species transport in porous cathode and anode materials, gas-solid electrochemical reactions at grains and triple-phase boundaries (TPBs), ionic and electronic flows in multicomponent electrodes, and chemical and electronic potential drops at internal interfaces in electrodes and electrolytes. All these phenomena are sensitively affected by the microstructure of materials from device level to the atomic scales as illustrated in Fig. 1. Similar spectrum of length scales and phenomena underpin operation of other energy systems including primary and secondary batteries, as well as hybrid systems such flow and metal-air/water batteries.

Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [Pennsylvania State University; Balke, Nina [ORNL; McCorkle, Morgan L [ORNL; Guo, Senli [ORNL; Arruda, Thomas M [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. Abstract: The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst...

33

Polarization versus Temperature in Pyridinium Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronic polarization and charge transfer effects play a crucial role in thermodynamic, structural and transport properties of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). These non-additive interactions constitute a useful tool for tuning physical chemical behavior of RTILs. Polarization and charge transfer generally decay as temperature increases, although their presence should be expected over an entire condensed state temperature range. For the first time, we use three popular pyridinium-based RTILs to investigate temperature dependence of electronic polarization in RTILs. Atom-centered density matrix propagation molecular dynamics, supplemented by a weak coupling to an external bath, is used to simulate the temperature impact on system properties. We show that, quite surprisingly, non-additivity in the cation-anion interactions changes negligibly between 300 and 900 K, while the average dipole moment increases due to thermal fluctuations of geometries. Our results contribute to the fundamental understanding...

Chaban, Vitaly V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Cation with Various Anions and the Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Anion with Various Cations Hui Jin, Bernie O'Hare, Jing Dong, Sergei Arzhantsev, Gary A. Baker, James F. Wishart, Alan J. Benesi, and Mark Maroncelli J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 81-92 (2008). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Physical properties of 4 room-temperature ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various perfluorinated anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) anion with 12 pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, and hydroxyl-containing cations are reported. Electronic structure methods are used to calculate properties related to the size, shape, and dipole moment of individual ions. Experimental measurements of

35

Low Temperature Reduction of Alumina Using Fluorine Containing Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major objective of the project is to establish the feasibility of using specific ionic liquids capable of sustaining aluminum electrolysis near room temperature at laboratory and batch recirculation scales. It will explore new technologies for aluminum and other valuable metal extraction and process methods. The new technology will overcome many of the limitations associated with high temperatures processes such as high energy consumption and corrosion attack. Furthermore, ionic liquids are non-toxic and could be recycled after purification, thus minimizing extraction reagent losses and environmental pollutant emissions. Ionic liquids are mixture of inorganic and organic salts which are liquid at room temperature and have wide operational temperature range. During the last several years, they were emerging as novel electrolytes for extracting and refining of aluminum metals and/or alloys, which are otherwise impossible using aqueous media. The superior high temperature characteristics and high solvating capabilities of ionic liquids provide a unique solution to high temperature organic solvent problems associated with device internal pressure build-up, corrosion, and thermal stability. However their applications have not yet been fully implemented due to the insufficient understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms involved in processing of aluminum with ionic liquids. Laboratory aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquids has been investigated in chloride and bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide based ionic liquids. The electrowinning process yielded current density in the range of 200-500 A/m2, and current efficiency of about 90%. The results indicated that high purity aluminum (>99.99%) can be obtained as cathodic deposits. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies have shown that initial stages of aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolyte at 30°C was found to be quasi-reversible, with the charge transfer coefficient (0.40). Nucleation phenomena involved in aluminum deposition on copper in AlCl3-BMIMCl electrolyte was found to be instantaneous followed by diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth of nuclei. Diffusion coefficient (Do) of the electroactive species Al2Cl7¯ ion was in the range from 6.5 to 3.9×10–7 cm2?s–1 at a temperature of 30°C. Relatively little research efforts have been made toward the fundamental understanding and modeling of the species transport and transformation information involved in ionic liquid mixtures, which eventually could lead to quantification of electrochemical properties. Except that experimental work in this aspect usually is time consuming and expensive, certain characteristics of ionic liquids also made barriers for such analyses. Low vapor pressure and high viscosity make them not suitable for atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement. In addition, aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolytes are considered to be governed by multi-component mass, heat and charge transport in laminar and turbulent flows that are often multi-phase due to the gas evolution at the electrodes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reactions is in general complex. Furthermore, the mass transfer boundary layer is about one order of magnitude smaller than the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer (Re=10,000). Other phenomena that frequently occur are side reactions and temperature or concentration driven natural convection. As a result of this complexity, quantitative knowledge of the local parameters (current densities, ion concentrations, electrical potential, temperature, etc.) is very difficult to obtain. This situation is a serious obstacle for improving the quality of products, efficiency of manufacturing and energy consumption. The gap between laboratory/batch scale processing with global process control and nanoscale deposit surface and materials specifications needs to be bridged. A breakthrough can only be realized if on each scale the occurring phenomena are understood and quantified. Multiscale numerical modeling nevertheless can help t

Dr. R. G. Reddy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids Symposium Schedule  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) (Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) Sunday Morning Structure and Heterogeneity of Ionic Liquids I. James Wishart and Edward Castner Introductory Remarks Andre Pinkert Hydroxyamine ionic liquids and their properties Thomas Strassner TAAILs - Tunable Aryl-Alkyl Ionic Liquids: A new generation of ionic liquids Laura Sprunger Grubbs Thermodynamic Properties of New Generation Ionic Liquids Christopher Hardacre Prediction methods for physical properties of ionic liquids BREAK Patricia Hunt What happens when you functionalise an ionic liquid with a "silicone" side chain? Edward L Quitevis Effect of cation symmetry and nanoscale segregation on the morphology, physical properties, and low-frequency vibrational dynamics of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cation ionic liquids

37

Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

38

Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications.

39

Multicomponent Transport of Sulfate in a Goethite-Silica Sand System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multicomponent Transport of Sulfate in a Goethite-Silica Sand System at Variable pH and Ionic of protons and sulfate on goethite and silica were used in combination with a one-dimensional mass-transport model to predict the transport of sulfate at variable pH and ionic strength in a goethite-silica system

Sparks, Donald L.

40

Ionic Power Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ionic Power Systems Ltd Ionic Power Systems Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Ionic Power Systems Ltd. Place San Diego, California Zip 92126 Product Ionix Power Systems, Ltd. is a developer of new and innovative products and tools designed to aid in the development of next-generation energy technologies such as batteries, fuel cells, and advanced capacitors. References Ionic Power Systems Ltd.[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Ionic Power Systems Ltd. is a company located in San Diego, California . References ↑ "Ionic Power Systems Ltd." Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Ionic_Power_Systems_Ltd&oldid=347099" Categories:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Solubility of Carbohydrates in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

‡ Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, I.P., Unit of Bioenergy, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar 22, 1649-038, Lisboa, Portugal ... The aim of this Review is to assess the current state of knowledge regarding the solubility of carbohydrates in ionic liquids but not on modifications of carbohydrates in ionic liquids. ... We herein collect all of the available literature data about the solubility of various carbohydrates in ionic liquids and highlight their interactions with carbohydrates. ...

Ma?gorzata Ewa Zakrzewska; Ewa Bogel-?ukasik; Rafa? Bogel-?ukasik

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

42

Update Sustainable Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sustainable Transportation Sustainable Transportation Vol.4, No.3 * October 2013 ORNL Achieves Breakthrough in Energy-Saving Lubricants Research A team of ORNL and General Motors (GM) researchers has developed a new group of ionic liquids as lubricant additives that could help improve the energy efficiency of light-duty cars and trucks. The ionic liquid, when added to prototype low viscosity engine oil, boosted fuel economy by more than 2% compared to a commercially available synthetic 5W-30 oil, as demonstrated by an industrial standard fuel efficiency engine test. Results from these tests, performed by an independent firm, Intertek Automotive Research, with oversight by GM, show a promising path for ORNL to achieve DOE's goal of a 2% efficiency gain through lubricants. "There are more

43

Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and...

44

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

45

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale...

46

Multilayered YSZ/GZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

YSZGZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Multilayered YSZGZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for...

47

Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1} region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H{sub 3}O{sup +} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3 {minus}10}, ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 1 {minus}10} and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m} (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

Price, J.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Effect of Ferroelectric Polarization on Ionic Transport and Resistance ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liu also studied the charge car- .... where Ei is the electric field component, ?0 and ?r are the ... The local electric field in Eq. (5) is dependent on the space.

2014-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

49

Charge Transport and Structural Dynamics in Polymerized Ionic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

actuators, field-effect transistors, light emitting electrochemical cells, and electrochromic devices, among others. Despite their promising prospects as ideal polymer...

50

Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

51

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids Enzyme activity in dialkylphosphate ionic liquids M. F. Thomas, L. Li, J. Handley-Pendleton, D. van der Lelie, J. J. Dunn and J. F. Wishart Bioresource Technology 102, in press. [Find paper at Science Direct] Abstract: The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic

52

Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

53

Neptunium(V) adsorption to bacteria at low and high ionic strength  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Np(V) is expected to be the predominant oxidation state of neptunium in aerobic natural waters. Np(V), as the NpO{sub 2}{sup +} aquo and associated complexed species, is readily soluble, weakly interacting with geologic media, and has a high redox stability under a relatively wide range of subsurface conditions. These chemical properties, along with a long half-life make it a primary element of concern regarding long-term nuclear waste storage and subsurface contaminant. The fate and transport of neptunium in the environment may be influenced by adsorption onto bacterial surfaces. The adsorption of neptunium to bacterial surfaces ties the mobility of the contaminant to the mobility of the bacterium. In this study, the adsorption of the neptunyl (NpO{sub 2}{sup +}) ion was evaluated at low ionic strength on a common soil bacterium and at high ionic strength on a halophilic bacterium isolated from a briny groundwater near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico. Adsorption experiments were performed in batch reactors as a function of pH, ionic strength, and bacterialNp mass ratio. Np(V) adsorption was modeled using a surface complexation approach with the mathematical program FITEQL to determine functional group specific binding constants. The data from acid and base titrations of the bacteria were also modeled to estimate the concentrations and deprotonation constants of discrete bacterial surface functional groups. Bacterial functional group characteristics and Np(V) adsorption behavior between the soil bacterium and the halophilic bacterium were compared. These results highlight the key similarities and differences in actinide adsorption behavior in environments of significantly different ionic strength. Similarities in adsorption behavior may be linked to similarities in the characteristics of the moieties between all bacterial cell walls. Differences in adsorption behavior may reflect differences in ionic strength effects, rather than differences in bacteria type, as the electronic double layer is compressed with increasing ionic strength. These results further highlight the importance of electrostatic interactions in the adsorption process between dissolved metals and bacterial surfaces. This work expands the understanding of actinide-bacteria adsorption phenomena to high ionic strength environmental conditions that are relevant as an aid to predicting Np(V) fate and transport behavior in areas such as the vicinity of salt-based nuclear waste repositories and high ionic-strength deep ground waters at DOE sites.

Ams, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, Juliet S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fein, Jeremy B [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

54

Charge trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids trapping in imidazolium ionic liquids I. A. Shkrob and J. F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 5582-5592 (2009). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are a promising class of solvents for applications ranging from photovoltaics to solvent extractions. Some of these applications involve the exposure of the ILs to ionizing radiation, which stimulates interest in their radiation and photo- chemistry. In the case of ILs consisting of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cations and hydrophobic anions, ionization, charge transfer and redox reactions yield charge-trapped species thought to be radicals resulting from neutralization of the constituent ions. Using computational chemistry methods and the recent results on electron spin resonance (ESR) and transient absorption

55

Model for Configurational Thermodynamics in Ionic Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We develop a formalism to model configurational thermodynamics in ionic systems with multiple anion and cation species. Because cations and anions can be partitioned into two interacting sublattices that do not exchange species, the dimensionality of configuration space is significantly reduced. The result is a model applicable to many important problems in ionic systems. Here we show that the effect of an order-disorder transition in one sublattice on the other depends on how the symmetry is changed through the transition, as well as on the strength of the interactions.

P. D. Tepesch; G. D. Garbulsky; G. Ceder

1995-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

56

Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents for Alkylation and Acylation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many clean solvents like water, ionic liquids, supercritical fluid, polyglycol, fluorine-containing solvents, and so on are employed to replace the conventional organic solvents. Among these, ionic liquids have a...

Zhongkui Zhao; Yitao Dai

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Organic Ionic Liquids: Ultimate Green Solvents in Organic Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are ground-breaking green alternatives to the highly toxic solvents that are hazardous to the environment and ... liquids offer certain advantages as alternatives to conventional solvents. Ionic liq...

Mohammed Abid Shaikh; Xudong Huang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids Lubricants Containing Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to describe the tribological and rheological properties of mixtures of nanoparticles (NPs) and ionic liquids (ILs), specifically the mixture of bare SiO_(2) (silica) nanoparticles and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (trifluoromethysulfony...

Lu, Wei

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

59

Electrolyte Solvation and Ionic Association. V. Acetonitrile-Lithium Bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrolytes with the salt lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) have been evaluated relative to comparable electrolytes with other lithium salts. Acetonitrile (AN) has been used as a model electrolyte solvent. The information obtained from the thermal phase behavior, solvation/ionic association interactions, quantum chemical (QC) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (with an APPLE&P many-body polarizable force field for the LiFSI salt) of the (AN)n-LiFSI mixtures provides detailed insight into the coordination interactions of the FSI- anions and the wide variability noted in the electrolyte transport property (i.e., viscosity and ionic conductivity).

Han, Sang D.; Borodin, Oleg; Seo, D. M.; Zhou, Zhi B.; Henderson, Wesley A.

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

60

An unusual non-Tafel dependence for electron transfer reactions in ionic liquids at large electrode polarisations: Fiction or reality?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We speculate about the existence of a “square-root Tafel dependence” for simple one stage anodic/cathodic electron transfer reactions in ionic liquids. In this dependence, the logarithm of the current depends linearly on the square-root of electrode potential. The modified law is a consequence of ion crowding in the electrical double layer at high charges of the electrode. It may be expected that this effect may be observed for slow reactions at large electrode polarisations, yet not triggering electrochemical decomposition of ionic liquids, and only if diffusion limitations on the transport of reactants are absent.

Alexei A. Kornyshev; Lu-Peng Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Metal-air low temperature ionic liquid cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present application relates to an electrochemical metal-air cell in which a low temperature ionic liquid is used.

Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel A

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

62

Hyperfine Effects in Ionic Orbital Electron Capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The K-orbital electron capture in ions with one or two electrons is analized for a general allowed nuclear transition. For ionic hyperfine states the angular neutrino distribution and the electron capture rate are given in terms of nuclear matrix elements. A possible application towards the determination of neutrino parameters is outlined.

M. A. Goñi

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

63

1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

64

IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operating experience. #12;ELTRON RESEARCH INC. Syngas Production Rate ­ 60 mL/min cm2 @ 900°C Equivalent O2IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND SEPARATION Presented by Tony Sammells for Hydrogen Production ­ Compositions ­ Feedstocks ­ Performance ­ Key Technical Hurdles · Membranes

65

Numerical simulation of corneal transport processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...describe how these ionic species are interrelated and interact on each other (Kuang et...stroma are derived based on the transport processes developed for electrolytic solutions...from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The influence of the flow across the...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Modification of space charge transport in nanocrystalline cerium oxide by heterogeneous doping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the search for new materials for energy conversion and storage technologies such as solid oxide fuel cells, nano-ionic materials have become increasingly relevant because unique physical and transport properties that ...

Litzelman, Scott J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Ionic Liquids: Structure and Photochemical Reactions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structure and Photochemical Reactions Structure and Photochemical Reactions E. W. Castner, Jr., C. J. Margulis, M. Maroncelli, and J. F. Wishart in "Annual Reviews of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 62"; Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA, (2011) pp. 85-105. [Find paper at Annual Reviews] Abstract: Ionic liquids are subjects of intense current interest within the physical chemistry community. A great deal of progress has been made in just the past five years toward identifying the factors that cause these salts to have low melting points and other useful properties. Supramolecular structure and organization have emerged as important and complicated topics that may be key to understanding how chemical reactions and other processes are affected by ionic liquids. New questions are posed, and an active

68

Neutral-ionic transitions in organic mixed-stack compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Torrance et al. have made the interesting observation that several mixed-stack organic compounds undergo transitions from neutral states to ionic states as the temperature or pressure is varied. We examine a simple model of such transitions including Coulomb interaction and hybridization of neutral and ionic states. In the limit of weak hybridization and long-range repulsive interaction between ionic planes, it is proven that there is a complete devil's staircase where the degree of ionicity assumes an infinity of rational values. For attractive interactions between ionic planes, the neutral-ionic transition is shown to be first order for weak hybridization. Comparison with experiment indicates that this situation applies to tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) chloranil. For strong hybridization the transition is continuous but goes through a metallic phase. It is shown, for the first time, that the spectrum of the charge-transfer Hamiltonian contains both a bound spectrum, the observed charge-transfer excitations, and a continuum.

Bruinsma, R.; Bak, P.; Torrance, J.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Toward a Materials Genome Approach for Ionic Liquids: Synthesis...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Materials Genome Approach for Ionic Liquids: Synthesis Guided by Ab Initio Property Maps Previous Next List Fangyong Yan, Michael Lartey, Kuldeep Jariwala, Sage Bowser,...

70

Kinetics and Solvent Effects in the Synthesis of Ionic Liquids.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Ionic liquids (ILs) are being recognized as environmentally friendly ("green") solvents. However, their synthesis is often conducted in the very solvents that they will reportedly… (more)

Schleicher, Jay C.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

72

A MODIFICATION OF MAUCHA'S IONIC DIAGRAM TO INCLUDE ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ences in concentrations of ions and dif- ferences in relative proportions of ions. Though Maucha's (1932) ionic field dia- grams illustrate relative proportions of ...

2000-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

73

Using Ionic Liquids to Make Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes - Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Using Ionic Liquids to Make...

74

Compositions and methods useful for ionic liquid treatment of biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention provides for novel compositions and methods for recycling or recovering ionic liquid used in IL pretreated cellulose and/or lignocellulosic biomass (LBM).

Dibble, Dean C.; Cheng, Aurelia; George, Anthe

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

75

Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Additives Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives Bench test results showed that compared with fully-formulated engine oils, selected low-viscosity...

76

TETRAALKYLPHOSPHONIUM POLYOXOMETALATES AS NOVEL IONIC LIQUIDS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

DIETZ,M.L.; RICKERT, P.G.; ANTONIO, M.R.; FIRESTONE, M.A.; WISHART, J.F.; SZREDER, T.

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

77

Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF3SO3-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3SO2)2N-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3CF2SO2)2N-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF3SO2)3C-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

THE IONIC CENTRIFUGE CAN GIVE FUSION NUCLEAR POWER  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...so long as the electric field and magnetic...3. The First Discharge of the Ionic Centrifuge...low-voltage arc source of ionization...The anode of the arc is taken as zero...first type of discharge, the end plates...found when the arc current was varied...4. The Second Discharge of the Ionic Centrifuge...

Joseph Slepian

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

51 - 10260 of 31,917 results. 51 - 10260 of 31,917 results. Download CX-004084: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of Reaction-Driven Ionic Transport Membranes (ITM) Technology CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/30/2010 Location(s): Allentown, Pennsylvania Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004084-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-004087: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of Reaction-Driven Ionic Transport Membranes (ITM) Technology CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/30/2010 Location(s): Salt Lake City, Utah Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004087-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-004090: Categorical Exclusion Determination

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

NETL: NEPA Categorical Exclusions - July 2010 to September 2010  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0 to September 2010 0 to September 2010 Archive (November 2009 - December 2010) ARRA Date Title Recipient Name Location DOE/NETL Sponsors N 9/30/2010 Utah Coal and Biomass Fueled Pilot Plant (Design and Site Characterization) Viresco Energy, LLC Kanab, UT FE/SCC- Fuels Division N 9/30/2010 Gas Well Pressure Drop Prediction Under Foam Flow Conditions University of Tulsa Tulsa, OK FE/SCNGO N 9/30/2010 Technology Transfer Services Petroleum Technology Transfer Council Tulsa, OK (Additional TBD as needed) FE/SCNGO N 9/30/2010 Development of Reaction-Driven Ionic Transport Membranes (ITM) Technology Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Allentown, PA FE/SCC-Gasification Division N 9/30/2010 Development of Reaction-Driven Ionic Transport Membranes (ITM) Technology Ceramatec, Inc. Salt Lake City, UT FE/SCC-Gasification Division

82

Effects of ionic conductivities of zirconia electrolytes on polarization properties of platinum anodes in solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To find a clue for the design of high-performance electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), the polarization properties of Pt electrodes attached to zirconia electrolytes with various ionic conductivities were investigated at 800-1000[degree]C. The IR-free anodic polarization in hydrogen was greatly affected by the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, and it obeyed the Tafel equation. The exchange current density increased in proportion to the square of the ionic conductivity for all electrolytes operated at 800-1000[degree]C, while the transfer coefficient (n[alpha][sub o] = 2) was independent of the temperature and of the conductivity of electrolytes. According to our analysis, the rate-determining step is not a simple electron transfer from oxide ions but a recombination step involving discharged oxygen atoms adsorbed on the Pt electrode/electrolyte interface; an increase in the rate of transport of oxide ions to the interface, for example, by using an electrolyte with higher-ionic conductivity, reduces the anodic overpotential greatly. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Manabu; Watanabe, Masahiro (Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan))

1995-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

83

Properties of some ionic liquids based on 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium and 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium cations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic liquids as green solvents: progress and prospects.ionic liquids are “green” solvents, i.e. , environmentally

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Yakelis, Neal; Salminen, Justin; Bergman, Robert; Prausnitz, John M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

85

Transportation Services  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Services Transporting nuclear materials within the United States and throughout the world is a complicated and sometimes highly controversial effort requiring...

86

Local Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Local Transportation. Transportation from the Airport to Hotel. There are two types of taxi companies that operate at the airport: special and regular taxis (

87

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

88

Chamber transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

OLSON,CRAIG L.

2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

89

Intermolecular vibrations and fast relaxations in supercooled ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Short-time dynamics of ionic liquids has been investigated by low-frequency Raman spectroscopy (4 < ? < 100 cm?1) within the supercooled liquid range. Raman spectra are reported for ionic liquids with the same anion bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and different cations: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium trimethylbutylammonium and tributylmethylammonium. It is shown that low-frequency Raman spectroscopy provides similar results as optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy which has been used to study intermolecular vibrations in ionic liquids. The comparison of ionic liquids containing aromatic and non-aromatic cations identifies the characteristic feature in Raman spectra usually assigned to librational motion of the imidazolium ring. The strength of the fast relaxations (quasi-elastic scattering QES) and the intermolecular vibrational contribution (boson peak) of ionic liquids with non-aromatic cations are significantly lower than imidazolium ionic liquids. A correlation length assigned to the boson peak vibrations was estimated from the frequency of the maximum of the boson peak and experimental data of sound velocity. The correlation length related to the boson peak (?19 Å) does not change with the length of the alkyl chain in imidazolium cations in contrast to the position of the first-sharp diffraction peak observed in neutron and X-ray scattering measurements of ionic liquids. The rate of change of the QES intensity in the supercooled liquid range is compared with data of excess entropy free volume and mean-squared displacement recently reported for ionic liquids. The temperature dependence of the QES intensity in ionic liquids illustrates relationships between short-time dynamics and long-time structural relaxation that have been proposed for glass-forming liquids.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species Liquids: Reactivity of Primary Species James F. Wishart In "Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospects" Rogers, R. D. and Seddon, K. R. , Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 856, Ch. 31, pp. 381-395, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2003. (ISBN 0-84123-856-1) [Information about the book] Abstract: An understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is important for development of their applications in radioactive material processing and for the application of pulse radiolysis techniques to the general study of chemical reactivity in ionic liquids. The distribution of primary radiolytic species and their reactivities determine the yields of ultimate products and the radiation stability of a particular ionic liquid. This chapter introduces some principles of radiation chemistry and the

91

Effects of Structural Modification on Ionic Liquid Physical Properties  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of Structural Modification on the Physical Properties Effect of Structural Modification on the Physical Properties of Various Ionic Liquids S. I. Lall-Ramnarine, J. L. Hatcher, A. Castano, M. F. Thomas, and J. F. Wishart in "ECS Transactions - Las Vegas, NV, Vol. 33, Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids 17" D. Fox et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2010) pp 659 - 665. [Find paper at ECS] Abstract: A few classes of ionic liquids were synthesized and investigated for their physical properties as a function of structural variation. Bis(oxalato)borate (BOB) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2) ionic liquids (ILs) containing pyridinium, 4-dimethylaminopyridinium (DMAP) and pyrrolidinium cations bearing alkyl, benzyl, hydroxyalkyl and alkoxy substituents, were prepared from the corresponding halide salts. The

92

Design and Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as Novel Absorbents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs as novel absorbents Background There is growing concern among climate scientists that the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHG), particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), in the atmosphere is affecting the global climate in ways that could have serious consequences. One approach to reducing GHG emissions is to scrub CO 2 from the flue gas of power plants and sequester it in geologic formations. Although it is technically feasible to remove CO 2 from flue gas, current processes are too expensive. New, less expensive processes are needed. This project is investigating the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids - for the capture of CO 2 from the flue gas from coal and natural gas-fired power plants. The success of ionic liquids technology

93

Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents for Glycosylation Reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are among the most promising alternatives to molecular organic solvents due to their unique properties and, in particular, are considered to be green solvents due to their nonvolatile and nonflammab...

Kaname Sasaki; Daisuke Takahashi; Kazunobu Toshima

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A group of oil-miscible ionic liquids has been developed by an ORNL-GM team as candidate lubricant additives with promising physical/chemical properties and potential multiple functionalities.

95

Kinetics and Solvent Effects in the Synthesis of Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic liquids (ILs) are being recognized as environmentally friendly ("green") solvents. However, their synthesis is often conducted in the very solvents that they will reportedly replace. This research has investigated ...

Schleicher, Jay C.

2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

96

Membrane Ion Channels and Ionic Hydration Energies [Abstract Only  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

25 November 1980 research-article Membrane Ion Channels and Ionic Hydration Energies [Abstract Only] D. T. Edmonds The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings...

