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Sample records for reaction transport model

  1. A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fan; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C; Pace, Molly; Kim, Young Jin; Jardine, Philip M; Watson, David B

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing NE equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-NE kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

  2. Reaction-based reactive transport modeling of Fe(III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemner, K.M.; Kelly, S.D.; Burgos, Bill; Roden, Eric

    2006-06-01

    This research project (started Fall 2004) was funded by a grant to Argonne National Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, and The University of Alabama in the Integrative Studies Element of the NABIR Program (DE-FG04-ER63914/63915/63196). Dr. Eric Roden, formerly at The University of Alabama, is now at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Our project focuses on the development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. This work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and is directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. NABIR FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  3. Transport-reaction model for defect and carrier behavior within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel M.

    2014-02-01

    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were chosen through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Charging of the defects can produce high electric fields within the cluster which may influence transport and reaction of carriers and defects, and which may enhance carrier recombination through band-to-trap tunneling. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to pulsed neutron irradiation.

  4. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Fe(III) and U(V) Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgos, William D.; Roden, Eric E.; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    2005-06-01

    Our new research project (started Fall 2004) was funded by a grant to The Pennsylvania State University, University of Central Florida, and The University of Alabama in the Integrative Studies Element of the NABIR Program (DE-FG04-ER63914/63915/63196). Our previous NABIR project (DE-FG02-01ER63180/63181/63182, funded within the Biotransformation Element) focused on (1) microbial reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) individually, and concomitantly in natural sediments, (2) Fe(III) oxide surface chemistry, specifically with respect to reactions with Fe(II) and U(VI), (3) the influence of humic substances on Fe(III) and U(VI) bioreduction, and on U(VI) complexation, and (4) the development of reaction-based reactive transport biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results. The new project focuses on the development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. This work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and is directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. NABIR FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  5. Final report on LDRD project: A phenomenological model for multicomponent transport with simultaneous electrochemical reactions in concentrated solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHEN,KEN S.; EVANS,GREGORY H.; LARSON,RICHARD S.; NOBLE,DAVID R.; HOUF,WILLIAM G.

    2000-01-01

    A phenomenological model was developed for multicomponent transport of charged species with simultaneous electrochemical reactions in concentrated solutions, and was applied to model processes in a thermal battery cell. A new general framework was formulated and implemented in GOMA (a multidimensional, multiphysics, finite-element computer code developed and being enhanced at Sandia) for modeling multidimensional, multicomponent transport of neutral and charged species in concentrated solutions. The new framework utilizes the Stefan-Maxwell equations that describe multicomponent diffusion of interacting species using composition-insensitive binary diffusion coefficients. The new GOMA capability for modeling multicomponent transport of neutral species was verified and validated using the model problem of ternary gaseous diffusion in a Stefan tube. The new GOMA-based thermal battery computer model was verified using an idealized battery cell in which concentration gradients are absent; the full model was verified by comparing with that of Bernardi and Newman (1987) and validated using limited thermal battery discharge-performance data from the open literature (Dunning 1981) and from Sandia (Guidotti 1996). Moreover, a new Liquid Chemkin Software Package was developed, which allows the user to handle manly aspects of liquid-phase kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport (particularly in terms of computing properties). Lastly, a Lattice-Boltzmann-based capability was developed for modeling pore- or micro-scale phenomena involving convection, diffusion, and simplified chemistry; this capability was demonstrated by modeling phenomena in the cathode region of a thermal battery cell.

  6. Integration of Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction-Transport

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Models of EGS For Exploration, Evaluation of Water-Rock Interaction, and Impacts of Water Chemistry on Reservoir Sustainability | Department of Energy Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction-Transport Models of EGS For Exploration, Evaluation of Water-Rock Interaction, and Impacts of Water Chemistry on Reservoir Sustainability Integration of Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction-Transport Models of EGS For Exploration, Evaluation of Water-Rock Interaction, and Impacts of Water

  7. A coupled transport and solid mechanics formulation with improved reaction kinetics parameters for modeling oxidation and decomposition in a uranium hydride bed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salloum, Maher N.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.

    2013-03-01

    Modeling of reacting flows in porous media has become particularly important with the increased interest in hydrogen solid-storage beds. An advanced type of storage bed has been proposed that utilizes oxidation of uranium hydride to heat and decompose the hydride, releasing the hydrogen. To reduce the cost and time required to develop these systems experimentally, a valid computational model is required that simulates the reaction of uranium hydride and oxygen gas in a hydrogen storage bed using multiphysics finite element modeling. This SAND report discusses the advancements made in FY12 (since our last SAND report SAND2011-6939) to the model developed as a part of an ASC-P&EM project to address the shortcomings of the previous model. The model considers chemical reactions, heat transport, and mass transport within a hydride bed. Previously, the time-varying permeability and porosity were considered uniform. This led to discrepancies between the simulated results and experimental measurements. In this work, the effects of non-uniform changes in permeability and porosity due to phase and thermal expansion are accounted for. These expansions result in mechanical stresses that lead to bed deformation. To describe this, a simplified solid mechanics model for the local variation of permeability and porosity as a function of the local bed deformation is developed. By using this solid mechanics model, the agreement between our reacting bed model and the experimental data is improved. Additionally, more accurate uranium hydride oxidation kinetics parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental results from a pure uranium hydride oxidation measurement to the ones obtained from the coupled transport-solid mechanics model. Finally, the coupled transport-solid mechanics model governing equations and boundary conditions are summarized and recommendations are made for further development of ARIA and other Sandia codes in order for them to sufficiently implement the model.

  8. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  9. Transportation Systems Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS MODELING Overview of TSM Transportation systems modeling research at TRACC uses the TRANSIMS (Transportation Analysis SIMulation System) traffic micro simulation code developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT). The TRANSIMS code represents the latest generation of traffic simulation codes developed jointly under multiyear programs by USDOT, the

  10. Reaction-based Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsyh Yeh, Gour

    2007-12-21

    This research sought to examine biogeochemical processes likely to take place in the less conductive materials above and below the gravel during the in situ ethanol biostimulation experiment conducted at Area 2 during 2005-2006. The in situ experiment in turn examined the hypothesis that injection of electron donor into this layer would induce formation of a redox barrier in the less conductive materials, resulting in decreased mass transfer of uranium out these materials and attendant declines in groundwater U(VI) concentration. Our project focuses on the development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. This report summarizes research activities conducted at The University of Central Florida (2004-2007), the development of biogeochemical and reactive transport models and the conduction of numerical simulations at laboratory, column, and field scales.

  11. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. McGraw

    2000-04-13

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations.

  12. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication List For The Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport (FIRST) Energy Frontier Research Center * = Solely Supported by the FIRST Center ** = Not Solely Supported by the FIRST Center *Achtyl, J.L.; Unocic, R.R.; Xu, L.; Yu, C.; Raju, M.; Zhang, W.; Sacci, R.L.; Vlassiouk, I.V.; Fulvio P.F.; Ganesh, P.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Dai, S.; van Duin, A.C.T.; Neurock, M.; Geiger, F.M. Aqueous Proton Transfer across Single Layer Graphene. Nat. Comm. 2015, 6, 6539, [10.1038/ncomms7539]. *

  13. integrated-transportation-models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Archive Integrated Transportation Models Workshop at ITM 2012 April 29, 2012 Hyatt Regency Tampa Hosted by: The Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center at Argonne National Laboratory This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. The aim of the workshop was to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to discuss recent research results that can support a wider application of integrated transportation models,

  14. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgos, W.D.

    2009-09-02

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  15. Reaction-Based Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    2006-06-01

    This research project (started Fall 2004) was funded by a grant to The Pennsylvania State University, University of Central Florida, and The University of Alabama in the Integrative Studies Element of the NABIR Program (DE-FG04-ER63914/63915/63196). Dr. Eric Roden, formerly at The University of Alabama, is now at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Our project focuses on the development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. This work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and is directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. NABIR FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  16. Uranium Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, William D.

    2008-01-15

    Uranium contamination is prevalent at many of the U.S. DOE facilities and at several civilian sites that have supported the nuclear fuel cycle. The potential off-site mobility of uranium depends on the partitioning of uranium between aqueous and solid (soil and sediment) phases. Hexavalent U (as uranyl, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) is relatively mobile, forming strong complexes with ubiquitous carbonate ion which renders it appreciably soluble even under mild reducing conditions. In the presence of carbonate, partition of uranyl to ferri-hydrate and select other mineral phases is usually maximum in the near-neutral pH range {approx} 5-8. The surface complexation reaction of uranyl with iron-containing minerals has been used as one means to model subsurface migration, used in conjunction with information on the site water chemistry and hydrology. Partitioning of uranium is often studied by short-term batch 'equilibrium' or long-term soil column testing ; MCLinc has performed both of these methodologies, with selection of method depending upon the requirements of the client or regulatory authority. Speciation of uranium in soil may be determined directly by instrumental techniques (e.g., x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS; x-ray diffraction, XRD; etc.) or by inference drawn from operational estimates. Often, the technique of choice for evaluating low-level radionuclide partitioning in soils and sediments is the sequential extraction approach. This methodology applies operationally-defined chemical treatments to selectively dissolve specific classes of macro-scale soil or sediment components. These methods recognize that total soil metal inventory is of limited use in understanding bioavailability or metal mobility, and that it is useful to estimate the amount of metal present in different solid-phase forms. Despite some drawbacks, the sequential extraction method can provide a valuable tool to distinguish among trace element fractions of different solubility related to mineral phases. Four case studies are presented: Water and Soil Characterization, Subsurface Stabilization of Uranium and other Toxic Metals, Reductive Precipitation (in situ bioremediation) of Uranium, and Physical Transport of Particle-bound Uranium by Erosion.

  17. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview (Summary Slides) Scientific Objectives: The unique properties of the FSI emerge from a complex interplay of short- and long-range forces and reactions among the molecular fluid components, solutes and substrates. Potential gradients (chemical, electrical, etc.) can be highly non-linear at the angstrom to nanometer scale. The finite size, shape, directional bonding, charge distribution and polarizability of solvent and solute fluid components are convoluted with their ability to

  18. Air Transport Optimization Model | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACAir Transport Optimization Model content top Network Optimization Models (RNAS and ATOM) Posted by Admin on Mar 1, 2012 in | Comments 0 comments Many critical infrastructures...

  19. National Transportation Fuels Model | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACCapabilitiesNational Transportation Fuels Model content top National Transportation Fuels Model This model informs analyses of the availability of transportation fuel in the event the fuel supply chain is disrupted. The portion of the fuel supply system represented by the network model (see figure) spans from oil fields to fuel distribution terminals. Different components of this system (e.g., crude oil import terminals, refineries, transmission pipelines, and tank farms) can be disrupted,

  20. transportation-system-modeling-webinar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Webinar Announcement Webinar for the Intelligent Transportation Society of the Midwest (ITS Midwest) May 16, 2011 1:00 PM(CST) Hubert Ley Director, TRACC Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois High Performance Computing in Transportation Research - High Fidelity Transportation Models and More The Role of High-Performance Computing Because ITS relies on a very diverse collection of technologies, including communication and control technologies, advanced computing, information management

  1. Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at ElectrodeElectrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  2. transportation-systems-modeling-training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Table of Contents Date Location Integrated Transportation Models Workshop at ITM 2012 April 29, 2012 Hyatt Regency Tampa, FL TRANSIMS Training Course April 14-15, 2011 James E. Clyburn University Transportation Center Orangeburg, SC TRANSIMS RTSTEP Guest Lecturer March 29, 2011 Argonne TRACC Argonne, IL TRANSIMS Training Course January 19-21 2011 Argonne TRACC Argonne, IL TRANSIMS Training Course September 7-8, 2010 Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center Washington D.C. Network

  3. An integrated experimental and numerical study: Developing a reaction transport model that couples chemical reactions of mineral dissolution/precipitation with spatial and temporal flow variations in CO2/brine/rock systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Generate and characterize mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions in supercritical CO2/brine/rock systems under pressure-temperature-chemistry conditions resembling CO2injection into EGS. Characterize three-dimensional spatial and temporal distributions of rock structures subject to mineral dissolution/precipitation processes by X-ray tomography, SEM imaging, and Microprobe analysis.

  4. Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries Authors: Leung, Kevin Publication Date: 2013-01-31 OSTI Identifier: 1105237 DOE Contract Number:

  5. Pore and Continuum Scale Study of the Effect of Subgrid Transport Heterogeneity on Redox Reaction Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhang, Changyong; Yang, Xiaofan; Zachara, John M.

    2015-08-01

    A micromodel system with a pore structure for heterogeneous flow and transport was used to investigate the effect of subgrid transport heterogeneity on redox reaction rates. Hematite reductive dissolution by injecting a reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) at variable flow rates was used as an example to probe the variations of redox reaction rates in different subgrid transport domains. Experiments, pore-scale simulations, and macroscopic modeling were performed to measure and simulate in-situ hematite reduction and to evaluate the scaling behavior of the redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. The results indicated that the measured pore-scale rates of hematite reduction were consistent with the predictions from a pore scale reactive transport model. A general trend is that hematite reduction followed reductant transport pathways, starting from the advection-dominated pores toward the interior of diffusion-dominated domains. Two types of diffusion domains were considered in the micromodel: a micropore diffusion domain, which locates inside solid grains or aggregates where reactant transport is limited by diffusion; and a macropore diffusion domain, which locates at wedged, dead-end pore spaces created by the grain-grain contacts. The rate of hematite reduction in the advection-dominated domain was faster than those in the diffusion-controlled domains, and the rate in the macropore diffusion domain was faster than that in the micropore domain. The reduction rates in the advection and macropore diffusion domains increased with increasing flow rate, but were affected by different mechanisms. The rate increase in the advection domain was controlled by the mass action effect as a faster flow supplied more reactants, and the rate increase in the macropore domain was more affected by the rate of mass exchange with the advection domain, which increased with increasing flow rate. The hematite reduction rate in the micropore domain was, however, not affected by the flow rate because molecular diffusion limits reductant supply to the micropore domain interior. Domain-based macroscopic models were evaluated to scale redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. A single domain model, which ignores subgrid transport heterogeneity deviated significantly from the pore-scale results. Further analysis revealed that the rate expression for hematite reduction was not scalable from the pore to porous media using the single domain model. A three-domain model, which effectively considers subgrid reactive diffusion in the micropore and macropore domains, significantly improved model description. Overall this study revealed the importance of subgrid transport heterogeneity in the manifestation of redox reaction rates in porous media and in scaling reactions from the pore to porous media. The research also supported that the domain-based scaling approach can be used to directly scale redox reactions in porous media with subgrid transport heterogeneity.

  6. Neutral gas transport modeling with DEGAS 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stotler, D.; Karney, C.

    1993-10-01

    We are currently rewriting the neutral gas transport code, DEGAS with a view to not only making it faster, but also easing the process of including new physics. The goal is to make adding new species and reactions relatively simple so that the code can be rapidly adapted to new divertor physics regimes. DEGAS 2 will also be optimized for coupling to fluid plasma codes, incorporating many of the techniques utilized in B2-EIRENE. Finally, it is our intention that DEGAS 2, like DEGAS, be well-documented and easy to use. We ill present model calculations including ionization and charge exchange which will illustrate the way reactions are included into DEGAS 2 and will demonstrate operation of the code on a distributed network of workstations.

  7. Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident This Transportation Emergency...

  8. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  9. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport Center (FIRST) | U.S.

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    DOE Office of Science (SC) Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport Center (FIRST) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport Center (FIRST) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page FIRST Header Director David Wesolowski Lead Institution Oak Ridge National Laboratory Year Established 2009 Mission To

  10. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators | Department of Energy Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling and Evaluation

  11. The Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration NEMS Transportation Demand Model Documentation Report 2005 25 manufacturing, and design advances. Manufacturing advances can generally be thought of as...

  12. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Transportation Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) International Transportation model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  13. Current Transportation Models Used in the Vehicle Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-06

    A summary of various transportation models (VISION, TRUCK, GREET, Oil Peaking Model, Feebate Model, Oil Security Metrics Model, ORNL PHEV Choice Model: Version 1, PSAT, PSAT-PRO,

  14. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C.; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip; Gu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  15. Climate Impact of Transportation A Model Comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girod, Bastien; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Grahn, Maria; Kitous, Alban; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page

    2013-06-01

    Transportation contributes to a significant and rising share of global energy use and GHG emissions. Therefore modeling future travel demand, its fuel use, and resulting CO2 emission is highly relevant for climate change mitigation. In this study we compare the baseline projections for global service demand (passenger-kilometers, ton-kilometers), fuel use, and CO2 emissions of five different global transport models using harmonized input assumptions on income and population. For four models we also evaluate the impact of a carbon tax. All models project a steep increase in service demand over the century. Technology is important for limiting energy consumption and CO2 emissions, but quite radical changes in the technology mix are required to stabilize or reverse the trend. While all models project liquid fossil fuels dominating up to 2050, they differ regarding the use of alternative fuels (natural gas, hydrogen, biofuels, and electricity), because of different fuel price projections. The carbon tax of US$200/tCO2 in 2050 stabilizes or reverses global emission growth in all models. Besides common findings many differences in the model assumptions and projections indicate room for improvement in modeling and empirical description of the transport system.

  16. Model for assessing bronchial mucus transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnew, J.E.; Bateman, J.R.M.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.

    1984-02-01

    The authors propose a scheme for the assessment of regional mucus transport using inhaled Tc-99m aerosol particles and quantitative analysis of serial gamma-camera images. The model treats input to inner and intermediate lung regions as the total of initial deposition there plus subsequent transport into these regions from more peripheral airways. It allows for interregional differences in the proportion of particles deposited on the mucus-bearing conducting airways, and does not require a gamma image 24 hr after particle inhalation. Instead, distribution of particles reaching the respiratory bronchioles or alveoli is determined from a Kr-81m ventilation image, while the total amount of such deposition is obtained from 24-hr Tc-99m retention measured with a sensitive counter system. The model is applicable to transport by mucociliary action or by cough, and has been tested in ten normal and ten asthmatic subjects.

  17. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  18. Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) Model Recovery Procedure contains the recommended elements for developing and conducting recovery planning at transportation incident scene...