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Composite oxygen ion transport element  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

98

Determination of triclosan and triclocarban in environmental water samples with ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A hydrophobic ionic liquid was finely dispersed in aqueous solution along with a hydrophilic ionic liquid. Following centrifugation, the two phases aggregate to form relatively large droplets. Based on this pheno...

Ru-Song Zhao; Xia Wang; Jing Sun; Cong Hu; Xi-Kui Wang

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFC's performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cell's microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, John R.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

100

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells was studied under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support (potential hold at 1.2 V). Electrochemical behaviors of the cathode based on graphitic mesoporous carbon supported Pt catalyst were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Impedance data were plotted and expressed in the complex capacitance form to determine useful parameters in the transmission line model: the double-layer capacitance, peak frequency, and ionic resistance. Electrochemical surface area and hydrogen crossover current through the membrane were estimated from cyclic voltammogram, while cathode Faradaic resistance was compared with ionic resistance as a function of test time. It was observed that during an accelerated stress test of catalyst support, graphitic mesoporous carbon becomes hydrophilic which increases interfacial area between the ionomer and the catalyst up to 100 h. However, the ionic resistance in the catalyst layer drastically increases after 100 h with further carbon support oxidation. The underlying mechanism has been studied and it was found that significant degradation of ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer due to catalyst support corrosion induces uneven hydration and mechanical stress in the ionomer.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Rieke, Peter C.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2011-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Charge Delocalization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Stability of Cations in Ionic Liquids. 2. Improved Radiation Resistance Through Charge Delocalization in 1-Benzylpyridinium Ilya A. Shkrob, Timothy W. Marin, Jasmine L. Hatcher, Andrew R. Cook, Tomasz Szreder and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. B 117, Just Accepted (2013). [Find paper at ACS Publications]. Abstract: Hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) hold promise as replacements for molecular diluents for processing of used nuclear fuel as well as for the development of alternative separations processes, provided that the solvent can be made resistant to ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that 1-benzylpyridinium cations are uniquely suited as radiation resistant cations due to the occurrence of charge delocalization both in their reduced and oxidized form in the ILs. It is suggested that

102

Ionic Liquids and Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Species James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 3225-3231 (2010). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request View the video on this Perspective article at The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (5:03) Selected for the ACS Special Virtual Issue on Ionic Liquids (March 2011). Abstract: Due to their unique properties, ionic liquids present many opportunities for basic research on the interactions of radiation with materials under conditions not previously available. At the same time, there are practical applied reasons for characterizing, understanding, and being able to predict how ionic-liquid-based devices and industrial-scale systems will perform under conditions of extreme reactivity, including radiation. This

103

Methods for separating medical isotopes using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for extracting a radioisotope from an aqueous solution, the method comprising: a) intimately mixing a non-chelating ionic liquid with the aqueous solution to transfer at least a portion of said radioisotope to said non-chelating ionic liquid; and b) separating the non-chelating ionic liquid from the aqueous solution. In preferred embodiments, the method achieves an extraction efficiency of at least 80%, or a separation factor of at least 1.times.10.sup.4 when more than one radioisotope is included in the aqueous solution. In particular embodiments, the method is applied to the separation of medical isotopes pairs, such as Th from Ac (Th-229/Ac-225, Ac-227/Th-227), or Ra from Ac (Ac-225 and Ra-225, Ac-227 and Ra-223), or Ra from Th (Th-227 and Ra-223, Th-229 and Ra-225).

Luo, Huimin; Boll, Rose Ann; Bell, Jason Richard; Dai, Sheng

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

104

Transportation Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 69 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Transportation Demand Module The NEMS Transportation Demand Module estimates transportation energy consumption across the nine Census Divisions (see Figure 5) and over ten fuel types. Each fuel type is modeled according to fuel-specific technology attributes applicable by transportation mode. Total transportation energy consumption is the sum of energy use in eight transport modes: light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), commercial light trucks (8,501-10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), freight trucks (>10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), buses, freight and passenger aircraft, freight and passenger rail, freight shipping, and miscellaneous

105

Transition from a nonionic to an ionic micelle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper was motivated by an attempt to understand the transition from a nonionic to an ionic micelle from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Small-angle neutron-scattering experiments were performed on mixed micelles of nonionic-ionic surfactants as the charge was increased in steps. Evidence for the charge condensation on the surface of the micelles is obtained. An extension of the sticky-hard-sphere model to include the Coulomb potentials is presented and used to analyze experimental results on two systems. It is concluded that this model is more appropriate than the currently used models.

V. K. Kelkar; B. K. Mishra; K. Srinivasa Rao; P. S. Goyal; C. Manohar

1991-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

WIPP Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transuranic Waste Transportation Container Documents Documents related to transuranic waste containers and packages. CBFO Tribal Program Information about WIPP shipments across...

107

Transportation Security  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Preliminary Draft - For Review Only 1 Transportation Security Draft Annotated Bibliography Review July 2007 Preliminary Draft - For Review Only 2 Work Plan Task * TEC STG Work...

108

Conductive Filler Morphology Effect on Performance of Ionic Polymer Conductive Network Composite Actuators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several generations of ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuators have been developed since 1992. It has been discovered that the composite electrodes which are composed of electronic and ionic conductors, have great ...

Liu, Sheng

109

Characterization of an iodine-based ionic liquid ion source and studies on ion fragmentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrosprays are a well studied source of charged droplets and ions. A specific subclass is the ionic liquid ion source (ILIS), which produce ion beams from the electrostatically stressed meniscus of ionic liquids. ILIS ...

Fedkiw, Timothy Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Solubilities of Solutes in Ionic Liquids from a Simple Perturbed-Hard-Sphere Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eds). Ionic liquids as Green solvents. Washington: Americanmay be useful as “green” solvents that do not pollute the

Qin, Yuan; Prausnitz, John M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

112

High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

113

High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

Lu, Wen (Littleton, CO)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

114

Application of Ionic Liquids in Liquid Chromatography and Electrodriven Separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......processing (5), solvent extraction (6, 7), electrolytes in batteries (8), metal deposition (9, 10) and gas treatment (11...Polymerized ionic liquid sorbents for CO2 separation. Energy and Fuels (2010) 24:5797-5804. 13 Ho T.D. , Canestraro A......

Yi Huang; Shun Yao; Hang Song

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

116

Transportation Market Distortions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Highways, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Evaluating Criticism of Transportation Costing, VictoriaFrom Here: Evaluating Transportation Diversity, Victoria

Litman, Todd

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Can Ionic Liquids Be Used As Templating Agents For Controlled Design of Uranium-Containing Nanomaterials?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

Visser, A.; Bridges, N.; Tosten, M.

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

118

Rapid transport of polyacrylates in dextran matrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have observed the rapid transport of polyacrylate(PA) in the matrix of dextran. (1) In the salt-free media, the transport of PA depended on the kind of its couterions. The rates were in the following order: tetramethylammonium > Li+ > tetrabutylammonium > Na+ > NH{sub 4}+ > Cs+. (2) The transport rate of PAA in buffer solutions of about 30mM ionic strength increased with the degree of ionization {alpha} but remained constant in the range of {alpha} greater than about 0.4. The effect of the counterion condensation on the transport rate was thus clearly demonstrated. (3) The transport rate of NaPA was nearly identical in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl and no added salt. It decreased to less than half in 0.2 M NaCl and in 0.5 M NaCl no rapid transport was observed any more and ordinary diffusion behavior was observed instead.

Maeda, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sasaki, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Sorption and Transport Kinetics of a Nonionic Surfactant through an Aquifer Sediment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sorption and Transport Kinetics of a Nonionic Surfactant through an Aquifer Sediment ... Although nonionic surfactants have been considered in surfactant-aided soil washing systems, there is little information on the particle-size dependence of these processes, and this may have significant implications for the design of these systems. ... Adsorption of Non-ionic Surfactants onto Sand and Its Importance in Naphthalene Removal ...

Zafar. Adeel; Richard G. Luthy

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Ionic liquids for separation of olefin-paraffin mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to an ionic liquid comprising (i) a cationic portion containing a complex of a silver (I) ion and one or more neutral ligands selected from organoamides, organoamines, olefins, and organonitriles, and (ii) an anionic portion having the chemical formula ##STR00001## wherein m and n are independently 0 or an integer of 1 or above, and p is 0 or 1, provided that when p is 0, the group --N--SO.sub.2--(CF.sub.2).sub.nCF.sub.3 subtended by p is replaced with an oxide atom connected to the shown sulfur atom. The invention is also directed to a method for separating an olefin from an olefin-paraffin mixture by passing the mixture through a layer of the ionic liquid described above.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Huang, Jing-Fang

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High-frequency acoustic modes in an ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-frequency collective dynamics of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C6C1im]Br has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Time correlation functions of mass current fluctuations were calculated for several wavevectors and the dispersion curves of excitations ?(k) for longitudinal and transverse acoustic sound modes were obtained at different temperatures and pressures. Two different thermodynamic states have the same high-frequency sound velocity irrespective of the temperature provided that both have the same density. Partial time correlation functions of mass currents were calculated for the atoms belonging to the polar or the non-polar domains resulting from the heterogeneous structure of [C6C1im]Br. The partial correlation functions indicate that the polar domains are stiffer than the non-polar domains of the simulated ionic liquid.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Ionic liquids for separation of olefin-paraffin mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to an ionic liquid comprising (i) a cationic portion containing a complex of a silver (I) ion and one or more neutral ligands selected from organoamides, organoamines, olefins, and organonitriles, and (ii) an anionic portion having the chemical formula ##STR00001## wherein m and n are independently 0 or an integer of 1 or above, and p is 0 or 1, provided that when p is 0, the group --N--SO.sub.2--(CF.sub.2).sub.nCF.sub.3 subtended by p is replaced with an oxide atom connected to the shown sulfur atom. The invention is also directed to a method for separating an olefin from an olefin-paraffin mixture by passing the mixture through a layer of the ionic liquid described above.

Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Huang, Jing-Fang

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Reactions of Lignin Model Compounds in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin, a readily available form of biomass, awaits novel chemistry for converting it to valuable aromatic chemicals. Recent work has demonstrated that ionic liquids are excellent solvents for processing woody biomass and lignin. Seeking to exploit ionic liquids as media for depolymerization of lignin, we investigated reactions of lignin model compounds in these solvents. Using Brønsted acid catalysts in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate at moderate temperatures, we obtained up to 11.6% yield of the dealkylation product guaiacol from the model compound eugenol and cleaved phenethyl phenyl ether, a model for lignin ethers. Despite these successes, acid catalysis failed in dealkylation of the unsaturated model compound 4-ethylguaiacol and did not produce monomeric products from organosolv lignin, demonstrating that further work is required to understand the complex chemistry of lignin depolymerization.

Holladay, John E.; Binder, Joseph B.; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Ionic Ckonductivity and Glass Transition of Phosphoric Acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we report the low-temperature dielectric and viscoelastic properties of phosphoric acids in the range of H2O:P2O5 1.5 5. Both dielectric and viscosity measurements allow us to determine the glass-transition temperatures of phosphoric acids. The obtained glass-transition temperatures are in good agreement with previous differential scanning calorimetric measurements. Moreover, our analysis reveals moderate decoupling of ionic conductivity from structural relaxation in the vicinity of the glass transition.

Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Lane, Nathan A [ORNL; Sun, Che-Nan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fan, Fei [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Ionic conductivity and glass transition of phosphoric acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we report the low-temperature dielectric and viscoelastic properties of phosphoric acids in the range of H2O:P2O5 1.5 5. Both dielectric and viscosity measurements allow us to determine the glass-transition temperatures of phosphoric acids. The obtained glass-transition temperatures are in good agreement with previous differential scanning calorimetric measurements. Moreover, our analysis reveals moderate decoupling of ionic conductivity from structural relaxation in the vicinity of the glass transition.

Wang, Yangyang [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lane, Nathan A [ORNL] [ORNL; Sun, Che-Nan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fan, Fei [ORNL] [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Mapping Ionic Currents and Reactivity on the Nanoscale: Electrochemical Strain Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-state electrochemical processes in oxides underpin a broad spectrum of energy and information storage devices, ranging from Li-ion and Li-air batteries, to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to electroresistive and memristive systems. These functionalities are controlled by the bias-driven diffusive and electromigration transport of mobile ionic species, as well as intricate a set of electrochemical and defect-controlled reactions at interfaces and in bulk. Despite the wealth of device-level and atomistic studies, little is known on the mesoscopic mechanisms of ion diffusion and electronic transport on the level of grain clusters, individual grains, and extended defects. The development of the capability for probing ion transport on the nanometer scale is a key to deciphering complex interplay between structure, functionality, and performance in these systems. Here we introduce Electrochemical Strain Microscopy, a scanning probe microscopy technique based on strong strain-bias coupling in the systems in which local ion concentrations are changed by electrical fields. The imaging capability, as well as time- and voltage spectroscopies analogous to traditional current based electrochemical characterization methods are developed. The reversible intercalation of Li and mapping electrochemical activity in LiCoO2 is demonstrated, illustrating higher Li diffusivity at non-basal planes and grain boundaries. In Si-anode device structure, the direct mapping of Li diffusion at extended defects and evolution of Li-activity with charge state is explored. The electrical field-dependence of Li mobility is studied to determine the critical bias required for the onset of electrochemical transformation, allowing reaction and diffusion processes in the battery system to be separated at each location. Finally, the applicability of ESM for probing oxygen vacancy diffusion and oxygen reduction/evolution reactions is illustrated, and the high resolution ESM maps are correlated with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. The future potential for deciphering mechanisms of electrochemical transformations on an atomically-defined single-defect level is discussed.

Kalinin, S.V. (Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, ORNL) [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, ORNL

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

127

Modeling and numerical simulations of microwave-induced ionic transport S. A. Freemana)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electron or phonon energy transfer thermal conduction . High-temperature heating of ceramic materials absorption and thermal conduction properties, and many ceramic materials fall into this category. In recent are limited by the slow rate of inward heat conduction due to the typically low thermal conductivities

Cooper, Reid F.

128

Applications of Irreversible Thermodynamics: Bulk and Interfacial Electronic, Ionic, Magnetic, and Thermal Transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Irreversible thermodynamics is a widely-applicable toolset that extends thermodynamics to describe systems undergoing irreversible processes. It is particularly useful for describing macroscopic flow of system components, whether conserved (e...

Sears, Matthew

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

129

Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

130

Neurotransmitter Transporters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at specialized synaptic junctions where electrical excitability in the form of an action potential is translated membrane of neurons and glial cells. Transporters harness electrochemical gradients to force the movement.els.net #12;The response produced when a transmitter interacts with its receptors, the synaptic potential

Bergles, Dwight

131

Behavior of hydrophobic ionic liquids as liquid membranes on phenol removal: Experimental study and optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Room temperature ionic liquids show potential as an alternative to conventional organic membrane solvents mainly due to their properties of low vapor pressure, low volatility and they are often stable. In the present work, the technical feasibilities of room temperature ionic liquids as bulk liquid membranes for phenol removal were investigated experimentally. Three ionic liquids with high hydrophobicity were used and their phenol removal efficiency, membrane stability and membrane loss were studied. Besides that, the effects of several parameters, namely feed phase pH, feed concentration, NaOH concentration and stirring speeds on the performance of best ionic liquid membrane were also evaluated. Lastly, an optimization study on bulk ionic liquid membrane was conducted and the maximum phenol removal efficiency was compared with the organic liquid membranes. The preliminary study shows that high phenol extraction and stripping efficiencies of 96.21% and 98.10%, respectively can be achieved by ionic liquid memb...

Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Integrated inorganic membrane electrode assembly with layered double hydroxides as ionic conductors for anion exchange membrane water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, we report a novel integrated inorganic membrane electrode assembly (I2MEA) for anion exchange membrane (AEM) water electrolysis by using inorganic Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (Mg-Al LDHs) as an ionic conductor. Mg-Al \\{LDHs\\} synthesized by a two-step approach exhibit high hydroxide ion conductivity and superior stability. The resultant ionic conducting nanoparticles are cold-pressed to form a membrane and mixed with a non-precious electrocatalyst to form the catalyst layer onto each side of the membrane. As such, an I2MEA is formed and used in a water electrolysis setup. It is shown that the present water electrolysis results in a maximum current density of 208 mA cm?2 with 0.1 M NaOH as the electrolyte and a cutoff voltage of 2.2 V at 70 °C. More impressively, using 0.1 M Na2CO3 as the electrolyte, the \\{I2MEAs\\} can continuously electrolyze at 80 mA cm?2 for 600 hours with a decay rate of as low as 100 ?V h?1. This superior stability is attributed to the integrated structure that allows hydroxide ions to transport smoothly.

L. Zeng; T.S. Zhao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Low-frequency Raman spectra and fragility of imidazolium ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Raman spectra within the 5-200 cm{sup -1} range have been recorded as a function of temperature for different ionic liquids based on imidazolium cations. A correlation has been found between fragility and the temperature dependence of the strength of fast relaxational motions. Understanding quasielastic scattering as the relaxational contribution to ionic mean-squared displacement elucidates some effects on ionic liquids' fragility resulting from modifications in the chemical structure.

Ribeiro, Mauro C. C. [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Molecular, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 26077, CEP 05513-970 Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

134

Low-frequency Raman spectra and fragility of imidazolium ionic liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raman spectra within the 5 – 200 ? cm ? 1 range have been recorded as a function of temperature for different ionic liquids based on imidazolium cations. A correlation has been found between fragility and the temperature dependence of the strength of fast relaxational motions. Understanding quasielastic scattering as the relaxational contribution to ionic mean-squared displacement elucidates some effects on ionic liquids’ fragility resulting from modifications in the chemical structure.

Mauro C. C. Ribeiro

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

NREL: Transportation Research - News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

News NREL provides a number of transportation and hydrogen news sources. Transportation News Find news stories that highlight NREL's transportation research, development, and...

136

Understanding the effect of side groups in ionic liquids on carbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the effect of side groups in ionic liquids on carbon-capture properties: a combined experimental and theoretical effort Previous Next List Fangyong Yan, Michael Lartey, Krishnan...

137

Synthesis and applications of imidazolium-based ionic liquids and their polymer derivatives .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??"Imidazolium-based ionic liquids have been increasingly used as green solvents to replace the volatile and relatively toxic organic solvents, in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, materials… (more)

Oh, Woon Su, 1974-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic supported ionic Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hin Hark Gan Summary: are summarized in Mate- rials and Methods and in the Supporting Material. In this work, we compute ionic... present the mesoscale chromatin model and...

139

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimony oxide ionic Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results for: antimony oxide ionic Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 IOP PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 20 (2009) 264003 (7pp) doi:10.10880957-44842026264003 Summary:...

140

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial muscles ionic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

their tails. They may cost more than conventional... . Artificial muscles represent the holy grail for robotics researchers. Today's robots look blocky... . The ionic group is...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Short Time Dynamics of Ionic Liquids in AIMD-Based Power Spectra  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Short Time Dynamics of Ionic Liquids in AIMD-Based Power Spectra ... A Car-Parrinello study of 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride water mixture ...

Katharina Wendler; Martin Brehm; Friedrich Malberg; Barbara Kirchner; Luigi Delle Site

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

142

Methods of using ionic liquids having a fluoride anion as solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method in one embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having a fluoride anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of about 90.degree. C. or less during the contacting. A method in another embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having an acetate or formate anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of less than about 90.degree. C. during the contacting.

Pagoria, Philip (Livermore, CA); Maiti, Amitesh (San Ramon, CA); Gash, Alexander (Brentwood, CA); Han, Thomas Yong (Pleasanton, CA); Orme, Christine (Oakland, CA); Fried, Laurence (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

143

E-Print Network 3.0 - ammonium ionic liquids Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic Data Center (CFADC) Collection: Plasma Physics and Fusion 2 "Control of protein folding and misfolding in ionic liquid media, and a conjecture on early earth biology"....

144

Project Profile: Thermally-Stable Ionic Liquid Carriers forNanopartic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

as ionic liquids (ILs). Approach Illusrtation of various colored circles connected by lines. They will select an appropriate IL using a constant method of determining thermal...

145

Transportation Security  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

For Review Only 1 Transportation Security Draft Annotated Bibliography Review July 2007 Preliminary Draft - For Review Only 2 Work Plan Task * TEC STG Work Plan, dated 8/2/06, Product #16, stated: "Develop an annotated bibliography of publicly-available documents related to security of radioactive material transportation." * Earlier this year, a preliminary draft annotated bibliography on this topic was developed by T-REX , UNM, to initially address this STG Work Plan Task. Preliminary Draft - For Review Only 3 Considerations in Determining Release of Information * Some "Publicly-available" documents could potentially contain inappropriate information according to standards set by DOE information security policy and DOE Guides. - Such documents would not be freely

146

Transportation Issues  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Issues Issues and Resolutions - Compilation of Laboratory Transportation Work Package Reports Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Compiled by Paul McConnell Sandia National Laboratories September 30, 2012 FCRD-UFD-2012-000342 Transportation Issues and Resolutions ii September 2012 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. Government. Neither the U.S. Government nor any

147

Gain switching and oscillations in an ionic pulsed xenon laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The output of a visible ionic pulsed xenon laser excited with a FWHM nearly flat current pulse was analysed through time-resolved spectroscopy. It was observed that near threshold, the output consisted of a multipulse pattern within the duration of the current pulse. Beside this, a study of the spontaneous emission of the laser lines was carried out as a function of discharge current. This work reports the main characteristics of this kind of output and proposes a simplified model based on excitation - de-excitation processes by electron impact and gain modulation that reproduces the main experimental results.

H Sobral; D Schinca; R Duchowicz; M Gallardo

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Hydrogen Fluoride Capture by Imidazolium Acetate Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, I will evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

Chaban, Vitaly

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Glyphosate-Based Herbicidal Ionic Liquids with Increased Efficacy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse testing indicated that while at a higher application rate of 360 g/ha the efficacy of all the HILs was comparable to the commercial herbicide control, at a lower application rate of 180 g/ha, the efficacy of all HILs was as much as two and a half to three times higher when compared to the commercial formulation, and the dianionic glyphosates were the most effective. ... In field trials, all but one of the tested HILs demonstrated excellent efficacy. ... Laboratory regrowth tests established that the ionic liquids of glyphosate are efficiently translocated to rhizomes preventing the regrowth of plants. ...

Juliusz Pernak; Micha? Niemczak; Rafa? Giszter; Julia L. Shamshina; Gabriela Gurau; O. Andreea Cojocaru; Tadeusz Praczyk; Katarzyna Marcinkowska; Robin D. Rogers

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

150

Policy Research TRANSPORTATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policy Research TRANSPORTATION CENTER Thestate's transportation system is central to its ability movement of goods to maintain and enhance global economic competitiveness. An effective transportation, TTI has identified the following set of initial transportation issues which must be better understood

151

Pysico-chemical properties of hydrophobic ionic liquids containing 1-octylpyridinium, 1-octyl-2-methylpyridinium or 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium cations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic liquids as green solvents: progress and prospects,in ionic liquid solvents. Green Chem. 2004, 6, 245-249. Xu,solvent structural variations on the mechanism of facilitated ion transfer into room-temperature ionic liquids. Green

Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Salminen, Justin; Lee, Jong-Min; Prausnitz, John M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Amino Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amino Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid Solid Sorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture ... Amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) are potential green substitutes of aqueous amine solutions for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. ... However, the viscous nature of AAILs greatly hinders their further development in CO2 capture applications. ...

Xianfeng Wang; Novruz G. Akhmedov; Yuhua Duan; David Luebke; David Hopkinson; Bingyun Li

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

153

WHEN IT COMES TO SOLVENTS, IONIC LIQUIDS are in a class by themselves. Compared to other  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are a groundbreaking green alternative to highly toxic solvents capable of causing signifi- cant environmental harm WITTKOP IONIC LIQUIDS: THE GREEN SUPER-SOLVENTS AUTHOR: DEAN L. MASKEVICH is editor of NJIT Magazine. #12WHEN IT COMES TO SOLVENTS, IONIC LIQUIDS are in a class by themselves. Compared to other solvents

Bieber, Michael

154

Short Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with uranium from mining and milling operations, radioactive wastes, and from nuclear accidents is a majorShort Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous solution t s Uranium forms various complexes with ionic liquids. Uranium bioreduction was affected by the type

Ohta, Shigemi

155

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach Tomer, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia (Dated: November 19, 2014) We study the surface tension of ionic solutions expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical

Andelman, David

156

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self-assembled multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self The electrochromic switching times of solid state conducting polymer devices fabricated by the ionic self shown to decrease with the active area of the electrochromic device suggesting that even faster

Heflin, Randy

157

Method of purifying a gas stream using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating a target gas from a gaseous mixture using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids is presented. Industrial effluent streams may be cleaned by removing carbon dioxide from the stream by contacting the effluent stream with a 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquid compound.

Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunald; Tang, Chau

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

158

Efficient Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Catalyzed by Sulfated Zirconia in Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Catalyzed by Sulfated Zirconia in Ionic Liquids ... An efficient process was developed for the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]) by using sulfated zirconia as catalyst. ... Sulfated Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Catalyzed 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation from Sugars ...

Xinhua Qi; Haixin Guo; Luyang Li

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

160

Intelligent Transportation Systems - Center for Transportation Analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Intelligent Transportation Systems Intelligent Transportation Systems The Center for Transportation Analysis does specialty research and development in intelligent transportation systems. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are part of the national strategy for improving the operational safety, efficiency, and security of our nation's highways. Since the early 1990s, ITS has been the umbrella under which significant efforts have been conducted in research, development, testing, deployment and integration of advanced technologies to improve the measures of effectiveness of our national highway network. These measures include level of congestion, the number of accidents and fatalities, delay, throughput, access to transportation, and fuel efficiency. A transportation future that includes ITS will involve a significant improvement in these

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermophysical Properties of 1,8-Diazobicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene Based Thiocyanate Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work was supported by PETRONAS Ionic Liquids Centre (PILC). ... We acknowledge all of the research officers in PILC for helping with the analysis of the ionic liquids. ...

Kallidanthiyil Chellappan Lethesh; Syed Nasir Shah; M. I. Abdul Mutalib

2014-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

162

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionic Liquids Ionic Liquids Project No.: FC26-07NT43091 Model of CO2 absorption by an ionic liquid. Model of CO2 absorption by an IL. The model shows that the anions are controlling absorption in ILs. The green units represent anions and the grey units represent cations. The University of Notre Dame is conducting the Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture project (FC26-07NT43091), that builds on the work of its earlier project (FG26-04NT42122), to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids (ILs) - for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Initial efforts focused on "proof-of-concept" exploration, followed by a laboratory-/bench-scale effort. ILs include a broad category

163

The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use radiation chemistry of ionic liquids and its implications for their use in nuclear fuel processing J. F. Wishart and I. A. Shkrob in "Ionic Liquids: From Knowledge to Application" Rogers, R. D., Plechkova, N. V., and Seddon, K. R., Eds.; ACS Symp. Ser. 1030, Ch. 8, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2009, pp 119-134. (ISBN 978-0-8412-6997-2) [Find chapter at ACS Publications] Abstract: Using ionic liquids as a medium for the processing of spent nuclear fuel, where their safety and process improvement advantages could be significant, promises to substantially contribute to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles to improve the world's energy posture. It is therefore important to study the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids, to determine

164

Higher ionic conductive ceria-based electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Codoping is used to enhance the ionic conductivity of ceria-based electrolytes. Sm 3 + and Nd 3 + were selected as codopants to promote low migration energy paths for oxygen vacancydiffusion thereby increasing the ionic conductivity. Moreover the use of codopants also increases the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius relationship thus further improving the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity of Sm x Nd x Ce 1 ? 2 x O 2 ? ? solid solutions is measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was observed that for Sm 0.075 Nd 0.075 Ce 0.85 O 2 ? ? the grain ionic conductivity was 14.0 × 10 ? 3 S cm ? 1 at 550 ° C which makes it one of the most promising ceria-based electrolytes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

Shobit Omar; Eric D. Wachsman; Juan C. Nino

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Ionic Liquids: Radiation Chemistry, Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity Patterns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic liquids (ILs) are a rapidly expanding family of condensed-phase media with important applications in energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs generally have low volatilities and are combustion-resistant, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of primary radiation chemistry, charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of reactions and product distributions. We study these issues by characterization of primary radiolysis products and measurements of their yields and reactivity, quantification of electron solvation dynamics and scavenging of electrons in different states of solvation. From this knowledge we wish to learn how to predict radiolytic mechanisms and control them or mitigate their effects on the properties of materials used in nuclear fuel processing, for example, and to apply IL radiation chemistry to answer questions about general chemical reactivity in ionic liquids that will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that the slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increase the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alter product distributions and subsequent chemistry. This difference from conventional solvents has profound effects on predicting and controlling radiolytic yields, which need to be quantified for the successful use under radiolytic conditions. Electron solvation dynamics in ILs are measured directly when possible and estimated using proxies (e.g. coumarin-153 dynamic emission Stokes shifts or benzophenone anion solvation) in other cases. Electron reactivity is measured using ultrafast kinetics techniques for comparison with the solvation process.

Wishart, J.F.

2011-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

167

Nuclear fusion reaction rates for strongly coupled ionic mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the effect of plasma screening on nuclear reaction rates in dense matter composed of atomic nuclei of one or two types. We perform semiclassical calculations of the Coulomb barrier penetrability taking into account a radial mean-field potential of plasma ions. The mean-field potential is extracted from the results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of radial pair distribution functions of ions in binary ionic mixtures. We calculate the reaction rates in a wide range of plasma parameters and approximate these rates by an analytical expression that is expected to be applicable to multicomponent ion mixtures. Also, we analyze Gamow-peak energies of reacting ions in various nuclear burning regimes. For illustration, we study nuclear burning in {sup 12}C-{sup 16}O mixtures.

Chugunov, A. I.; DeWitt, H. E. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Modification of Deeply Buried Hydrophobic Interfaces by Ionic Surfactants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrophobicity, the spontaneous segregation of oil and water, can be modified by surfactants. The way this modification occurs is studied at the oil-water interface for a range of alkanes and two ionic surfactants. A liquid interfacial monolayer, consisting of a mixture of alkane molecules and surfactant tails, is found. Upon cooling, it freezes at T{sub s}, well above the alkane's bulk freezing temperature, T{sub b}. The monolayer's phase diagram, derived by surface tensiometry, is accounted for by a mixtures-based theory. The monolayer's structure is measured by high-energy X-ray reflectivity above and below T{sub s}. A solid-solid transition in the frozen monolayer, occurring approximately 3 C below T{sub s}, is discovered and tentatively suggested to be a rotator-to-crystal transition.

Ocko, B.M.; Tamam, L.; Pontoni, D.; Sapir, Z.; Yefet, S.; Sloutskin, E.; Reichert, H.; Deutsch, M.

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

169

Low velocity ion stopping in binary ionic mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attention is focused on the low ion velocity stopping mechanisms in multicomponent and dense target plasmas built of quasiclassical electron fluids neutralizing binary ionic mixtures, such as, deuterium-tritium of current fusion interest, proton-heliumlike iron in the solar interior or proton-helium ions considered in planetology, as well as other mixtures of fiducial concern in the heavy ion beam production of warm dense matter at Bragg peak conditions. The target plasma is taken in a multicomponent dielectric formulation a la Fried-Conte. The occurrence of projectile ion velocities (so-called critical) for which target electron slowing down equals that of given target ion components is also considered. The corresponding multiquadrature computations, albeit rather heavy, can be monitored analytical through a very compact code operating a PC cluster. Slowing down results are systematically scanned with respect to target temperature and electron density, as well as ion composition.

Tashev, Bekbolat; Baimbetov, Fazylkhan [Department of Physics, Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96, Almaty 480012 (Kazakhstan); Deutsch, Claude [LPGP (UMR-CNRS 8578), Universite Paris XI, 91405 Orsay (France); Fromy, Patrice [Direction de l'Informatique, Universite Paris XI, 91405 Orsay (France)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Modification of Deeply Buried Hydrophobic Interfaces by Ionic Surfactants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrophobicity, the spontaneous segregation of oil and water, can be modified by surfactants. The way this modification occurs is studied at the oil-water interface for a range of alkanes and two ionic surfactants. A liquid interfacial monolayer, consisting of a mixture of alkane molecules and surfactant tails, is found. Upon cooling, it freezes at T{sub s}, well above the alkane's bulk freezing temperature, T{sub b}. The monolayer's phase diagram, derived by surface tensiometry, is accounted for by a mixtures-based theory. The monolayer's structure is measured by high-energy X-ray reflectivity above and below T{sub s}. A solid-solid transition in the frozen monolayer, occurring approximately 3 C below T{sub s}, is discovered and tentatively suggested to be a rotator-to-crystal transition.

L Tamam; D Pontoni Z Sapir; S Yefet; S Sloutskin; B Ocko; H Reichert; M Deutsch

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

171

Dielectric function of a collisional plasma for arbitrary ionic charge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple model for the dielectric function of a completely ionized plasma with an arbitrary ionic charge that is valid for long-wavelength high-frequency perturbations is derived using an approximate solution of a linearized Fokker-Planck kinetic equation for electrons with a Landau collision integral. The model accounts for both the electron-ion collisions and the collisions of the subthermal (cold) electrons with thermal ones. The relative contribution of the latter collisions to the dielectric function is treated phenomenologically, introducing some parameter ? that is chosen in such a way as to get a well-known expression for stationary electric conductivity in the low-frequency region and fulfill the requirement of a vanishing contribution of electron-electron collisions in the high-frequency region. This procedure ensures the applicability of our model in a wide range of plasma parameters as well as the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation. Unlike the interpolation formula proposed earlier by Brantov et al. [Brantov et al., JETP 106, 983 (2008)], our model fulfills the Kramers-Kronig relations and permits a generalization for the cases of degenerate and strongly coupled plasmas. With this in mind, a generalization of the well-known Lee-More model [Y. T. Lee and R. M. More, Phys. Fluids 27, 1273 (1984)] for stationary conductivity and its extension to dynamical conductivity [O. F. Kostenko and N. E. Andreev, GSI Annual Report No. GSI-2008-2, 2008 (unpublished), p. 44] is proposed for the case of plasmas with arbitrary ionic charge.

H. B. Nersisyan, M. E. Veysman, N. E. Andreev, and H. H. Matevosyan

2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

172

Transportation Security | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Security SHARE Global Threat Reduction Initiative Transportation Security Cooperation Secure Transport Operations (STOP) Box Security of radioactive material while...

173

Transportation Security | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Transportation Security Transportation Security Transportation Security More Documents & Publications Overview for Newcomers West Valley Demonstration Project Low-Level Waste...

174

Ion transport through a graphene nanopore  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular dynamics simulation is utilized to investigate the ionic transport of NaCl in solution through a graphene nanopore under an applied electric field. Results show the formation of concentration polarization layers in the vicinity of the graphene sheet. The non-uniformity of the ion distribution gives rise to an electric pressure which drives vortical motions in the fluid if the electric field is sufficiently strong to overcome the influence of viscosity and thermal fluctuations. The relative importance of hydrodynamic transport and thermal fluctuations in determining the pore conductivity is investigated. A second important effect that is observed is the mass transport of water through the nanopore, with an average velocity proportional to the applied voltage and independent of the pore diameter. The flux arises as a consequence of the asymmetry in the ion distribution with respect to reflection about the plane of the graphene sheet. The accumulation of liquid molecules in the vicinity of the nanopore due to reorientation of the water dipoles by the local electric field is seen to result in a local increasein the liquid density. Results confirm that the electric conductance is proportional to the nanopore diameter for the parameter regimes that we simulated. The occurrence of fluid vortices is found to result in an increase in the effective electrical conductance.

Guohui Hu; Mao Mao; Sandip Ghosal

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

175

Strategic Freight Transportation Contract Procurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based Procurement for Transportation Services, Journal ofCoia, A. , Evolving transportation exchanges, World trade,an Auction Based Transportation Marketplace, Transportation

Nandiraju, Srinivas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

"Educating transportation professionals."  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Educating transportation professionals." Michael Demetsky Henry L. Kinnier Professor mjd of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 434.924.7464 Transportation Engineering & Management Research Our group works closely with the Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research (VCTIR), located

Acton, Scott

177

Transportation Efficiency Resources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Transportation efficiency reduces travel demand as measured by vehicle miles traveled (VMT). While transportation efficiency policies are often implemented under local governments, national and...

178

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cost to mitigate transport’s GHG emissions. There are alsoenergy consumption and GHG mitigation, especially inParis, 2005. ECON, 2003: GHG Emissions from International

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transport and its infrastructure Chapter 5 Hybrid vehiclesincluding hybrid- Transport and its infrastructure Chapter 5infrastructure Gt CO 2 -eq 1 - Diesels (LDVs) 2 - Hybrids (

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Sustainability and Transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005. Integrating Sustainability into the Trans- portationTHOUGHT PIECE Sustainability and Transport by Richardof the concept of sustainability to transport planning. In

Gilbert, Richard

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Self-Assembly and Transport Limitations in Confined Nafion Films  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Assembly and Transport Limitations in Confined Nafion Films Assembly and Transport Limitations in Confined Nafion Films Title Self-Assembly and Transport Limitations in Confined Nafion Films Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Modestino, Miguel A., Devproshad K. Paul, Shudipto Dishari, Stephanie A. Petrina, Frances I. Allen, Michael A. Hickner, Kunal Karan, Rachel Segalman, and Adam Z. Weber Journal Macromolecules Volume 46 Issue 3 Pagination 867 - 873 Date Published 02/2013 ISSN 0024-9297 Abstract Ion-conducting polymers are important materials for a variety of electrochemical applications. Perfluorinated ionomers, such as Nafion, are the benchmark materials for proton conduction and are widely used in fuel cells and other electrochemical devices including solar-fuel generators, chlor-alkali cells, and redox flow batteries. While the behavior of Nafion in bulk membranes (10 to 100s ?m thick) has been studied extensively, understanding its properties under thin-film confinement is limited. Elucidating the behavior of thin Nafion films is particularly important for the optimization of fuel-cell catalyst layers or vapor-operated solar-fuel generators, where a thin film of ionomer is responsible for the transport of ions to and from the active electrocatalytic centers. Using a combination of transport-property measurements and structural characterization, this work demonstrates that confinement of Nafion in thin films induced thickness-dependent proton conductivity and ionic-domain structure. Confining Nafion films to thicknesses below 50 nm on a silicon substrate results in a loss of microphase separation of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, which drastically increases the material?s water uptake while in turn decreasing its ionic conductivity.

182

A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Ionic Liquids and Neutral Solvents Heather Y. Lee, Joseph B. Issa, Stephan S. Isied, Edward W. Castner, Jr., Yunfeng Pan, Charles L. Hussey, Kwang Soon Lee, and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 5197-5208 (2012). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request. Abstract: The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethyl¬sulfonyl)¬amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a

183

A Microfabricated Planar Electrospray Array Ionic Liquid Ion Source With Integrated Extractor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a fully microfabricated planar array of externally fed electrospray emitters that produces heavy molecular ions from the ionic liquids ...

Gassend, Blaise

184

Ionic Liquids Used as Wear Reduction, Wins R&D 100 Award | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

100 Award October 16, 2014 - 11:19am Addthis Partnered with Shell Global Solutions, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed ionic liquids (salts in a liquid state...

185

Performance of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) with different surface roughening methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on permeation and double chemical reduction technology, this paper researches the manufacture of Pt-ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) and the effect of three types of surface roughening methods on the ...

Ning Jin; Bangfeng Wang; Kan Bian; Qi Chen…

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Theoretical Investigations on Nanoporpus Materials and Ionic Liquids for Energy Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by adsorption. In this regard carbon nanotube and Metal Organic Framework (MOFs) based materials are worth studying. Ionic liquids (IL) are potential electrolytes that can improve energy storage capacity and safety in Li ion batteries. Therefore it is important...

Mani Biswas, Mousumi

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

187

Survey on ionic liquids effect based on metal anions over the thermal stability of heavy oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A survey on the effect of ionic liquids (ILs) over the thermal stability of a heavy Mexican oil was performed. ILs used were based on [Cnim]+ and [Cnpyr]+ organic cations with FeCl 4 ...

J. A. Murillo-Hernández; S. López-Ramírez…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...existing internal combustion engines. Based in part on previous work (9), we constructed a...Microbial cellulose utilization: Fundamentals and biotechnology . Microbiol...precursors suitable for gasoline, diesel, and jet engines directly from ionic liquid-treated...

Gregory Bokinsky; Pamela P. Peralta-Yahya; Anthe George; Bradley M. Holmes; Eric J. Steen; Jeffrey Dietrich; Taek Soon Lee; Danielle Tullman-Ercek; Christopher A. Voigt; Blake A. Simmons; Jay D. Keasling

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Concerted Interconversion between Ionic Lock Substates of the b2 Adrenergic Receptor Revealed by Microsecond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Concerted Interconversion between Ionic Lock Substates of the b2 Adrenergic Receptor Revealed substates (2,5). Recently solved crystallographic structures of b2-adren- ergic receptor (B2AR) have shown

190

Environmentally Benign Production of Ionic Liquids in CO2-Expanded Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The need to reduce air pollution in chemical manufacturing processes continues to drive the search for alternative solvents. Ionic Liquids (ILs) have emerged in recent years as a promising solution. In contrast to traditional ...

Nwosu, Sylvia Ogechi

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

High-Performance Ionic Diode Membrane for Salinity Gradient Power Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-Performance Ionic Diode Membrane for Salinity Gradient Power Generation ... These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solns., such as thermolytic salts. ... saline brines because of the higher power d. ...

Jun Gao; Wei Guo; Dan Feng; Huanting Wang; Dongyuan Zhao; Lei Jiang

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

192

High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

193

Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvents Convert Sugars to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sugars were converted to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at high yield in ionic liquids without the addition of Bronsted acids. Very small amount of certain metal halides significantly reduced the fructose dehydration barrier in ionic liquids producing HMF at high yields. Most remarkably, glucose, a common sugar molecule, was selectively converted to HMF in good yield in ionic liquids containing a small amount of CrCl2. Thus CrCl2 is unique among metal chlorides tested for its effectiveness in both isomerizing glucose as well as dehydrating fructose. Only negligble amount of levulinic acid was formed in the reactions. The catalytic activity of metal chlorides for sugar conversion in ionic liquids is perhaps related to hydroxyl group of the sugar forming metal complexes with the unsaturated metal center.

Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Brown, Heather M.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Etherification of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to a Biodiesel Component Over Ionic Liquid Modified Zeolites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, ionic liquid (IL) modified H-Beta zeolites were prepared and the physicochemical properties of the catalysts were investigated. IL modified zeolites were applied in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) eth...

Eero Salminen; Narendra Kumar; Pasi Virtanen; Mikko Tenho…

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Catalytic conversion of cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over chromium trichloride in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An efficient method for converting cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) using an inexpensive ionic...3·6H2O) was developed. The effects of hydrochloric acid loading, catalyst dosage, reaction temperatur...

Shui Wang; Yizhen Du; Wenqian Zhang…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Ionic Liquids: Breakthrough Absorption Technology for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Background Development of innovative environmental control technologies is key to maintaining coal as an affordable and environmentally sound energy source. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control technologies, specifically post-combustion CO 2 capture, for coal- fired power plants is a major focus area in addressing climate change concerns. Post-

197

Structure and phase transitions into ionic adsorption layers on liquid interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The structure of ionic adsorption layers is studied via a proper thermodynamic treatment of the electrostatic and non-electrostatic interactions between the surfactant ions as well as of the effect of thermodynamic non-locality. The analysis is also applied to phase transitions into the ionic adsorption layer, which interfere further with the oscillatory-diffusive structure of the electric double layer and hydrodynamic stability of squeezing waves in thin liquid films.

R. Tsekov

2014-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

198

Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interfacial region between graphene and an imidazolium based ionic liquid is studied using spectroscopic analysis and computational modelling. This combined approach reveals that the molecular level structure of the interfacial region is significantly influenced by functional group defects on the graphene surface.The combined experimental and computational study reveals that the molecular structure at interfacial region between graphene and imidazolium based ionic liquid is defined by the hydroxyl functional groups on the graphene surface

Vijayakumar, M.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Shutthanandan, V.; Hu, Jian Z.; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

199

Efficient Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Chromium(III) Chloride in Inexpensive Ionic Liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Chromium(III) Chloride in Inexpensive Ionic Liquid ... An efficient process was developed for the conversion of glucose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the relatively low-toxicity and inexpensive catalytic system of chromium(III) chloride (CrCl3·6H2O) catalyst and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC) ionic liquid. ... Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into the Liquid Biofuel 2,5-Dimethylfuran ...

Lei Hu; Yong Sun; Lu Lin

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

200

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-action Solvents for Efficient CO 2 Capture Background Post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture presents technical challenges because the flue gas is at atmospheric pressure and the CO 2 concentration is 10 to 15 volume percent, resulting in a low CO 2 partial pressure and a large volume of gas that needs to be treated. In spite of this difficulty, post-combustion CO 2 capture offers the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Interfacial Ionic Liquids: Connecting Static and Dynamic Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is well-known that room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) often adopt a charge-separated layered structure, i.e., with alternating cation- and anion-rich layers, at electrified interfaces. However, the dynamic response of the layered structure to temporal variations in applied potential is not well understood. We used in situ, real-time X-ray reflectivity (XR) to study the potential-dependent electric double layer (EDL) structure of an imidazolium-based RTIL on charged epitaxial graphene during potential cycling as a function of temperature. The results suggest that the graphene-RTIL interfacial structure is bistable in which the EDL structure at any intermediate potential can be described by the combination of two extreme-potential structures whose proportions vary depending on the polarity and magnitude of the applied potential. This picture is supported by the EDL structures obtained by fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at various static potentials. The potential-driven transition between the two structures is characterized by an increasing width but with an approximately fixed hysteresis magnitude as a function of temperature. The results are consistent with the coexistence of distinct anion and cation adsorbed structures separated by an energy barrier (~0.15 eV).

Ahmet Uysal; Hua Zhou; Guang Feng; Sang Soo Lee; Song Li; Peter T. Cummings; Pasquale F. Fulvio; Sheng Dai; John K. McDonough; Yury Gogotsi; Paul Fenter

2014-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

202

Graduate Certificate in Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graduate Certificate in Transportation Nohad A. Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning of Engineering and Computer Science integrated transportation systems. The Graduate Certificate in Transportation their capabilities. Students in the program can choose among a wide range of relevant courses in transportation

Bertini, Robert L.

203

TRANSPORTATION Annual Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2003 CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION STUDIES Annual Report #12;Center for Transportation Studies University of Minnesota 200 Transportation and Safety Building 511 Washington Avenue S.E. Minneapolis, MN publication is a report of transportation research, education, and outreach activities for the period July

Minnesota, University of

204

Career Map: Transportation Worker  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Wind Program's Career Map provides job description information for Transportation Worker positions.

205

Transportation Organization and Functions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Office of Packaging and Transportation list of organizations and functions, with a list of acronyms.

206

Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freig pipeline transportation > Airport planning and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedestr  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freig pipeline transportation > Airport planning and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedestrian > Ports and waterways >>> Transportation ope

207

Graduate Studies Transportation Systems Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graduate Studies Transportation Systems Engineering TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS The transportation that transportation systems engineering can promote a thriving economy and a better quality of life by ensuring that transportation systems themselves affect the environment through operations, construction, and maintenance

Jacobs, Laurence J.

208

Introduction Transport in disordered graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Transport in disordered graphene Summary Ballistic transport in disordered graphene P, Gornyi, Mirlin Ballistic transport in disordered graphene #12;Introduction Transport in disordered graphene Summary Outline 1 Introduction Model Experimental motivation Transport in clean graphene 2

Fominov, Yakov

209

NREL: Transportation Research - Sustainable Transportation Basics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) provide an introduction to sustainable transportation. NREL research supports development of electric, hybrid,...

210

Controlling polymer translocation and ion transport via charge correlations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a correlation-corrected transport theory in order to predict ionic and polymer transport properties of membrane nanopores in physical conditions where mean-field electrostatics breaks down. The experimentally observed low KCl conductivity of open alpha-Hemolysin pores is quantitatively explained by the presence of surface polarization effects. Upon the penetration of a DNA molecule into the pore, these polarization forces combined with the electroneutrality of DNA sets a lower boundary for the ionic current, explaining the weak salt dependence of blocked pore conductivities at dilute ion concentrations. The addition of multivalent counterions into the solution results in the reversal of the polymer charge and the direction of the electroosmotic flow. With trivalent spermidine or quadrivalent spermine molecules, the charge inversion is strong enough to stop the translocation of the polymer and to reverse its motion. This mechanism can be used efficiently in translocation experiments in order to improve the accuracy of DNA sequencing by minimizing the translocation velocity of the polymer.

Sahin Buyukdagli; Tapio Ala-Nissila

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

211

Transportation Baseline Schedule  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The “1999 National Transportation Program - Transportation Baseline Report” presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste/material transportation. The companion “1999 Transportation ‘Barriers’ Analysis” analyzes the data and identifies existing and potential problems that may prevent or delay transportation activities based on the data presented. The “1999 Transportation Baseline Schedule” (this report) uses the same data to provide an overview of the transportation activities of DOE EM waste/materials. This report can be used to identify areas where stakeholder interface is needed, and to communicate to stakeholders the quantity/schedule of shipments going through their area. Potential bottlenecks in the transportation system can be identified; the number of packages needed, and the capacity needed at receiving facilities can be planned. This report offers a visualization of baseline DOE EM transportation activities for the 11 major sites and the “Geologic Repository Disposal” site (GRD).

Fawcett, Ricky Lee; John, Mark Earl

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

Qu, J. [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Rh-Pd and Pt-Pd Core-Shell Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measured at 25 o C in UHV as a function of photoelectronPt 0.5 Pd 0.5 measured in UHV at 25 o C as a function of thelocated in a separate UHV chamber, indicating that the

Tao, Feng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Highly Selective and Near-Quantitative Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Mildly Acidic Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highly Selective and Near-Quantitative Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Mildly Acidic Ionic Liquids ... The ionic liquid, [C4C1im][HSO4], provides an acidic solvent in which to convert fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural rapidly and in high yield. ... The room-temperature ionic liquid, [C4C1im][HSO4], provides a multi-faceted medium in which to convert fructose to the versatile chemical building block, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). ...

Sanan Eminov; James D. E. T. Wilton-Ely; Jason P. Hallett

2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

215

Isotope Program Transportation | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Isotope Program Transportation Isotope Program Transportation Isotope Program Transportation More Documents & Publications Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Planning Project...

216

Nuclear Transportation Management Services | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Nuclear Transportation Management Services Nuclear Transportation Management Services Nuclear Transportation Management Services More Documents & Publications Transportation and...

217

Transportation Issues and Resolutions Compilation of Laboratory...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Transportation Issues and Resolutions Compilation of Laboratory Transportation Work Package Reports Transportation Issues and Resolutions Compilation of Laboratory Transportation...

218

Transportation | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Transportation Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Fuels, Engines, Emissions Transportation Analysis Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Propulsion Materials Lightweight Materials Bioenergy Fuel Cell Technologies Clean Energy Home | Science & Discovery | Clean Energy | Research Areas | Transportation SHARE Transportation Research ORNL researcher Jim Szybist uses a variable valve-train engine to evaluate different types of fuels, including ethanol blends, and their effects on the combustion process in an internal combustion engine. Oak Ridge National Laboratory brings together science and technology experts from across scientific disciplines to partner with government and industry in addressing transportation challenges. Research objectives are

219

Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation...

220

Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow sphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? The ?-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ? Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ? Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ? A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup ?} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the ?-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

Tang, Zhe, E-mail: tangzhe1983@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: liuyq@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Li, Guangci, E-mail: liguangci1984@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Hu, Xiaofu, E-mail: hjj19850922@126.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Liu, Chenguang, E-mail: cgliu@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the surface tension of ionic solutions at air/water and oil/water interfaces. By using field-theoretical methods and including a finite proximal surface-region with ionic-specific interactions. The free energy is expanded to first-order in a loop expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical predictions that reunite the Onsager-Samaras pioneering result (which does not agree with experimental data), with the ionic specificity of the Hofmeister series. We derive analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, and show consequently that the Onsager-Samaras result is consistent with the one-loop correction beyond the mean-field result. Our theory fits well a wide range of salt concentrations for different monovalent ions using one fit parameter, and reproduces the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.