  19. Method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport, and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrail, Bernard P. (Pasco, WA); Martin, Paul F. (Richland, WA); Lindenmeier, Clark W. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions. The method and apparatus of the present invention permit distinguishing individual precipitation events and their effect on dissolution behavior isolated to the specific event. The present invention is especially useful for dynamically measuring hydraulic parameters when a chemical reaction occurs between a particulate material and either liquid or gas (e.g. air) or both, causing precipitation that changes the pore structure of the test material.

  20. Pore Models Track Reactions in Underground Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pore Models Track Reactions in Underground Carbon Capture Pore Models Track Reactions in Underground Carbon Capture September 25, 2014 trebotich2 Computed pH on calcite grains at 1 micron resolution. The iridescent grains mimic crushed material geoscientists extract from saline aquifers deep underground to study with microscopes. Researchers want to model what happens to the crystals' geochemistry when the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is injected underground for sequestration. Image courtesy of

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Rulsion Tritium Transport Model

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Rulsion Tritium Transport Model Rulison, Colorado, Site Tritium Transport Model Tritium Transport at the Rulison Site, a Nuclear-Stimulated Low-Permeability Natural Gas Reservoir, September 2007 pdf_icon Tritium Transport Model Comments and Responses Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Gateway Enterprises Addendum: Tritium Transport at the Rulison Site, a Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir, January 2009 pdf_icon

  2. EFFECTS OF PORE STRUCTURE CHANGE AND MULTI-SCALE HETEROGENEITY ON CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND REACTION RATE UPSCALING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindquist, W. Brent; Jones, Keith W.; Um, Wooyong; Rockhold, mark; Peters, Catherine A.; Celia, Michael A.

    2013-02-15

    This project addressed the scaling of geochemical reactions to core and field scales, and the interrelationship between reaction rates and flow in porous media. We targeted reactive transport problems relevant to the Hanford site ? specifically the reaction of highly caustic, radioactive waste solutions with subsurface sediments, and the immobilization of 90Sr and 129I through mineral incorporation and passive flow blockage, respectively. We addressed the correlation of results for pore-scale fluid-soil interaction with field-scale fluid flow, with the specific goals of (i) predicting attenuation of radionuclide concentration; (ii) estimating changes in flow rates through changes of soil permeabilities; and (iii) estimating effective reaction rates. In supplemental work, we also simulated reactive transport systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. As a whole, this research generated a better understanding of reactive transport in porous media, and resulted in more accurate methods for reaction rate upscaling and improved prediction of permeability evolution. These scientific advancements will ultimately lead to better tools for management and remediation of DOEs legacy waste problems. We established three key issues of reactive flow upscaling, and organized this project in three corresponding thrust areas. 1) Reactive flow experiments. The combination of mineral dissolution and precipitation alters pore network structure and the subsequent flow velocities, thereby creating a complex interaction between reaction and transport. To examine this phenomenon, we conducted controlled laboratory experimentation using reactive flow-through columns. ? Results and Key Findings: Four reactive column experiments (S1, S3, S4, S5) have been completed in which simulated tank waste leachage (STWL) was reacted with pure quartz sand, with and without Aluminum. The STWL is a caustic solution that dissolves quartz. Because Al is a necessary element in the formation of secondary mineral precipitates (cancrinite), conducting experiments under conditions with and without Al allowed us to experimentally separate the conditions that lead to quartz dissolution from the conditions that lead to quartz dissolution plus cancrinite precipitation. Consistent with our expectations, in the experiments without Al, there was a substantial reduction in volume of the solid matrix. With Al there was a net increase in the volume of the solid matrix. The rate and extent of reaction was found to increase with temperature. These results demonstrate a successful effort to identify conditions that lead to increases and conditions that lead to decreases in solid matrix volume due to reactions of caustic tank wastes with quartz sands. In addition, we have begun to work with slightly larger, intermediate-scale columns packed with Hanford natural sediments and quartz. Similar dissolution and precipitation were observed in these colums. The measurements are being interpreted with reactive transport modeling using STOMP; preliminary observations are reported here. 2) Multi-Scale Imaging and Analysis. Mineral dissolution and precipitation rates within a porous medium will be different in different pores due to natural heterogeneity and the heterogeneity that is created from the reactions themselves. We used a combination of X-ray computed microtomography, backscattered electron and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy combined with computational image analysis to quantify pore structure, mineral distribution, structure changes and fluid-air and fluid-grain interfaces. ? Results and Key Findings: Three of the columns from the reactive flow experiments at PNNL (S1, S3, S4) were imaged using 3D X-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) at BNL and analyzed using 3DMA-rock at SUNY Stony Brook. The imaging results support the mass balance findings reported by Dr. Ums group, regarding the substantial dissolution of quartz in column S1. An important observation is that of grain movement accompanying dissolution in the unconsolidated media. The resultant movement

  3. Transport Modeling Working Group Meeting Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling Working Group Meeting Reports Transport Modeling Working Group Meeting Reports View reports from meetings of the Transport Modeling Working Group, which meets twice per year to exchange information, create synergies, share experimental and computational results, and collaboratively develop methodologies for and understanding of transport phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. PDF icon Report of the 7th Meeting of the Transport Modeling Working Group, May 2014 PDF icon Report

  4. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    2001-05-29

    This report is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  5. COMBINED MODELING OF ACCELERATION, TRANSPORT, AND HYDRODYNAMIC RESPONSE IN

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SOLAR FLARES. I. THE NUMERICAL MODEL (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect COMBINED MODELING OF ACCELERATION, TRANSPORT, AND HYDRODYNAMIC RESPONSE IN SOLAR FLARES. I. THE NUMERICAL MODEL Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COMBINED MODELING OF ACCELERATION, TRANSPORT, AND HYDRODYNAMIC RESPONSE IN SOLAR FLARES. I. THE NUMERICAL MODEL Acceleration and transport of high-energy particles and fluid dynamics of atmospheric plasma are interrelated aspects of solar flares, but for convenience

  6. Three Dimensional Thermal Abuse Reaction Model for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-06-29

    Three dimensional computer models for simulating thermal runaway of lithium ion battery was developed. The three-dimensional model captures the shapes and dimensions of cell components and the spatial distributions of materials and temperatures, so we could consider the geometrical features, which are critical especially in large cells. An array of possible exothermic reactions, such as solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer decomposition, negative active/electrolyte reaction, and positive active/electrolyte reaction, were considered and formulated to fit experimental data frommore » accelerating rate calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. User subroutine code was written to implement NREL developed approach and to utilize a commercially available solver. The model is proposed to use for simulation a variety of lithium-ion battery safety events including thermal heating and short circuit.« less

  7. Reduced Lorenz models for anomalous transport and profile resilience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rypdal, K.; Garcia, O. E.

    2007-02-15

    The physical basis for the Lorenz equations for convective cells in stratified fluids, and for magnetized plasmas imbedded in curved magnetic fields, are reexamined with emphasis on anomalous transport. It is shown that the Galerkin truncation leading to the Lorenz equations for the closed boundary problem is incompatible with finite fluxes through the system in the limit of vanishing diffusion. An alternative formulation leading to the Lorenz equations is proposed, invoking open boundaries and the notion of convective streamers and their back-reaction on the profile gradient, giving rise to resilience of the profile. Particular emphasis is put on the diffusionless limit, where these equations reduce to a simple dynamical system depending only on one single forcing parameter. This model is studied numerically, stressing experimentally observable signatures, and some of the perils of dimension-reducing approximations are discussed.

  8. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water ...

  9. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing, and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization This presentation, which focuses on ...

  10. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization Part of a 100 million fuel cell award ...

  11. Ejecta source and transport modeling in the FLAG hydrocode (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Ejecta source and transport modeling in the FLAG hydrocode Authors: Fung, Jimmy 1 ; Harrison, Alan K 1 ; Margulies, Jeremy 1 ; Chitanvis, Shirish 1 + Show Author ...

  12. COMBINED MODELING OF ACCELERATION, TRANSPORT, AND HYDRODYNAMIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Acceleration and transport of high-energy particles and fluid dynamics of ... The interplay of electron heating, conduction, and radiative loss leads to strongermore ...

  13. Particle-scale CO2 adsorption kinetics modeling considering three reaction mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, Dong-Myung; Sun, Xin

    2013-09-01

    In the presence of water (H2O), dry and wet adsorptions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and physical adsorption of H2O happen concurrently in a sorbent particle. The three reactions depend on each other and have a complicated, but important, effect on CO2 capturing via a solid sorbent. In this study, transport phenomena in the sorbent were modeled, including the tree reactions, and a numerical solving procedure for the model also was explained. The reaction variable distribution in the sorbent and their average values were calculated, and simulation results were compared with experimental data to validate the proposed model. Some differences, caused by thermodynamic parameters, were observed between them. However, the developed model reasonably simulated the adsorption behaviors of a sorbent. The weight gained by each adsorbed species, CO2 and H2O, is difficult to determine experimentally. It is known that more CO2 can be captured in the presence of water. Still, it is not yet known quantitatively how much more CO2 the sorbent can capture, nor is it known how much dry and wet adsorptions separately account for CO2 capture. This study addresses those questions by modeling CO2 adsorption in a particle and simulating the adsorption process using the model. As adsorption temperature changed into several values, the adsorbed amount of each species was calculated. The captured CO2 in the sorbent particle was compared quantitatively between dry and wet conditions. As the adsorption temperature decreased, wet adsorption increased. However, dry adsorption was reduced.

  14. Transportation and Vehicle Energy Modeling | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation and Vehicle Energy Modeling Transportation and Vehicle Energy Modeling For the past 15 years, Argonne has been at the forefront of research in energy-efficient transportation. In recent years, the vehicle technologies have become increasingly complex with the introduction of new powertrain configurations (such as electrified vehicles), new component technologies (such as advanced transmissions and engines) and control strategies (such eco-routing). In addition, with increased

  15. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing, and Design Optimization | Department of Energy Testing, and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization This presentation, which focuses on water transport in PEM fuel cells, was given by CFDRC's J. Vernon Cole at a DOE fuel cell meeting in February 2007. PDF icon new_fc_cole_cfd.pdf More Documents & Publications Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and

  16. Diffusion-controlled reactions modeling in Geant4-DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamitros, M.; Luan, S.; Bernal, M.A.; Allison, J.; Baldacchino, G.; Davidkova, M.; Francis, Z.; Friedland, W.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ivantchenko, A.; Mantero, A.; Nieminem, P.; Santin, G.; Tran, H.N.; Stepan, V.; Incerti, S.

    2014-10-01

    Context Under irradiation, a biological system undergoes a cascade of chemical reactions that can lead to an alteration of its normal operation. There are different types of radiation and many competing reactions. As a result the kinetics of chemical species is extremely complex. The simulation becomes then a powerful tool which, by describing the basic principles of chemical reactions, can reveal the dynamics of the macroscopic system. To understand the dynamics of biological systems under radiation, since the 80s there have been on-going efforts carried out by several research groups to establish a mechanistic model that consists in describing all the physical, chemical and biological phenomena following the irradiation of single cells. This approach is generally divided into a succession of stages that follow each other in time: (1) the physical stage, where the ionizing particles interact directly with the biological material; (2) the physico-chemical stage, where the targeted molecules release their energy by dissociating, creating new chemical species; (3) the chemical stage, where the new chemical species interact with each other or with the biomolecules; (4) the biological stage, where the repairing mechanisms of the cell come into play. This article focuses on the modeling of the chemical stage. Method This article presents a general method of speeding-up chemical reaction simulations in fluids based on the Smoluchowski equation and Monte-Carlo methods, where all molecules are explicitly simulated and the solvent is treated as a continuum. The model describes diffusion-controlled reactions. This method has been implemented in Geant4-DNA. The keys to the new algorithm include: (1) the combination of a method to compute time steps dynamically with a Brownian bridge process to account for chemical reactions, which avoids costly fixed time step simulations; (2) a kd tree data structure for quickly locating, for a given molecule, its closest reactants. The performance advantage is presented in terms of complexity, and the accuracy of the new algorithm is demonstrated by simulating radiation chemistry in the context of the Geant4-DNA project. Application The time-dependent radiolytic yields of the main chemical species formed after irradiation are computed for incident protons at different energies (from 50 MeV to 500 keV). Both the time-evolution and energy dependency of the yields are discussed. The evolution, at one microsecond, of the yields of hydroxyls and solvated electrons with respect to the linear energy transfer is compared to theoretical and experimental data. According to our results, at high linear energy transfer, modeling radiation chemistry in the trading compartment representation might be adopted.

  17. A quantum energy transport model for semiconductor device simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sho, Shohiro; Odanaka, Shinji

    2013-02-15

    This paper describes numerical methods for a quantum energy transport (QET) model in semiconductors, which is derived by using a diffusion scaling in the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. We newly drive a four-moments QET model similar with a classical ET model. Space discretization is performed by a new set of unknown variables. Numerical stability and convergence are obtained by developing numerical schemes and an iterative solution method with a relaxation method. Numerical simulations of electron transport in a scaled MOSFET device are discussed. The QET model allows simulations of quantum confinement transport, and nonlocal and hot-carrier effects in scaled MOSFETs.

  18. Final Technical Report DE-FG02-08ER41540. Establishing the Transport Properties of QCD With Heavy Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teaney, Derek

    2015-03-17

    We review the results of the DE-FG02-08ER41540, "Establishing the transport properties of QCD with heavy ion reactions"

  19. Modelling charge transfer reactions with the frozen density embedding formalism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavanello, Michele; Neugebauer, Johannes

    2011-12-21

    The frozen density embedding (FDE) subsystem formulation of density-functional theory is a useful tool for studying charge transfer reactions. In this work charge-localized, diabatic states are generated directly with FDE and used to calculate electronic couplings of hole transfer reactions in two {pi}-stacked nucleobase dimers of B-DNA: 5{sup '}-GG-3{sup '} and 5{sup '}-GT-3{sup '}. The calculations rely on two assumptions: the two-state model, and a small differential overlap between donor and acceptor subsystem densities. The resulting electronic couplings agree well with benchmark values for those exchange-correlation functionals that contain a high percentage of exact exchange. Instead, when semilocal GGA functionals are used the electronic couplings are grossly overestimated.

  20. Pore scale modeling of reactive transport involved in geologic CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Qinjin; Lichtner, Peter C; Viswanathan, Hari S; Abdel-fattah, Amr I

    2009-01-01

    We apply a multi-component reactive transport lattice Boltzmann model developed in previolls studies to modeling the injection of a C02 saturated brine into various porous media structures at temperature T=25 and 80 C. The porous media are originally consisted of calcite. A chemical system consisting of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H+, CO2(aq), and CI-is considered. The fluid flow, advection and diHusion of aqueous species, homogeneous reactions occurring in the bulk fluid, as weB as the dissolution of calcite and precipitation of dolomite are simulated at the pore scale. The effects of porous media structure on reactive transport are investigated. The results are compared with continuum scale modeling and the agreement and discrepancy are discussed. This work may shed some light on the fundamental physics occurring at the pore scale for reactive transport involved in geologic C02 sequestration.

  1. Transport Modeling Working Group | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mathematical modeling is ideally suited for this analysis because fuel cells are difficult ... This balance and its optimization is ideally suited to mathematical modeling. In addition, ...

  2. Developing a robust geochemical and reactive transport model to evaluate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    possible sources of arsenic at the CO[subscript 2] sequestration natural analog site in Chimayo, New Mexico (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Developing a robust geochemical and reactive transport model to evaluate possible sources of arsenic at the CO[subscript 2] sequestration natural analog site in Chimayo, New Mexico Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Developing a robust geochemical and reactive transport model to evaluate possible sources of arsenic at the

  3. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Design Optimization | Department of Energy Testing and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 2_cfd.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization Fuel Cell Projects

  4. Uranium transport in a crushed granodiorite: Experiments and reactive transport modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Reimus, P. W.

    2015-02-12

    The primary objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate an experimental method to refine and better parameterize process models for reactive contaminant transport in aqueous subsurface environments and to reduce conservatism in such models without attempting to fully describe the geochemical system.

  5. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains input data and parameters used in the model of the transportation sector of the National Energy Modeling System. The list of Transportation Sector Model variables includes parameters for the following: Light duty vehicle modules (fuel economy, regional sales, alternative fuel vehicles); Light duty vehicle stock modules; Light duty vehicle fleet module; Air travel module (demand model and fleet efficiency model); Freight transport module; Miscellaneous energy demand module; and Transportation emissions module. Also included in these appendices are: Light duty vehicle market classes; Maximum light duty vehicle market penetration parameters; Aircraft fleet efficiency model adjustment factors; and List of expected aircraft technology improvements.

  6. Final Scientific/Technical Report – DE-FG02-06ER64172 – Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center – Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric E. Roden

    2009-03-17

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2. Area 2 is a shallow pathway for migration of contaminated groundwater to seeps in the upper reach of Bear Creek at ORNL, mainly through a ca. 1 m thick layer of gravel located 4-5 m below the ground surface. The gravel layer is sandwiched between an overlying layer of disturbed fill material, and 2-3 m of undisturbed shale saprolite derived from the underlying Nolichucky Shale bedrock. The fill was put in place when contaminated soils were excavated and replaced by native saprolite from an uncontaminated area within Bear Creek Valley; the gravel layer was presumably installed prior to addition of the fill in order to provide a stable surface for the operation of heavy machinery. The undisturbed saprolite is highly weathered bedrock that has unconsolidated character but retains much of the bedding and fracture structure of the parent rock (shale with interbedded limestone). Hydrological tracer studies conducted during the Scheibe et al. field project indicate that the gravel layer receives input of uranium from both upstream sources and from diffusive mass transfer out of highly contaminated fill and saprolite materials above and below the gravel layer. This research sought to examine biogeochemical processes likely to take place in the less conductive materials above and below the gravel during the in situ ethanol biostimulation experiment conducted at Area 2 during 2005-2006. The in situ experiment in turn examined the hypothesis that injection of electron donor into this layer would induce formation of a redox barrier in the less conductive materials, resulting in decreased mass transfer of uranium out these materials and attendant declines in groundwater U(VI) concentration. Our research was directed toward the following three major objectives relevant to formation of this redox barrier: (1) elucidate the kinetics and mechanisms of reduction of solid-phase Fe(III) and U(VI) in Area 2 sediments; (2) evaluate the potential for long-term sustained U(IV) reductive immobilization in Area 2 sediments; (3) numerically simulate the suite of hydrobiogeochemical processes occurring in experimental systems so as to facilitate modeling of in situ U(IV) immobilization at the field-scale.

  7. Role of chemical reactions of arylamine hole transport materials in operational degradation of organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondakov, Denis Y.

    2008-10-15

    We report that the representative arylamine hole transport materials undergo chemical transformations in operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices. Although the underlying chemical mechanisms are too complex to be completely elucidated, structures of several identified degradation products point at dissociations of relatively weak carbon-nitrogen and carbon-carbon bonds in arylamine molecules as the initiating step. Considering the photochemical reactivities, the bond dissociation reactions of arylamines occur by the homolysis of the lowest singlet excited states formed by recombining charge carriers in the operating OLED device. The subsequent chemical reactions are likely to yield long-lived, stabilized free radicals capable of acting as deep traps--nonradiative recombination centers and fluorescence quenchers. Their presence in the hole transport layer results in irreversible hole trapping and manifests as a positive fixed charge. The extent and localization of chemical transformations in several exemplary devices suggest that the free radical reactions of hole transporting materials, arylamines, can be sufficient to account for the observed luminance efficiency loss and voltage rise in operating OLEDs. The relative bond strengths and excited state energies of OLED materials appear to have a determining effect on the operational stability of OLED devices.

  8. Multiscale modeling for fluid transport in nanosystems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jonathan W.; Jones, Reese E.; Mandadapu, Kranthi Kiran; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.

    2013-09-01

    Atomistic-scale behavior drives performance in many micro- and nano-fluidic systems, such as mircrofludic mixers and electrical energy storage devices. Bringing this information into the traditionally continuum models used for engineering analysis has proved challenging. This work describes one such approach to address this issue by developing atomistic-to-continuum multi scale and multi physics methods to enable molecular dynamics (MD) representations of atoms to incorporated into continuum simulations. Coupling is achieved by imposing constraints based on fluxes of conserved quantities between the two regions described by one of these models. The impact of electric fields and surface charges are also critical, hence, methodologies to extend finite-element (FE) MD electric field solvers have been derived to account for these effects. Finally, the continuum description can have inconsistencies with the coarse-grained MD dynamics, so FE equations based on MD statistics were derived to facilitate the multi scale coupling. Examples are shown relevant to nanofluidic systems, such as pore flow, Couette flow, and electric double layer.

  9. Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics C. Welch Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39446 February 2006 Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics C. Welch Prepared under Task Nos. HS04.2000 and HS06.1002 Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39446 February 2006 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of

  10. Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat Transport Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-05-15

    TOUGH2-MP is a massive parallel version of the TOUGH2 Code, designed for computationally efficient parallel simulation of isothermal and nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in one, two, and three-dimensional porous and fractured media. The code runs on computers with parallel architecture or clusters and can be used for applications, such as radioactive waste disposal, CO2 geological sequestration, environmental assessment and remediation, reservoir engineering, and groundwater hydrology. The parallel simulator has achieved orders-of-the-magnitude improvement inmore » computational time and/or modeling problem size. The parallel simulator uses fully implicit time differencing and solves large, sparse linear systems arising from discretization of the partial differential equations for mass and energy balance. A domain decomposition approach is adopted for multiphase flow simulations with coarse- granularity parallel computation. Current version of TOUGH2-MP includes following modules: EOS1, EOS2, EOS3, EOS4, EOS5, EOS7, EOS7R, E0S8, EOS9, ECO2N, EWASG, and T2R3D.« less

  11. Nevada National Security Site Underground Test Area (UGTA) Flow and Transport Modeling – Approach and Example

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nevada National Security Site Underground Test Area (UGTA) Flow and Transport Modeling – Approach and Example

  12. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of TRAN for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, 57(b)(1)). Third, it permits continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  13. A Dual Regime Reactive Transport Model for Simulation of High Level Waste Tank Closure Scenarios - 13375

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Sohini; Kosson, David S.; Brown, Kevin; Garrabrants, Andrew C.; Meeussen, Hans; Van der Sloot, Hans

    2013-07-01

    A numerical simulation framework is presented in this paper for estimating evolution of pH and release of major species from grout within high-level waste tanks after closure. This model was developed as part of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership. The reactive transport model consists of two parts - (1) transport of species, and (2) chemical reactions. The closure grout can be assumed to have varying extents of cracking and composition for performance assessment purposes. The partially or completely degraded grouted tank is idealized as a dual regime system comprising of a mobile region having solid materials with cracks and macro-pores, and an immobile/stagnant region having solid matrix with micropores. The transport profiles of the species are calculated by incorporating advection of species through the mobile region, diffusion of species through the immobile/stagnant region, and exchange of species between the mobile and immobile regions. A geochemical speciation code in conjunction with the pH dependent test data for a grout material is used to obtain a mineral set that best describes the trends in the test data of the major species. The dual regime reactive transport model predictions are compared with the release data from an up-flow column percolation test. The coupled model is then used to assess effects of crack state of the structure, rate and composition of the infiltrating water on the pH evolution at the grout-waste interface. The coupled reactive transport model developed in this work can be used as part of the performance assessment process for evaluating potential risks from leaching of a cracked tank containing elements of human health and environmental concern. (authors)

  14. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  15. Comparison of a radial fractional transport model with tokamak experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kullberg, A. Morales, G. J.; Maggs, J. E.

    2014-03-15

    A radial fractional transport model [Kullberg et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 052115 (2013)], that correctly incorporates the geometric effects of the domain near the origin and removes the singular behavior at the outer boundary, is compared to results of off-axis heating experiments performed in the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project (RTP), ASDEX Upgrade, JET, and DIII-D tokamak devices. This comparative study provides an initial assessment of the presence of fractional transport phenomena in magnetic confinement experiments. It is found that the nonlocal radial model is robust in describing the steady-state temperature profiles from RTP, but for the propagation of heat waves in ASDEX Upgrade, JET, and DIII-D the model is not clearly superior to predictions based on Fick's law. However, this comparative study does indicate that the order of the fractional derivative, ?, is likely a function of radial position in the devices surveyed.

  16. Application of a data assimilation method via an ensemble Kalman filter to reactive urea hydrolysis transport modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juxiu Tong; Bill X. Hu; Hai Huang; Luanjin Guo; Jinzhong Yang

    2014-03-01

    With growing importance of water resources in the world, remediations of anthropogenic contaminations due to reactive solute transport become even more important. A good understanding of reactive rate parameters such as kinetic parameters is the key to accurately predicting reactive solute transport processes and designing corresponding remediation schemes. For modeling reactive solute transport, it is very difficult to estimate chemical reaction rate parameters due to complex processes of chemical reactions and limited available data. To find a method to get the reactive rate parameters for the reactive urea hydrolysis transport modeling and obtain more accurate prediction for the chemical concentrations, we developed a data assimilation method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method to calibrate reactive rate parameters for modeling urea hydrolysis transport in a synthetic one-dimensional column at laboratory scale and to update modeling prediction. We applied a constrained EnKF method to pose constraints to the updated reactive rate parameters and the predicted solute concentrations based on their physical meanings after the data assimilation calibration. From the study results we concluded that we could efficiently improve the chemical reactive rate parameters with the data assimilation method via the EnKF, and at the same time we could improve solute concentration prediction. The more data we assimilated, the more accurate the reactive rate parameters and concentration prediction. The filter divergence problem was also solved in this study.

  17. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the region of Iriduim and Gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Kelley, K; Escher, J; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2008-02-26

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from osmium (Z = 76) to gold (Z = 79). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Ir and Au including reactions on isomeric targets.

  18. Pore Scale Modeling of the Reactive Transport of Chromium in the Cathode of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Emily M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Amon, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    We present a pore scale model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode. Volatile chromium species are known to migrate from the current collector of the SOFC into the cathode where over time they decrease the voltage output of the fuel cell. A pore scale model is used to investigate the reactive transport of chromium species in the cathode and to study the driving forces of chromium poisoning. A multi-scale modeling approach is proposed which uses a cell level model of the cathode, air channel and current collector to determine the boundary conditions for a pore scale model of a section of the cathode. The pore scale model uses a discrete representation of the cathode to explicitly model the surface reactions of oxygen and chromium with a cathode material. The pore scale model is used to study the reaction mechanisms of chromium by considering the effects of reaction rates, diffusion coefficients, chromium vaporization, and oxygen consumption on chromiums deposition in the cathode. The study shows that chromium poisoning is most significantly affected by the chromium reaction rates in the cathode and that the reaction rates are a function of the local current density in the cathode.

  19. Ammonia Gas Transport and Reactions in Unsaturated Sediments: Implications for Use as an Amendment to Immobilize Inorganic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Williams, Mark D.; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2015-05-01

    Use of gas-phase amendments for in situ remediation of inorganic contaminants in unsaturated sediments of the vadose zone may be advantageous, but there has been limited development and testing of gas remediation technologies. Treatment with ammonia gas has been studied and has a potential for use in treating inorganic contaminants such as uranium because it induces a high pore-water pH causing mineral dissolution and subsequent formation of stable precipitates that decrease the mobility of some contaminants. For field application, knowledge of ammonia transport and the geochemical reactions induced by ammonia is needed. Laboratory studies were conducted to support calculations needed for field treatment design, to quantify advective and diffusive ammonia transport in unsaturated sediments, to evaluate reactions among gas, sediment, and water, and to study reaction-induced pore-water chemistry changes as a function of ammonia delivery conditions. Ammonia gas quickly partitions into sediment pore water and increases pH up to 13.2. Injected ammonia gas front movement can be reasonably predicted by gas flow rate and equilibrium partitioning. The ammonia gas diffusion rate is a function of the water content in the sediment. Measured diffusion front movement was 0.05, 0.03, and 0.02 cm/hr. in sediments with 2.0%, 8.7%, and 13.0% water content, respectively. Sodium, aluminum, and silica pore-water concentrations increase on exposure to ammonia and then decline as aluminosilicates precipitate with declining pH. When uranium is present in the sediment and pore water, up to 85% of the water-leachable uranium was immobilized by ammonia treatment.

  20. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2002-10-08

    In this report, the thrust areas include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  1. Folding model description of reactions with exotic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.; Hassanain, M. A.; Mokhtar, S. R.; Zaki, M. A.; Mahmoud, Zakaria M. M.; Farid, M. El-Azab

    2012-08-15

    Microscopic folding calculations based upon the effective M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction and the nuclearmatter densities of the interacting nuclei have been carried out to explain recently measured experimental data of the {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn elastic scattering cross section at four different laboratory energies near the Coulomb barrier. The extracted reaction cross sections are also considered.

  2. Data Assimilation in the ADAPT Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Godinez, Humberto C.; Henney, Carl J.; Arge, C. Nick

    2015-03-17

    Global maps of the solar photospheric magnetic flux are fundamental drivers for simulations of the corona and solar wind and therefore are important predictors of geoeffective events. However, observations of the solar photosphere are only made intermittently over approximately half of the solar surface. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model uses localized ensemble Kalman filtering techniques to adjust a set of photospheric simulations to agree with the available observations. At the same time, this information is propagated to areas of the simulation that have not been observed. ADAPT implements a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) to accomplish data assimilation, allowing the covariance structure of the flux-transport model to influence assimilation of photosphere observations while eliminating spurious correlations between ensemble members arising from a limited ensemble size. We give a detailed account of the implementation of the LETKF into ADAPT. Advantages of the LETKF scheme over previously implemented assimilation methods are highlighted.

  3. Microfluidic Technology Platforms for Synthesizing, Labeling and Measuring the Kinetics of Transport and Biochemical Reactions for Developing Molecular Imaging Probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, Michael E.

    2009-09-01

    Radiotracer techniques are used in environmental sciences, geology, biology and medicine. Radiotracers with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) provided biological examinations of ~3 million patients 2008. Despite the success of positron labeled tracers in many sciences, there is limited access in an affordable and convenient manner to develop and use new tracers. Integrated microfluidic chips are a new technology well matched to the concentrations of tracers. Our goal is to develop microfluidic chips and new synthesis approaches to enable wide dissemination of diverse types of tracers at low cost, and to produce new generations of radiochemists for which there are many unfilled jobs. The program objectives are to: 1. Develop an integrated microfluidic platform technology for synthesizing and 18F-labeling diverse arrays of different classes of molecules. 2. Incorporate microfluidic chips into small PC controlled devices (Synthesizer) with a platform interfaced to PC for electronic and fluid input/out control. 3. Establish a de-centralized model with Synthesizers for discovering and producing molecular imaging probes, only requiring delivery of inexpensive [18F]fluoride ion from commercial PET radiopharmacies vs the centralized approach of cyclotron facilities synthesizing and shipping a few different types of 18F-probes. 4. Develop a position sensitive avalanche photo diode (PSAPD) camera for beta particles embedded in a microfluidic chip for imaging and measuring transport and biochemical reaction rates to valid new 18F-labeled probes in an array of cell cultures. These objectives are met within a research and educational program integrating radio-chemistry, synthetic chemistry, biochemistry, engineering and biology in the Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging. The Radiochemistry Training Program exposes PhD and post doctoral students to molecular imaging in vitro in cells and microorganisms in microfluidic chips and in vivo with PET, from new technologies for radiochemistry (macro to micro levels), biochemistry and biology to imaging principles, tracer kinetics, pharmacokinetics and biochemical assays. New generations of radiochemists will be immersed in the biochemistry and biology for which their labeled probes are being developed for assays of these processes. In this program engineers and radio-chemists integrate the principles of microfluidics and radiolabeling along with proper system design and chemistry rule sets to yield Synthesizers enabling biological and pharmaceutical scientists to develop diverse arrays of probes to pursue their interests. This progression would allow also radiochemists to focus on the further evolution of rapid, high yield synthetic reactions with new enabling technologies, rather than everyday production of radiotracers that should be done by technologists. The invention of integrated circuits in electronics established a platform technology that allowed an evolution of ideas and applications far beyond what could have been imagined at the beginning. Rather than provide a technology for the solution to a single problem, it is hoped that microfluidic radiochemistry will be an enabling platform technology for others to solve many problems. As part of this objective, another program goal is to commercialize the technologies that come from this work so that they can be provided to others who wish to use it.

  4. Annual Energy Outlook 2015 Modeling updates in the Transportation sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    For AEO2015 Working Group July 30, 2014 | Washington, DC By Nicholas Chase, Trisha Hutchins, John Maples Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis Modeling updates in the transportation sector Data updates 2 * Update historical fuel consumption data to latest state energy data (2011), annual national data from Monthly Energy Review (2012), and most recent Short-Term Energy Outlook * Update historical light-duty vehicle attribute data through 2013 (pending) * Update historical

  5. Modeling of transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas with neural networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meneghini, O.; Luna, C. J.; Smith, S. P.; Lao, L. L.

    2014-06-15

    A new transport model that uses neural networks (NNs) to yield electron and ion heat flux profiles has been developed. Given a set of local dimensionless plasma parameters similar to the ones that the highest fidelity models use, the NN model is able to efficiently and accurately predict the ion and electron heat transport profiles. As a benchmark, a NN was built, trained, and tested on data from the 2012 and 2013 DIII-D experimental campaigns. It is found that NN can capture the experimental behavior over the majority of the plasma radius and across a broad range of plasma regimes. Although each radial location is calculated independently from the others, the heat flux profiles are smooth, suggesting that the solution found by the NN is a smooth function of the local input parameters. This result supports the evidence of a well-defined, non-stochastic relationship between the input parameters and the experimentally measured transport fluxes. The numerical efficiency of this method, requiring only a few CPU-?s per data point, makes it ideal for scenario development simulations and real-time plasma control.

  6. Building 235-F Goldsim Fate And Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, G. A.; Phifer, M. A.

    2012-09-14

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, at the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP), evaluated In-Situ Disposal (ISD) alternatives that are under consideration for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of Building 235-F and the Building 294-2F Sand Filter. SRNL personnel developed and used a GoldSim fate and transport model, which is consistent with Musall 2012, to evaluate relative to groundwater protection, ISD alternatives that involve either source removal and/or the grouting of portions or all of 235-F. This evaluation was conducted through the development and use of a Building 235-F GoldSim fate and transport model. The model simulates contaminant release from four 235-F process areas and the 294-2F Sand Filter. In addition, it simulates the fate and transport through the vadose zone, the Upper Three Runs (UTR) aquifer, and the Upper Three Runs (UTR) creek. The model is designed as a stochastic model, and as such it can provide both deterministic and stochastic (probabilistic) results. The results show that the median radium activity concentrations exceed the 5 ?Ci/L radium MCL at the edge of the building for all ISD alternatives after 10,000 years, except those with a sufficient amount of inventory removed. A very interesting result was that grouting was shown to basically have minimal effect on the radium activity concentration. During the first 1,000 years grouting may have some small positive benefit relative to radium, however after that it may have a slightly deleterious effect. The Pb-210 results, relative to its 0.06 ?Ci/L PRG, are essentially identical to the radium results, but the Pb-210 results exhibit a lesser degree of exceedance. In summary, some level of inventory removal will be required to ensure that groundwater standards are met.

  7. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    Over the past year, several modifications have been made to the NEMS Transportation Model, incorporating greater levels of detail and analysis in modules previously represented in the aggregate or under a profusion of simplifying assumptions. This document is intended to amend those sections of the Model Documentation Report (MDR) which describe these superseded modules. Significant changes have been implemented in the LDV Fuel Economy Model, the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the LDV Fleet Module, and the Highway Freight Model. The relevant sections of the MDR have been extracted from the original document, amended, and are presented in the following pages. A brief summary of the modifications follows: In the Fuel Economy Model, modifications have been made which permit the user to employ more optimistic assumptions about the commercial viability and impact of selected technological improvements. This model also explicitly calculates the fuel economy of an array of alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) which are subsequently used in the estimation of vehicle sales. In the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the results of the Fuel Economy Model have been incorporated, and the program flows have been modified to reflect that fact. In the Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Module, the sales of vehicles to fleets of various size are endogenously calculated in order to provide a more detailed estimate of the impacts of EPACT legislation on the sales of AFV`s to fleets. In the Highway Freight Model, the previous aggregate estimation has been replaced by a detailed Freight Truck Stock Model, where travel patterns, efficiencies, and energy intensities are estimated by industrial grouping. Several appendices are provided at the end of this document, containing data tables and supplementary descriptions of the model development process which are not integral to an understanding of the overall model structure.

  8. Turbulence transport modeling of the temporal outer heliosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Hu, Q.; Dosch, A.