Markovich, Tomer; Podgornik, Rudolf

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Interfaces: Ionic Specificity within a Field-Theory Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the surface tension of ionic solutions at air/water and oil/water interfaces. By using field-theoretical methods and including a finite proximal surface-region with ionic-specific interactions. The free energy is expanded to first-order in a loop expansion beyond the mean-field result. We calculate the excess surface tension and obtain analytical predictions that reunite the Onsager-Samaras pioneering result (which does not agree with experimental data), with the ionic specificity of the Hofmeister series. We derive analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, and show consequently that the Onsager-Samaras result is consistent with the one-loop correction beyond the mean-field result. Our theory fits well a wide range of salt concentrations for different monovalent ions using one fit parameter per electrolyte, and reproduces the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.

Tomer Markovich; David Andelman; Rudolf Podgornik

2015-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

224

Transportation Infrastructure and Sustainable Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Better Forecasting Tool for Transportation Decision-making,” Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose Stateat the 2008 meeting of the Transportation Research Board and

Boarnet, Marlon G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Transportation Analysis | Clean Energy | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Analysis SHARE Transportation Analysis Transportation Analysis efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory contribute to the efficient, safe, and free movement of...

226

The universal radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE UNIVERSAL RADIATIVE TRANSPORT EQUATION Rudolph W.The Universal Radiative Transport Equation Rudolph W.The various radiative transport equations used in general

Preisendorfer, Rudolph W

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

OVERVIEW OF PROPOSED TRANSPORTATION ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.......................................................................................................................4 PROPOSED CALIFORNIA TRANSPORTATION FUEL PRICE FORECASTS......... 6 Summary....................................................................................................6 Petroleum Transportation Fuel Price Forecast Assumptions .............................................................6 California Transportation Fuel Price Forecasts

228

transportation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

transportation transportation Dataset Summary Description The 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) provides information to assist transportation planners and policy makers who need comprehensive data on travel and transportation patterns in the United States. The 2009 NHTS updates information gathered in the 2001 NHTS and in prior Nationwide Personal Transportation Surveys (NPTS) conducted in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, and 1995. Source U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration Date Released February 28th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords NHTS TEF transportation Transportation Energy Futures travel trip Data application/zip icon Travel Day Trip File (zip, 42.6 MiB) application/zip icon Household File (zip, 5 MiB) application/zip icon Person File (zip, 17.4 MiB)

229

Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Packaging and Transportation Safety  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1.

1996-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

231

Packaging and Transportation Safety  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Canceled by DOE 460.1A

1995-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

232

Modelling transport fuel demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transport fuels account for an increasing share of oil ... interest to study the economics of the transport fuel market and thereby to evaluate the efficiency of the price mechanism as an instrument of policy in ...

Thomas Sterner; Carol A. Dahl

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Transportation Demand This  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Transportation Demand Transportation Demand This page inTenTionally lefT blank 75 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Transportation Demand Module The NEMS Transportation Demand Module estimates transportation energy consumption across the nine Census Divisions (see Figure 5) and over ten fuel types. Each fuel type is modeled according to fuel-specific and associated technology attributes applicable by transportation mode. Total transportation energy consumption is the sum of energy use in eight transport modes: light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), commercial light trucks (8,501-10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), freight trucks (>10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), buses, freight and passenger aircraft, freight

234

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alternative means. In general, collective modes of transport use less energy and generate less GHGs than private cars.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

NREL: Transportation Research - Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and fact sheets. Visit the following online resources to find publications about sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment. NREL Publications...

236

Northwestern University Transportation Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Northwestern University Transportation Center 2011 Business Advisory Committee NUTC #12;#12;I have the pleasure of presenting our Business Advisory Committee members--a distinguished group of transportation industry lead- ers who have partnered with the Transportation Center in advancing the state of knowledge

Bustamante, Fabián E.

237

Louisiana Transportation Research Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Louisiana Transportation Research Center LTRC www.ltrc.lsu.edu 2012-13 ANNUALREPORT #12;The Louisiana Transportation Research Center (LTRC) is a research, technology transfer, and training center administered jointly by the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) and Louisiana State

Harms, Kyle E.

238

TRANSPORTATION: THE POTENTIAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: THE POTENTIAL AND THE CHALLENGE A Summary Report 2003 #12;June 2003 To the Reader This report summarizes the second James L. Oberstar Forum on Transportation Policy and Technology. Over two days, we explored the chal- lenges and opportunities in intermodal transportation, addressing

Minnesota, University of

239

PalladianDigest Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PalladianDigest CONNECT. EMPOWER. GROW. Tackling Transportation Challenges Nebraska has been a vital link in the nation's transportation system since the days when carts, wagons to University of Nebraska­Lincoln research. That's fine with UNL transportation researchers, said Larry Rilett

Farritor, Shane

240

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_GATech_Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors.docx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors for Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductors for SOFC Cathodes Matthew E. Lynch, Lei Yang, Meilin Liu Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology 771 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 Telephone: 404-894-6114 Email: meilin.liu@mse.gatech.edu Porous cathodes are of primary importance to the electrochemical operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The compound La 1-x Sr x Co 1-y Fe y O 3-δ (LSCF) is a candidate material for the cathode, and shows good mixed ionic-electronic conductivity as well as good activity toward the oxygen reduction

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Reclamation of niobium compounds from ionic liquid electrochemical polishing of superconducting radio frequency cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent research has shown that choline chloride (vitamin B4)-based solutions can be used as a greener alternative to acid-based electrochemical polishing solutions. This study demonstrated a successful method for electrochemical deposition of niobium compounds onto the surface of copper substrates using a novel choline chloride-based ionic liquid. Niobium ions present in the ionic liquid solution were dissolved into the solution prior to deposition via electrochemical polishing of solid niobium. A black coating was clearly visible on the surface of the Cu following deposition. This coating was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). This ionic liquid-based electrochemical deposition method effectively recycles previously dissolved niobium from electrochemical polishing of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities.

Wixtrom, Alex I. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Buhler, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony; ,

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

243

Transportation Business Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

A Multidomain Model for Ionic Electrodiffusion and Osmosis with an Application to Cortical Spreading Depression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionic electrodiffusion and osmotic water flow are central processes in many physiological systems. We formulate a system of partial differential equations that governs ion movement and water flow in biological tissue. A salient feature of this model is that it satisfies a free energy identity, ensuring the thermodynamic consistency of the model. A numerical scheme is developed for the model in one spatial dimension and is applied to a model of cortical spreading depression, a propagating breakdown of ionic and cell volume homeostasis in the brain.

Yoichiro Mori

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

Ionic-passivated FeS2 photocapacitors for energy conversion and storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Ionic-passivated FeS2 photocapicitors for energy conversion and storage by Maogang Gong et al. KU ScholarWorks is a service provided by the KU Libraries’ Office of Scholarly Communication & Copyright.... This is the published version of the article, made available with the permission of the publisher. The original published version can be found at the link below. Maogang Gong et al. (2013). Ionic-Passivated FeS2 Photocapacitors for Energy Conversion and Storage...

Gong, Maogang; Kirkeminde, Alec; Kumar, Nardeep; Zhao, Hui; Ren, Shenqiang

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

246

Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes: Achieving a 10,000 GPU Permeance for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture with Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Alongside Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute, CU-Boulder is developing a membrane made of a gelled ionic liquid to capture CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants. The membranes are created by spraying the gelled ionic liquids in thin layers onto porous support structures using a specialized coating technique. The new membrane is highly efficient at pulling CO2 out of coal-derived flue gas exhaust while restricting the flow of other materials through it. The design involves few chemicals or moving parts and is more mechanically stable than current technologies. The team is now working to further optimize the gelled materials for CO2 separation and create a membrane layer that is less than 1 micrometer thick.

None

2011-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

247

Mass transport in gas-diffusion electrodes: A diagnostic tool for fuel-cell cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two mathematical models of gas-diffusion electrodes, one for liquid electrolytes and one for ion-exchange polymer electrolytes, are presented to investigate the effects of mass-transport limitations on the polarization characteristics of a reaction obeying Tafel kinetics. The focus is on low-temperature fuel-cell cathodes, and in particular, contrasting two limiting cases that may be encountered at high current densities: control by kinetics and dissolved oxygen mass transport vs. control by kinetics and ionic mass transport. It is shown that two distinct double Tafel slopes may arise from these two limiting cases. The former is first order, and the latter is half-order with respect to oxygen concentration. How the modeling results may be applied to diagnose the performance of fuel-cell cathodes is also presented. Since the ionic-mass-transport-limited case has generally been neglected in previous gas-diffusion electrode models, specific examples of fuel-cell cathode data from the literature which display the behavior predicted by the models in this case are given and briefly discussed.

Perry, M.L.; Newman, J.; Cairns, E.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

National Transportation Stakeholders Forum  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Transportation Stakeholders Forum Transportation Stakeholders Forum May 14-16, 2013 Tuesday, May 14 7:00 am - 5:00 pm Registration Niagara Foyer 7:00 am - 7:45 am Breakfast and Networking Grand A 8:00 am - 10:00 am National Updates for Transportation Stakeholder Groups and Guests - Panel Grand BC Moderator: John Giarrusso Jr., MA Emergency Management Agency / Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Co-Chair US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management - Steve O'Connor, Director, Office of Packaging & Transportation US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - Earl P. Easton, Senior Level Advisor (retired) and David W. Pstrak, Transportation and Storage Specialist, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation

249

Transportation System Requirements Document  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(California, Texas Gulf Coast, New England Atlantic Coast) will be of particular interest. The goal is to conduct a quantitative risk assessment on the pipeline, truck, and rail transportation modes to these areas. As a result of the quantitative risk...

Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Water dynamics at neutral and ionic interfaces Emily E. Fenn, Daryl B. Wong, and M. D. Fayer1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water dynamics at neutral and ionic interfaces Emily E. Fenn, Daryl B. Wong, and M. D. Fayer1 (sent for review June 12, 2009) The orientational dynamics of water at a neutral surfactant reverse, and the results are compared to orienta- tional relaxation of water interacting with an ionic interface

Fayer, Michael D.

252

Temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction combined with ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography for the rapid determination of triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-triclosan in aqueous samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As extraction solvents, ionic liquids have green characteristics. In this study, an environmentally benign analytical method termed temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (TIL...

JieHong Guo; XingHong Li; XueLi Cao; Lei Qu; DeKun Hou…

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

254

A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics inIonic Liquids and Neutral Solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a 1-N,1-N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine donor, a proline bridge, and a coumarin 343 acceptor. The photoinduced electron-transfer processes are in the inverted regime (-{Delta}G > {lambda}) in all four solvents, with driving forces of -1.6 to -1.9 eV and estimated reorganization energies of about 1.0 eV. The observed electron-transfer kinetics have broadly distributed rates that are generally slower in the ionic liquids compared to the neutral solvents, which also have narrower rate distributions. To describe the broad distributions of electron-transfer kinetics, we use two different models: a distribution of exponential lifetimes and a discrete sum of exponential lifetimes. Analysis of the donor-acceptor electronic coupling shows that for ionic liquids this intramolecular electron-transfer reaction should be treated using a solvent-controlled electron-transfer model.

Wishart J. F.; Lee, H.Y.; Issa, J.B.; Isied, S.S.; Castner, Jr., E.W.; Pan, Y.; Hussey, C.L.; Lee, K.S.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Study of Ionic Conductivity Profiles of the Air Cathode of a PEMFC by AC Impedance Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study of Ionic Conductivity Profiles of the Air Cathode of a PEMFC by AC Impedance Spectroscopy membrane fuel cell PEMFC cathode by ac impedance measurement at open-circuit potential conditions by impregnating a proton-conducting ionomer in the catalyst active layer of the cathode of a polymer electrolyte

256

Efficient biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids derived from lignin and hemicellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...depolymerization and conversion: A review of thermochemical methods . Chem Eng...in ionic liquids . Biomass Bioenergy 33 : 1122 – 1130 . 40 Abdel-Magid AF Carson...profiling was supported by the BioEnergy Science Center administered...information, and related literature citations. Table S2. Raw...

Aaron M. Socha; Ramakrishnan Parthasarathi; Jian Shi; Sivakumar Pattathil; Dorian Whyte; Maxime Bergeron; Anthe George; Kim Tran; Vitalie Stavila; Sivasankari Venkatachalam; Michael G. Hahn; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Efficient biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids derived from lignin and hemicellulose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...experimental details.) Effect of Biomass-Derived...performed in triplicate, and average yields are reported...biomass into furans for fuels and chemicals . J Am Chem...Brandt A ( 2010 ) The effect of the ionic...estimates were made using prices in bulk chemical supplier...

Aaron M. Socha; Ramakrishnan Parthasarathi; Jian Shi; Sivakumar Pattathil; Dorian Whyte; Maxime Bergeron; Anthe George; Kim Tran; Vitalie Stavila; Sivasankari Venkatachalam; Michael G. Hahn; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations of Ionic Current Modulation by DNA Translocation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lattice-Boltzmann Simulations of Ionic Current Modulation by DNA Translocation ... We use a coarse-grained model to solve the electrokinetic equations at the Poisson?Boltzmann level for the microions, coupled to a lattice-Boltzmann equation for the solvent hydrodynamics. ... Most notable among these are Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD), Stochastic Rotation Dynamics (SRD), and Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) methods. ...

Sylvain Reboux; Fabrizio Capuani; Nélido González-Segredo; Daan Frenkel

2006-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

259

Polarization model for water and its ionic dissociation Frank H. Stillinger and Carl W. Davida)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engage in hydrogen bonding to one another. Minimum-energy structures have been detennined for the waterCient to treat the individual water molecules as rigid bodies. An early example of a rigid molecule pairPolarization model for water and its ionic dissociation products Frank H. Stillinger and Carl W

Stillinger, Frank

260

Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids Luke D. Simoni-Butanol, Extraction, Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium, Excess Gibbs Energy Models, Biofuels #12;1 1. Introduction other organic compounds can be produced biologically, and thus can be considered as biofuel candidates

Stadtherr, Mark A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 Ceramic solid electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 SOLID STATE IoMcs Ceramic solid electrolytes John B electrolytes are best suited for solid reactants, as are found in most battery systems. Ceramic solid 78712-106.3. USA Abstract Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems

Gleixner, Stacy

262

Use of polymer/ionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of polymer/ionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices H. Bircana polymer configuration is commonly used when constructing electrochromic devices (ECDs) due to the expected)thienyl)-N-methylcarbazole] (PBEDOT-NMCz) as the two complementary electrochromic polymers for the device. A variety of gel

Otero, Toribio Fernández

263

Solid-State Electrochromic Devices via Ionic Self-Assembled Multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid-State Electrochromic Devices via Ionic Self-Assembled Multilayers (ISAM) of a Polyviologena-Galva´n, Harry W. Gibson, James R. Heflin* Introduction Electrochromic (EC) devices undergo reversible absorbance/ transmittance change on application of external voltage.[1] Since the first major report on electrochromism

Heflin, Randy

264

The Theoretical Description of Ionic States Observed by High Energy Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Ionic States Observed by High Energy Photoelectron Spectroscopy...orbital basis of double zeta quality or better, very good agreement with experimental core binding energies is obtained. The origin of...satellite peaks observed in high-energy photoelectron spectra is discussed...

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Solution Ionic Strength Engineering as a Generic Strategy to Coat Graphene Oxide (GO)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solution Ionic Strength Engineering as a Generic Strategy to Coat Graphene Oxide (GO) on Various Functional Particles and Its Application in High-Performance Lithium- Sulfur (Li-S) Batteries Jiepeng Rong Angeles, California 90089, United States Graphene oxide (GO) synthesis GO used in this study was prepared

Zhou, Chongwu

266

Thermodynamics of electromechanically coupled mixed ionic-electronic conductors: Deformation potential, Vegard strains, and flexoelectric effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Strong coupling among external voltage, electrochemical potentials, concentrations of electronic and ionic species, and strains is a ubiquitous feature of solid state mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs), the materials of choice in devices ranging from electroresistive and memristive elements to ion batteries and fuel cells. Here, we analyze in detail the electromechanical coupling mechanisms and derive generalized bias-concentration-strain equations for MIECs including contributions of concentration-driven chemical expansion, deformation potential, and flexoelectric effect. This analysis is extended toward the bias-induced strains in the uniform and scanning-probe-microscopy-like geometries. Notably, the contribution of the electron-phonon and flexoelectric coupling to the local surface displacement of the mixed ionic-electronic conductor caused by the electric field scanning probe microscope tip has not been considered previously. The developed thermodynamic approach allows evolving the theoretical description of mechanical phenomena induced by the electric fields (electromechanical response) in solid state ionics toward analytical theory and phase-field modeling of the MIECs in different geometries and under varying electrical, chemical, and mechanical boundary conditions.

A. N. Morozovska; E. A. Eliseev; A. K. Tagantsev; S. L. Bravina; Long-Qing Chen; S. V. Kalinin

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

267

Adsorption of Non-ionic Surfactants onto Sand and Its Importance in Naphthalene Removal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various techniques, including soil vapor extraction, bioremediation, solidification/stabilization, and soil washing, have been used to remediate contaminated sites. ... Since surfactant retention is closely related to adsorption on soil particles, insight into the adsorption behavior of non-ionic surfactants is therefore critical in facilitating the application of SER technologies. ...

Santanu Paria; Pak K. Yuet

2006-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

268

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation at high ionic strength in microbial fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation at high ionic strength in microbial fuel cell organic matter using elec- trochemically active bacteria as catalysts to generate electrical energy of the most exciting applications of MFCs is their use as benthic unattended generators to power electrical

Sun, Baolin

269

Understanding graphene production by ionic surfactant exfoliation: A molecular dynamics simulation study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding graphene production by ionic surfactant exfoliation: A molecular dynamics simulation simulated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant/water þ bilayer graphene mixture system to investigate two mechanisms of graphene exfoliation: changing the interlayer distance and sliding away the relative distance

Simons, Jack

270

Ionic liquid effects on mass transfer efficiency in extractive distillation of water–ethanol mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The relatively high viscosities of ionic liquids could reduce the mass transfer efficiency of the extractive distillation process. The rate-based model was adopted to analyze this phenomenon since it predicted the performance of an extractive distillation pilot plant using ionic liquids as solvent. For the water–ethanol separation, three ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide and the organic solvent ethylene glycol were used for the analysis. Simulations were conducted for sieve trays and Mellapak® 250Y. The results indicate that relatively high viscosities affect the mass transfer efficiency. However, the improvements in relative volatilities obtained from the ionic liquids help to overcome this effect. However, with high solvent viscosities (>65 mPa s at T = 353.15 K) it was not possible to overcome the reductions. Additionally, at higher distillate rates high relative volatilities yielded negative effects on mass transfer efficiency because of a decrease in vapor velocity.

E. Quijada-Maldonado; G. Wytze Meindersma; André B. de Haan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Protic Ionic Liquids: Preparation, Characterization, and Proton Free Energy Level Representation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interesting properties, including the ability to serve as electrolytes in solvent-free fuel cell systems. We in a fuel cell.2,7,8 This is an application which requires the presence of a special type of ionic liquids continue to be found. They are the low-melting relatives of molten salts whose place in the history

Angell, C. Austen

272

Photo-Ionic Cells: Two Solutions to Store Solar Energy and Generate Electricity on Demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photo-Ionic Cells: Two Solutions to Store Solar Energy and Generate Electricity on Demand ... potential of solar energy all over the world is many times larger than the current total primary energy demanded. ... The magnitudes of the free energies derived from formal potentials are detd. ...

Manuel A. Méndez; Pekka Peljo; Micheál D. Scanlon; Heron Vrubel; Hubert H. Girault

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

273

Transportation | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Transportation From modeling and simulation programs to advanced electric powertrains, engines, biofuels, lubricants, and batteries, Argonne's transportation research is vital to the development of next-generation vehicles. Revolutionary advances in transportation are critical to reducing our nation's petroleum consumption and the environmental impact of our vehicles. Some of the most exciting new vehicle technologies are being ushered along by research conducted at Argonne National Laboratory. Our Transportation Technology R&D Center (TTRDC) brings together scientists and engineers from many disciplines across the laboratory to work with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), automakers and other industrial partners. Our goal is to put new transportation technologies on the road that improve

274

Transportation Services | Staff Services  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Services Transportation Services The BNL Transportation Office, located at 20 Brookhaven Avenue, Building 400A, is available to assist BNL employees, guests and visitors with transportation needs in support of Laboratory programs. The hours of operation are 8:30 AM - 5:00 PM Monday through Friday. To contact the Transportation Office call (631) 344-2535. Stony Brook Parking Passes The Transportation Office has a limited number of parking passes for the three (3) parking garages at Stony Brook University. The passes are available to and are intended for use by BNL employees/scientific staff on official business only. Passes may be used at the Administration, University Hospital and Health Services Center garages on the Stony Brook campus when visiting SBU on official business.

275

NREL: Transportation Research - Capabilities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capabilities A Vision for Sustainable Transportation Line graph illustrating three pathways (biofuel, hydrogen, and electric vehicle) to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas...

276

Electronic Transport in Graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter provides an experimental overview of the electrical transport properties of graphene and graphene nanoribbons, focusing on phenomena related to electronics ... and compares the characteristics of exf...

Jun Zhu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

NREL: Transportation Research - Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of a wide range of vehicle technologies and applications. NREL's innovative transportation research, development, and deployment projects accelerate widespread adoption of...

278

WIPP Transportation (FINAL)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(DOE) has established an elaborate system for safely transporting transuranic, or TRU, radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for permanent disposal, or...

279

UZ Colloid Transport Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations.

M. McGraw

2000-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

280

Radioactive Material Transportation Practices  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

2002-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

2006 TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY JOINT PROGRAM IN TRANSPORTATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006 TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY JOINT PROGRAM IN TRANSPORTATION UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 2006 Transportation Tomorrow Survey Data Presentation #12;2006 TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY JOINT PROGRAM IN TRANSPORTATION UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO City of Hamilton City of Kawartha Lakes City of Guelph City of Brantford

Toronto, University of

282

Biofuels and Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biofuels and Transportation Impacts and Uncertainties Some Observations of a Reformed Ethanol and Logistics Symposium 3 Topics · Why Biofuels · Ethanol Economics · Ethanol Transportation Equipment Biofuels? · National Security · Reduce Imports of oil · Peak Oil · Replace Fossil Resources

Minnesota, University of

283

Northwestern University Transportation Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and challenges for our society. Energy and sustainability, economic growth and development, quality of life in the world to recognize transportation as an interdisciplinary field, the Transportation Center was founded, as the tradition lives on, and the Center continues to renew itself and engage faculty and students with new

MacIver, Malcolm A.

284

Packaging and Transportation Safety  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1A. Canceled by DOE O 460.1C.

2003-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

285

Packaging and Transportation Safety  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of DOE, including NNSA, offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials and for modal transportation. Cancels DOE O 460.1B, 5-14-10

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

286

INLAND PORT TRANSPORTATION EVALUATION GUIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INLAND PORT TRANSPORTATION EVALUATION GUIDE by Robert Harrison, Center for Transportation Research Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System; and Jolanda Prozzi, Center for Transportation Research, The University of Texas at Austin CENTER FOR TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH Bureau of Engineering Research

Texas at Austin, University of

287

http://tti.tamu.edu Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freight  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

http://tti.tamu.edu Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freight pipeline transportation >>> Transportation operat > Freight traffic > Commodities > Travel time > Travel demand > http

288

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY RESEARCH PIER Transportation Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engine and an Eaton Fuller 10speed manual transmission as the study's representative baseline vehicle beginning in 2017 while providing net savings over the life of the vehicle. Also, fuel cost savings far.energy.ca.gov/research/ transportation/ January 2011 Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions and Fuel Consumption Improvement Illustration

289

Transportation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transportation Transportation Jump to: navigation, search Click to return to AEO2011 page AEO2011 Data From AEO2011 report . Market Trends From 2009 to 2035, transportation sector energy consumption grows at an average annual rate of 0.6 percent (from 27.2 quadrillion Btu to 31.8 quadrillion Btu), slower than the 1.2 percent average rate from 1975 to 2009. The slower growth is a result of changing demographics, increased LDV fuel economy, and saturation of personal travel demand.[1] References [1] ↑ 1.0 1.1 AEO2011 Transportation Sector Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Transportation&oldid=378906" What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

290

Argonne Transportation Current News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

8 Transportation News & Highlights 8 Transportation News & Highlights EDTA Publications Now Online December 2008 -- View them here. Argonne to advise battery alliance December 2008 -- A coalition of more than fourteen companies has announced the creation of a new business alliance aimed at promoting U.S. production of lithium ion batteries. The newly formed National Alliance for Advanced Transportation Battery Cell Manufacture is based in Chicago. Argonne National Laboratory will serve in an advisory role as the Alliance begins operations. More... French Auto Industry Visits Center for Transportation Research November 18, 2008 -- Representatives of the French auto industry visited the Argonne Center for Transportation Research on November 18, 2008. The purpose of the visit was to share information and discuss technology opportunities for hybrid and electric vehicles. More...

291

Advances in Transportation Technologies | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Advances in Transportation Technologies Advances in Transportation Technologies Advances in Transportation Technologies More Documents & Publications TEC Working Group Topic Groups...

292

Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program | Department of...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program Planning for a Shipment Campaign - Identification of Responder Needs Transportation...

293

Transuranic Waste Transportation Working Group Agenda | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Transuranic Waste Transportation Working Group Agenda Transuranic Waste Transportation Working Group Agenda Transuranic Waste Transportation Working Group Agenda More Documents &...

294

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transportation Security | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transportation Security Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transportation Security Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transportation Security More Documents &...

295

Transportation activity analysis using smartphones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transportation activity surveys investigate when, where and how people travel in urban areas to provide information necessary for urban transportation planning. In Singapore, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) carries out ...