    2014-09-20

    The solar wind can be regarded as a turbulent magnetofluid, evolving in an expanding solar wind and subject to turbulent driving by a variety of in situ sources. Furthermore, the solar wind and the drivers of turbulence are highly time-dependent and change with solar cycle. Turbulence transport models describing low-frequency magnetic and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind have so far neglected solar cycle effects. Here we consider the effects of solar cycle variability on a turbulence transport model developed by Zank et al. This model is appropriate for the solar wind beyond about 1 AU, and extensions have described the steady-state dependence of the magnetic energy density fluctuations, correlation length, and solar wind temperature throughout the outer heliosphere. We find that the temporal solar wind introduces a periodic variability, particularly beyond ?10 AU, in the magnetic energy density fluctuations, correlation length, and solar wind temperature. The variability is insufficient to account for the full observed variability in these quantities, but we find that the time-dependent solutions trace the steady-state solutions quite well, suggesting that the steady-state models are reasonable first approximations.

  9. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. The NEMS Transportation Model comprises a series of semi-independent models which address different aspects of the transportation sector. The primary purpose of this model is to provide mid-term forecasts of transportation energy demand by fuel type including, but not limited to, motor gasoline, distillate, jet fuel, and alternative fuels (such as CNG) not commonly associated with transportation. The current NEMS forecast horizon extends to the year 2010 and uses 1990 as the base year. Forecasts are generated through the separate consideration of energy consumption within the various modes of transport, including: private and fleet light-duty vehicles; aircraft; marine, rail, and truck freight; and various modes with minor overall impacts, such as mass transit and recreational boating. This approach is useful in assessing the impacts of policy initiatives, legislative mandates which affect individual modes of travel, and technological developments. The model also provides forecasts of selected intermediate values which are generated in order to determine energy consumption. These elements include estimates of passenger travel demand by automobile, air, or mass transit; estimates of the efficiency with which that demand is met; projections of vehicle stocks and the penetration of new technologies; and estimates of the demand for freight transport which are linked to forecasts of industrial output. Following the estimation of energy demand, TRAN produces forecasts of vehicular emissions of the following pollutants by source: oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, total carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds.

  10. THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. WILLIAMS

    1999-08-01

    The LANL atmospheric transport and diffusion models are composed of two state-of-the-art computer codes. The first is an atmospheric wind model called HOThlAC, Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric circulations. HOTMAC generates wind and turbulence fields by solving a set of atmospheric dynamic equations. The second is an atmospheric diffusion model called RAPTAD, Random Particle Transport And Diffusion. RAPTAD uses the wind and turbulence output from HOTMAC to compute particle trajectories and concentration at any location downwind from a source. Both of these models, originally developed as research codes on supercomputers, have been modified to run on microcomputers. Because the capability of microcomputers is advancing so rapidly, the expectation is that they will eventually become as good as today's supercomputers. Now both models are run on desktop or deskside computers, such as an IBM PC/AT with an Opus Pm 350-32 bit coprocessor board and a SUN workstation. Codes have also been modified so that high level graphics, NCAR Graphics, of the output from both models are displayed on the desktop computer monitors and plotted on a laser printer. Two programs, HOTPLT and RAPLOT, produce wind vector plots of the output from HOTMAC and particle trajectory plots of the output from RAPTAD, respectively. A third CONPLT provides concentration contour plots. Section II describes step-by-step operational procedures, specifically for a SUN-4 desk side computer, on how to run main programs HOTMAC and RAPTAD, and graphics programs to display the results. Governing equations, boundary conditions and initial values of HOTMAC and RAPTAD are discussed in Section III. Finite-difference representations of the governing equations, numerical solution procedures, and a grid system are given in Section IV.

  11. Modeling Proton- and Light Ion-Induced Reactions at Low Energies in the MARS15 Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhno, I. L.; Mokhov, N. V.; Gudima, K. K.

    2015-04-25

    An implementation of both ALICE code and TENDL evaluated nuclear data library in order to describe nuclear reactions induced by low-energy projectiles in the Monte Carlo code MARS15 is presented. Comparisons between results of modeling and experimental data on reaction cross sections and secondary particle distributions are shown.

  12. Modeling interfacial area transport in multi-fluid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1996-11-01

    Many typical chemical engineering operations are multi-fluid systems. They are carried out in distillation columns (vapor/liquid), liquid-liquid contactors (liquid/liquid) and other similar devices. An important parameter is interfacial area concentration, which determines the rate of interfluid heat, mass and momentum transfer and ultimately, the overall performance of the equipment. In many cases, the models for determining interfacial area concentration are empirical and can only describe the cases for which there is experimental data. In an effort to understand multiphase reactors and the mixing process better, a multi-fluid model has been developed as part of a research effort to calculate interfacial area transport in several different types of in-line static mixers. For this work, the ensemble-averaged property conservation equations have been derived for each fluid and for the mixture. These equations were then combined to derive a transport equation for the interfacial area concentration. The final, one-dimensional model was compared to interfacial area concentration data from two sizes of Kenics in-line mixer, two sizes of concurrent jet and a Tee mixer. In all cases, the calculated and experimental data compared well with the highest scatter being with the Tee mixer comparison.

  13. Data Assimilation in the ADAPT Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Godinez, Humberto C.; Henney, Carl J.; Arge, C. Nick

    2015-03-17

    Global maps of the solar photospheric magnetic flux are fundamental drivers for simulations of the corona and solar wind and therefore are important predictors of geoeffective events. However, observations of the solar photosphere are only made intermittently over approximately half of the solar surface. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model uses localized ensemble Kalman filtering techniques to adjust a set of photospheric simulations to agree with the available observations. At the same time, this information is propagated to areas of the simulation that have not been observed. ADAPT implements a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF)more » to accomplish data assimilation, allowing the covariance structure of the flux-transport model to influence assimilation of photosphere observations while eliminating spurious correlations between ensemble members arising from a limited ensemble size. We give a detailed account of the implementation of the LETKF into ADAPT. Advantages of the LETKF scheme over previously implemented assimilation methods are highlighted.« less

  14. transportation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    security missions undertaken by the U.S. government.

    Pantex Plant's Calvin Nelson honored as Analyst of the Year for Transportation Security http:nnsa.energy.gov...

  15. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  16. Reactive transport modeling of stable carbon isotope fractionation in a multi-phase multi-component system during carbon sequestration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Shuo; DePaolo, Donald J.; Zheng, Liange; Mayer, Bernhard

    2014-12-31

    Carbon stable isotopes can be used in characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources, and to evaluate the chemical reactions that take place in the CO2-water-rock system. However, there are few tools available to incorporate stable isotope information into flow and transport codes used for CO2 sequestration problems. We present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable carbon isotopes in multiphase reactive systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The code is an extension of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The transport module of TOUGHREACT was modifiedmore » to include separate isotopic species of CO2 gas and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO2, CO32-, HCO3-,…). Any process of transport or reaction influencing a given carbon species also influences its isotopic ratio. Isotopic fractionation is thus fully integrated within the dynamic system. The chemical module and database have been expanded to include isotopic exchange and fractionation between the carbon species in both gas and aqueous phases. The performance of the code is verified by modeling ideal systems and comparing with theoretical results. Efforts are also made to fit field data from the Pembina CO2 injection project in Canada. We show that the exchange of carbon isotopes between dissolved and gaseous carbon species combined with fluid flow and transport, produce isotopic effects that are significantly different from simple two-component mixing. These effects are important for understanding the isotopic variations observed in field demonstrations.« less

  17. Reactive transport modeling of stable carbon isotope fractionation in a multi-phase multi-component system during carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mayer, Bernhard [Univ. of Calgary (Canada). Dept. of Geosciences

    2014-12-31

    Carbon stable isotopes can be used in characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources, and to evaluate the chemical reactions that take place in the CO2-water-rock system. However, there are few tools available to incorporate stable isotope information into flow and transport codes used for CO2 sequestration problems. We present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable carbon isotopes in multiphase reactive systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The code is an extension of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The transport module of TOUGHREACT was modified to include separate isotopic species of CO2 gas and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO2, CO32-, HCO3-,). Any process of transport or reaction influencing a given carbon species also influences its isotopic ratio. Isotopic fractionation is thus fully integrated within the dynamic system. The chemical module and database have been expanded to include isotopic exchange and fractionation between the carbon species in both gas and aqueous phases. The performance of the code is verified by modeling ideal systems and comparing with theoretical results. Efforts are also made to fit field data from the Pembina CO2 injection project in Canada. We show that the exchange of carbon isotopes between dissolved and gaseous carbon species combined with fluid flow and transport, produce isotopic effects that are significantly different from simple two-component mixing. These effects are important for understanding the isotopic variations observed in field demonstrations.

  18. Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S.S.; Zhang, G.; Williams, K.H.; Taylor, J.; Fujita, Y.; Smith, R.

    2011-07-15

    Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH{sub 4}{sup +} production during urea hydrolysis were incorporated in the model and captured critical changes in the major metal species. The electrical phase increases were potentially due to ion exchange processes that modified charge structure at mineral/water interfaces. Our study revealed the potential of geophysical monitoring for geochemical changes during urea hydrolysis and the advantages of combining multiple approaches to understand complex biogeochemical processes in the subsurface.

  19. Geophysical Monitoring and Reactive Transport Modeling of Ureolytically-Driven Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuxin Wu; Jonathan B. Ajo-Franklin; Nicolas Spycher; Susan S. Hubbard; Guoxiang Zhang; Kenneth H. Williams; Joanna Taylor; Yoshiko Fujita; Robert Smith

    2011-09-01

    Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH4+ production during urea hydrolysis were incorporated in the model and captured critical changes in the major metal species. The electrical phase increases were potentially due to ion exchange processes that modified charge structure at mineral/water interfaces. Our study revealed the potential of geophysical monitoring for geochemical changes during urea hydrolysis and the advantages of combining multiple approaches to understand complex biogeochemical processes in the subsurface.

  20. Advanced Solution Methods for Microkinetic Models of Catalytic Reactions: A Methanol Synthesis Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubert-Nason, Patricia; Mavrikakis, Manos; Maravelias, Christos T.; Grabow, Lars C.; Biegler, Lorenz T.

    2014-04-01

    Microkinetic models, combined with experimentally measured reaction rates and orders, play a key role in elucidating detailed reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysis and have typically been solved as systems of ordinary differential equations. In this work, we demonstrate a new approach to fitting those models to experimental data. For the specific example treated here, by reformulating a typical microkinetic model for a continuous stirred tank reactor to a system of nonlinear equations, we achieved a 1000-fold increase in solution speed. The reduced computational cost allows a more systematic search of the parameter space, leading to better fits to the available experimental data. We applied this approach to the problem of methanol synthesis by CO/CO2 hydrogenation over a supported-Cu catalyst, an important catalytic reaction with a large industrial interest and potential for large-scale CO2 chemical fixation.

  1. Nuclear Reactions X-Sections By Evaporation Model, Gamma-Cascades

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-06-27

    Calculation of energy-averaged cross sections for nuclear reactions with emission of particles and gamma rays and fission. The models employed are the evaporation model with inclusion of pre-equilibrium decay and gamma ray cascade model. Angular momentum and parity conservation are accounted for. Major improvement to the 1976 STAPRE program (NEA 0461) relates to level density approach, implemwnted in subroutine ZSTDE. Generalized superfluid model is incorporated, Boltzman-gas modelling of intrinsic state density and semi-empirical modelling ofmore » a few quasiparticle effects in total level density in equilibrium and saddle deformations of actinide nuclei.« less

  2. Understanding composite explosive energetics: 3, Reactive flow modeling of aluminum reaction kinetics in PETN and TNT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, W.C.; Tarver, C.M.; Ornellas, D.L.

    1991-12-06

    Using Fabry-Perot interferometry techniques, we have determined that early time rate of energy release from detonating PETN and TNT explosives filled with 5 and 10 wt % of either 5 {mu}m of 18 {mu}m spherical aluminum (Al) particles. From the measured particle velocity data, we are able to infer the reaction rate of aluminum with the detonation products, and calculate the extent of reaction 1--3 {mu}s after the detonation. We observed that a substantional portion of the aluminum metal in all of the PETN and TNE formulations reacted within the timeframe of the one-dimensional experiment. In the PETN formulation filed with 5 wt % of 5 {mu}m aluminum, all of the metal reacted within 1.5 {mu}s, resulting in an increase of 22% in energy compared to pure PETN. A reactive-flow hydrodynamic model based on the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) description of the reaction zone and subsequent reaction produce expansion (Taylor wave) is used to interpret the reaction rate of the aluminum particles with detonation product gases. The diffusion-controlled reaction mechanism for aluminum and the global kinetic parameters used in the model have been found to be consistent for all the PETN and TNT formulations.

  3. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    The attachments contained within this appendix provide additional details about the model development and estimation process which do not easily lend themselves to incorporation in the main body of the model documentation report. The information provided in these attachments is not integral to the understanding of the model`s operation, but provides the reader with opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of some of the model`s underlying assumptions. There will be a slight degree of replication of materials found elsewhere in the documentation, made unavoidable by the dictates of internal consistency. Each attachment is associated with a specific component of the transportation model; the presentation follows the same sequence of modules employed in Volume 1. The following attachments are contained in Appendix F: Fuel Economy Model (FEM)--provides a discussion of the FEM vehicle demand and performance by size class models; Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Model--describes data input sources and extrapolation methodologies; Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) Stock Model--discusses the fuel economy gap estimation methodology; Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Model--presents the data development for business, utility, and government fleet vehicles; Light Commercial Truck Model--describes the stratification methodology and data sources employed in estimating the stock and performance of LCT`s; Air Travel Demand Model--presents the derivation of the demographic index, used to modify estimates of personal travel demand; and Airborne Emissions Model--describes the derivation of emissions factors used to associate transportation measures to levels of airborne emissions of several pollutants.

  4. A generic model for transport in turbulent shear flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newton, Andrew P. L.; Kim, Eun-Jin [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Turbulence regulation by large-scale shear flows is crucial for a predictive modeling of transport in plasma. In this paper the suppression of turbulent transport by large-scale flows is studied numerically by measuring the turbulent diffusion D{sub t} and scalar amplitude of decaying passive scalar fields n{sup '} advected by various turbulent flows. Both uniform flows and shear flows are shown to suppress turbulence causing the quenching in transport and turbulence amplitude. The uniform flows U{sub 0}={Lambda}y with the advection rate {Lambda} in the case of a finite correlated forcing with {tau}{sub F}=1 gives rise to the advection/sweeping effect which suppresses D{sub t}, and as {proportional_to}{Lambda}{sup -2} for {Lambda}>>{tau}{sub F}{sup -1}. In contrast, no influence of the uniform flow is found in the case of a short correlated forcing {tau}{sub F}{yields}0 due to Galilean invariance. For the shear flow U{sub 0}={Omega}sinxy ({Omega}= constant shearing rate) with the appropriate choice of the forcing ({tau}{sub F}{yields}0) the nature of transport suppression is shown to crucially depend on the properties of the turbulence. Specifically, for prescribed turbulence with a short correlation time {tau}{sub c}={tau}{sub F}<<{Omega}{sup -1}, the turbulence statistics scale as D{sub t{proportional_to}{Omega}}{sup -0.02}, {proportional_to}{Omega}{sup -0.62} and cross-phase cos{theta}{proportional_to}{Omega}{sup 0.29}. For consistently evolved turbulence with a finite correlation time {tau}{sub c{>=}{Omega}}{sup -1}, turbulence statistics are suppressed more strongly as D{sub t{proportional_to}{Omega}}{sup -1.75}, {proportional_to}{Omega}{sup -2.41}, {proportional_to}{Omega}{sup -0.65} and <{omega}{sup '2}>{proportional_to}{Omega}{sup -0.50}. A novel renormalization scheme is then introduced to rescale our results into the regime within which the kinetic energy and enstrophy are unchanged by shear flow. This allows our numerical results to closely match previous analytical predictions [E. Kim, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 18, 1 (2004)] and to understand different experimental scalings observed in laboratory plasmas. Furthermore, D{sub t} is found to be related to by {proportional_to}D{sub t}/D{sub {Omega}}, where D{sub {Omega}}{proportional_to}{Omega}{sup (2/3)} is the shear accelerated diffusion of n{sup '} with an interesting scaling cos{theta}{proportional_to}{radical}(D{sub t}D{sub {Omega}}).

  5. Development of Modeling Methods and Tools for Predicting Coupled Reactive Transport Processes in Porous Media at Multiple Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, T Prabhakar; Barnett, Mark O; Zheng, Chunmiao; Jones, Norman L

    2010-05-05

    DE-FG02-06ER64213: Development of Modeling Methods and Tools for Predicting Coupled Reactive Transport Processes in Porous Media at Multiple Scales Investigators: T. Prabhakar Clement (PD/PI) and Mark O. Barnett (Auburn), Chunmiao Zheng (Univ. of Alabama), and Norman L. Jones (BYU). The objective of this project was to develop scalable modeling approaches for predicting the reactive transport of metal contaminants. We studied two contaminants, a radioactive cation [U(VI)] and a metal(loid) oxyanion system [As(III/V)], and investigated their interactions with two types of subsurface materials, iron and manganese oxyhydroxides. We also developed modeling methods for describing the experimental results. Overall, the project supported 25 researchers at three universities. Produced 15 journal articles, 3 book chapters, 6 PhD dissertations and 6 MS theses. Three key journal articles are: 1) Jeppu et al., A scalable surface complexation modeling framework for predicting arsenate adsorption on goethite-coated sands, Environ. Eng. Sci., 27(2): 147-158, 2010. 2) Loganathan et al., Scaling of adsorption reactions: U(VI) experiments and modeling, Applied Geochemistry, 24 (11), 2051-2060, 2009. 3) Phillippi, et al., Theoretical solid/solution ratio effects on adsorption and transport: uranium (VI) and carbonate, Soil Sci. Soci. of America, 71:329-335, 2007

  6. Direct Internal Reformation and Mass Transport in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode: A Pore-Scale Lattice Boltzmann Study with Detailed Reaction Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2010-11-30

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) allows the conversion of chemical energy that is stored in a given fuel, including light hydrocarbons, to electrical power. Hydrocarbon fuels, such as methane, are logistically favourable and provide high energy densities. However, the use of these fuels often results in a decreased efficiency and life. An improved understanding of the reactive flow in the SOFC anode can help address these issues. In this study, the transport and heterogeneous internal reformation of a methane based fuel is addressed. The effect of the SOFC anode's complex structure on transport and reactions is shown to exhibit a complicated interplay between the local molar concentrations and the anode structure. Strong coupling between the phenomenological microstructures and local reformation reaction rates are recognised in this study, suggesting the extension to actual microstructures may provide new insights into the reformation processes.

  7. 2D numerical simulation of the MEP energy-transport model with a finite difference scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romano, V. . E-mail: romano@dmi.unict.it

    2007-02-10

    A finite difference scheme of Scharfetter-Gummel type is used to simulate a consistent energy-transport model for electron transport in semiconductors devices, free of any fitting parameters, formulated on the basis of the maximum entropy principle. Simulations of silicon n{sup +}-n-n{sup +} diodes, 2D-MESFET and 2D-MOSFET and comparisons with the results obtained by a direct simulation of the Boltzmann transport equation and with other energy-transport models, known in the literature, show the validity of the model and the robustness of the numerical scheme.

  8. WIPP Documents - Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation

  9. Model Annex for Preparedness and Response to Radiological Transportation Incidents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This part should contain a general statement of the intent of this Annex. To provide for the planning, preparedness and coordination of emergency service efforts to respond to a transportation...

  10. Comparison of kinetic and equilibrium reaction models insimulating gas hydrate behavior in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalsky, Michael B.; Moridis, George J.

    2006-11-29

    In this study we compare the use of kinetic and equilibriumreaction models in the simulation of gas (methane) hydrate behavior inporous media. Our objective is to evaluate through numerical simulationthe importance of employing kinetic versus equilibrium reaction modelsfor predicting the response of hydrate-bearing systems to externalstimuli, such as changes in pressure and temperature. Specifically, we(1) analyze and compare the responses simulated using both reactionmodels for natural gas production from hydrates in various settings andfor the case of depressurization in a hydrate-bearing core duringextraction; and (2) examine the sensitivity to factors such as initialhydrate saturation, hydrate reaction surface area, and numericaldiscretization. We find that for large-scale systems undergoing thermalstimulation and depressurization, the calculated responses for bothreaction models are remarkably similar, though some differences areobserved at early times. However, for modeling short-term processes, suchas the rapid recovery of a hydrate-bearing core, kinetic limitations canbe important, and neglecting them may lead to significantunder-prediction of recoverable hydrate. The use of the equilibriumreaction model often appears to be justified and preferred for simulatingthe behavior of gas hydrates, given that the computational demands forthe kinetic reaction model far exceed those for the equilibrium reactionmodel.

  11. Modeling of On-Cell Reforming Reaction for Planar SOFC Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Choongmo; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Hwang, Soon Cheol; Kim, Dohyung; Lai, Canhai; Koeppel, Brian J.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-05-30

    Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack is known to suffer thermal problem from high stack temperature during operation to generate high current. On-Cell Reforming (OCR) phenomenon is often used to reduce stack temperature by an endothermic reaction of steam-methane reforming process. RIST conducted single-cell experiment to validate modeling tool to simulate OCR performance including temperature measurement. 2D modeling is used to check reforming rate during OCR using temperature measurement data, and 3D modeling is used to check overall thermal performance including furnace boundary conditions.

  12. A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

  13. Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H2S in CO2-Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Spycher, N.; Xu, T.; Apps, J.; Kharaka, Y.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2010-11-05

    In this study, reactive transport simulations were used to assess the mobilization and transport of organics with supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCC), and the co-injection and transport of H{sub 2}S with SCC. These processes were evaluated at conditions of typical storage reservoirs, and for cases of hypothetical leakage from a reservoir to an overlying shallower fresh water aquifer. Modeling capabilities were developed to allow the simulation of multiphase flow and transport of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, as well as specific organic compounds (benzene), coupled with multicomponent geochemical reaction and transport. This included the development of a new simulator, TMVOC-REACT, starting from existing modules of the TOUGH2 family of codes. This work also included an extensive literature review, calculation, and testing of phase-partitioning properties for mixtures of the phases considered. The reactive transport simulations presented in this report are primarily intended to illustrate the capabilities of the new simulator. They are also intended to help evaluate and understand various processes at play, in a more qualitative than quantitative manner, and only for hypothetical scenarios. Therefore, model results are not intended as realistic assessments of groundwater quality changes for specific locations, and they certainly do not provide an exhaustive evaluation of all possible site conditions, especially given the large variability and uncertainty in hydrogeologic and geochemical parameter input into simulations. The first step in evaluating the potential mobilization and transport of organics was the identification of compounds likely to be present in deep storage formations, and likely to negatively impact freshwater aquifers if mobilized by SCC. On the basis of a literature review related to the occurrence of these organic compounds, their solubility in water and SCC, and their toxicity (as reflected by their maximum contaminant levels MCL), benzene was selected as a key compound for inclusion into numerical simulations. Note that considering additional organic compounds and/or mixtures of such compounds in the simulations was beyond the scope of this study, because of the effort required to research, calculate, and validate the phase-partitioning data necessary for simulations. The injection of CO{sub 2} into a deep saline aquifer was simulated, followed by modeling the leaching of benzene by SCC and transport of benzene to an overlying aquifer along a hypothetical leakage pathway. One- and two-dimensional models were set up for this purpose. The target storage formation was assumed to initially contain about 10{sup -4} ppm benzene. Model results indicate that: (1) SCC efficiently extracts benzene from the storage formation. (2) Assuming equilibrium, the content of benzene in SCC is roportional to the concentration of benzene in the aqueous and solid phases. (3) Benzene may co-migrate with CO{sub 2} into overlying aquifers if a leakage pathway is present. Because the aqueous solubility of benzene in contact with CO{sub 2} is lower than the aqueous solubility of CO{sub 2}, benzene is actually enriched in the CO{sub 2} phase as the plume advances. (4) For the case studied here, the resulting aqueous benzene concentration in the overlying aquifer is on the same order of magnitude as the initial concentration in the storage formation. This generic modeling study illustrates, in a semi-quantitative manner, the possible mobilization of benzene by SCC. The extent to which the mobilization of this organic compound evolves temporally and spatially depends on a large number of controlling parameters and is largely site specific. Therefore, for more 'truly' predictive work, further sensitivity studies should be conducted, and further modeling should be integrated with site-specific laboratory and/or field experimental data. The co-injection of H{sub 2}S with CO{sub 2} into a deep saline aquifer was also simulated. In addition, the model considered leakage of the supercritical CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}S mixture along a preferential p

  14. Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on Geomechanical Properties of Reservoir Rocks and Seals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact on Geomechanical Properties of Reservoir Rocks and Seals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact on Geomechanical Properties of Reservoir Rocks and Seals This article develops a novel multiscale modeling approach to analyze CO2 reservoirs using

  15. A turbulent transport network model in MULTIFLUX coupled with TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, G.; Bahrami, D.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-02-15

    A new numerical method is described for the fully iterated, conjugate solution of two discrete submodels, involving (a) a transport network model for heat, moisture, and airflows in a high-permeability, air-filled cavity; and (b) a variably saturated fractured porous medium. The transport network submodel is an integrated-parameter, computational fluid dynamics solver, describing the thermal-hydrologic transport processes in the flow channel system of the cavity with laminar or turbulent flow and convective heat and mass transport, using MULTIFLUX. The porous medium submodel, using TOUGH2, is a solver for the heat and mass transport in the fractured rock mass. The new model solution extends the application fields of TOUGH2 by integrating it with turbulent flow and transport in a discrete flow network system. We present demonstrational results for a nuclear waste repository application at Yucca Mountain with the most realistic model assumptions and input parameters including the geometrical layout of the nuclear spent fuel and waste with variable heat load for the individual containers. The MULTIFLUX and TOUGH2 model elements are fully iterated, applying a programmed reprocessing of the Numerical Transport Code Functionalization model-element in an automated Outside Balance Iteration loop. The natural, convective airflow field and the heat and mass transport in a representative emplacement drift during postclosure are explicitly solved in the new model. The results demonstrate that the direction and magnitude of the air circulation patterns and all transport modes are strongly affected by the heat and moisture transport processes in the surrounding rock, justifying the need for a coupled, fully iterated model solution such as the one presented in the paper.

  16. Coupled reactive mass transport and fluid flow: Issues in model verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Ibaraki, Motomu

    2003-01-03

    Model verification and validation are both important steps in the development of reactive transport models. In this paper, a distinction is made between verification and validation, and the focus is on codifying the issues of verification for a numerical, reactive transport flow model. First, the conceptual basis of model verification is reviewed, which shows that verification should be understood as a first step in model development, and be followed by a protocol that assures that the model accurately represents system behavior. Second, commonly used procedures and methods of model verification are presented. In the third part of this paper, an intercomparison of models is used to demonstrate that model verification can be performed despite differences in hydrogeochemical transport code formulations. Results of an example simulation of transport are presented in which the numerical model is tested against other hydrogeochemical codes. Different kinetic formulations between solid and aqueous phases used among numerical models complicates model verification. This test problem involves uranium transport under conditions of varying pH and oxidation potential, with reversible precipitation of calcium uranate and coffinite. Results between the different hydrogeochemical transport codes show differences in oxidation potentials, but similarities in mineral assemblages and aqueous transport patterns. Because model verification can be further complicated by differences in the approach for solving redox problems, a comparison of a fugacity approach to both the external approach (based on hypothetical electron activity) and effective internal approach (based on conservation of electrons) is performed. The comparison demonstrates that the oxygen fugacity approach produces different redox potentials and mineral assemblages than both the effective internal and external approaches.

  17. Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent 'fusion by diffusion' model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J.

    2011-05-15

    We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section {sigma}{sub cap}(l), the fusion probability P{sub fus}(l), and the survival probability P{sub surv}(l). The fusion hindrance factor, the inverse of P{sub fus}(l), is treated in terms of thermal fluctuations in the shape degrees of freedom and is expressed as a solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation. The l dependence of P{sub fus}(l) results from the l-dependent potential energy surface of the colliding system. A new parametrization of the distance of starting point of the diffusion process is introduced. An analysis of a complete set of 27 excitation functions for production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, studied in experiments at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo, and LBNL Berkeley, is presented. The FBD model satisfactorily reproduces shapes and absolute cross sections of all the cold fusion excitation functions. It is shown that the peak position of the excitation function for a given 1n reaction is determined by the Q value of the reaction and the height of the fission barrier of the final nucleus. This fact could possibly be used in future experiments (with well-defined beam energy) for experimental determination of the fission barrier heights.

  18. Predicting tropospheric ozone and hydroxyl radical in a global, three-dimensional, chemistry, transport, and deposition model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atherton, C.S.

    1995-01-05

    Two of the most important chemically reactive tropospheric gases are ozone (O{sub 3}) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Although ozone in the stratosphere is a necessary protector against the sun`s radiation, tropospheric ozone is actually a pollutant which damages materials and vegetation, acts as a respiratory irritant, and is a greenhouse gas. One of the two main sources of ozone in the troposphere is photochemical production. The photochemistry is initiated when hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) react with nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} = NO + NO{sub 2}) in the presence of sunlight. Reaction with the hydroxyl radical, OH, is the main sink for many tropospheric gases. The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of seconds. Its formation is initiated by the photolysis of tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric chemistry involves a complex, non-linear set of chemical reactions between atmospheric species that vary substantially in time and space. To model these and other species on a global scale requires the use of a global, three-dimensional chemistry, transport, and deposition (CTD) model. In this work, I developed two such three dimensional CTD models. The first model incorporated the chemistry necessary to model tropospheric ozone production from the reactions of nitrogen oxides with carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}). The second also included longer-lived alkane species and the biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, which is emitted by growing plants and trees. The models` ability to predict a number of key variables (including the concentration of O{sub 3}, OH, and other species) were evaluated. Then, several scenarios were simulated to understand the change in the chemistry of the troposphere since preindustrial times and the role of anthropogenic NO{sub x} on present day conditions.

  19. NREL: Transportation Research - Vehicle Thermal Management Models and Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Models and Tools image of three models of semi truck cabs. Truck cab models drawn from CAD geometry using CoolCalc (left and center), and a model with overlay of computational fluid dynamics flow (right) indicate areas of heat absorption and loss. Illustrations by Jason Lustbader, Matt Jeffers, and Larry Chaney, NREL The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) vehicle thermal management modeling tools allow researchers to assess the trade-offs and calculate the potential benefits of

  20. KINETIC MODELING OF A FISCHER-TROPSCH REACTION OVER A COBALT CATALYST IN A SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR FOR INCORPORATION INTO A COMPUTATIONAL MULTIPHASE FLUID DYNAMICS MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anastasia Gribik; Doona Guillen, PhD; Daniel Ginosar, PhD

    2008-09-01

    Currently multi-tubular fixed bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors, and slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) are used in commercial Fischer Tropsch (FT) synthesis. There are a number of advantages of the SBCR compared to fixed and fluidized bed reactors. The main advantage of the SBCR is that temperature control and heat recovery are more easily achieved. The SBCR is a multiphase chemical reactor where a synthesis gas, comprised mainly of H2 and CO, is bubbled through a liquid hydrocarbon wax containing solid catalyst particles to produce specialty chemicals, lubricants, or fuels. The FT synthesis reaction is the polymerization of methylene groups [-(CH2)-] forming mainly linear alkanes and alkenes, ranging from methane to high molecular weight waxes. The Idaho National Laboratory is developing a computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) model of the FT process in a SBCR. This paper discusses the incorporation of absorption and reaction kinetics into the current hydrodynamic model. A phased approach for incorporation of the reaction kinetics into a CMFD model is presented here. Initially, a simple kinetic model is coupled to the hydrodynamic model, with increasing levels of complexity added in stages. The first phase of the model includes incorporation of the absorption of gas species from both large and small bubbles into the bulk liquid phase. The driving force for the gas across the gas liquid interface into the bulk liquid is dependent upon the interfacial gas concentration in both small and large bubbles. However, because it is difficult to measure the concentration at the gas-liquid interface, coefficients for convective mass transfer have been developed for the overall driving force between the bulk concentrations in the gas and liquid phases. It is assumed that there are no temperature effects from mass transfer of the gas phases to the bulk liquid phase, since there are only small amounts of dissolved gas in the liquid phase. The product from the incorporation of absorption is the steady state concentration profile of the absorbed gas species in the bulk liquid phase. The second phase of the model incorporates a simplified macrokinetic model to the mass balance equation in the CMFD code. Initially, the model assumes that the catalyst particles are sufficiently small such that external and internal mass and heat transfer are not rate limiting. The model is developed utilizing the macrokinetic rate expression developed by Yates and Satterfield (1991). Initially, the model assumes that the only species formed other than water in the FT reaction is C27H56. Change in moles of the reacting species and the resulting temperature of the catalyst and fluid phases is solved simultaneously. The macrokinetic model is solved in conjunction with the species transport equations in a separate module which is incorporated into the CMFD code.

  1. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VII - Tritium Transport Model Documentation Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    Volume VII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the tritium transport model documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  2. Remarks on a model of thermal transport in nanofluids (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; HEAT TRANSFER; FLOW MODELS; FLUIDS; NANOSTRUCTURES...

  3. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mountain. (Conference) | SciTech Connect An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Abstract not provided. Authors: Arnold, Bill Walter ; Kelkar, Sharad ; Ding, Mei ; Chu, Shaoping ; ROBINSON, BRUCE ; Meijer, Arend Publication Date: 2007-09-01 OSTI Identifier: 1147462 Report Number(s): SAND2007-5874C 521772 DOE Contract

  4. Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Salt | Department of Energy Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt This report summarizes efforts to simulate coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes occurring within a generic hypothetical high-level waste (HLW) repository in bedded salt; chemical processes of the system allow precipitation and dissolution of salt with elevated temperatures that

  5. REDUCING UNCERTAINTIES IN MODEL PREDICTIONS VIA HISTORY MATCHING OF CO2 MIGRATION AND REACTIVE TRANSPORT MODELING OF CO2 FATE AT THE SLEIPNER PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Chen

    2015-03-31

    An important question for the Carbon Capture, Storage, and Utility program is “can we adequately predict the CO2 plume migration?” For tracking CO2 plume development, the Sleipner project in the Norwegian North Sea provides more time-lapse seismic monitoring data than any other sites, but significant uncertainties still exist for some of the reservoir parameters. In Part I, we assessed model uncertainties by applying two multi-phase compositional simulators to the Sleipner Benchmark model for the uppermost layer (Layer 9) of the Utsira Sand and calibrated our model against the time-lapsed seismic monitoring data for the site from 1999 to 2010. Approximate match with the observed plume was achieved by introducing lateral permeability anisotropy, adding CH4 into the CO2 stream, and adjusting the reservoir temperatures. Model-predicted gas saturation, CO2 accumulation thickness, and CO2 solubility in brine—none were used as calibration metrics—were all comparable with the interpretations of the seismic data in the literature. In Part II & III, we evaluated the uncertainties of predicted long-term CO2 fate up to 10,000 years, due to uncertain reaction kinetics. Under four scenarios of the kinetic rate laws, the temporal and spatial evolution of CO2 partitioning into the four trapping mechanisms (hydrodynamic/structural, solubility, residual/capillary, and mineral) was simulated with ToughReact, taking into account the CO2-brine-rock reactions and the multi-phase reactive flow and mass transport. Modeling results show that different rate laws for mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions resulted in different predicted amounts of trapped CO2 by carbonate minerals, with scenarios of the conventional linear rate law for feldspar dissolution having twice as much mineral trapping (21% of the injected CO2) as scenarios with a Burch-type or Alekseyev et al.–type rate law for feldspar dissolution (11%). So far, most reactive transport modeling (RTM) studies for CCUS have used the conventional rate law and therefore simulated the upper bound of mineral trapping. However, neglecting the regional flow after injection, as most previous RTM studies have done, artificially limits the extent of geochemical reactions as if it were in a batch system. By replenishing undersaturated groundwater from upstream, the Utsira Sand is reactive over a time scale of 10,000 years. The results from this project have been communicated via five peer-reviewed journal articles, four conference proceeding papers, and 19 invited and contributed presentations at conferences and seminars.

  6. Modeling of the electronic transport in multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rau, U.; Goldbach, M.

    1994-12-31

    Simulations of the electrical transport in multijunction thin-film solar cells made from polycrystalline silicon are presented. The authors investigate the effect of the grain size on the efficiency of the multijunction solar cell. Here, they concentrate on micro crystalline material with a high recombination velocity at the grain boundaries of 10{sup 4}cm/s. Typical results of their calculations demonstrate that based on the multijunction design structure consisting of 8 or more layers efficiencies of 14% may be obtained from 12--20 {micro}m thick solar cells.