Xiao, Yu

296

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this quarter a systematic analysis on the decomposition behavior of the OTM membranes at air and nitrogen were initiated to understand the structural and stoichiometric changes associated with elevated temperatures. Evaluation of the flexural strengths using 4-point bend test was also started for the dual phase membranes. Initial results on the synthesis of dual phase composite materials have been obtained. The measurements have focused on the compatibility of mixed conductors with the pure ionic conductors yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinium doped ceria (GDC). The initial results obtained for three different mixed conductors suggest that (GDC) is the better choice. A new membrane permeation system has been designed and tested and sintering studies of biphasic systems are in progress.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

N-Methyl-N-Allylpyrrolidinium Based Ionic Liquids for Solvent-Free Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We prepared four new ionic liquids consisting of N-methyl-N-allylpyrrolidinium cation in conjunction with anions including iodide, nitrate, thiocyanate, and dicyanamide, respectively, and measured their physical properties of density, viscosity, and ...

Ning Cai; Jing Zhang; Difei Zhou; Zhihui Yi; Jin Guo; Peng Wang

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

298

High-Pressure Phase Equilibria of Ionic Liquids and Compressed Gases for Applications in Reactions and Absorption Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of high-melting solids not liquids at processing conditions. Coupling ionic liquids with compressed gases systems may overcome most of these difficulties for their applications in separations, reactions, materials processing and engineering applications...

Ren, Wei

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

299

High Electromechanical Response of Ionic Polymer Actuators with Controlled-Morphology Aligned Carbon Nanotube/Nafion Nanocomposite Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent advances in fabricating controlled-morphology vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) with ultrahigh volume fraction create unique opportunities for markedly improving the electromechanical performance of ionic ...

Liu, Sheng

300

Project Profile: Thermally-Stable Ionic Liquid Carriers for Nanoparticle-Based Heat Transfer in CSP Applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Savannah River National Laboratory, under an ARRA CSP Award, is performing research to better understand the thermal stability of low-temperature organic molten salts, which are commonly referred to as ionic liquids (ILs).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

CdO as the Archetypical Transparent Conducting Oxide. Systematics of Dopant Ionic Radius and Electronic Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the last two decades as critical components of flat panel displays, solar cells, and low-emissivity windowsO-based TCO crystal and band structure: (1) lattice parameters contract as a function of dopant ionic radii

Medvedeva, Julia E.

302

Argonne Transportation - Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Publications All downloadable documents on this site are in PDF format. You will need Adobe Reader to view these files (download Adobe Reader). Please note that some of these files are very large and may take some time to download. transforum TransForum The Center's quarterly newsletter featuring articles and photographs about current transportation research and breakthroughs. A 2011 STC Excellence Award winner. Subscribe to TransForum » factsheet icon Fact Sheets One sheet summaries on transportation topics and research argonne logo Recent Papers & Presentations Search for Papers, Presentations & More Find publications highlighting researcher work presented at conferences and other venues. Search by WORD or PHRASE Enter word or phrase

303

Sandia National Laboratories: Transportation Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Energy Electric Car Challenge Sparks Students' STEM Interest On January 9, 2015, in Energy, Energy Storage, News, News & Events, Partnership, Transportation Energy...

304

Capacitive Energy Storage from - 50o to 100o Using an Ionic Liquid Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Relying on redox reactions, most batteries are limited in their ability to operate at very low or very high temperatures. While performance of electrochemical capacitors is less dependent on the temperature, present-day devices still cannot cover the entire range needed for automotive and electronics applications under a variety of environmental conditions. We show that the right combination of the exohedral nanostructured carbon (nanotubes and onions) electrode and a eutectic mixture of ionic liquids can dramatically extend the temperature range of electrical energy storage, thus defying the conventional wisdom that ionic liquids can only be used as electrolytes above room temperature. We demonstrate electrical double layer capacitors able to operate from 50 to 100 C over a wide voltage window (up to 3.7 V) and at very high charge/discharge rates of up to 20 V/s.

Lin, Rongying [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.; Taberna, Pierre-Louis [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.; Santini, Sebastien [SOLVIONIC Company, Toulouse, France; Presser, Volker [ORNL; Perez, Carlos R. [Drexel University; Malbosc, Francois [SOLVIONIC Company, Toulouse, France; Rupesinghe, Nalin L. [AIXTRON, Cambridge, UK; Teo, Kenneth B. K. [AIXTRON, Cambridge, UK; Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel University; Simon, Patrice [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Ionic density distributions near the charged colloids: Spherical electric double layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the structure of the spherical electric double layers on charged colloids by a density functional perturbation theory, which is based both on the modified fundamental-measure theory for the hard spheres and on the one-particle direct correlation functional (DCF) for the electronic residual contribution. The contribution of one-particle DCF has been approximated as the functional integration of the second-order correlation function of the ionic fluids in a bulk phase. The calculated result is in very good agreement with the computer simulations for the ionic density distributions and the zeta potentials over a wide range of macroion sizes and electrolyte concentrations, and compares with the results of Yu et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 7223 (2004)] and modified Poisson-Boltzmann approximation [L. B. Bhuiyan and C. W. Outhwaite, Condens. Matter Phys. 8, 287 (2005)]. The present theory is able to provide interesting insights about the charge inversion phenomena occurring at the interface.

Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Soon-Chul, E-mail: sckim@andong.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

306

Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Borkowski, Marian [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Los Alamos Natl Lab, Earth and Environm Sci Div, Carlsbad, NM, (United States); Laszak, Ivan [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Commisariat Energie Atom, DEN DPC SERC LANIE, Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Dietz, Mark L. [Argonne Natl Lab, Chem Sci and Engn Div, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wisconsin-Milwaukee Univ, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Milwaukee, WI, (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Role of Amorphous Boundary Layer in Enhancing Ionic Conductivity of Lithium–lanthanum–titanate Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The low ionic conductivity is a bottleneck of the inorganic solid state electrolyte used for lithium ion battery. In ceramic electrolytes, grain boundary usually dominates the total conductivity. In order to improve the grain boundary effect, an amorphous silica layer is introduced into grain boundary of ceramic electrolytes based on lithium-lanthanum-titanate, as evidenced by electron microscopy. The results showed that the total ionic conductivity could be to be enhanced over 1 x 10{sup -4} S/cm at room temperature. The reasons can be attributed to removing the anisotropy of outer-shell of grains, supplement of lithium ions in various sites in grain boundary and close bindings among grains by the amorphous boundary layer among grains.

Mei, A.; Wang, X.; Lana, J.-L.; Fenga, Y.-C.; Genga, H.-X.; Lina, Y.-H.; Nana, C.-W.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Extraction of Uranium from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in Conjunction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranyl ions (UO2)2+ in aqueous nitric acid solutions can be extracted into supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) via an imidazolium-based ionic liquid using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as a complexing agent. The transfer of uranium from the ionic liquid to the supercritical fluid phase was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy using a high-pressure fiberoptic cell. The form of the uranyl complex extracted into the supercritical CO2 phase was found to be UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2. The extraction results were confirmed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and by neutron activation analysis. This technique could potentially be used to extract other actinides for applications in the field of nuclear waste management.

Wang, Joanna S.; Sheaff, Chrystal N.; Yoon, Byunghoon; Addleman, Raymond S.; Wai, Chien M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Variation of stability constants of thorium citrate complexes and of thorium hydrolysis constants with ionic strength  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Citrate is among the organic anions that are expected to be present in the wastes planned for deposition in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository. In this study, a solvent extraction method has been used to measure the stability constants of Thorium(IV)[Th(IV)] with citrate anions in aqueous solutions with (a) NaClO{sub 4} and (b) NaCl as the background electrolytes. The ionic strengths were varied up to 5 m (NaCl) and 14 m (NaClO{sub 4}). The data from the NaClO{sub 4} solutions at varying pH values were used to calculate the hydrolysis constants for formation of Th(OH){sup 3+} at the different ionic strengths.

Choppin, G.R.; Erten, H.N.; Xia, Y.X. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Temperature-induced neutral-ionic transition in tetramethylbenzidine-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TMB-TCNQ)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental evidence is presented that indicates the occurrence of a temperature-induced neutral-ionic transition occurring at Tc?205 K in the mixed-stack organic charge-transfer crystal, 3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TMB-TCNQ). The transition is characterized by a large first-order-like jump in the magnetic susceptibility and a dimeric distortion of the stacks similar to those observed in tetrathiafulvalene-chloranil (TTF-CA). However, contrary to the case in TTF-CA the molecular ionicity jump at Tc is comparatively small in TMB-TCNQ. The nature of this transition observed in TMB-TCNQ is discussed drawing comparisons with that seen in TTF-CA.

Y. Iwasa; T. Koda; Y. Tokura; A. Kobayashi; N. Iwasawa; G. Saito

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

Liao, Chen [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required (California, Texas Gulf Coast, New England Atlantic Coast... Atlantic Coast because of the large volume. It is beneficial to look at these areas as opposed to the iv smaller areas because pipeline transportation requires very large volumes. In order to find a meaningful comparison between all three...

Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

313

The effects of phosphorous ligands on the gas phase ligand exchange reactions of dichromium ionic cluster fragments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS LIGANDS ON THE GAS PHASE LIGAND EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF DICHROMIUM IONIC CLUSTER FRAGMENTS A Thesis by HANH DUC NGUYEN Submited to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirments... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Chemistry THE EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS LIGANDS ON THE GAS PHASE LIGAND EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF DICHROMIUM IONIC CLUSTER FRAGMENTS A Thesis by HANH DUC NGUYEN Approved as to style and content by...

Nguyen, Hanh Duc

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Ionic Liquid?Water Mixtures: Enhanced Kw for Efficient Cellulosic Biomass Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Departments of Chemistry and ... Under relatively mild conditions (?140 °C, 1 atm) and in the absence of added acid catalysts typically employed in biomass conversion, cellulose dissolved in certain ionic liquids (ILs) has been converted into water-soluble reducing sugars in high total reducing sugar yield (up to 97%), or directly into the biomass platform chemical 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) in high conversion (up to 89%) when CrCl2 is added. ...

Yuetao Zhang; Hongbo Du; Xianghong Qian; Eugene Y.-X. Chen

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

315

Electronically and ionically conductive porous material and method for manufacture of resin wafers therefrom  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrically and ionically conductive porous material including a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material. The thermoplastic binder immobilizes the moieties with respect to each other but does not substantially coat the moieties and forms the electrically conductive porous material. A wafer of the material and a method of making the material and wafer are disclosed.

Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); Henry, Michael P. (Batavia, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

316

A Neutral, Water-Soluble, -Helical Peptide: The Effect of Ionic Strength  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Content of Peptide as a Function of Ion Strength -Na2SO4 -NaCl -CaCl2 #12;Changes in G for Helix Stability as a Function of Ionic Strength -Na2SO4 -NaCl -CaCl2 Equation used to calculate free energy: G= -RT ln (s-2 -Na2SO4 -NaCl -CaCl2 The magnitude of the dipole moment of the -helix is estimated from the slope

Benos, Takis

317

Ionic-Liquid Induced Changes in Cellulose Structure Associated with Enhanced Biomass Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of varying ionic liquid pretreatment parameters on various sources of lignocellulosic biomass have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fiber diffraction, and compositional analysis. Comparative enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar analysis were used to relate the observed changes in cellulose structure to biomass digestibility. In this study, the factor most clearly associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis is the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase.

Samayam, Indira P.; Hanson, B. Leif; Langan, Paul; Schall, Constance A. (Toledo)

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

318

3D Printing Phosphonium Ionic Liquid Networks with Mask Projection Microstereolithography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

3D Printing Phosphonium Ionic Liquid Networks with Mask Projection Microstereolithography ... Additive manufacturing, often referred to as 3D printing, where objects are constructed in a layer-by-layer fashion, enables the design and creation of geometrically complex objects with tailored topology, and thus, functionality. ... Herein, we report photopolymerization strategies coupled with additive manufacturing to achieve 3D printed phosphonium PILs in order to demonstrate the first example of 3D printing of an ion-conducting polymer. ...

Alison R. Schultz; Philip M. Lambert; Nicholas A. Chartrain; David M. Ruohoniemi; Zhiyang Zhang; Chainika Jangu; Musan Zhang; Christopher B. Williams; Timothy E. Long

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

319

Enhanced Spreading of Aqueous Films Containing Ionic Surfactants on Solid Substrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The spreading behavior of ionic surfactant aqueous systems on organosulfur monolayers with differing compositions and surface energies has been investigated. ... Wetting often plays a critical role in applications such as coatings, cosmetics, agrochemicals, and lubrication. ... The poor understanding of the relationship between surfactant composition and structure and dynamic wetting prompted us to examine the spreading behavior of aqueous media containing a variety of nonionic surfactants. ...

T. Stoebe; Randal M. Hill; Michael D. Ward; H. Ted Davis

1997-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

320

Solubility of Sugars and Sugar Alcohols in Ionic Liquids: Measurement and PC-SAFT Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solubility of Sugars and Sugar Alcohols in Ionic Liquids: Measurement and PC-SAFT Modeling ... The measured data as well as previously published solubility data of glucose and fructose in these ILs were modeled by means of PC-SAFT using a molecular-based associative approach for ILs. ... PC-SAFT was used in this work as it has shown to be applicable to model the solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in ILs (Paduszy?ski; et al. ...

Aristides P. Carneiro; Christoph Held; Oscar Rodríguez; Gabriele Sadowski; Eugénia A. Macedo

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Ionic liquid binary mixtures: Promising reaction media for carbohydrate conversion into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) has been studied in binary mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs), using strongly acidic resin Amberlyst 15 as the catalyst. In particular, both mono- and disaccharides, such as fructose, glucose and sucrose have been investigated. Considering the favorable effect exerted by chloride-based ionic liquids in the dissolution of carbohydrates, we used binary mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([bmim][Cl]) with [bmim+] based ionic liquids differing in size, shape and coordination ability of the anion ([bmim][BF4], [bmim][N(CF3SO2)2], [bmim][N(CN)2], [bmim][SbF6] and [bmim][CF3SO3]). Carbohydrate conversion in [bmim][BF4]/[bmim][Cl] binary mixtures, has been studied under both magnetic stirring and ultrasound (US) activation. The catalytic system used led to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in good yield under mild conditions. A significant influence of IL binary mixture composition on the outcome of the target processes was evidenced. Improvements in both reaction time and temperature have been observed, under US activation.

Francesca D’Anna; Salvatore Marullo; Paola Vitale; Carla Rizzo; Paolo Lo Meo; Renato Noto

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Update Sustainable Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transportation Transportation Vol.4, No.2 * August 2013 ORNL researchers Andreas Malikopoulos (right) and Stuart Daw Intelligent transportation vehicle subsystems will continue to grow exponentially, Andreas added. Developing control systems that are able to mimic the efficient learning and decision-making processes of biological organisms without resorting to on-board supercomputers could revolutionize transportation, he said. Stuart suggested, in the long-term, that "smart" vehicles need to mimic the ability of humans to efficiently perceive, filter, and rapidly respond to the flood of information available from the local environment, as well as from their own internal parts. He added that the idea of "intelligence" can also be extended to groups of vehicles.

323

Managing Director Buildings, Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Site Development Will Terris Manager Gardening Maintenance Jim Gish Manager Landscape Specialty Tegwyn Maintenance and project Delivery Scott Sherwood Director Transportation Services Glenl Wear Director Grounds Supervisor Specialty Crews 17 Area supervisors Custodial Maintenance Charles Anderson Supervisor Activity

Seamons, Kent E.

324

Transportation Baseline Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Transportation Program 1999 Transportation Baseline Report presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste and materials transportation. In addition, this Report provides a summary overview of DOE’s projected quantities of waste and materials for transportation. Data presented in this report were gathered as a part of the IPABS Spring 1999 update of the EM Corporate Database and are current as of July 30, 1999. These data were input and compiled using the Analysis and Visualization System (AVS) which is used to update all stream-level components of the EM Corporate Database, as well as TSD System and programmatic risk (disposition barrier) information. Project (PBS) and site-level IPABS data are being collected through the Interim Data Management System (IDMS). The data are presented in appendices to this report.

Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kramer, George Leroy Jr.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Transportation Energy and Alternatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Station in Indonesia Hydrogen refueling in Munich, Germany "You will never see widespread use of the fuel fuels" Potentially used for Transportation · Biogas (primarily for onsite electrical generation) LFG

Handy, Susan L.

326

Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

Crawford, T.V.

2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

327

NREL: Transportation Research - Facilities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

work closely with a wide variety of partners to research and develop advanced transportation technologies and systems, moving them from the R&D arena to the marketplace. Learn...

328

Electron Heat Transport Measured  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heat Transport Measured in a Stochastic Magnetic Field T. M. Biewer, * C. B. Forest, J. K. Anderson, G. Fiksel, B. Hudson, S. C. Prager, J. S. Sarff, and J. C. Wright...

329

Transport organ physiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Transport in Biology. Vol.IV A and B. Edited by G.Giebisch, D.C.Tosteson and H.H.Ussing. Pp.471; 939. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg and New ...

O.H. Petersen

1980-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

330

PBA Transportation Websites  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

PBA Transportation Websites presented to the DOE Systems Analysis Workshop held in Washington, D.C. July 28-29, 2004 to discuss and define role of systems analysis in DOE Hydrogen Program.

331

Accident resistant transport container  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

Andersen, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Cole, James K. (Albuquerque, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Fluid transport container  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

333

What are Intelligent Transportation Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What are Intelligent Transportation Systems? Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are existing, combined in innovative ways, integrated into the management of our multimodal transportation system aimed at saving lives, time, and resources. Transportation is the backbone of our society-- the movement of people

Bertini, Robert L.

334

Membrane Transport Chloride Transport Across Vesicle and Cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Membrane Transport Chloride Transport Across Vesicle and Cell Membranes by Steroid-Based Receptors-established that molecules which transport cations across cell membranes (cationophores) can have potent biological effects the formation of an ion pair.[4a­g] Anion transport by purely electroneutral systems is still quite rare.[4j

Smith, Bradley D.

335

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

September 30, 2010 September 30, 2010 CX-004092: Categorical Exclusion Determination Advanced Energy Efficient Building Technologies for High Performance Hospitals CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 09/30/2010 Location(s): Seattle, Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory September 30, 2010 CX-004091: Categorical Exclusion Determination Ohio Advanced Transportation Partnership - City of Columbus Compressed Natural Gas Station CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 09/30/2010 Location(s): Columbus, Ohio Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory September 30, 2010 CX-004090: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of Reaction-Driven Ionic Transport Membranes (ITM) Technology CX(s) Applied: B3.6

336

Transportation Systems Engineering GRADUATE STUDIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transportation Systems Engineering GRADUATE STUDIES TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS are the building blocks and provides for an improved quality of life. However, transportation systems by their very nature also affect the environment through physical construction and operation of transportation facilities, and through the travel

Wang, Yuhang

337

Texas Transportation Poll Final report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Texas Transportation Poll Final report PRC 14-16-F #12;2 Texas Transportation Poll Texas A&M Transportation Institute PRC 14-16-F September 2014 Authors Chris Simek Tina Geiselbrecht #12;3 Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................... 8 Transportation Funding

338

Advanced Vehicle Electrification and Transportation Sector Electrifica...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Advanced Vehicle Electrification and Transportation Sector Electrification Advanced Vehicle Electrification & Transportation Sector...

339

Director Position Center for Urban Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Director Position Center for Urban Transportation The Center for Urban Transportation Research for state policymakers, transportation agencies, transportation professionals and the public. CUTR conducts of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration and Federal Highway Administration, the Florida Department

Arslan, Hüseyin

340

Delaware Transportation Infrastructure Forum Problem Identification Statements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2013 Delaware Transportation Infrastructure Forum Problem Identification Statements Sponsored by The Delaware Center for Transportation and the Delaware Department of Transportation Delaware Center for Transportation Your main resource for transportation education and research Identifying Important Issues Related

Firestone, Jeremy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

CO2 maritime transportation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to describe the complete transport chain of CO2 between capture and storage including a ship transport. This last one is composed by the following steps: Shore terminal including the liquefaction, temporary storage and CO2 loading. Ship with a capacity of 30,000 m3. On or off shore terminal including an unloading system, temporary storage and export towards the final storage. Between all the possible thermodynamic states, the liquid one is most relevant two options are compared in the study (?50 °C, 7 bar) and (?30 °C, 15 bar). The ship has an autonomy of 6 days, is able to cover 1000 km with a cargo of 2.5 Mt/year. Several scenarios are studied varying the geographical position of the CO2 source, the number of harbours and the way the CO2 is finally stored. Depending on the option, the transport cost varies from 24 to 32 €/tCO2. This study confirms the conclusion of a previous study supported by ADEME, the cost transport is not negligible regarding the capture one when ships are considered. Transport by ship becomes a more economical option compared with an off shore pipeline when the distance exceeds 350 km and with an onshore pipeline when it exceeds 1100 km.

Sandrine Decarre; Julien Berthiaud; Nicolas Butin; Jean-Louis Guillaume-Combecave

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

2000-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

343

The Geography of Transport Systems-Maritime Transportation | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Geography of Transport Systems-Maritime Transportation The Geography of Transport Systems-Maritime Transportation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Geography of Transport Systems-Maritime Transportation Agency/Company /Organization: Hofstra University Sector: Energy Focus Area: Transportation Topics: Technology characterizations Resource Type: Publications, Technical report Website: people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch3en/conc3en/ch3c4en.html Cost: Free Language: English References: Maritime Transportation[1] "Maritime transportation, similar to land and air modes, operates on its own space, which is at the same time geographical by its physical attributes, strategic by its control and commercial by its usage. While geographical considerations tend to be constant in time, strategic and

344

Multi-modal Transportation > Highway Transportation > Trucking > Railroad transportation > Public transit > Rural transportation > Rural transit > Freight pipeline transportation > Airport planning and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedestrian > Ports and waterways >>> Transportation operat and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedestrian > Ports and waterways >>> Transportation operations pipeline transportation > Airport planning and development > Airport maintenance > Bicycle and pedestrian

345

Efficient Transportation Decision Public Web Site: Bridging the Gap Between Transportation Planning and the Public  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for accomplishing transportation planning and projectprocess – the Efficient Transportation Decision Making (Process - is to make transportation decisions more quickly

Roaza, Ruth

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Argonne Transportation 2007 News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 Transportation News & Highlights 7 Transportation News & Highlights Argonne Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experts to Present Research at 23rd Electric Vehicle Symposium November 30, 2007 - Researchers from Argonne National Laboratory's Transportation Technology R&D Center will present 11 papers during the Electric Vehicle Symposium-23 that will be held in Anaheim, Calif., from Dec. 2-5. Download papers and presentations. Read about EVS-23. Argonne Teams with Industry to Promote PHEV R&D Nov. 12, 2007 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has teamed up with several industrial partners, including some of America's largest automakers, to promote research and development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Plug-in hybrids could revolutionize the automotive industry because, unlike conventional hybrid cars, they have the potential to run largely on electricity. More...

347

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

reports reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2010 | Release Date: November 16, 2012 | Next Release Date: December 2013 | Correction Previous editions Year: 2011 2004 Go Figure 1. Deliveries from major coal basins to electric power plants by rail, 2010 Background In this latest release of Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) significantly expands upon prior versions of this report with the incorporation of new EIA survey data. Figure 1. Percent of total U.S. rail shipments represented in data figure data Previously, EIA relied solely on data from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), specifically their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data,

348

National Transportation Stakeholders Forum  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

N N ti l T t ti National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Chicago, IL, May 26, 2010 Ahmad Al-Daouk Date and page number - 1 Director, National Security Department National Nuclear Security Administration Service Center - Albuquerque, NM National Transportation Stakeholders Forum OSRP * NNSA Contractors transporting in commerce, are required law to comply with applicable regulations required law to comply with applicable regulations (e.g. federal, local, tribal) * Great majority of NNSA shipments are non-secured * Off-Site Source Recovery Program (OSRP) - OSRP is a U.S. Government activity sponsored and overseen by NNSA Office of Global Threat Reduction and the program is managed by LANL Mi i i t t d b d d Date and page number - 2 - Mission is to remove excess, unwanted, abandoned, or

349

Water Transport Exploratory Studies  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Exploratory Studies Exploratory Studies Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies 2007 kickoff meeting February 13-14, 2007 DOE Forrestal Building Rod Borup Mukundan Rangachary, Bryan Pivovar, Yu Seung Kim, John Davey, David Wood, Tom Springer, Muhammad Arif , Ken Chen, Simon Cleghorn, Will Johnson, Karren More, Peter Wilde, Tom Zawodzinski Los Alamos National Lab This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Objectives * Develop understanding of water transport in PEM Fuel Cells (non-design-specific) * Evaluate structural and surface properties of materials affecting water transport and performance * Develop (enable) new components and operating methods * Accurately model water transport within the fuel cell * Develop a better understanding of the effects of

350

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

First Principles Study of the Li[subscript 10]GeP[subscript 2]S[subscript 12] Lithium Super Ionic Conductor Material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The continued drive for high performance lithium batteries has imposed stricter requirements on the electrolyte materials. Solid electrolytes comprising lithium super ionic conductor materials exhibit good safety and ...