  7. A review of wind field models for atmospheric transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Skyllingstad, E.D.

    1993-06-01

    The primary objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is developing a computer code to estimate these doses and their uncertainties. The code, known as the HEDR integrated Code (HEDRIC), consists of four separate component codes. One of the component codes, called the Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET) combines meteorological and release data to estimate time-integrated air concentrations and surface contamination at specific locations in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The RATCHET domain covers approximately 75,000 square miles, extending from the crest of the Cascade Mountains on the west to the eastern edge of the Idaho panhandle and from central Oregon on the south to the Canadian border. This letter report explains the procedures in RATCHET that transform observed wind data into the wind fields used in atmospheric transport calculations. It also describes and evaluates alternative procedures not selected for use in RATCHET.

  8. Centrifuge modeling of LNAPL transport in partially saturated sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esposito, G.; Allersma, H.G.B.; Selvadurai, A.P.S.

    1999-12-01

    Model tests were performed at the Geotechnical Centrifuge Facility of Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, to examine the mechanics of light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) movement in a partially saturated porous granular medium. The experiment simulated a 2D spill of LNAPL in an unsaturated sand prepared at two values of porosity. The duration of the centrifuge model tests corresponded to a prototype equivalent of 110 days. The choice of modeling a 2D flow together with the use of a transparent container enabled direct visual observation of the experiments. Scaling laws developed in connection with other centrifuge modeling studies were used to support the test results. Tests were conducted at two different centrifuge accelerations to verify, by means of the modeling of models technique, the similitude between the different experiments. The paper presents details of the experimental methodologies and the measuring techniques used to evaluate the final distribution of water and LNAPL content in the soils.

  9. BLT-EC (Breach, Leach and Transport-Equilibrium Chemistry) data input guide. A computer model for simulating release and coupled geochemical transport of contaminants from a subsurface disposal facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKinnon, R.J.; Sullivan, T.M.; Kinsey, R.R.

    1997-05-01

    The BLT-EC computer code has been developed, implemented, and tested. BLT-EC is a two-dimensional finite element computer code capable of simulating the time-dependent release and reactive transport of aqueous phase species in a subsurface soil system. BLT-EC contains models to simulate the processes (container degradation, waste-form performance, transport, chemical reactions, and radioactive production and decay) most relevant to estimating the release and transport of contaminants from a subsurface disposal system. Water flow is provided through tabular input or auxiliary files. Container degradation considers localized failure due to pitting corrosion and general failure due to uniform surface degradation processes. Waste-form performance considers release to be limited by one of four mechanisms: rinse with partitioning, diffusion, uniform surface degradation, and solubility. Transport considers the processes of advection, dispersion, diffusion, chemical reaction, radioactive production and decay, and sources (waste form releases). Chemical reactions accounted for include complexation, sorption, dissolution-precipitation, oxidation-reduction, and ion exchange. Radioactive production and decay in the waste form is simulated. To improve the usefulness of BLT-EC, a pre-processor, ECIN, which assists in the creation of chemistry input files, and a post-processor, BLTPLOT, which provides a visual display of the data have been developed. BLT-EC also includes an extensive database of thermodynamic data that is also accessible to ECIN. This document reviews the models implemented in BLT-EC and serves as a guide to creating input files and applying BLT-EC.

  10. The Fluid Interface Reactions Structures and Transport (FIRST) EFRC (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wesolowski, David J. (Director, FIRST - Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures, and Transport Center); FIRST Staff

    2011-11-02

    'The Fluid Interface Reactions Structures and Transport (FIRST) EFRC' was submitted by FIRST to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. FIRST, an EFRC directed by David J. Wesolowski at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a partnership of scientists from nine institutions: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (lead), Argonne National Laboratory, Drexel University, Georgia State University, Northwestern University, Pennsylvania State University, Suffolk University, Vanderbilt University, and University of Virginia. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport Center is 'to develop quantitative and predictive models of the unique nanoscale environment at fluid-solid interfaces that will enable transformational advances in electrical energy storage and heterogeneous catalysis for solar fuels.' Research topics are: catalysis (biomass, CO{sub 2}, water), electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis, solar fuels, solar electrodes, electrical energy storage, batteries, capacitors, battery electrodes, electrolytes, extreme environment, CO{sub 2} (convert), greenhouse gas, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), interfacial characterization, matter by design, novel materials synthesis, and charge transport.

  11. Study of DCX reaction on medium nuclei with Monte-Carlo Shell Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H. C.; Gibbs, W. R.

    2010-08-04

    In this work a method is introduced to calculate the DCX reaction in the framework of Monte-Carlo Shell Model (MCSM). To facilitate the use of Zero-temperature formalism of MCSM, the Double-Isobaric-Analog State (DIAS) is derived from the ground state by using isospin shifting operator. The validity of this method is tested by comparing the MCSM results to those of the SU(3) symmetry case. Application of this method to DCX on {sup 56}Fe and {sup 93}Nb is discussed.

  12. Proton-hydrogen reaction in an effectively two-body model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pupyshev, V. V., E-mail: pupyshev@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    A model of total interaction between a proton incident to a hydrogen atom and the proton that is the nucleus of this atom is proposed. This interaction is assumed to be the sum of the short-range nuclear Reid potential and the long-range Thomas-Fermi potential induced by the Coulomb interaction of the electron with the nucleus of the hydrogen atom. The explicit low-energy asymptotic behavior of the cross section for the proton-hydrogen reaction leading to deuteron production is found. It is shown that this cross section increases in inverse proportion to the collision energy for the proton and hydrogen atom in its zero limit.

  13. Mass-transport models to predict toxicity of inhaled gases in the upper respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubal, E.A.C.; Fedkiw, P.S.; Kimbell, J.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Mass-transport (the movement of a chemical species) plays an important role in determining toxic responses of the upper respiratory tract (URT) to inhaled chemicals. Mathematical dosimetry models incorporate physical characteristics of mass transport and are used to predict quantitative uptake (absorption rate) and distribution of inhaled gases and vapors in the respiratory tract. Because knowledge of dose is an essential component of quantitative risk assessment, dosimetry modeling plays an important role in extrapolation of animal study results to humans. A survey of existing mathematical dosimetry models for the URT is presented, limitations of current models are discussed, and adaptations of existing models to produce a generally applicable model are suggested. Reviewed URT dosimetry models are categorized as early, lumped-parameter, and distributed-parameter models. Specific examples of other relevant modeling work are also presented. 35 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Modeling precursor diffusion and reaction of atomic layer deposition in porous structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keuter, Thomas, E-mail: t.keuter@fz-juelich.de; Menzler, Norbert Heribert; Mauer, Georg; Vondahlen, Frank; Vaen, Robert; Buchkremer, Hans Peter [Forschungszentrum Jlich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1), 52425 Jlich (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique for depositing thin films of materials with a precise thickness control and uniformity using the self-limitation of the underlying reactions. Usually, it is difficult to predict the result of the ALD process for given external parameters, e.g., the precursor exposure time or the size of the precursor molecules. Therefore, a deeper insight into ALD by modeling the process is needed to improve process control and to achieve more economical coatings. In this paper, a detailed, microscopic approach based on the model developed by Yanguas-Gil and Elam is presented and additionally compared with the experiment. Precursor diffusion and second-order reaction kinetics are combined to identify the influence of the porous substrate's microstructural parameters and the influence of precursor properties on the coating. The thickness of the deposited film is calculated for different depths inside the porous structure in relation to the precursor exposure time, the precursor vapor pressure, and other parameters. Good agreement with experimental results was obtained for ALD zirconiumdioxide (ZrO{sub 2}) films using the precursors tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)zirconium and O{sub 2}. The derivation can be adjusted to describe other features of ALD processes, e.g., precursor and reactive site losses, different growth modes, pore size reduction, and surface diffusion.

  15. Modeling electron transport in the presence of electric and magnetic fields.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Wesley C.; Drumm, Clifton Russell; Pautz, Shawn D.; Turner, C. David

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the theoretical background on modeling electron transport in the presence of electric and magnetic fields by incorporating the effects of the Lorentz force on electron motion into the Boltzmann transport equation. Electromagnetic fields alter the electron energy and trajectory continuously, and these effects can be characterized mathematically by differential operators in terms of electron energy and direction. Numerical solution techniques, based on the discrete-ordinates and finite-element methods, are developed and implemented in an existing radiation transport code, SCEPTRE.

  16. Transportation Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transportation-research TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling Transportation Research Current Research Overview The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) has established its only high-performance computing and engineering analysis research facility at Argonne National Laboratory to provide applications support in key areas of applied research and development for the USDOT community. The Transportation Research and

  17. Simulation model for oil slick transport in lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, H.T.; Yapa, P.D.; Petroski, M.E.

    1987-10-01

    A computer model for simulating oil slick movement in lakes by a Lagrangian discrete parcel algorithm is presented. In this model the transformation of an oil slick due to advection, spreading, evaporation, and dissolution is considered. For open water conditions the movement of the oil slick by water current and wind is considered using the drifting factor formulation. For ice-covered conditions the drift velocity is determined according to the ice roughness and current velocity. The current distribution in the lake is determined by a rigid lid circulation model. In the spreading process the mechanical spreading of the oil slick due to the balance in inertia, gravity, viscous, and surface tension forces is considered, in addition to the dispersion of the surface oil layer. Boundary conditions along the shore are formulated according to the storage capacity of the shoreline. The model can be used for simulating either instantaneous or continuous oil spills. Sample simulations for oil spills in Lake St. Clair are presented.

  18. Temperature, humidity and air flow in the emplacement drifts using convection and dispersion transport models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, G.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Bahrami, D.; Halecky, N.

    2009-10-01

    A coupled thermal-hydrologic-airflow model is developed, solving for the transport processes within a waste emplacement drift and the surrounding rockmass together at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Natural, convective air flow as well as heat and mass transport in a representative emplacement drift during post-closure are explicitly simulated, using the MULTIFLUX model. The conjugate, thermal-hydrologic transport processes in the rockmass are solved with the TOUGH2 porous-media simulator in a coupled way to the in-drift processes. The new simulation results show that large-eddy turbulent flow, as opposed to small-eddy flow, dominate the drift air space for at least 5000 years following waste emplacement. The size of the largest, longitudinal eddy is equal to half of the drift length, providing a strong axial heat and moisture transport mechanism from the hot to the cold drift sections. The in-drift results are compared to those from simplified models using a surrogate, dispersive model with an equivalent dispersion coefficient for heat and moisture transport. Results from the explicit, convective velocity simulation model provide higher axial heat and moisture fluxes than those estimated from the previously published, simpler, equivalent-dispersion models, in addition to showing differences in temperature, humidity and condensation rate distributions along the drift length. A new dispersive model is also formulated, giving a time- and location-variable function that runs generally about ten times higher in value than the highest dispersion coefficient currently used in the Yucca Mountain Project as an estimate for the equivalent dispersion coefficient in the emplacement drift. The new dispersion coefficient variation, back-calculated from the convective model, can adequately describe the heat and mass transport processes in the emplacement drift example.

  19. Anisotropic Elastic Resonance Scattering model for the Neutron Transport equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed Ouisloumen; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Shadi Z. Ghrayeb

    2014-11-24

    The resonance scattering transfer cross-section has been reformulated to account for anisotropic scattering in the center-of-mass of the neutron-nucleus system. The main innovation over previous implementations is the relaxation of the ubiquitous assumption of isotropic scattering in the center-of-mass and the actual effective use of scattering angle distributions from evaluated nuclear data files in the computation of the angular moments of the resonant scattering kernels. The formulas for the high order anisotropic moments in the laboratory system are also derived. A multi-group numerical formulation is derived and implemented into a module incorporated within the NJOY nuclear data processing code. An ultra-fine energy mesh cross section library was generated using these new theoretical models and then was used for fuel assembly calculations with the PARAGON lattice physics code. The results obtained indicate a strong effect of this new model on reactivity, multi-group fluxes and isotopic inventory during depletion.

  20. NREL: Transportation Research - NREL's Battery Life Predictive Model Helps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Companies Take Charge NREL's Battery Life Predictive Model Helps Companies Take Charge October 26, 2015 A series of batteries hooked together next to a monitor. An example of a stationary, grid-connected battery is the NREL project from Erigo/EaglePicher Technologies, LLC Technologies. Inverters and nickel cadmium batteries inside of a utility scale 300 kW battery storage system will support Department of Defense micro-grids. Photo by Dennis Schroeder / NREL 32696 Companies that rely on

  1. Phase II Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeNovio, Nicole M.; Bryant, Nathan; King, Chrissi B.; Bhark, Eric; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Pickens, John F.; Farnham, Irene; Brooks, Keely M.; Reimus, Paul; Aly, Alaa

    2005-04-01

    This report documents pertinent transport data and data analyses as part of the Phase II Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) for Frenchman Flat (FF) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98. The purpose of this data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support parameterization of the Phase II FF CAU transport model.

  2. Chemistry of Furan Conversion into Aromatics and Olefins over HZSM-5: A Model Biomass Conversion Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Huber, George W.

    2011-06-03

    The conversion of furan (a model of cellulosic biomass) over HZSM-5 was investigated in a thermogravimetric analysismass spectrometry system, in situ Fourier transform infrared analysis, and in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor. Furan adsorbed as oligomers at room temperature with a 1.73 of adsorbed furan/Al ratio. These oligomers were polycyclic aromatic compounds that were converted to CO, CO?, aromatics, and olefins at temperatures from 400 to 600 C. Aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, and naphthalene), oligomer isomers (e.g., benzofuran, 2,2-methylenebisfuran, and benzodioxane), and heavy oxygenates (C??{sub +} oligomers) were identified as intermediates formed inside HZSM-5 at different reaction temperatures. During furan conversion, graphite-type coke formed on the catalyst surface, which caused the aromatics and olefins formation to deactivate within the first 30 min of time on-stream. We have measured the effects of space velocity and temperature for furan conversion to help us understand the chemistry of biomass conversion inside zeolite catalysts. The major products for furan conversion included CO, CO?, allene, C?C? olefins, benzene, toluene, styrene, benzofuran, indene, and naphthalene. The aromatics (benzene and toluene) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) selectivity decreased with increasing space velocity. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as allene, cyclopentadiene, and aromatics selectivity increased with increasing space velocity. The product distribution was selective to olefins and CO at high temperatures (650 C) but was selective to aromatics (benzene and toluene) at intermediate temperatures (450600 C). At low temperatures (450 C), benzofuran and coke contributed 60% of the carbon selectivity. Several different reactions were occurring for furan conversion over zeolites. Some important reactions that we have identified in this study include DielsAlder condensation (e.g., two furans form benzofuran and water), decarbonylation (e.g., furan forms CO and allene), oligomerization (allene forms olefins and aromatics plus hydrogen), and alkylation (e.g., furan plus olefins). The product distribution was far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

  3. High-resolution mineralogical characterization and biogeochemical modeling of uranium reaction pathways at the FRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhu

    2006-06-15

    High-Resolution Mineralogical Characterization and Biogeochemical Modeling of Uranium Reduction Pathways at the Oak Ridge Field-Research Center (FRC) Chen Zhu, Indiana University, David R. Veblen, Johns Hopkins University We have successfully completed a proof-of-concept, one-year grant on a three-year proposal from the former NABIR program, and here we seek additional two-year funding to complete and publish the research. Using a state-of-the-art 300-kV, atomic resolution, Field Emission Gun Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), we have successfully identified three categories of mineral hosts for uranium in contaminated soils: (1) iron oxides; (2) mixed manganese-iron oxides; and (3) uranium phosphates. Method development using parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) associated with the TEM shows great promise for characterizing the valence states of immobilized U during bioremediation. We have also collected 27 groundwater samples from two push-pull field biostimulation tests, which form two time series from zero to approximately 600 hours. The temporal evolution in major cations, anions, trace elements, and the stable isotopes 34S, 18O in sulfate, 15N in nitrate, and 13C in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) clearly show that biostimulation resulted in reduction of nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III), U(VI), sulfate, and Tc(VII), and these reduction reactions were intimately coupled with a complex network of inorganic reactions evident from alkalinity, pH, Na, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations. From these temporal trends, apparent zero order rates were regressed. However, our extensive suite of chemical and isotopic data sets, perhaps the first and only comprehensive data set available at the FRC, show that the derived rates from these field biostimulation experiments are composite and lump-sum rates. There were several reactions that were occurring at the same time but were masked by these pseudo-zero order rates. A reaction-path model comprising a total of nine redox couples (NO3–/NH4+, MnO2(s)/Mn2+, Fe(OH)3(s) /Fe2+, TcO4–/TcO2(s), UO22+/UO2(s), SO42–/HS–, CO2/CH4, ethanol/acetate, and H+/H2.) is used to simulate the temporal biogeochemical evolution observed in the field tests. Preliminary results show that the models based on thermodynamics and more complex rate laws can generate the apparent zero order rates when several concurrent or competing reactions occur. Professor Alex Halliday of Oxford University, UK, and his postdoctoral associates are measuring the uranium isotopes in our groundwater samples. Newly developed state-of-the-art analytical techniques in measuring variability in 235U/238U offer the potential to distinguish biotic and abiotic uranium reductive mechanisms.

  4. Collisional particle-in-cell modeling for energy transport accompanied by atomic processes in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, R.; Beg, F. N.; Leblanc, P.; Sentoku, Y.; Wei, M. S.

    2013-07-15

    Fully relativistic collisional Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code, PICLS, has been developed to study extreme energy density conditions produced in intense laser-solid interaction. Recent extensions to PICLS, such as the implementation of dynamic ionization, binary collisions in a partially ionized plasma, and radiative losses, enhance the efficacy of simulating intense laser plasma interaction and subsequent energy transport in resistive media. Different ionization models are introduced and benchmarked against each other to check the suitability of the model. The atomic physics models are critical to determine the energy deposition and transport in dense plasmas, especially when they consist of high Z (atomic number) materials. Finally we demonstrate the electron transport simulations to show the importance of target material on fast electron dynamics.