Mo, Yifei

352

Transportation Politics and Policy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reducing Greenhouse Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation Steven Plotkin, Argonne National Laboratory (co-author is David Greene of Oak Ridge) 2011 EIA Energy Conference May 26-27, 2011 Washington, DC Overview  Presentation based on recent report from the Pew Center on Global Climate Change  Task: Assess the potential to substantially reduce transportation's GHG emissions by 2035 & 2050.  Base Case: Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Reference Case, extended to 2050  Three scenarios with differing assumptions about technological progress, policy initiatives, and public attitudes  Rely on existing studies to estimate impacts  Scenario analysis uses Kaya method to integrate policy impacts and avoid

353

Argonne Transportation Site Index  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Student Competitions Technology Analysis Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Site Index General Information About TTRDC Media Center Current News News Archive Photo Archive Transportation Links Awards Contact Us Interesting Links Working with Argonne Research Resources Experts Batteries Engines & Fuels Fuel Cells Management Materials Systems Assessment Technology Analysis Tribology Vehicle Recycling Vehicle Systems Facilities Advanced Powertrain Research Facility Powertrain Test Cell 4-Wheel Drive Chassis Dynamometer Battery Test Facility Engine Research Facility Fuel Cell Test Facility Tribology Laboratory Tribology Laboratory Photo Tour Vehicle Recycling Partnership Plant Publications Searchable Database: patents, technical papers, presentations

354

Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Stakeholders Forum 1 Planning for a Shipment Campaign Identifying Responders Needs National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Tom Clawson US Department of Energy Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program 2 Topics to Discuss * Campaign and Routings * Identifying Stakeholders * Communication Information * Determining Training Needs * Types of Training Programs * Support Resources 3 Campaign and Routing * Type of Shipments * Duration of Campaign * Possible Routes * Proposed Schedule 4 Identifying & Working with Stakeholders * Regional Groups * State Point of Contacts * Coordination Options 5 Communication Information * Fact sheet on campaign * Distribution of information * Conference calls and progress reports * National stakeholder meetings

355

EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities: Contacts for EPAct  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Contacts Contacts for EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities to someone by E-mail Share EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities: Contacts for EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities on Facebook Tweet about EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities: Contacts for EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities on Twitter Bookmark EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities: Contacts for EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities on Google Bookmark EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities: Contacts for EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities on Delicious Rank EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities: Contacts for EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities on Digg Find More places to share EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities: Contacts for EPAct Transportation Regulatory Activities on

356

Mass Transport within Soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physic

McKone, Thomas E.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Ionic conductivity and dielectric relaxation in {gamma}-irradiated TlGaTe{sub 2} crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The switching effect, field and temperature dependences of the permittivity and conductivity of TlGaTe{sub 2} crystals subjected to various {gamma}-irradiation doses are studied. Under rather low electric fields, the phenomenon of threshold switching with an S-shaped current-voltage characteristic containing a portion with negative differential resistance is observed in the crystals. In the region of critical voltages, current and voltage oscillations and imposed modulation are observed. Possible mechanisms of switching, ionic conductivity, disorder, and electrical instability in TlGaTe{sub 2} crystals are discussed.

Sardarli, R. M., E-mail: sardarli@yahoo.com; Samedov, O. A.; Abdullayev, A. P. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Radiation Problems (Azerbaijan); Huseynov, E. K. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Salmanov, F. T.; Alieva, N. A.; Agaeva, R. Sh. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Radiation Problems (Azerbaijan)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Ionic Cloud Distribution close to a Charged Surface in the Presence of Salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite its importance, the understanding of ionic cloud distribution close to a charged macroion under physiological salt conditions has remained very limited especially for strongly coupled systems with, for instance, multivalent counterions. Here we present a formalism that predicts both counterion and coion distributions in the vicinity of a charged macroion for an arbitrary amount of added salt and in both limits of mean field and strong coupling. The distribution functions are calculated explicitly for ions next to an infinite planar charged wall. We present a schematic phase diagram identifying different physical regimes in terms of electrostatic coupling parameter and bulk salt concentration.

Olli Punkkinen; Ali Naji; Rudolf Podgornik; Ilpo Vattulainen; Per-Lyngs Hansen

2007-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

359

Conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural catalyzed by acidic ionic liquids in dimethyl sulfoxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An efficient process was developed for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) using DMSO as the solvent and an acidic ionic liquid 1-carboxypropyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([CMIm]Cl) as the catalyst. The effects of various reaction parameters on HMF yields were investigated. HMF yields of 95.7% and 88.4% were obtained from fructose and inulin when reactions were carried out 120 °C after 120 min and 180 min, respectively. The combination of ZrOCl2 and [CMIm]Cl resulted in a 50.6% yield of HMF from glucose. HMF could also be synthesized using other carbohydrates with moderate to high yields.

Zhao Hu; Bing Liu; Zehui Zhang; Lianqing Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals: Thermodynamic Studies on the Extraction of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Ionic Liquids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biomass-Derived Platform Chemicals: Thermodynamic Studies on the Extraction of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Ionic Liquids ... Furthermore, the solubility of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in these solutes and the solubility of the solutes in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate ([C4mim][CH3SO3]) was assessed. ... In the past 20 years, a large body of work has been conducted on the condensation of fructose and other carbohydrates to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which, due to its multifunctionality, has been claimed a prime platform chemical derived from biomass (Scheme 1). ...

Annegret Stark; Bernd Ondruschka; Dzmitry H. Zaitsau; Sergey P. Verevkin

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Transportation and Program Management Services  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Atlanta, Georgia Atlanta, Georgia Transportation and Program Management Services Secured Transportation Services, LLC Founded: December, 2003 ff Staff: 7 Experience: Over 145 years combined experience in Nuclear Transportation, Security, HP & Operations Services Transportation The largest Transportation Coordinators of Spent Nuclear Fuel in North America On-Site, Hands-On Assistance (Before & During both Loading & Transport) P d A i t (W iti d/ R i ) Procedure Assistance (Writing and/or Review) Package Handling, Loading Services Certificate of Compliance and Competent Authority Reviews & Requests Carrier Coordination (Empty Packages & Equipment, Loaded, & Returns) Vessel Charters, Special Trains, Dedicated Exclusive Use Trucks p

362

Sustainable Transportation | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sustainable Transportation Sustainable Transportation Sustainable Transportation Bioenergy Read more Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Read more Vehicles Read more The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) leads U.S. researchers and other partners in making transportation cleaner and more efficient through solutions that put electric drive vehicles on the road and replace oil with clean domestic fuels. Through our Vehicle, Bioenergy, and Fuel Cell Technologies Offices, EERE advances the development of next-generation technologies to improve plug-in electric and other alternative-fuel vehicles, advanced combustion engine and vehicle efficiency, and produce low-carbon domestic transportation fuels. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION Vehicles Bioenergy Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Vehicles Bioenergy

363

Update Sustainable Transportation Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 * July 2012 3 * July 2012 Boosting the battery industry Future automotive batteries could cost less and pack more power because of ORNL's new Battery Manufacturing Facility. Co-located with the National Transportation Research Center and Manufacturing Demonstration Facility off Hardin Valley Road, the $3 million DOE facility allows for collaboration with industry and other national labs while protecting

364

Artificial oxygen transport protein  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

Dutton, P. Leslie

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

Regional Transportation Coordination Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.......................................................................................................... 6-1 Option to Increase Motor Vehicle Registration Fee .................................................................... 6-2 Transportation Development Credits... identified except for inefficiencies in rural vehicles sitting idle waiting for passengers. Gaps in service identified included employee access to work and a lack of rural/urban evening and weekend service. Along with assessing the current service level...

Golden Crescent Regional Planning Commission

366

Transport reactor development status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is part of METC`s Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located at Wilsonville, Alabama. The primary objective of the Advanced Gasifier module is to produce vitiated gases for intermediate-term testing of Particulate Control Devices (PCDs). The Transport reactor potentially allows particle size distribution, solids loading, and particulate characteristics in the off-gas stream to be varied in a number of ways. Particulates in the hot gases from the Transport reactor will be removed in the PCDs. Two PCDs will be initially installed in the module; one a ceramic candle filter, the other a granular bed filter. After testing of the initial PCDs they will be removed and replaced with PCDs supplied by other vendors. A secondary objective is to verify the performance of a Transport reactor for use in advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IG-FC), and Pressurized Combustion Combined Cycle (PCCC) power generation units. This paper discusses the development of the Transport reactor design from bench-scale testing through pilot-scale testing to design of the Process Development Unit (PDU-scale) facility at Wilsonville.

Rush, R.E.; Fankhanel, M.O.; Campbell, W.M.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Climate Change and Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 2009, EPA sent report to OMB with finding that GHG emissions are an endangerment to the public's health that FHWA guidance will focus on planning- level approach to GHG ­ Effect on transportation projects;6 WSDOT Efforts · Climate Change Team · Project Level GHG Approach · Planning Level GHG Approach

Minnesota, University of

368

Transport of Entanglement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the propagation of two-photon light in a random medium. We show that the Wigner distribution of the two-photon wave function obeys an equation that is analogous to the radiative transport equation for classical light. Using this result, we predict that the entanglement of a photon pair is destroyed with propagation.

Manabu Machida; Vadim A Markel; John C Schotland

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

369

Storing and transporting energy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Among other things, hydrogen is released from water at a first location using energy from a first energy source; the released hydrogen is stored in a metal hydride slurry; and the metal hydride slurry is transported to a second location remote from the first location.

McClaine, Andrew W. (Lexington, MA); Brown, Kenneth (Reading, MA)

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

370

TRANSPORTATION Policy Research CENTER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and describes conditions necessary for successful public-private transportation partnerships. The researchers found that effective P3 programs rely on these factors for their success: Enabling Legislation in the process is necessary. Economic Environment: Favorable economic conditions conducive to investment-- from

371

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

2000-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Oct 1, 2001 and Dec. 31, 2001. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Collection System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

2002-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the third quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Jan. 1, 2002 and Mar. 31, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop, progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); and (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

374

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

2002-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

375

21st Annual Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

would cost more than $40 billion over next 20 years ·! If used alone, state gas tax would need more than levels #12;Benefits of new approach ·! Recognizes uncertainties of transportation revenue forecasts arise ·! Provides greatest regional benefit if current revenue forecasts prove true #12;MHSIS Maps

Minnesota, University of

376

35 Alternative Transportation Fuels in California ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

35 Alternative Transportation Fuels in California Chapter 4 ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION FUELS IN CALIFORNIA INTRODUCTION The introduction of alternative fuels into California's transportation market has supply at low prices. But, with an uncertain long-term future for oil supplies and prices, alternative

377

Ionic Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Processes based on the properties of ions, encountered in brackish and seawater, are described and discussed in this chapter. Whereas in distillation the amount and kind of salts contained in the raw feed wate...

Anthony A. Delyannis; Eurydike A. Delyannis

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Essays on Transportation Safety, Economics, and Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2002. TCF, 2000, “Widening the Transportation Divide: HowGovernor Davis’ Transportation Plan Leaves Transit-People Stranded”, Transportation Choices Forum, 2000.

Scholl, Patricia Lynn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Transportation of Nuclear Materials | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Transportation of Nuclear Materials Transportation of Nuclear Materials GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE on legal and regulatory requirements and standards for transportation of...

380

Transportation and Program Management Services | Department of...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

and Program Management Services Transportation and Program Management Services Overview of Secured Transportation Services (STS) Transportation and Program Management Services More...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

We're All Transportation Planners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of facts that global warming is real, that transportationCalifornia Transportation Center, with help is a majorresearch on compelling transportation can both reduce the

Curry, Melanie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

VTPI-Transportation Statistics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area: Transportation Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.vtpi.orgtdmtdm80.htm Cost: Free VTPI-Transportation Statistics Screenshot References: VTPI-Transportation Statistics1...

383

Downstream Emissions Trading for Transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter addresses the issue of downstream emission trading within the transport sector. It is argued that emission trading may be relevant in this sector, and ... regarding international transport, it is arg...

Charles Raux

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Integrated transportation system design optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Traditionally, the design of a transportation system has focused on either the vehicle design or the network flow, assuming the other as given. However, to define a system level architecture for a transportation system, ...

Taylor, Christine P. (Christine Pia), 1979-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Transforming California's Freight Transport System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transforming California's Freight Transport System Policy Forum on the Role of Freight Transport Standard #12;2050 Vision- Key Conceptual Outcomes Technology Transformation Early Action Cleaner Combustion Multiple Strategies Federal Action Efficiency Gains Energy Transformation 9 #12;Further reduce localized

California at Davis, University of

386

Sandia National Laboratories: Transportation Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sensors & Optical Diagnostics, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering, Transportation Energy Sandia and industrial giant Caterpillar Inc. have signed their first...

387

Surface forces arising from adsorbed ionic copolymers with hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments in colloidal dispersions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of ionic copolymers with hydrophobic segments on the yield stress–pH behavior of ZrO 2 dispersions were evaluated. These polyelectrolytes were two alternating copolymers; diisobutylene-maleic acid and ?-methyl styrene-maleic acid and a random styrene-maleic acidcopolymer. At low concentrations all three copolymers caused a much greater reduction in the maximum yield stress ? y max (at the neutral charge condition) compared with hydrophilic polyacrylic acid and acrylic acid-ester polymers. The reduction in ? y max was as much as 75%. The much larger reduction in ? y max was attributed to a thicker steric layer formed by the ionic copolymers with hydrophobic segments. At higher concentrations all three copolymers caused ? y max to increase. This was attributed to significant hydrophobiceffects and attraction. The degree of hydrophobic segment aggregation at the closest point of interaction between particles is now higher. This also caused an overall increase in the entropy relative to the state when the particles are far apart as the degree of hydrogen bonding among water molecules is less when the hydrophobic segments are aggregated.

Y. K. Leong; B. C. Ong; J. H. Tan; A. V. M. Chandramalar; Y. Y. Lim

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Squeezout phenomena and boundary layer formation of a model ionic liquid under confinement and charging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical charging of parallel plates confining a model ionic liquid down to nanoscale distances yields a variety of charge-induced changes in the structural features of the confined film. That includes even-odd switching of the structural layering and charging-induced solidification and melting, with important changes of local ordering between and within layers, and of squeezout behavior. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we explore this variety of phenomena in the simplest charged Lennard-Jones coarse-grained model including or excluding the effect a neutral tail giving an anisotropic shape to one of the model ions. Using these models and open conditions permitting the flow of ions in and out of the interplate gap, we simulate the liquid squeezout to obtain the distance dependent structure and forces between the plates during their adiabatic appraoch under load. Simulations at fixed applied force illustrate an effective electrical pumping of the ionic liquid, from a thick nearly solid film that withstands the interplate pressure for high plate charge to complete squeezout following melting near zero charge. Effective enthalpy curves obtained by integration of interplate forces versus distance show the local minima that correspond to layering, and predict the switching between one minimum and another under squeezing and charging.

R. Capozza; A. Vanossi; A. Benassi; E. Tosatti

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

389

Neutron?Scattering Investigation of the Dynamics of H 2 O Molecules in Ionic Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intermolecular frequencies (below 900 cm?1) and diffusive motions of H 2 O molecules in ionic solutions relative to water were investigated by slow neutron scattering as function of ionic size charge and concentrations and of the temperature. For solutions containing small or highly charged ions (e.g. LaCl 3 MgCl 2 LiCl and KF) vibrations which intensify with increasing concentration appear at similar frequencies to the ion?water librational and stretching frequencies of the corresponding solid hydrates. In contrast solutions containing large singly charged ions (e.g. CsCl ?KCl ) show new frequencies but these are comparatively broader and weaker. At 1° and 25°C the diffusive kinetics generally follow a delayed diffusion mechanism. Small or highly charged ions decrease the self?diffusion coefficient and increase the residence time relative to water. The low charge?to?radius ions have the inverse effect. At higher temperatures the diffusion kinetics depart from the delayed diffusion behavior. [Work supported by the Office of Saline Water Department of the Interior.

G. J. Safford; P. S. Leung; A. W. Naumann; P. C. Schaffer

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Potential-of-mean-force description of ionic interactions and structural hydration in biomolecular systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To understand the functioning of living organisms on a molecular level, it is crucial to dissect the intricate interplay of the immense number of biological molecules. Most of the biochemical processes in cells occur in a liquid environment formed mainly by water and ions. This solvent environment plays an important role in biological systems. The potential-of-mean-force (PMF) formalism attempts to describe quantitatively the interactions of the solvent with biological macromolecules on the basis of an approximate statistical-mechanical representation. At its current status of development, it deals with ionic effects on the biomolecular structure and with the structural hydration of biomolecules. The underlying idea of the PMF formalism is to identify the dominant sources of interactions and incorporate these interactions into the theoretical formalism using PMF`s (or particle correlation functions) extracted from bulk-liquid systems. In the following, the authors shall briefly outline the statistical-mechanical foundation of the PMF formalism and introduce the PMF expansion formalism, which is intimately linked to superposition approximations for higher-order particle correlation functions. The authors shall then sketch applications, which describe the effects of the ionic environment on nucleic-acid structure. Finally, the authors shall present the more recent extension of the PMF idea to describe quantitatively the structural hydration of biomolecules. Results for the interface of ice and water and for the hydration of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) will be discussed.

Hummer, G.; Garcia, A.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group; Soumpasis, D.M. [Max-Planck-Inst for Biophysical Chemistry, Goettingen (Germany). Biocomputation Group

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Integrated Transportation System Design Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated Transportation System Design Optimization by Christine Taylor B.S. Cornell University by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professor Jaime Peraire Chairman, Department Graduate Committee #12;2 #12;Integrated Transportation System Abstract Traditionally, the design of a transportation system has focused on either the vehicle design

392

Transportation Center Seminar........ Patrice Marcotte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transportation Center Seminar........ Patrice Marcotte Professor and Acting Director Computer on a Transportation Network With Rigid Capacities" Abstract: Static network equilibrium is a well transportation network, taking into account that users behave selfishly, i.e., only travel on shortest paths

Bustamante, Fabián E.

393

Council of University Transportation Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Council of University Transportation Centers 13th Anniversary CUTC Awards Banquet January 9, 2010 Omni Shoreham Hotel Washington, D.C. #12;Council of University Transportation Centers 13th Anniversary Awards Banquet Saturday, January 9, 2010 Welcome Stephen Albert, CUTCVice-President WesternTransportation

Nagurney, Anna

394

6 Ion Transport, Osmoregulation, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

177 6 Ion Transport, Osmoregulation, and Acid­Base Balance W.S. Marshall and M. Grosell CONTENTS I)............................................................................182 5. Skin and Opercular Membrane..................................................................................................183 2. Sea-Water Transport Mode -- Na+,K+-ATPase and Na+,K+, 2Cl­ Co-transport

Grosell, Martin

395

Mobility 2035 Metropolitan Transportation Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capacity controlled access facilities (as directed in Texas Transportation Commission Minute Order 109519), KTUTS supports that ?TXDOT explore all funding mechanisms to expedite regional transportation goals, including the use of toll feasibility studies..., efficiency, environmental stewardship, and environmental streamlining. Chapter 2: Demographics SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS (CURRENT) The Killeen ? Temple Urban Transportation Study (K-TUTS) has experienced tremendous growth over...

Killeen-Temple Urban Transportation Study

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

396

Computer Simulation of a "Green Chemistry" Room-Temperature Ionic Solvent C. J. Margulis, H. A. Stern, and B. J. Berne*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computer Simulation of a "Green Chemistry" Room-Temperature Ionic Solvent C. J. Margulis, H. A, room-temperature ionic liquids are currently being investigated as alternative solvents in industry that is clean, recyclable, and a good solvent for both organic and inorganic compounds is appealing

Berne, Bruce J.

397

Influence of Ionic Surfactants on the Aggregation of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Poly(Propylene Oxide)-Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Block Copolymers Studied by Differential Scanning and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of Ionic Surfactants on the Aggregation of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-Poly(Propylene Oxide)-Poly(Ethylene copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide), EOnPOmEOn, and the ionic surfactants sodium the aggregates of all three polymers. Introduction Water-soluble poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)- poly(ethylene

Loh, Watson

398

Argonne Transportation 2006 News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 Transportation News & Highlights 6 Transportation News & Highlights Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research Capabilities at Argonne National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory December 1, 2006 -- The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argonne National Laboratory, two of the nation's premier research organizations, have announced a three-year collaborative agreement to conduct detailed analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) aimed at assessing the commercial feasibility of this technology for the U.S. Department of Energy. (More...) Nanoexa, Decktron to Collaborate with Argonne on Commercialization of Next-Generation Batteries October 11, 2006 -- Nanoexa, a leading nanotechnology-based clean energy company, and Decktron, a lithium battery and display company, have announced a definitive agreement to develop and transfer into commercial use new lithium battery technology originally developed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory. (More...)

399

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Trends, 2001 - 2010 Trends, 2001 - 2010 Transportation infrastructure overview In 2010, railroads transported over 70 percent of coal delivered to electric power plants which are generally concentrated east of the Mississippi River and in Texas. The U.S. railroad market is dominated by four major rail companies that account for 99 percent of U.S. coal rail shipments by volume. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by mode Rail Barge Truck Figure 2. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by rail, 2010 figure data Figure 3. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by barge, 2010 figure data Figure 4. Deliveries from major coal basins to power plants by truck, 2010 figure data The Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, where coal is extracted in

400

Airflow and Pollutant Transport  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Computational fluid dynamics flow diagram Computational fluid dynamics flow diagram Airflow and Pollutant Transport Research on airflow and pollutant transport integrates experimental and modeling research in order to understand the dispersion of airborne pollutants in buildings. The work applies to reducing health risks (for example, in the event of a toxic release in an occupied space), as well as to improving energy efficiency and occupant comfort. Investigators also conduct research to characterize and better understand the sources of airborne volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic pollutants in the indoor environment, and studies of the physical and chemical processes that govern indoor air pollutant concentrations and exposures. The motivation is to contribute to the reduction of potential

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

National Transportation Stakeholders Forum  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

TRANSPORTATION STAKEHOLDERS TRANSPORTATION STAKEHOLDERS FORUM Activities and Accomplishments May 16, 2013 Buffalo, New York NTSF RESOURCES  Wiki Site  Private domain / Registration required  Repository of information  Users are allowed editing capabilities  Webinars  Cover a variety of topics (NRC Rulemaking, Section 180(c), BRC Recommendations, Strategy for Management and Disposal of UNF and HLRW, etc.)  Recording are available on the wiki site  Input is needed for future content NTSF Working Groups COMMUNICATIONS WORKING GROUP  Webinars  Development Guide  LLW Fact Sheet  Table of Waste Types  New Fact Sheets  Newsletter  NFSTPP Communications Products TEPP WORKING GROUP  Formed a TEPP Working Group after the 2012 NTSF to

402

Argonne Transportation 2005 News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 Transportation News & Highlights 5 Transportation News & Highlights Recycling Automotive Plastics Is Profitable and Good for the Environment November 15, 2005 -- Recycling is not just good for the environment, it is good for business. Argonne researchers have developed a technology to successfully recover plastic from obsolete automobiles that may add plastic to the list of valuable materials recycled from old cars and trucks. (More...) GREETing a Cleaner, More Energy-Efficient Future November 3, 2005 -- Argonne researchers have developed software that is now the government and industry standard for evaluating various vehicle and fuel combinations on a consistent fuel-cycle basis from extracting the energy feedstocks -petroleum and natural gas - through fuel production to final vehicle operation. (More...)

403

Directed transport in equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate how a microscopic system, which can move only in one direction, comes to equilibrium with a heat-bath. To understand this problem, we investigate a symmetry broken dimer constrained to move in a particular direction when in contact with a uniform heat-bath at a constant temperature. The dimer is not driven by any external force. The system gains kinetic energy from the heat-bath and that the system can only use in directed transport. At the hard core collision limit between the particles of the dimer, we show by exact analytic calculations and complementary numerical results that the dimer undergoes steady directed transport by attaining a stationary distribution for a relevant degree of freedom. Our observation, being perfectly consistent with the {\\it second law of thermodynamics}, leads to a generalization of the existing {\\it Brownian ratchet} paradigm and points out some important limitations of {\\it Fokker-Planck} dynamics.

Bhattacharyay, A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Chapter 17 - Transportation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8,2005 8,2005 MEMORANDUM FOR FROM: SUBJECT: Accounting Handbook - Chapter 1 7, Transportation Attached is the final version of Chapter 17, "Transportation," of the Department's Accounting Handbook. A draft version of this chapter was circulated for review and comment in a November 1,2004, memorandum "Request for Review of D r a f t DOE Accounting Handbook Chapter 17." There were no comments on this chapter. We appreciate your assistance in the update of the Accounting Handbook. When all chapters of the Accounting Handbook have been updated, we will re-issue the entire Handbook. If you have questions or would like to discuss any provisions of this chapter, please contact Dean Olson on 202-586-4860. Attachment DISTRIBUTION James H. Curtis, Vice President, Policy Management & Finance, BPA

405

Alternative Fuel Transportation Program  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

federal federal register Monday May 17, 1999 Part II Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 10 CFR Part 490 Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; P-series Fuels; Final Rule 26822 Federal Register / Vol. 64, No. 94 / Monday, May 17, 1999 / Rules and Regulations DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 10 CFR Part 490 [Docket No. EE-RM-98-PURE] RIN 1904-AA99 Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; P-Series Fuels AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of final rulemaking. SUMMARY: In response to a petition filed by Pure Energy Corporation, DOE is amending the rules for the statutory program that requires certain alternative fuel providers and State government

406

Tree transport system  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tree transport system Tree transport system Name: Paul K Harding Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: How can trees get that tall? How can the transport of water function that good? Normally one could think that trees can get only 10 m high because then the pressure of the air would be to weak to transport the water and a vacuum would occur. Or do trees use a system of one pump-system after another to solve that problem? Replies: Okay, the answer is two-fold. One, the column of water travelling up the trunk of the tree is only a couple of molecules wide, moving up from cell to cell. You can think of each cell as a "valve" if you will, holding the water and keeping it from flowing down the trunk (unless you WANT it to go that way, in the case of sugar laden water moving to storage areas in the roots) until it can be moved to the next cell up, and so on and so on. The second part involves diffusion. Cells can diffuse certain chemical compounds through their cell walls while simultaneously holding onto others. By having a gradient of increasing chemical concentration as you go up the trunk, you can cause a gradual diffusion of water up the trunk (since water travels relatively freely through the cell walls) and thereby creates and exception to the rule of 10 meters being the maximum height for a column of water -- you've effectively added energy to the system to "pump" water up the trunk.

407

Lubbock Metropolitan Transportation Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the foreground and the Lubbock Area Veterans Memorial in the background EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This Metropolitan Transportation Plan was developed based upon the four Lubbock Metropolitan Planning Organization?s (MPO) goals of Improve Safety ? Congestion...: researching proposed routes; studying environmental impacts; performing engineering surveys; holding public hearings; signing agreements with the counties or cities (if needed to fulfill state or federal requirements); acquiring right-of-way; producing...