  5. Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drici, Warda

    2003-08-01

    This report documents the analysis of the available transport parameter data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  6. Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 Jet Flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, xinyu; Haworth, D. C.; Huckaby, E. David

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (syngas) flames are simulated using a transported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to solve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard k? turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to variations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat transfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are explored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms temperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well, and captures the scaling that is observed in the experiments. Both our results and the literature suggest that further improvements can be realized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat transfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects are relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is important for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been developed specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H{sub 2} perform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this purpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulencechemistry interactions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a large difference in the results, within reasonable limits.

  7. Carlsbad Area Office unveils full-scale model of new WIPP waste transportation cask

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carlsbad Area Office Unveils Full-Scale Model Of New WIPP Waste Transportation Cask CARLSBAD, N.M., February 23, 2000 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office today unveiled a full-scale model of its newest waste transportation cask, the RH-72B, during a ceremony at the local DOE offices. "This is another milestone for the Department of Energy," said Dr. Inés Triay, Manager of the Carlsbad Area Office, describing the importance of the new container for those

  8. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Tucci

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M&O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment.

  9. Realistic multisite lattice-gas modeling and KMC simulation of catalytic surface reactions: Kinetics and multiscale spatial behavior for CO-oxidation on metal (100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Dajiang [Ames Laboratory; Evans, James W. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-12-01

    A realistic molecular-level description of catalytic reactions on single-crystal metal surfaces can be provided by stochastic multisite lattice-gas (msLG) models. This approach has general applicability, although in this report, we will focus on the example of CO-oxidation on the unreconstructed fcc metal (100) or M(100) surfaces of common catalyst metals M = Pd, Rh, Pt and Ir (i.e., avoiding regimes where Pt and Ir reconstruct). These models can capture the thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorbed layers for the individual reactants species, such as CO/M(100) and O/M(100), as well as the interaction and reaction between different reactant species in mixed adlayers, such as (CO + O)/M(100). The msLG models allow population of any of hollow, bridge, and top sites. This enables a more flexible and realistic description of adsorption and adlayer ordering, as well as of reaction configurations and configuration-dependent barriers. Adspecies adsorption and interaction energies, as well as barriers for various processes, constitute key model input. The choice of these energies is guided by experimental observations, as well as by extensive Density Functional Theory analysis. Model behavior is assessed via Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation. We also address the simulation challenges and theoretical ramifications associated with very rapid diffusion and local equilibration of reactant adspecies such as CO. These msLG models are applied to describe adsorption, ordering, and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) for individual CO/M(100) and O/M(100) reactant adlayers. In addition, they are also applied to predict mixed (CO + O)/M(100) adlayer structure on the nanoscale, the complete bifurcation diagram for reactive steady-states under continuous flow conditions, temperature programmed reaction (TPR) spectra, and titration reactions for the CO-oxidation reaction. Extensive and reasonably successful comparison of model predictions is made with experimental data. Furthermore, we discuss the possible transition from traditional mean-field-type bistability and reaction kinetics for lower-pressure to multistability and enhanced fluctuation effects for moderate- or higher-pressure. Behavior in the latter regime reflects a stronger influence of adspecies interactions and also lower diffusivity in the higher-coverage mixed adlayer. We also analyze mesoscale spatiotemporal behavior including the propagation of reaction diffusion fronts between bistable reactive and inactive states, and associated nucleation-mediated transitions between these states. This behavior is controlled by complex surface mass transport processes, specifically chemical diffusion in mixed reactant adlayers for which we provide a precise theoretical formulation. The msLG models together with an appropriate treatment of chemical diffusivity enable equation-free heterogeneous coupled lattice-gas (HCLG) simulations of spatiotemporal behavior. In addition, msLG + HCLG modeling can describe coverage variations across polycrystalline catalysts surfaces, pressure variations across catalyst surfaces in microreactors, and could be incorporated into a multiphysics framework to describe mass and heat transfer limitations for high-pressure catalysis. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gray and multigroup radiation transport models for two-dimensional binary stochastic media using effective opacities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2015-09-24

    One-dimensional models for the transport of radiation through binary stochastic media do not work in multi-dimensions. In addition, authors have attempted to modify or extend the 1D models to work in multidimensions without success. Analytic one-dimensional models are successful in 1D only when assuming greatly simplified physics. State of the art theories for stochastic media radiation transport do not address multi-dimensions and temperature-dependent physics coefficients. Here, the concept of effective opacities and effective heat capacities is found to well represent the ensemble averaged transport solutions in cases with gray or multigroup temperature-dependent opacities and constant or temperature-dependent heat capacities. In every case analyzed here, effective physics coefficients fit the transport solutions over a useful range of parameter space. The transport equation is solved with the spherical harmonics method with angle orders of n=1 and 5. Although the details depend on what order of solution is used, the general results are similar, independent of angular order.

  11. Gray and multigroup radiation transport models for two-dimensional binary stochastic media using effective opacities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2015-09-24

    One-dimensional models for the transport of radiation through binary stochastic media do not work in multi-dimensions. In addition, authors have attempted to modify or extend the 1D models to work in multidimensions without success. Analytic one-dimensional models are successful in 1D only when assuming greatly simplified physics. State of the art theories for stochastic media radiation transport do not address multi-dimensions and temperature-dependent physics coefficients. Here, the concept of effective opacities and effective heat capacities is found to well represent the ensemble averaged transport solutions in cases with gray or multigroup temperature-dependent opacities and constant or temperature-dependent heat capacities. Inmore » every case analyzed here, effective physics coefficients fit the transport solutions over a useful range of parameter space. The transport equation is solved with the spherical harmonics method with angle orders of n=1 and 5. Although the details depend on what order of solution is used, the general results are similar, independent of angular order.« less

  12. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling in Fractured Media Under Deep Geological Environment - 12211

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwong, S.; Jivkov, A.P.

    2012-07-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is gaining increasing support in many countries, where suitable low permeability geological formation in combination with engineered barriers are used to provide long term waste contaminant and minimise the impacts to the environment and risk to the biosphere. This modelling study examines the solute transport in fractured media under low flow velocities that are relevant to a deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes. The effects of water velocity in the fracture, matrix porosity and diffusion on solute transport are investigated and discussed. Some illustrative modelled results are presented to demonstrate the use of the model to examine the effects of media degradation on solute transport, under the influences of hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and microbially mediated chemical processes. The challenges facing the prediction of long term degradation such as cracks evolution, interaction and coalescence are highlighted. The potential of a novel microstructure informed modelling approach to account for these effects is discussed, particularly with respect to investigating multiple phenomena impact on material performance. The GRM code is used to examine the effects of media degradation for a geological waste disposal package, under the combined hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and chemical effects in low groundwater flow conditions that are typical of deep geological disposal systems. An illustrative reactive transport modelling application demonstrates the use of the code to examine the interplay of kinetic controlled biogeochemical reactive processes with advective and diffusive transport, under the influence of media degradation. The initial model results are encouraging which show the disposal system to evolve in a physically realistic manner. In the example presented the reactive-transport coupling develops chemically reducing zones, which limit the transport of uranium. This illustrates the potential significance of media degradation and chemical effect on the transport of radionuclides which would need to be taken into account when examining the long-term behaviour and containment properties of the geological disposal system. Microstructure-informed modelling and its potential linkage with continuum flow modelling is a subject of ongoing studies. The approach of microstructure-informed modelling is discussed to provide insight and a mechanistic understanding of macroscopic parameters and their evolution. The proposed theoretical and methodological basis for microstructure-informed modelling of porous quasi-brittle media has the potential to develop into an explanatory and predictive tool for deriving mechanism-based, as opposed to phenomenological, evolution laws for macroscopic properties. These concepts in micro-scale modelling are likely to be applicable to the diffusion process, in addition to advective transport illustrated here for porous media. (authors)

  13. A two transition state model for radical-molecule reactions : applications to isomeric branching in the OH-isoprene reaction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwald, E. E.; North, S. W.; Georgievskii, Y.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Chemistry; Texas A&M Univ.; SNL

    2007-06-28

    A two transition state model is applied to the prediction of the isomeric branching in the addition of hydroxyl radical to isoprene. The outer transition state is treated with phase space theory fitted to long-range transition state theory calculations on an electrostatic potential energy surface. High-level quantum chemical estimates are applied to the treatment of the inner transition state. A one-dimensional master equation based on an analytic reduction from two-dimensions for a particular statistical assumption about the rotational part of the energy transfer kernel is employed in the calculation of the pressure dependence of the addition process. We find that an accurate treatment of the two separate transition state regions, at the energy and angular momentum resolved level, is essential to the prediction of the temperature dependence of the addition rate. The transition from a dominant outer transition state to a dominant inner transition state is shown to occur at about 275 K, with significant effects from both transition states over the 30-500 K temperature range. Modest adjustments in the ab initio predicted inner saddle point energies yield predictions that are in quantitative agreement with the available high-pressure limit experimental observations and qualitative agreement with those in the falloff regime. The theoretically predicted capture rate is reproduced to within 10% by the expression [1.71 x 10-10(T/298)-2.58 exp(-608.6/RT) + 5.47 x 10-11(T/298)-1.78 exp(-97.3/RT); with R = 1.987 and T in K] cm3 molecule-1 s-1 over the 30-500 K range. A 300 K branching ratio of 0.67:0.02:0.02:0.29 was determined for formation of the four possible OH-isoprene adduct isomers 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and was found to be relatively insensitive to temperature. An Arrhenius activation energy of -0.77 kcal/mol was determined for the high-pressure addition rate constants around 300 K.

  14. User's manual for the Sandia Waste-Isolation Flow and Transport model (SWIFT).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, Mark; Cranwell, Robert M.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes a three-dimensional finite-difference model (SWIFT) which is used to simulate flow and transport processes in geologic media. The model was developed for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the analysis of deep geologic nuclear waste-disposal facilities. This document, as indicated by the title, is a user's manual and is intended to facilitate the use of the SWIFT simulator. Mathematical equations, submodels, application notes, and a description of the program itself are given herein. In addition, a complete input data guide is given along with several appendices which are helpful in setting up a data-input deck. Computer code SWIFT (Sandia Waste Isolation, Flow and Transport Model) is a fully transient, three-dimensional model which solves the coupled equations for transport in geologic media. The processes considered are: (1) fluid flow; (2) heat transport; (3) dominant-species miscible displacement; and (4) trace-species miscible displacement. The first three processes are coupled via fluid density and viscosity. Together they provide the velocity field on which the fourth process depends.

  15. EXTENSION OF THE NUCLEAR REACTION MODEL CODE EMPIRE TO ACTINIDES NUCLEAR DATA EVALUATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAPOTE,R.; SIN, M.; TRKOV, A.; HERMAN, M.; CARLSON, B.V.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2007-04-22

    Recent extensions and improvements of the EMPIRE code system are outlined. They add new capabilities to the code, such as prompt fission neutron spectra calculations using Hauser-Feshbach plus pre-equilibrium pre-fission spectra, cross section covariance matrix calculations by Monte Carlo method, fitting of optical model parameters, extended set of optical model potentials including new dispersive coupled channel potentials, parity-dependent level densities and transmission through numerically defined fission barriers. These features, along with improved and validated ENDF formatting, exclusive/inclusive spectra, and recoils make the current EMPIRE release a complete and well validated tool for evaluation of nuclear data at incident energies above the resonance region. The current EMPIRE release has been used in evaluations of neutron induced reaction files for {sup 232}Th and {sup 231,233}Pa nuclei in the fast neutron region at IAEA. Triple-humped fission barriers and exclusive pre-fission neutron spectra were considered for the fission data evaluation. Total, fission, capture and neutron emission cross section, average resonance parameters and angular distributions of neutron scattering are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data.

  16. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-world Data for Planning, Modeling, and Analysis (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Secure Data Center Real-World Data for Planning, Modeling, and Analysis The Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC) at www.nrel.gov/tsdc provides free, web-based access to detailed transportation data from a variety of travel surveys conducted across the nation. While preserving the privacy of survey participants, this online repository makes vital transportation data broadly available to users from the comfort of their own desks via a secure online connection. Data Available

  17. Uncertainty Analysis Framework - Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, Charles R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Rogers, Phillip M.

    2001-11-09

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) embarked on a new initiative to strengthen the technical defensibility of the predictions being made with a site-wide groundwater flow and transport model at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. In FY 2000, the focus of the initiative was on the characterization of major uncertainties in the current conceptual model that would affect model predictions. The long-term goals of the initiative are the development and implementation of an uncertainty estimation methodology in future assessments and analyses using the site-wide model. This report focuses on the development and implementation of an uncertainty analysis framework.

  18. GREET 1.0 -- Transportation fuel cycles model: Methodology and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel-cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, Co, NOx, SOx, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydropower, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

  19. Conditional stochastic modeling of transport of contaminant in the vadose zone. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, T.C.J.; Harter, T.

    1995-06-01

    Spatial heterogeneity media leads to uncertainty in predicting both flow and transport in the vadose zone. In this work an efficient and flexible, combined analytical-numerical Monte Carlo approach is developed for the analysis of steady-state flow and transient transport processes in highly heterogeneous, variably saturated porous media. The approach is also used for the investigation of the validity of linear, first order analytical stochastic models. A combined analytical-numerical conditional simulation algorithm is developed to estimate the impact of in-situ soil hydraulic measurements on reducing the uncertainty of concentration and solute flux predictions.

  20. Reactive chemical transport in ground-water hydrology: Challenges to mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Apps, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    For a long time, earth scientists have qualitatively recognized that mineral assemblages in soils and rocks conform to established principles of chemistry. In the early 1960's geochemists began systematizing this knowledge by developing quantitative thermodynamic models based on equilibrium considerations. These models have since been coupled with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport models, already developed by ground-water hydrologists. Spurred by a need for handling difficult environmental issues related to ground-water contamination, these models are being improved, refined and applied to realistic problems of interest. There is little doubt that these models will play an important role in solving important problems of engineering as well as science over the coming years. Even as these models are being used practically, there is scope for their improvement and many challenges lie ahead. In addition to improving the conceptual basis of the governing equations, much remains to be done to incorporate kinetic processes and biological mediation into extant chemical equilibrium models. Much also remains to be learned about the limits to which model predictability can be reasonably taken. The purpose of this paper is to broadly assess the current status of knowledge in modeling reactive chemical transport and to identify the challenges that lie ahead.

  1. Characterizing Indoor Airflow and Pollutant Transport using Simulation Modeling for Prototypical Buildings. I. Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohn, M.D.; Daisey, J.M.; Feustel, H.E.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the first efforts at developing a set of prototypical buildings defined to capture the key features affecting airflow and pollutant transport in buildings. These buildings will be used to model airflow and pollutant transport for emergency response scenarios when limited site-specific information is available and immediate decisions must be made, and to better understand key features of buildings controlling occupant exposures to indoor pollutant sources. This paper presents an example of this approach for a prototypical intermediate-sized, open style, commercial building. Interzonal transport due to a short-term source release, e.g., accidental chemical spill, in the bottom and the upper floors is predicted and corresponding HVAC system operation effects and potential responses are considered. Three-hour average exposure estimates are used to compare effects of source location and HVAC operation.

  2. Microscopic Description of the Exotic Nuclei Reactions by Using Folding model Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.; Hassanain, M. A.; Mokhtar, S. R.; El-Azab Farid, M.; Zaki, M. A.; Mahmoud, Zakaria M. M.

    2011-10-27

    A microscopic folding approach based upon the effective M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction and the nuclear matter densities of the interacting nuclei has been carried out to explain recently measured experimental data of the {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn elastic scattering reaction at four different laboratory energies near the Coulomb barrier. The corresponding reaction cross sections are also considered.

  3. FINAL REPORT:Observation and Simulations of Transport of Molecules and Ions Across Model Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MURAD, SOHAIL; JAMESON, CYNTHIA J

    2013-10-22

    During the this new grant we developed a robust methodology for investigating a wide range of properties of phospho-lipid bilayers. The approach developed is unique because despite using periodic boundary conditions, we can simulate an entire experiment or process in detail. For example, we can follow the entire permeation process in a lipid-membrane. This includes transport from the bulk aqueous phase to the lipid surface; permeation into the lipid; transport inside the lipid; and transport out of the lipid to the bulk aqueous phase again. We studied the transport of small gases in both the lipid itself and in model protein channels. In addition, we have examined the transport of nanocrystals through the lipid membrane, with the main goal of understanding the mechanical behavior of lipids under stress including water and ion leakage and lipid flip flop. Finally we have also examined in detail the deformation of lipids when under the influence of external fields, both mechanical and electrostatic (currently in progress). The important observations and conclusions from our studies are described in the main text of the report

  4. Large-Scale Transport Model Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis: Distributed Sources in Complex Hydrogeologic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sig Drellack, Lance Prothro

    2007-12-01

    The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is in the process of assessing and developing regulatory decision options based on modeling predictions of contaminant transport from underground testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The UGTA Project is attempting to develop an effective modeling strategy that addresses and quantifies multiple components of uncertainty including natural variability, parameter uncertainty, conceptual/model uncertainty, and decision uncertainty in translating model results into regulatory requirements. The modeling task presents multiple unique challenges to the hydrological sciences as a result of the complex fractured and faulted hydrostratigraphy, the distributed locations of sources, the suite of reactive and non-reactive radionuclides, and uncertainty in conceptual models. Characterization of the hydrogeologic system is difficult and expensive because of deep groundwater in the arid desert setting and the large spatial setting of the NTS. Therefore, conceptual model uncertainty is partially addressed through the development of multiple alternative conceptual models of the hydrostratigraphic framework and multiple alternative models of recharge and discharge. Uncertainty in boundary conditions is assessed through development of alternative groundwater fluxes through multiple simulations using the regional groundwater flow model. Calibration of alternative models to heads and measured or inferred fluxes has not proven to provide clear measures of model quality. Therefore, model screening by comparison to independently-derived natural geochemical mixing targets through cluster analysis has also been invoked to evaluate differences between alternative conceptual models. Advancing multiple alternative flow models, sensitivity of transport predictions to parameter uncertainty is assessed through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations are challenged by the distributed sources in each of the Corrective Action Units, by complex mass transfer processes, and by the size and complexity of the field-scale flow models. An efficient methodology utilizing particle tracking results and convolution integrals provides in situ concentrations appropriate for Monte Carlo analysis. Uncertainty in source releases and transport parameters including effective porosity, fracture apertures and spacing, matrix diffusion coefficients, sorption coefficients, and colloid load and mobility are considered. With the distributions of input uncertainties and output plume volumes, global analysis methods including stepwise regression, contingency table analysis, and classification tree analysis are used to develop sensitivity rankings of parameter uncertainties for each model considered, thus assisting a variety of decisions.