Lubbock Metropolitan Planning Organization

2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

408

KBR transport gasifier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The KBR Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized bed reactor designed to operate at higher circulation rates, velocities and riser densities than a conventional circulating fluidized bed and is based on KBR's extensive fluid bed catalytic cracking experience. The KBR Transport Gasifier is currently being tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), an engineering scale demonstration of advanced coal-fired power systems and high temperature, high-pressure gas filtration systems. The KBR Transport Gasifier was operated for three years as a pressurized combustor until coal gasification testing began in September 1999. Through September 2005, the Transport Gasifier has achieved over 7,700 hours of coal gasification. A total of 6,320 hours of gasification were with Powder River Basin coal and 750 hours were with North Dakota lignite. Additional hours were devoted to bituminous coals from Utah, Illinois, Indiana and Alabama. Most testing occurred in air blown gasification mode. It has also been tested for a total of 1,722 hours in oxygen-blown mode. The gasifier has operated at temperatures from 1,500 to 1,950{sup o}F and at pressures of up to 250 psig with coal rates of 2,500 to 5,000 pounds per hour, yielding commercially projected turbine inlet syngas heating values of up to 147 Btu/SCF in air-blown gasification and up to 298 Btu/SCF in oxygen-blown gasification. Carbon conversion has been as high as 98%. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Surety applications in transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Infrastructure surety can make a valuable contribution to the transportation engineering industry. The lessons learned at Sandia National Laboratories in developing surety principles and technologies for the nuclear weapons complex and the nuclear power industry hold direct applications to the safety, security, and reliability of the critical infrastructure. This presentation introduces the concepts of infrastructure surety, including identification of the normal, abnormal, and malevolent threats to the transportation infrastructure. National problems are identified and examples of failures and successes in response to environmental loads and other structural and systemic vulnerabilities are presented. The infrastructure surety principles developed at Sandia National Laboratories are described. Currently available technologies including (a) three-dimensional computer-assisted drawing packages interactively combined with virtual reality systems, (b) the complex calculational and computational modeling and code-coupling capabilities associated with the new generation of supercomputers, and (c) risk-management methodologies with application to solving the national problems associated with threats to the critical transportation infrastructure are discussed.

Matalucci, R.V.; Miyoshi, D.S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Coal Storage and Transportation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal preparation, storage, and transportation are essential to coal use. Preparation plants, located near to the mine, remove some inorganic minerals associated with raw coal. Coal is transported from the mines to the point of consumption, often an electric generating plant, by rail, barge and trucks. Railroads are the predominant form of coal transportation within a country. Global coal trade, movement by large ocean-going vessels, continues to increase. At the end use site, the coal is crushed, ground, and the moisture content reduced to the proper specifications for end use. Coal is stored at various points in the supply chain. Processed coal will weather and oxidize, changing its properties; it can self-ignite, unless precautions are taken. Technology in use today is similar to that used in previous decades. Performance improvements have come from improved software and instruments that deliver real-time data. These improve management of sub-processes in the coal supply chain and reduce costs along the supply chain.

J.M. Ekmann; P.H. Le

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Environmental Baseline File: National Transportation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics address include: shipmnents of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions.

NONE

1999-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

412

Water uptake, ionic conductivity and swelling properties of anion-exchange membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

occurs with negative excess volume of mixing. Percolative nature of the ion transport has been is reduced at the cathode to produce OHÃ? , which transports through the anion-exchange membrane (AEM membrane, AEM can conduct ions only in the presence of water. In addition, water is one of the reactants

413

Combined Measurement of Translational and Rotational Diffusion in Quaternary Acyclic Ammonium and Cyclic Pyrrolidinium Ionic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

devices, use in CO2 capture, and as green solvents.1-5 Understanding the transport properties as well, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0886, United States Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of molecular motions has been questioned when attempting to describe the transport properties of ILs

414

Transportation Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation (TAMS) Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transportation Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation (TAMS) Application Center for Transportation Passenger Flows Supply Chain Efficiency Transportation: Energy Environment Safety Security Vehicle Technologies T he Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) TAMS application is a web-based tool that supports

415

Secure Transportation_final_print-ready  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

A A History of Secure Transportation * The transportation of the CEUSP material in casks will be made by Hittman Transport, a commercial carrier * Hittman Transport is a specialty company whose primary mission is transporting hazardous materials * Transport method meets all of the requirements of the Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Transportation for shipment of hazardous radioactive material * Hittman Transport maintains drivers with DOE security clearances and all shipments will be escorted by armed Federal officers Hittman Transport drivers' average number of years experience 26 Completed Hittman Transport shipments without significant accident or loss of material 196K Hittman Transport began supporting the nuclear industry

416

Yucca MountainTransportation: Private Sector Perspective  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Transportation: Transportation: Private Sector "Lessons Learned" US Transport Council David Blee Executive Director dblee@ustransportcouncil.org DOE Transportation External Coordination (TEC) Working Group April 4, 2005 Phoenix, Arizona US Transport Council -- DOE TEC 4/4/05 2 US Transport Council Formed in 2002 during the Yucca Mountain Ratification debate to provide factual information on nuclear materials transportation, experience, safety & emergency planning Comprised of 24 member companies from the transport sector including suppliers and customers Principal focus is transport education, policy and business commerce related to nuclear materials transport US Transport Council -- DOE TEC 4/4/05 3 USTC Members AREVA BNFL, Inc Burns & Roe Cameco

417

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a part of this project, instrumentation was developed to monitor cuttings beds and characterize foams in the flow loop. An ultrasonic-based monitoring system was developed to measure cuttings bed thickness in the flow loop. Data acquisition software controls the system and processes the data. Two foam generating devices were designed and developed to produce foams with specified quality and texture. The devices are equipped with a bubble recognition system and an in-line viscometer to measure bubble size distribution and foam rheology, respectively. The 5-year project is completed. Future research activities will be under the umbrella of Tulsa University Drilling Research Projects. Currently the flow loop is being used for testing cuttings transport capacity of aqueous and polymer-based foams under elevated pressure and temperature conditions. Subsequently, the effect of viscous sweeps on cuttings transport under elevated pressure and temperature conditions will be investigated using the flow loop. Other projects will follow now that the ''steady state'' phase of the project has been achieved.

Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

418

Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program Exercise Overview...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Emergency Preparedness Program Exercise Overview Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program Exercise Overview Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program Exercise Overview...

419

Advanced Vehicle Electrification & Transportation Sector Electrificati...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Transportation Sector Electrification Advanced Vehicle Electrification & Transportation Sector Electrification 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies...

420

NREL: Transportation Research - Alternative Fuel Fleet Vehicle...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reduced particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon emissions. Regional Transportation District Biodiesel Transit Buses In partnership with the Regional Transportation...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety Presented by Kevin R. Blackwell, Radioactive Materials...

422

Supertruck - Improving Transportation Efficiency through Integrated...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Improving Transportation Efficiency through Integrated Vehicle, Engine and Powertrain Research Supertruck - Improving Transportation Efficiency through Integrated Vehicle, Engine...

423

Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Activities Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...

424

Superoxide Electrochemistry in an Ionic Liquid Inas M. AlNashef, Matthew L. Leonard, Michael A. Matthews,* and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with organic solvents as the reaction medium. Green chemistry and engineering calls for better, sustainable-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as substitute solvents in Green chemistry, with the emphasis on organic synthesis dissolved in two different solvent systems: (1) acetonitrile with tetraethylammonium perchlorate (TEAP

Weidner, John W.

425

Supplement to Chimica Oggi/CHEMISTRY TODAY Vol 25 nr 6 Green Chemistry/Ionic liquids Aquatic toxicity and biodegradation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supplement to Chimica Oggi/CHEMISTRY TODAY · Vol 25 nr 6 · Green Chemistry/Ionic liquids 32 Aquatic these are two important aspects of green chemistry, yet data are limited compared to the vast literature on IL currently used volatile solvents (Table 3). However, standard bioassays typically do not mimic

Bernot, Randall

426

Click grafting of seaweed bioactive polysaccharides onto PVC surfaces using ionic liquid as green solvent and catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-6 . Their recyclable characteristics and their catalytic activities make them a green alternative to organic solventsClick grafting of seaweed bioactive polysaccharides onto PVC surfaces using ionic liquid as green solvent and catalyst Sandra Bigota , Guy Louarnb , Nasreddine Kébir*a and Fabrice Burela a Normandie

Boyer, Edmond

427

An artificial neural network to calculate pure ionic liquid densities without the need for any experimental data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, a feed-forward artificial neural network, with three layers and seventeen neurons, was constructed to estimate the densities of a wide range of ionic liquid families including those based on the imidazolium, ammonium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, and isoquinolinium cations, together with various anions, as well as varying lengths of alkyl side chain lengths. The model is a function of the molecular weight and structure of the ionic liquid, and the system condition of temperature and pressure, which covers a temperature range of (273.15 to 393.17) K and a pressure range of (0.1 to 100) MPa. Therefore, no additional experimental data on the ionic liquid is required as input parameter(s), which makes this technique quite versatile. It was observed that the estimated values of densities of pure ionic liquids have very good agreement with the experimental data. The training correlating coefficient (R), the training performance (MSE), and the average absolute error on the training dataset were 0.99997, 6.04 × 10?6, and 0.019%, respectively. The average absolute error value on the test dataset is 0.014%.

Mohammad-Reza Fatehi; Sona Raeissi; Dariush Mowla

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Solution Ionic Strength Engineering As a Generic Strategy to Coat Graphene Oxide (GO) on Various Functional Particles and Its  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in improving the properties of particle materials. KEYWORDS: Graphene oxide, sulfur, lithium-sulfur batteriesSolution Ionic Strength Engineering As a Generic Strategy to Coat Graphene Oxide (GO) on Various Functional Particles and Its Application in High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) Batteries Jiepeng Rong

Zhou, Chongwu

429

A model of CA1 neurons with astrocytic input: a study of epileptiform bursting These ionic currents are given by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model of CA1 neurons with astrocytic input: a study of epileptiform bursting These ionic currents for the ion i. How do CA1 neurons communicate with each other? When excited, the presynaptic neuron releases with which the AMPA-activated channels close. How do astrocytes communicate with the CA1 neuron? An activated

Campbell, Sue Ann

430

Self-Assembly of the Ionic Peptide EAK16: The Effect of Charge Distributions on Self-Assembly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-Assembly of the Ionic Peptide EAK16: The Effect of Charge Distributions on Self-Assembly S understanding of self-assembly phenomena of naturally occurring peptides/proteins. Here, we study the influence of molecular architecture and interactions on the self-assembly of model peptides (EAK16s), using both

Bechhoefer, John

431

Subangstrom Crystallography Reveals that Short Ionic Hydrogen Bonds, and Not a His-Asp Low-Barrier Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Subangstrom Crystallography Reveals that Short Ionic Hydrogen Bonds, and Not a His-Asp Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bond, Stabilize the Transition State in Serine Protease Catalysis Cynthia N. Fuhrmann, Matthew D that destabilizes the His57-Ser195 hydrogen bond, preventing the back-reaction. In both structures the His57-Asp102

Agard, David

432

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

2000-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

434

Ab initio valence-bond cluster model for ionic solids: Alkaline-earth oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A linear M-O-M (M=metal, O=oxygen) cluster embedded in a Madelung field, and also including the quantum effects of the neighboring ions, is used to represent the alkaline-earth oxides. For this model an ab initio wave function is constructed as a linear combination of Slater determinants written in an atomic orbital basis set, i.e., a valence-bond wave function. Each valence-bond determinant (or group of determinants) corresponds to a resonating valence-bond structure. We have obtained ab initio valence-bond cluster-model wave functions for the electronic ground state and the excited states involved in the optical-gap transitions. Numerical results are reasonably close to the experimental values. Moreover, the model contains the ionic model as a limiting case and can be readily extended and improved.

A. Lorda; F. Illas; J. Rubio; J. B. Torrance

1993-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Anaerobic bioflocculation of wool scouring effluent: the influence of non-ionic surfactant on efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wool scouring effluent (WSE) contains high concentrations of wool grease emulsified by non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol polyethoxylates — NPEO). The short-term treatment (1–7 days) of this effluent with anaerobic bacteria resulted in partial grease flocculation. However the efficiency of this process varied largely (30% to 80%) with the source of wool scouring effluent used. The concentration of free surfactant, rather than total surfactant, was found to be the likely reason for the variation in efficiency. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of anaerobic biological flocculation a detailed surfactant analysis was performed. This revealed that anaerobic microbes (taken from sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant) had an ability to partially degrade NPEO by shortening the hydrophilic ethoxylate chain causing coagulation and subsequent flocculation of wool grease from the liquor.

Wipa Charles; Goen Ho; Ralf Cord-Ruwisch

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

A Preliminary Study of Oxidation of Lignin from Rubber Wood to Vanillin in Ionic Liquid Medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, lignin was oxidised to vanillin by means of oxygen in ionic liquid (1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate) medium. The parameters of the oxidation reaction that have been investigated were the following: concentration of oxygen (5, 10, 15 and 20 ft3 h-1), reaction time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) and reaction temperature (25, 40, 60, 80 and 100{\\deg}C). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses were used to characterise the product. The results revealed vanillin as the product obtained via the oxidation reaction. The optimum parameters of vanillin production were 20 ft3 h-1 of oxygen for 10 h at 100{\\deg}C. In conclusion, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate could be used as an oxidation reaction medium for the production of vanillin from rubber wood lignin.

Shamsuri, A A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Physically and chemically stable ionic liquid-infused textured surfaces showing excellent dynamic omniphobicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fluorinated and hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, effectively served as an advantageous lubricating liquid for the preparation of physically and chemically stable omniphobic surfaces based on slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces. Here, we used particulate microstructures as supports, prepared by the chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane and subsequent surface modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. Confirmed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the resulting IL-infused microtextured surfaces are smooth and not only water but also various low surface tension liquids can easily slide off at low substrate tilt angles of <5°, even after exposure to high temperature, vacuum, and UV irradiation.

Miranda, Daniel F.; Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Dunderdale, Gary J.; Hozumi, Atsushi, E-mail: a.hozumi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98, Anagahora, Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 463-8560 (Japan); Yagihashi, Makoto [Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute, Rokuban, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-0058 (Japan)

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Efficient conversion of cellulose into biofuel precursor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in dimethyl sulfoxide–ionic liquid mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In recent years, cellulose has received increasing attention as a potential material for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. In this study, a new process for the efficient conversion of cellulose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was developed by the use of AlCl3 as the catalyst in DMSO–ionic liquid ([BMIM]Cl) mixtures. Various reaction parameters such as reaction time, reaction temperature, solvent and catalyst dosage were investigated in detail. A high HMF yield of 54.9% was obtained from cellulose at 150 °C after 9 h in a mixed solvent of DMSO–[BMIM]Cl (10 wt.%). More importantly, the catalytic system could be reused for several times despite of the slight loss of its catalytic activity.

Shaohua Xiao; Bing Liu; Yimei Wang; Zhongfeng Fang; Zehui Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Ionic Asymmetry and Solvent Excluded Volume Effects on Spherical Electric Double Layers: A Density Functional Approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we present a classical density functional theory for electrical double layers of spherical macroions that extends the capabilities of conventional approaches by accounting for electrostatic ion correlations, size asymmetry and excluded volume effects. The approach is based on a recent approximation introduced by Hansen-Goos and Roth for the hard sphere excess free energy of inhomogeneous fluids (J. Chem. Phys. 124, 154506). It accounts for the proper and efficient description of the effects of ionic asymmetry and solvent excluded volume, especially at high ion concentrations and size asymmetry ratios including those observed in experimental studies. Additionally, we utilize a leading functional Taylor expansion approximation of the ion density profiles. In addition, we use the Mean Spherical Approximation for multi-component charged hard sphere fluids to account for the electrostatic ion correlation effects. These approximations are implemented in our theoretical formulation into a suitable decomposition of the excess free energy which plays a key role in capturing the complex interplay between charge correlations and excluded volume effects. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in various scenarios to validate the proposed approach, obtaining a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost. We use the proposed computational approach to study the effects of ion size, ion size asymmetry and solvent excluded volume on the ion profiles, integrated charge, mean electrostatic potential, and ionic coordination number around spherical macroions in various electrolyte mixtures. Our results show that both solvent hard sphere diameter and density play a dominant role in the distribution of ions around spherical macroions, mainly for experimental water molarity and size values where the counterion distribution is characterized by a tight binding to the macroion, similar to that predicted by the Stern model.

Medasani, Bharat; Ovanesyan, Zaven; Thomas, Dennis G.; Sushko, Maria L.; Marucho, Marcelo

2014-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

440

2012 MOLECULAR AND IONIC CLUSTERS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JANUARY 29 - FEBRUARY 3, 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gordon Research Conference on 'Molecular and Ionic Clusters' focuses on clusters, which are the initial molecular species found in gases when condensation begins to occur. Condensation can take place solely from molecules interacting with each other, mostly at low temperatures, or when molecules condense around charged particles (electrons, protons, metal cations, molecular ions), producing ion molecule clusters. These clusters provide models for solvation, allow a pristine look at geometric as well as electronic structures of molecular complexes or matter in general, their interaction with radiation, their reactivity, their thermodynamic properties and, in particular, the related dynamics. This conference focuses on new ways to make clusters composed of different kinds of molecules, new experimental techniques to investigate the properties of the clusters and new theoretical methods with which to calculate the structures, dynamical motions and energetics of the clusters. Some of the main experimental methods employed include molecular beams, mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy (from infrared to XUV; in the frequency as well as the time domain) and photoelectron spectroscopy. Techniques include laser absorption spectroscopy, laser induced fluorescence, resonance enhanced photoionization, mass-selected photodissociation, photofragment imaging, ZEKE photoelectron spectroscopy, etc. From the theoretical side, this conference highlights work on potential surfaces and measurable properties of the clusters. The close ties between experiment, theory and computation have been a hallmark of the Gordon Research Conference on Molecular and Ionic Clusters. In the 2012 meeting, we plan to have sessions that will focus on topics including: (1) The use of cluster studies to probe fundamental phenomena; (2) Finite size effects on structure and thermodynamics; (3) Intermolecular forces and cooperative effects; (4) Molecular clusters as models for solvation; and (5) Studies of clusters at XUV light sources.

Anne McCoy

2012-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Comparative study of methods used to estimate ionic diffusion coefficients using migration tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionic diffusion coefficients are estimated rapidly using electromigration tests. In this paper, electromigration tests are accurately simulated by numerically solving the Nernst-Planck (NP) equation (coupled with the electroneutrality condition (EN)) using the finite element method. Numerical simulations are validated against experimental data obtained elsewhere [E. Samson, J. Marchand, K.A. Snyder, Calculation of ionic diffusion coefficients on the basis of migration test results, Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions 36 (257) (2003) 156-165., H. Friedmann, O. Amiri, A. Ait-Mokhtar, A direct method for determining chloride diffusion coefficient by using migration test, Cement and Concrete Research 34 (11) (2004) 1967-1973.]. It is shown that migration due to the non-linear electric potential completely overwhelms diffusion due to concentration gradients. The effects of different applied voltage differences and chloride source concentrations on estimations of chloride diffusion coefficients are explored. We show that the pore fluid within concrete and mortar specimens generally differs from the curing solution, lowering the apparent diffusion coefficient, primarily due to interactions of chloride ions with other ions in the pore fluid. We show that the variation of source chloride concentration strongly affects the estimation of diffusion coefficients in non-steady-state tests; however this effect vanishes under steady-state conditions. Most importantly, a comparison of diffusion coefficients obtained from sophisticated analyses (i.e., NP-EN) and a variety of commonly used simplifying methods to estimate chloride diffusion coefficients allows us to identify those methods and experimental conditions where both approaches deliver good estimates for chloride diffusion coefficients. Finally, we demonstrate why simultaneous use and monitoring of current density and fluxes are recommended for both the non-steady and steady-state migration tests.

Narsilio, G.A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: narsilio@unimelb.edu.au; Li, R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, Southeast University (SEU), Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)], E-mail: lirenmin@seu.edu.cn; Pivonka, P. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: ppivonka@unimelb.edu.au; Smith, D.W. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: david.smith@unimelb.edu.au

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Transportation Issues and Resolutions Compilation of Laboratory  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Transportation Issues and Resolutions Compilation of Laboratory Transportation Issues and Resolutions Compilation of Laboratory Transportation Work Package Reports Transportation Issues and Resolutions Compilation of Laboratory Transportation Work Package Reports The Transportation Team identified the retrievability and subcriticality safety functions to be of primary importance to the transportation of UNF after extended storage and to transportation of high burnup fuel. The tasks performed and described herein address issues related to retrievability and subcriticality; integrity of cladding (embrittled, high burnup cladding, loads applied to cladding during transport), criticality analyses of failed UNF within transport packages, moderator exclusion concepts, stabilization of cladding with canisters for criticality control;

443

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Radiation transport in inhomogeneous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calculations of radiation transport in heated materials are greatly complicated by the presence of regions in which two or more materials are inhomogeneously mixed. This phenomenon is important in many systems, such as astrophysical systems where density clumps can be found in star-forming regions and molecular clouds. Laboratory experiments have been designed to test the modeling of radiation transport through inhomogeneous plasmas. A laser-heated hohlraum is used as a thermal source to drive radiation through polymer foam containing randomly distributed gold particles. Experimental measurements of radiation transport in foams with gold particle sizes ranging from 5-9 {mu}m to submicrometer diameters as well as the homogeneous foam case are presented. The simulation results of the radiation transport are compared to the experiment and show that an inhomogeneous transport model must be applied to explain radiation transport in foams loaded with 5 {mu}m diameter gold particles.

Keiter, Paul; Gunderson, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Foster, John; Rosen, Paula; Comley, Andrew; Taylor, Mark [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Perry, Ted [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment (SFTRA) Draft NUREG-2125 Overview for National Transportation Stakeholders Forum John Cook Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation 1 SFTRA Overview Contents * Project and review teams * Purpose and goals * Basic methodology * Improvements relative to previous studies * Draft NUREG structure and format * Routine shipment analysis and results * Accident condition analysis and results * Findings and conclusions * Schedule 2 SFTRA Research and Review Teams * Sandia National Laboratory Research Team [$1.8M; 9/06-9/12] - Doug Ammerman - principal investigator - Carlos Lopez - thermal - Ruth Weiner - RADTRAN * NRC's SFTRA Technical Review Team - Gordon Bjorkman - structural

446

TRANSPORT AND EMPLACEMENT EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) Transport and Emplacement in the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. The Transport and Emplacement equipment described in this document consists of the following: (1) WP Transporter; (2) Reusable Rail Car; (3) Emplacement Gantry; (4) Gantry Carrier; and (5) Transport Locomotive.

NA

1997-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

447

Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the drift. The reason for introducing the fracture-matrix partitioning model is to broaden the conceptual model for flow beneath waste emplacement drifts in a way that does not rely on the specific flow behavior predicted by a dual continuum model and to ensure that radionuclide transport is not underestimated. The fracture-matrix partitioning model provides an alternative method of computing the partitioning of radionuclide releases from drifts without seepage into rock fractures and rock matrix. Drifts without seepage are much more likely to have a significant fraction of radionuclide releases into the rock matrix, and therefore warrant additional attention in terms of the partitioning model used for TSPA.

J. Houseworth

2004-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

448

NREL: Transportation Research - Energy Storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Storage Transportation Research Cutaway image of an automobile showing the location of energy storage components (battery and inverter), as well as electric motor, power...

449

Sandia National Laboratories: Transportation Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Facilities, News, News & Events, Research & Capabilities, Systems Analysis, Transportation Energy By combining advanced theory and high-fidelity large eddy simulation,...

450

Sandia National Laboratories: Transportation Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Science, News, News & Events, Research & Capabilities, Systems Analysis, Transportation Energy On May 19th, the DOE announced 7M for six projects (five in California +...

451

Panhandle Region Transportation Coordination Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

....................................................................................Panhandle Transit Needs Index Appendix B .............................................................................................................County Profiles Appendix C ......................................................Panhandle Transit: Operating... Statistics by County Appendix D................................................................................... Panhandle Agency Contact List Appendix E .......................................................... Panhandle Transportation Coordination...

Panhandle Regional Transportation Advisory Group

452

The Coal Transportation Rate Database  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Transportation Rate Database (CTRDB) adds new data for 2000 and 2001. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Form 580 "interrogatories" are the primary source for...

453

Subsurface Flow and Transport | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

subsurface related to contaminant transport, carbon cycling, enhanced oil recovery and carbon dioxide sequestration. Resources and Techniques Users have access to all the...

454

NREL: Transportation Research - Fuels Performance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

about related NREL biomass research projects that focus on converting renewable biomass feedstocks into transportation fuels, chemicals, and products. For more information, see...

455

NREL: Transportation Research - Success Stories  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stories NREL understands real-world factors impacting industry and consumer adoption of sustainable transportation solutions, resulting in an impressive record of breaking down...

456

Transportation Projects | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

a large share of petroleum use, carbon dioxide (a primary greenhouse gas) emissions, and air pollution, advances in fuel cell power systems for transportation could substantially...

457

Subsurface Flow and Transport | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and compare experimental and numerical results to address the nation's most challenging problems in the subsurface related to contaminant transport, carbon cycling, enhanced oil...

458

Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

cell performance models? Techniques employed: KL More, DOE Report 2005. * Small-angle neutron scattering, atomic force microscopy (ionic morphology) * Neutron on reflectometry...

459

Facilitated Strontium Transport by Remobilization of Strontium-Containing Secondary Precipitates in Hanford Site Subsurface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significantly enhanced immobilization of radionuclides (such as 90Sr and 137Cs) due to adsorption and coprecipitation with neo-formed colloid-sized secondary precipitates has been reported at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site. However, the stability of these secondary precipitates containing radionuclides in the subsurface under changeable field conditions is not clear. Here, the authors tested the remobilization possibility of Sr containing secondary precipitates (nitrate-cancrinite) in the subsurface using saturated column experiments under different geochemical and flow conditions. The columns were packed with quartz sand that contained secondary precipitates (nitrate-cancrinite containing Sr), and leached using colloid-free solutions under different flow rates, varying pH, and ionic strength conditions. The results indicate remobilization of the neo-formed secondary precipitates could be possible given a change of background conditions. The remobility of the neo formed precipitates increased with the rise in the leaching solution flow rate and pH (in a range of pH 4 to 11), as well as with decreasing solution ionic strength. The increased mobility of Sr-containing secondary precipitates with changing background conditions can be a potential source for additional radionuclide transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Climate and Transportation Solutions: Findings from the 2009 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 2 Climate and Transportation Solutions Chapter 3:Gas Emissions in the Transportation Sector by John Conti,Chase, and John Maples Transportation is the single largest

Sperling, Daniel; Cannon, James S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Determination of Single-Ion Activities of H+ and Cl– in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Solutions by Use of an Ionic Liquid Salt Bridge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many of the problems inherent to KCl-type salt bridges can be circumvented by use of a salt bridge made of a moderately hydrophobic ionic liquid, that is, an ionic liquid salt bridge (ILSB). ... A newly emerged salt bridge based on moderately hydrophobic ionic liqs. is promising to solve many of the problems that KCl-type salt bridges are unable to, possibly making the future of electroanal. ... The new salt bridge is free from most of the problems inherent to KCl-based salt bridges. ...

Hideaki Sakaida; Takashi Kakiuchi

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

463

Institute of Transport Studies PSU Transportation Seminar, 21 May 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Electric Bicycles Assoc. Prof. Geoff Rose Director, ITS (Monash) Transport Theme Leader, Monash expand the role of the bicycle in the context of urban transportation · This seminar examines electric the rider must be pedaling for the motor to provide power ­ Term `hybrid power' being used by some

Bertini, Robert L.

464

Argonne Transportation Current News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Current News November 21, 2013 -- Pixelligent Technologies Working with Argonne to Develop Nanoadditives under DOE SBIR Grant November 4, 2013 -- New GREET Model Released October 25, 2013 -- Argonne Creates IdleBox Toolkit for DOE's Clean Cities Initiative to Help Reduce Vehicle Idling September 23, 2013 -- New VISION Model Released for Estimating Potential Energy Use, Oil Use and Carbon Emission Impacts September 17, 2013 -- Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources (WATER) Tool Released September 9, 2013 -- Dileep Singh to Receive Prestigious Lee Hsun Award July 17, 2013 -- Summer 2013 TransForum now available July 10, 2013 -- Argonne Wins Four R&D 100 Awards March 23, 2013 -- White House Women's Leadership Summit on Climate and Energy recognizes Argonne scientists

465

Source Emissions and Transport  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electron micrograph image, Lara Gundel with instrumentation electron micrograph image, Lara Gundel with instrumentation Source Emissions and Transport Investigators conduct research here to characterize and better understand the sources of airborne volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic pollutants in the indoor environment. This research includes studies of the physical and chemical processes that govern indoor air pollutant concentrations and exposures. The motivation is to contribute to the reduction of potential human health effects. Contacts Randy Maddalena RLMaddalena@lbl.gov (510) 486-4924 Mark Mendell MJMendell@lbl.gov (510) 486-5762 Links Pollutant Sources, Dynamics and Chemistry Group Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Electricity Grid Energy Analysis Energy Technologies Environmental Impacts

466

Argonne Transportation Current News  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Multimedia TransFORUM Magazine Subscribe to read about Argonne's advances in transportation research » flickr logo See our photos on Flickr Youtube logo View our YouTube Videos argonne logo Argonne Experts Guide Logo of google plus Video: Argonne Virtual Field Trip -- "Vehicle Electrification" Logo of BBC Future Video: How X-ray Vision Will Fuel Better Car Engines Logo of BBC Future Video: The Lab Pushing Petrol Car Engines to New Extremes Image of front end of car Video: What is EcoCAR 3? Logo of BBC Future Video: Electric Vehicles: A Universal Plug for All Models? Jon Stewart of the BBC visits Argonne's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center seeking answers about creating common standards for electric vehicles and charging stations. Photo of Daniel Abraham Interview: Daniel Abraham Talks to The Battery Show about Developments in Lithium-ion Battery Technology

467

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Thermalization through parton transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A radiative transport model is used to study kinetic equilibration during the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision. The parton system is found to be able to overcome expansion and move toward thermalization via parton collisions. Scaling behaviors show up in both the pressure anisotropy and the energy density evolutions. In particular, the pressure anisotropy evolution shows an approximate alpha_s scaling when radiative processes are included. It approaches an asymptotic time evolution on a time scale of 1 to 2 fm/c. The energy density evolution shows an asymptotic time evolution that decreases slower than the ideal hydro evolution. These observations indicate that partial thermalization can be achieved and viscosity is important for the evolution during the early longitudinal expansion stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision.

Bin Zhang

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

471

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of pressure and temperature. Several parameters were measured during these tests including differential pressure and mixture density in the annulus. Flow patterns during the aerated fluids test have been observed through the view port in the annulus and recorded by a video camera. Most of the flow patterns were slug flow. Further increase in gas flow rate changed the wavy flow pattern to slug flow. At this stage, all of the planned cuttings transport tests have been completed. The results clearly show that temperature significantly affects the cuttings transport efficiency of aerated muds, in addition to the liquid flow rate and gas liquid ratio (GLR). Since the printed circuit board is functioning (Task 11) with acceptable noise level we were able to conduct several tests. We used the newly designed pipe test section to conduct tests. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand in the pipe section. The results indicated that we can distinguish between different sand levels. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications (installation of magnetic flow meter, pipe fittings and pipelines) to the dynamic bubble characterization facility (DTF, Task 12) were completed. An Excel program that allows obtaining the desired foam quality in DTF was developed. The program predicts the foam quality by recording the time it takes to pressurize the loop with nitrogen.

Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

472

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Transportation System Transportation System Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Parts & Equipment Maintenance Driving Behavior Fleet Rightsizing System Efficiency Ridesharing Mass Transit Active Transit Multi-Modal Transportation Telework

473

Reactive Transport Modeling of Acid Gas Generation and Condensation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pulvirenti et al. (2004) recently conducted a laboratory evaporation/condensation experiment on a synthetic solution of primarily calcium chloride. This solution represents one potential type of evaporated pore water at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a site proposed for geologic storage of high-level nuclear waste. These authors reported that boiling this solution to near dryness (a concentration factor >75,000 relative to actual pore waters) leads to the generation of acid condensate (pH 4.5) presumably due to volatilization of HCl (and minor HF and/or HNO{sub 3}). To investigate the various processes taking place, including boiling, gas transport, and condensation, their experiment was simulated by modifying an existing multicomponent and multiphase reactive transport code (TOUGHREACT). This code was extended with a Pitzer ion-interaction model to deal with high ionic strength. The model of the experiment was set-up to capture the observed increase in boiling temperature (143 C at {approx}1 bar) resulting from high concentrations of dissolved salts (up to 8 m CaCl{sub 2}). The computed HCI fugacity ({approx} 10{sup -4} bars) generated by boiling under these conditions is not sufficient to lower the pH of the condensate (cooled to 80 and 25 C) down to observed values unless the H{sub 2}O mass fraction in gas is reduced below {approx}10%. This is because the condensate becomes progressively diluted by H{sub 2}O gas condensation. However, when the system is modeled to remove water vapor, the computed pH of instantaneous condensates decreases to {approx}1.7, consistent with the experiment (Figure 1). The results also show that the HCl fugacity increases, and calcite, gypsum, sylvite, halite, MgCl{sub 2}4H{sub 2}O and CaCl{sub 2} precipitate sequentially with increasing concentration factors.

G. Zhahg; N. Spycher; E. Sonnenthal; C. Steefel

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

474

History of federal transportation policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

History of federal transportation policy TTP 220 S. Handy 4/7/14 #12;Federal Transportation Policy · Rise of road building (1910s +) · Rise of mandated planning (1960s +) · Rise of transit funding (1960s for road building support from the start! · Cars seen as way to decentralize, to get people away from ills

Handy, Susan L.

475

Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) is based in San Jose, California, and provides service in and around Santa Clara county. VTA provides bus and light rail service in Santa Clara County, as well as congestion mitigation, highway improvement projects, and countywide transportation planning. VTA's 423 buses serve an annual ridership of more than 39 million and cover approximately 326 square miles.

476

Radioactive Material Transportation Practices Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes standard transportation practices for the Department of Energy, including National Nuclear Security Administration to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials and waste. The revision reflects ongoing collaboration of DOE and outside organizations on the transportation of radioactive material and waste. Cancels DOE M 460.2-1.

2008-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

477

22nd Annual Transportation Research Conference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

22nd Annual Transportation Research Conference May 24-25, 2011 Crowne Plaza St. Paul Riverfront for Transportation Studies 22nd Annual Transportation Research Conference Welcome to the Conference The University of Minnesota's Center for Transportation Studies is pleased to present its 22nd Annual Transportation Research

Minnesota, University of

478

Carbon Ionic Conductors for use in Novel Carbon-Ion Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon-consuming fuel cells have many potential advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced pollution in power generation from coal. A large amount of work has already been done on coal fuel cells that utilize yttria-stabilized zirconium carbide as an oxygen-ion superionic membrane material. But high-temperature fuel cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconium require partial combustion of coal to carbon monoxide before final oxidation to carbon dioxide occurs via utilization of the oxygen- ion zirconia membrane. A carbon-ion superionic membrane material would enable an entirely new class of carbon fuel cell to be developed, one that would use coal directly as the fuel source, without any intervening combustion process. However, a superionic membrane material for carbon ions has not yet been found. Because no partial combustion of coal would be required, a carbon-ion superionic conductor would allow the direct conversion of coal to electricity and pure CO{sub 2} without the formation of gaseous pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate ionic lanthanide carbides, which have an unusually high carbon-bond ionicity as potential superionic carbide-ion conductors. A first step in this process is the stabilization of these carbides in the cubic structure, and this stabilization has been achieved via the preparation of pseudobinary lanthanide carbides. The diffusion rates of carbon have been measured in these carbides as stabilized to preserve the high temperature cubic structure down to room temperature. To prepare these new compounds and measure these diffusion rates, a novel, oxide-based preparation method and a new C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} diffusion technique have been developed. The carbon diffusion rates in La{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, Ce{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and La{sup 0.5}Y{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and Ce{sup 0.5}Tm0.5C{sub 2} modified by the addition of 5 wt %Be{sub 2}C, have been determined at temperatures from 850 C to 1150 C. The resulting diffusion constants as measured were all less than 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/sec, and therefore these compounds are not superionic. However, there remain a large number of potentially superionic pseudobinary lanthanide compounds and a number of alternate ionic carbides which might act as dopants to produce vacancies on the carbon-ion sublattice and thereby increase carbon-ion diffusion rates. The discovery of a superionic carbon conductor would usher in a truly revolutionary new coal technology, and could dramatically improve the way in which we generate electricity from coal. The work completed to date is a promising first step towards this end.

Franklin H. Cocks; W. Neal Simmons; Paul A. Klenk

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Heavy oil transportation by pipeline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Worldwide there are a number of pipelines used to transport heavy crude oils. The operations are facilitated in a variety of ways. For example, the Alyeska pipeline is an insulated pipeline transporting warm oil over 800 miles. This 48-inch line experiences limited heat loss due to the insulation, volume of oil contained, and heat gain due to friction and pumping. Some European trunk lines periodically handle heavy and waxy crudes. This is achieved by proper sizing of batches, following waxy crudes with non-waxy crudes, and increased use of scrapers. In a former Soviet republic, the transportation of heavy crude oil by pipeline has been facilitated by blending with a lighter Siberian crude. The paper describes the pipeline transport of heavy crudes by Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. The paper describes enhancing heavy oil transportation by emulsion formation, droplet suspension, dilution, drag reducing agents, and heating.

Gerez, J.M.; Pick, A.R. [Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

480

Transportation Research Board Conference January 10, 2005 Using Custom Transportation Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transportation Research Board Conference January 10, 2005 Using Custom Transportation Data Collection Software with Handheld Computers for Education, Research, and Practice Transportation Research, Andrew Byrd, Michael Rose, Tarek Abou El-Seoud #12;Transportation Research Board Conference January 10

Bertini, Robert L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reaction-driven ionic transport" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Radiation induced redox reactions and fragmentation of constituent ions in ionic liquids II. Imidazolium cations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In part 1 of this study, radiolytic degradation of constituent anions in ionic liquids (ILs) was examined. The present study continues the themes addressed in part 1 and examines the radiation chemistry of 1,3-dialkyl substituted imidazolium cations, which currently comprise the most practically important and versatile class of ionic liquid cations. For comparison, we also examined 1,3-dimethoxy- and 2-methyl-substituted imidazolium and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium cations. In addition to identification of radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and selective deuterium substitution, we analyzed stable radiolytic products using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS). Our EPR studies reveal rich chemistry initiated through 'ionization of the ions': oxidation and the formation of radical dications in the aliphatic arms of the parent cations (leading to deprotonation and the formation of alkyl radicals in these arms) and reduction of the parent cation, yielding 2-imidazolyl radicals. The subsequent reactions of these radicals depend on the nature of the IL. If the cation is 2-substituted, the resulting 2-imidazolyl radical is relatively stable. If there is no substitution at C(2), the radical then either is protonated or reacts with the parent cation forming a C(2)-C(2) {sigma}{sigma}*-bound dimer radical cation. In addition to these reactions, when methoxy or C{sub {alpha}}-substituted alkyl groups occupy the N(1,3) positions, their elimination is observed. The elimination of methyl groups from N(1,3) was not observed. Product analyses of imidazolium liquids irradiated in the very-high-dose regime (6.7 MGy) reveal several detrimental processes, including volatilization, acidification, and oligomerization. The latter yields a polymer with m/z of 650 {+-} 300 whose radiolytic yield increases with dose (0.23 monomer units per 100 eV for 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium trifluorosulfonate). Gradual generation of this polymer accounts for the steady increase in the viscosity of the ILs upon irradiation. Previous studies at lower dose have missed this species due to its wide mass distribution (stretching out to m/z 1600) and broad NMR lines, which make it harder to detect at lower concentrations. Among other observed changes is the formation of water immiscible fractions in hydrophilic ILs and water miscible fractions in hydrophobic ILs. The latter is due to anion fragmentation. The import of these observations for use of ILs as extraction solvents in nuclear cycle separations is discussed.

Shkrob, I. A.; Marin, T. W.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Hatcher, J.; Wishart, J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (BNL)

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

482

Trace determination of triclosan and triclocarban in environmental water samples with ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction prior to HPLC–ESI-MS–MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel and environmentally friendly microextraction method, termed ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction (IL-DLPME), has been developed for rapid enrichment of triclosan and triclocarban before an...

Ru-Song Zhao; Xia Wang; Jing Sun; Shan-Shan Wang…

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Polymer anion-selective membranes for electrolytic splitting of water. Part II: Enhancement of ionic conductivity and performance under conditions of alkaline water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An attempt was made to increase the ionic conductivity of novel, heterogeneous, anion-selective membranes by increasing the porosity of their surface skin. This was based on the addition of a water-soluble compon...

Jaromír Hnát; Martin Paidar; Jan Schauer; Jan Žitka…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Towards In situ extraction of fine chemicals and biorenewable fuels from fermentation broths using Ionic liquids and the Intensification of contacting by the application of Electric Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

product separations. For developing environmentally sustainable processes, ionic liquids are touted as greener alternative to organic solvents not only because of their relatively low volatility but also due to the ability to tune their properties...

Gangu, Satya Aravind

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

485

A Method for Determining the Ionization Spectra of Monodispersed Clusters of Noble Metals Adsorbed on the Surfaces of Ionic–Covalent Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The method described is based on the vacuum deposition of separate monodispersed molecular metal ions from a mass-separated beam on the surfaces of ionic–covalent crystals and the detection of ultralow concent...

A. N. Latyshev; O. V. Ovchinnikov…

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Complexation and optimization of use of non-ionic ethoxylated surfactants in EOR from low temperature fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complexation with aquated cations (e.g., Al/sup 3/, etc.) is shown to enable the extent of adsorption of ethoxylated non-ionic surfactants on sandstone and limestone reservoir rocks to be controlled and minimized. If such reservoirs are at temperatures below the cloud point of the complexed surfactants, such methods can allow EOR with such non-ionic surfactants in low concentrations, NMR evidence is presented to show how the complexation takes place and how it may be controlled. Its beneficial effect on oil recovery is demonstrated with microcapillary de-oiling and surfactant flood tests. Its effect is explained in terms of changes in surfactant characteristics, e.g., phase equilibria, rate and extent of adsorption, oil solubilization and solubility, interfacial tension, viscosity, and contact angles.

Lawrence, S.A.; Pilc, J.; Sermon, P.A.; Readman, J.; Hurd, B.G.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Alkaline Ionic Liquids as Catalysts: A Novel and Green Process for the Dehydration of Carbohydrates To Give 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alkaline Ionic Liquids as Catalysts: A Novel and Green Process for the Dehydration of Carbohydrates To Give 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural ... An efficient process for the conversion of carbohydrates into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) catalyzed by the room temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydroxide ([BMIM]OH), using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent, has been developed. ... (6, 7) The efficient transformation of hexoses such as fructose, glucose, galactose, and mannose or disaccharides such as sucrose and cellobiose into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)—which is regarded as a versatile platform molecule and is used in the production of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and polymers—is a key step in the use of carbohydrates to produce liquid fuels and value-added chemicals. ...

Yong-Shui Qu; Yan-Lei Song; Chong-Pin Huang; Jie Zhang; Biao-Hua Chen

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

488

Climate and Transportation Solutions: Findings from the 2009 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Impact of a Bus Rapid Transport Project in Mexicoemissions from the main classes of transport emitters in the Mexico

Sperling, Daniel; Cannon, James S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped Ti-substituted perovskites, La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}, with 0 {le} x {le} 0.20, were investigated by neutron diffraction, magnetization, electric resistivity, and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. All samples show a rhombohedral structure (space group R3C) from 10 K to room temperature. At room temperature, the cell parameters a, c and the unit cell volume increase with increasing Ti content. However, at 10 K, the cell parameter a has a maximum value for x = 0.10, and decreases for x > 0.10, while the unit cell volume remains nearly constant for x > 0.10. The average (Mn,Ti)-O bond length increases up to x = 0.15, and the (Mn,Ti)-O-(Mn,Ti) bond angle decreases with increasing Ti content to its minimum value at x = 0.15 at room temperature. Below the Curie temperature TC, the resistance exhibits metallic behavior for the x {le} 0.05 samples. A metal (semiconductor) to insulator transition is observed for the x {ge} 0.10 samples. A peak in resistivity appears below TC for all samples, and shifts to a lower temperature as x increases. The substitution of Mn by Ti decreases the 2p-3d hybridization between O and Mn ions, reduces the bandwidth W, and increases the electron-phonon coupling. Therefore, the TC shifts to a lower temperature and the resistivity increases with increasing Ti content. A field-induced shift of the resistivity maximum occurs at x {le} 0.10 compounds. The maximum MR effect is about 70% for La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}. The separation of TC and the resistivity maximum temperature T{sub {rho},max} enhances the MR effect in these compounds due to the weak coupling between the magnetic ordering and the resistivity as compared with La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. The bulk densities of the membranes were determined using the Archimedes method. The bulk density was 5.029 and 5.57 g/cc for LSFT and dual phase membranes, respectively. The microstructure of the dual phase membrane was analyzed using SEM. It is evident from the micrograph that the microstructure is composed of dual phases. The dense circular regions are enclosed by the less dense, continuous phase which accommodates most of the pores. The pores are normally aggregated and found clustered along the dense regions where as the dense regions do not have pores. Upon closer observation of the micrograph it is revealed that the dense region has a clear circular cleavage or crack as their boundary. The circular cleavage clearly encompasses a dense region and which consists of no pore or any flaw that is visible. The size distribution of the dense, discontinuous regions is varying from 5 to 20 {micro}m with a D{sub 50} of 15 {micro}m. The grain size distribution was estimated from the micrographs using image analysis and a unimodal distribution of grains was observed with an average grain size of 1.99 {micro}m. The chemical compositions of the membranes were analyzed using EDS analysis and no other impurities were observed. The XRD analysis was carried out for the membranes and the phase purity was confirmed. The fracture toughness of LSFT membranes at room temperature has to be calculated using the Vickers indentation method. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the ionic conductivity by the use of blocking electrodes. Preliminary measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Modifications to the apparatus to improve the data quality have been completed. Electron microscopy studies of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been initiated. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradient

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Homogenization of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations for Ion Transport in Charged Porous Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effective Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations are derived for macroscopic ion transport in charged porous media under periodic fluid flow by an asymptotic multi-scale expansion with drift. The microscopic setting is a two-component periodic composite consisting of a dilute electrolyte continuum (described by standard PNP equations) and a continuous dielectric matrix, which is impermeable to the ions and carries a given surface charge. Four new features arise in the upscaled equations: (i) the effective ionic diffusivities and mobilities become tensors, related to the microstructure; (ii) the effective permittivity is also a tensor, depending on the electrolyte/matrix permittivity ratio and the ratio of the Debye screening length to the macroscopic length of the porous medium; (iii) the microscopic fluidic convection is replaced by a diffusion-dispersion correction in the effective diffusion tensor; and (iv) the surface charge per volume appears as a continuous "background charge density", as in classical membrane models. The coefficient tensors in the upscaled PNP equations can be calculated from periodic reference cell problems. For an insulating solid matrix, all gradients are corrected by the same tensor, and the Einstein relation holds at the macroscopic scale, which is not generally the case for a polarizable matrix, unless the permittivity and electric field are suitably defined. In the limit of thin double layers, Poisson's equation is replaced by macroscopic electroneutrality (balancing ionic and surface charges). The general form of the macroscopic PNP equations may also hold for concentrated solution theories, based on the local-density and mean-field approximations. These results have broad applicability to ion transport in porous electrodes, separators, membranes, ion-exchange resins, soils, porous rocks, and biological tissues.

Markus Schmuck; Martin Z. Bazant

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

491

Pore-Scale Investigation of Mass Transport and Electrochemistry in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development and validation of a model for the study of pore-scale transport phenomena and electrochemistry in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode are presented in this work. This model couples mass transport processes with a detailed reaction mechanism, which is used to model the electrochemical oxidation kinetics. Detailed electrochemical oxidation reaction kinetics, which is known to occur in the vicinity of the three-phase boundary (TPB) interfaces, is discretely considered in this work. The TPB regions connect percolating regions of electronic and ionic conducting phases of the anode, nickel (Ni) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), respectively; with porous regions supporting mass transport of the fuel and product. A two-dimensional (2D), multi-species lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to describe the diffusion process in complex pore structures that are representative of the SOFC anode. This diffusion model is discretely coupled to a kinetic electrochemical oxidation mechanism using localized flux boundary conditions. The details of the oxidation kinetics are prescribed as a function of applied activation overpotential and the localized hydrogen and water mole fractions. This development effort is aimed at understanding the effects of the anode microstructure within TPB regions. This work describes the methods used so that future studies can consider the details of SOFC anode microstructure.

Grew, K. N.; Joshi, A. S.; Peracchio, A. A.; Chiu, W. K. S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Direct Probing of Charge Injection and Polarization-Controlled Ionic Mobility on Ferroelectric LiNbO3 Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mapping surface potential with time-resolved Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (tr-KPFM) in LiNbO3 periodically-poled single crystal revealed activation of the surface ionic subsystem. Electric fields higher than certain threshold value but lower than the switching field induce injection of charge from the biased electrode, formation of an active region in its vicinity and uneven distribution of screening charge on the opposite ferroelectric domains. Tr-KPFM technique allows investigating these phenomena in details.

Strelcov, Evgheni [ORNL] [ORNL; Ievlev, Dr. Anton [Ural State University, Russia] [Ural State University, Russia; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL] [ORNL; Shur, V.Y. [Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural State University] [Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural State University; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Aqueous Biphasic Systems Based on Salting-Out Polyethylene Glycol or Ionic Solutions: Strategies for Actinide or Fission Product Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous biphasic systems can be formed by salting-out (with kosmotropic, waterstructuring salts) water soluble polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) or aqueous solutions of a wide range of hydrophilic ionic liquids based on imidazolium, pyridinium, phosphonium and ammonium cations. The use of these novel liquid/liquid biphases for separation of actinides or other fission products associated with nuclear wastes (e.g., pertechnetate salts) has been demonstrated and will be described in this presentation.

Rogers, Robin D.; Gutowski, Keith E.; Griffin, Scott T.; Holbrey, John D.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

494

NASA Subsonic Jet Transport Noise Reduction Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although new jet transport airplanes in today''s fleet are considerably quieter than the first jet transports introduced about 40 years ago, airport community noise continues to be an important environmental issue. NASA''s Advanced Subsonic Transport ...

Powell Clemans A.; Preisser John S.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Chapter 47 - Transportation | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

7 - Transportation Chapter 47 - Transportation 47.1TransportationAirCharterServices0.pdf More Documents & Publications AcqGuide47pt1.doc&0; TEC Working Group Topic Groups...

496

It's About Time: Investing in Transportation to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MARCH 2011 It's About Time: Investing in Transportation to Keep Texas Economically Competitive #12 of Contents Preface 1 The Challenge Facing Texans 3 Texas Transportation Action Principles 6 Texas' Deteriorating Transportation System: Background and Measurement 8 Baseline Scenario: Unacceptable Conditions

497

Public School Transportation National and Regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Public School Transportation National and Regional Perspectives: An Update Presented to Education University #12;Table of Contents I. Current Transportation Funding Policies ..................................................................................................................................1 B. Transportation Funding Options Used by States

Mohaghegh, Shahab

498

Report on the 1961 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH--------.. . -. .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ) ) Report on the 1961 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH--------.. . -. . AND SERVICE ACTIVITIES IC C Negotiations with carriers ..·..... Resea rch activities ·...........·... Transportation Section staff resea rch . Transportation rate indexes .... Fish meal, scrap, and solublf's information

499

Energy transport in the solar transition layer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Research Article Energy transport in the solar transition layer J...emission measure in the solar transition layer, which...the heat transport. solar transition layer|differential emission measure|energy transport|ion-acoustic...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Oceanic mass transport by mesoscale eddies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...time-mean ocean circulation transports fluid as a conveyor belt, but fluid parcels can also be trapped and transported discretely...continuously, mesoscale eddies can trap fluid parcels within the eddy core and transport them discretely...

Zhengguang Zhang; Wei Wang; Bo Qiu

2014-07-18T23:59:59.000Z