  5. MODELING OF THE GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT AROUND A DEEP BOREHOLE NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Lubchenko; M. Rodrguez-Buo; E.A. Bates; R. Podgorney; E. Baglietto; J. Buongiorno; M.J. Driscoll

    2015-04-01

    The concept of disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock is gaining renewed interest and consideration as a viable mined repository alternative. A large amount of work on conceptual borehole design and preliminary performance assessment has been performed by researchers at MIT, Sandia National Laboratories, SKB (Sweden), and others. Much of this work relied on analytical derivations or, in a few cases, on weakly coupled models of heat, water, and radionuclide transport in the rock. Detailed numerical models are necessary to account for the large heterogeneity of properties (e.g., permeability and salinity vs. depth, diffusion coefficients, etc.) that would be observed at potential borehole disposal sites. A derivation of the FALCON code (Fracturing And Liquid CONvection) was used for the thermal-hydrologic modeling. This code solves the transport equations in porous media in a fully coupled way. The application leverages the flexibility and strengths of the MOOSE framework, developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The current version simulates heat, fluid, and chemical species transport in a fully coupled way allowing the rigorous evaluation of candidate repository site performance. This paper mostly focuses on the modeling of a deep borehole repository under realistic conditions, including modeling of a finite array of boreholes surrounded by undisturbed rock. The decay heat generated by the canisters diffuses into the host rock. Water heating can potentially lead to convection on the scale of thousands of years after the emplacement of the fuel. This convection is tightly coupled to the transport of the dissolved salt, which can suppress convection and reduce the release of the radioactive materials to the aquifer. The purpose of this work has been to evaluate the importance of the borehole array spacing and find the conditions under which convective transport can be ruled out as a radionuclide transport mechanism. Preliminary results show that modeling of the borehole array, including the surrounding rock, predicts convective flow in the system with physical velocities of the order of 10-5 km/yr over 105 years. This results in an escape length on the order of kilometers, which is comparable to the repository depth. However, a correct account of the salinity effects reduces convection velocity and escape length of the radionuclides from the repository.

  6. A charge carrier transport model for donor-acceptor blend layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Janine Widmer, Johannes; Koerner, Christian; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl; Kleemann, Hans; Tress, Wolfgang; Riede, Moritz

    2015-01-28

    Highly efficient organic solar cells typically comprise donor-acceptor blend layers facilitating effective splitting of excitons. However, the charge carrier mobility in the blends can be substantially smaller than in neat materials, hampering the device performance. Currently, available mobility models do not describe the transport in blend layers entirely. Here, we investigate hole transport in a model blend system consisting of the small molecule donor zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and the acceptor fullerene C{sub 60} in different mixing ratios. The blend layer is sandwiched between p-doped organic injection layers, which prevent minority charge carrier injection and enable exploiting diffusion currents for the characterization of exponential tail states from a thickness variation of the blend layer using numerical drift-diffusion simulations. Trap-assisted recombination must be considered to correctly model the conductivity behavior of the devices, which are influenced by local electron currents in the active layer, even though the active layer is sandwiched in between p-doped contacts. We find that the density of deep tail states is largest in the devices with 1:1 mixing ratio (E{sub t}?=?0.14?eV, N{sub t}?=?1.2??10{sup 18?}cm{sup ?3}) directing towards lattice disorder as the transport limiting process. A combined field and charge carrier density dependent mobility model are developed for this blend layer.

  7. Subsurface Multiphase Flow and Multicomponent Reactive Transport Modeling using High-Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Lu, Chuan

    2007-07-16

    Numerical modeling has become a critical tool to the U.S. Department of Energy for evaluating the environmental impact of alternative energy sources and remediation strategies for legacy waste sites. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical complexity of many sites overwhelms the capabilities of even most state of the art groundwater models. Of particular concern are the representation of highly-heterogeneous stratified rock/soil layers in the subsurface and the biological and geochemical interactions of chemical species within multiple fluid phases. Clearly, there is a need for higher-resolution modeling (i.e. more spatial, temporal, and chemical degrees of freedom) and increasingly mechanistic descriptions of subsurface physicochemical processes. We present SciDAC-funded research being performed in the development of PFLOTRAN, a parallel multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model. Written in Fortran90, PFLOTRAN is founded upon PETSc data structures and solvers. We are employing PFLOTRAN in the simulation of uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area, a contaminated site of major concern to the Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and other government agencies. By leveraging the billions of degrees of freedom available through high-performance computation using tens of thousands of processors, we can better characterize the release of uranium into groundwater and its subsequent transport to the Columbia River, and thereby better understand and evaluate the effectiveness of various proposed remediation strategies.

  8. Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.

    1992-05-01

    Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.

  9. Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.

  10. Flow and Containment Transport Code for Modeling Variably Saturated Porous Media

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-05-14

    FACT is a finite element based code designed to model subsurface flow and contaminant transport. It was designed to perform transient three-dimensional calculations that simulate isothermal groundwater flow, moisture movement, and solute transport in variably saturated and fully saturated subsurface porous media. The code is designed specifically to handle complex multi-layer and/or heterogenous aquifer systems in an efficient manner and accommodates a wide range of boundary conditions. Additionally 1-D and 2-D (in Cartesian coordinates) problemsmore » are handled in FACT by simply limiting the number of elements in a particular direction(s) to one. The governing equations in FACT are formulated only in Cartesian coordinates. FACT writes out both ascii and graphical binary files that are TECPLOT-ready. Special features are also available within FACT for handling the typical groundwater modeling needs for remediation efforts at the Savannah River Site.« less

  11. Flow and Containment Transport Code for Modeling Variably Saturated Porous Media

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-05-14

    FACT is a finite element based code designed to model subsurface flow and contaminant transport. It was designed to perform transient three-dimensional calculations that simulate isothermal groundwater flow, moisture movement, and solute transport in variably saturated and fully saturated subsurface porous media. The code is designed specifically to handle complex multi-layer and/or heterogenous aquifer systems in an efficient manner and accommodates a wide range of boundary conditions. Additionally 1-D and 2-D (in Cartesian coordinates) problemsmore »are handled in FACT by simply limiting the number of elements in a particular direction(s) to one. The governing equations in FACT are formulated only in Cartesian coordinates. FACT writes out both ascii and graphical binary files that are TECPLOT-ready. Special features are also available within FACT for handling the typical groundwater modeling needs for remediation efforts at the Savannah River Site.« less

  12. A multi-model assessment of pollution transport to the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shindell, D T; Chin, M; Dentener, F; Doherty, R M; Faluvegi, G; Fiore, A M; Hess, P; Koch, D M; MacKenzie, I A; Sanderson, M G; Schultz, M G; Schulz, M; Stevenson, D S; Teich, H; Textor, C; Wild, O; Bergmann, D J; Bey, I; Bian, H; Cuvelier, C; Duncan, B N; Folberth, G; Horowitz, L W; Jonson, J; Kaminski, J W; Marmer, E; Park, R; Pringle, K J; Schroeder, S; Szopa, S; Takemura, T; Zeng, G; Keating, T J; Zuber, A

    2008-03-13

    We examine the response of Arctic gas and aerosol concentrations to perturbations in pollutant emissions from Europe, East and South Asia, and North America using results from a coordinated model intercomparison. These sensitivities to regional emissions (mixing ratio change per unit emission) vary widely across models and species. Intermodel differences are systematic, however, so that the relative importance of different regions is robust. North America contributes the most to Arctic ozone pollution. For aerosols and CO, European emissions dominate at the Arctic surface but East Asian emissions become progressively more important with altitude, and are dominant in the upper troposphere. Sensitivities show strong seasonality: surface sensitivities typically maximize during boreal winter for European and during spring for East Asian and North American emissions. Mid-tropospheric sensitivities, however, nearly always maximize during spring or summer for all regions. Deposition of black carbon (BC) onto Greenland is most sensitive to North American emissions. North America and Europe each contribute {approx}40% of total BC deposition to Greenland, with {approx}20% from East Asia. Elsewhere in the Arctic, both sensitivity and total BC deposition are dominated by European emissions. Model diversity for aerosols is especially large, resulting primarily from differences in aerosol physical and chemical processing (including removal). Comparison of modeled aerosol concentrations with observations indicates problems in the models, and perhaps, interpretation of the measurements. For gas phase pollutants such as CO and O{sub 3}, which are relatively well-simulated, the processes contributing most to uncertainties depend on the source region and altitude examined. Uncertainties in the Arctic surface CO response to emissions perturbations are dominated by emissions for East Asian sources, while uncertainties in transport, emissions, and oxidation are comparable for European and North American sources. At higher levels, model-to-model variations in transport and oxidation are most important. Differences in photochemistry appear to play the largest role in the intermodel variations in Arctic ozone sensitivity, though transport also contributes substantially in the mid-troposphere.

  13. Mathematical model for oil slick transport and mixing in rivers. Special report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, H.T.; Yapa, P.D.; Wang, D.S.; Yang, X.Q.

    1993-08-01

    The growing concern over the impacts of oil spills on aquatic environments has led to the development of many computer models for simulating the transport and spreading of oil slicks in surface waters. Almost all of these models were developed for coastal environments. A few river models exist. These models only considered the movement of surface oil slicks. In this study a two-layer model, ROSS2, is developed for simulating oil spills in rivers. This model considers the oil in the river to consist of a surface slick and suspended oil droplets entrained over the depth of the flow. The oil transformation processes considered in the model include advection, mechanical spreading, turbulent diffusion and mixing, evaporation, dissolution, emulsification, shoreline deposition and sinking. The model can be used for simulating instantaneous or continuous spills either on or under the water surface in rivers with or without an ice cover. The model has been implemented for the Ohio-Monongahela-Allegheny river system and the upper St. Lawrence River. This report describes the model formulation and implementation. A case study is presented along with detailed explanations of the program structure and its input and output. Although it is developed for simulating oil spills, the model can be applied to spills of other hazardous materials. Computer models, Oil spills, Oil slicks, Rivers.

  14. A model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data.

  15. Model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data. 38 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  16. Development and applications of GREET 2.7 -- The Transportation Vehicle-CycleModel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Wu, Y.

    2006-12-20

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a vehicle-cycle module for the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been cited extensively and contains data on fuel cycles and vehicle operations. The vehicle-cycle model evaluates the energy and emission effects associated with vehicle material recovery and production, vehicle component fabrication, vehicle assembly, and vehicle disposal/recycling. With the addition of the vehicle-cycle module, the GREET model now provides a comprehensive, lifecycle-based approach to compare the energy use and emissions of conventional and advanced vehicle technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles). This report details the development and application of the GREET 2.7 model. The current model includes six vehicles--a conventional material and a lightweight material version of a mid-size passenger car with the following powertrain systems: internal combustion engine, internal combustion engine with hybrid configuration, and fuel cell with hybrid configuration. The model calculates the energy use and emissions that are required for vehicle component production; battery production; fluid production and use; and vehicle assembly, disposal, and recycling. This report also presents vehicle-cycle modeling results. In order to put these results in a broad perspective, the fuel-cycle model (GREET 1.7) was used in conjunction with the vehicle-cycle model (GREET 2.7) to estimate total energy-cycle results.

  17. Incorporation of Reaction Kinetics into a Multiphase, Hydrodynamic Model of a Fischer Tropsch Slurry Bubble Column Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Guillen, PhD; Anastasia Gribik; Daniel Ginosar, PhD; Steven P. Antal, PhD

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) model of the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process in a Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR). The CMFD model is fundamentally based which allows it to be applied to different industrial processes and reactor geometries. The NPHASE CMFD solver [1] is used as the robust computational platform. Results from the CMFD model include gas distribution, species concentration profiles, and local temperatures within the SBCR. This type of model can provide valuable information for process design, operations and troubleshooting of FT plants. An ensemble-averaged, turbulent, multi-fluid solution algorithm for the multiphase, reacting flow with heat transfer was employed. Mechanistic models applicable to churn turbulent flow have been developed to provide a fundamentally based closure set for the equations. In this four-field model formulation, two of the fields are used to track the gas phase (i.e., small spherical and large slug/cap bubbles), and the other two fields are used for the liquid and catalyst particles. Reaction kinetics for a cobalt catalyst is based upon values reported in the published literature. An initial, reaction kinetics model has been developed and exercised to demonstrate viability of the overall solution scheme. The model will continue to be developed with improved physics added in stages.

  18. Subsurface Multiphase Flow and Multicomponent Reactive Transport Modeling using High-Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Lu, Chuan

    2007-08-01

    Numerical modeling has become a critical tool to the Department of Energy for evaluating the environmental impact of alternative energy sources and remediation strategies for legacy waste sites. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical complexity of many sites overwhelms the capabilities of even most state of the art groundwater models. Of particular concern are the representation of highly-heterogeneous stratified rock/soil layers in the subsurface and the biological and geochemical interactions of chemical species within multiple fluid phases. Clearly, there is a need for higher-resolution modeling (i.e. more spatial, temporal, and chemical degrees of freedom) and increasingly mechanistic descriptions of subsurface physicochemical processes. We present research being performed in the development of PFLOTRAN, a parallel multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model. Written in Fortran90, PFLOTRAN is founded upon PETSc data structures and solvers and has exhibited impressive strong scalability on up to 4000 processors on the ORNL Cray XT3. We are employing PFLOTRAN in the simulation of uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area, a contaminated site of major concern to the Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and other government agencies where overly-simplistic historical modeling erroneously predicted decade removal times for uranium by ambient groundwater flow. By leveraging the billions of degrees of freedom available through high-performance computation using tens of thousands of processors, we can better characterize the release of uranium into groundwater and its subsequent transport to the Columbia River, and thereby better understand and evaluate the effectiveness of various proposed remediation strategies.

  19. Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport: Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Rayner, Perter; Butler, T.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-06-04

    Model-simulated transport of atmospheric trace components can be combined with observed concentrations to obtain estimates of ground-based sources using various inversion techniques. These approaches have been applied in the past primarily to obtain source estimates for long-lived trace gases such as CO2. We consider the application of similar techniques to source estimation for atmospheric aerosols, by using as a case study the estimation of bacteria emissions from different ecosystem regions in the global atmospheric chemistry and climate model ECHAM5/MESSy-Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). Simulated particle concentrations in the tropopause region and at high latitudes, as well as transport of particles to tundra and land ice regions are shown to be highly sensitive to scavenging in mixed-phase clouds, which is poorly characterized in most global climate models. This may be a critical uncertainty in correctly simulating the transport of aerosol particles to the Arctic. Source estimation via Monte Carlo Markov Chain is applied to a suite of sensitivity simulations and the global mean emissions are estimated. We present an analysis of the partitioning of uncertainties in the global mean emissions that are attributable to particle size, CCN activity, the ice nucleation scavenging ratios for mixed-phase and cold clouds, and measurement error. Uncertainty due to CCN activity or to a 1 um error in particle size is typically between 10% and 40% of the uncertainty due to data uncertainty, as measured by the 5%-ile to 95%-ile range of the Monte Carlo ensemble. Uncertainty attributable to the ice nucleation scavenging ratio in mized-phase clouds is as high as 10% to 20% of the data uncertainty. Taken together, the four model 20 parameters examined contribute about half as much to the uncertainty in the estimated emissions as do the measurements. This was a surprisingly large contribution from model uncertainty in light of the substantial data uncertainty, which ranges from 81% to 870% for each of ten ecosystems for this case study. The effects of these and other model parameters in contributing to the uncertainties in the transport of atmospheric aerosol particles should be treated explicitly and systematically in both forward and inverse modelling studies.

  20. Modeling the Energy Use of a Connected and Automated Transportation System (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Brown, A.

    2014-07-01

    Early research points to large potential impacts of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) on transportation energy use - dramatic savings, increased use, or anything in between. Due to a lack of suitable data and integrated modeling tools to explore these complex future systems, analyses to date have relied on simple combinations of isolated effects. This poster proposes a framework for modeling the potential energy implications from increasing penetration of CAV technologies and for assessing technology and policy options to steer them toward favorable energy outcomes. Current CAV modeling challenges include estimating behavior change, understanding potential vehicle-to-vehicle interactions, and assessing traffic flow and vehicle use under different automation scenarios. To bridge these gaps and develop a picture of potential future automated systems, NREL is integrating existing modeling capabilities with additional tools and data inputs to create a more fully integrated CAV assessment toolkit.

  1. An integrated computer modeling environment for regional land use, air quality, and transportation planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, C.J.; Marshall, N.L.

    1997-04-01

    The Land Use, Air Quality, and Transportation Integrated Modeling Environment (LATIME) represents an integrated approach to computer modeling and simulation of land use allocation, travel demand, and mobile source emissions for the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area. This environment provides predictive capability combined with a graphical and geographical interface. The graphical interface shows the causal relationships between data and policy scenarios and supports alternative model formulations. Scenarios are launched from within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and data produced by each model component at each time step within a simulation is stored in the GIS. A menu-driven query system is utilized to review link-based results and regional and area-wide results. These results can also be compared across time or between alternative land use scenarios. Using this environment, policies can be developed and implemented based on comparative analysis, rather than on single-step future projections. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Performance Assessment Transport Modeling of Uranium at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-10-12

    Following is a brief summary of the assumptions that are pertinent to the radioactive isotope transport in the GoldSim Performance Assessment model of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, with special emphasis on the water-phase reactive transport of uranium, which includes depleted uranium products.

  3. Multi-fluid transport code modeling of time-dependent recycling in ELMy H-mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Hollmann, E. M.; Rognlien, T. D.; Lasnier, C. J.; Unterberg, E.

    2014-06-15

    Simulations of a high-confinement-mode (H-mode) tokamak discharge with infrequent giant type-I ELMs are performed by the multi-fluid, multi-species, two-dimensional transport code UEDGE-MB, which incorporates the Macro-Blob approach for intermittent non-diffusive transport due to filamentary coherent structures observed during the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and simple time-dependent multi-parametric models for cross-field plasma transport coefficients and working gas inventory in material surfaces. Temporal evolutions of pedestal plasma profiles, divertor recycling, and wall inventory in a sequence of ELMs are studied and compared to the experimental time-dependent data. Short- and long-time-scale variations of the pedestal and divertor plasmas where the ELM is described as a sequence of macro-blobs are discussed. It is shown that the ELM recovery includes the phase of relatively dense and cold post-ELM divertor plasma evolving on a several ms scale, which is set by the transport properties of H-mode barrier. The global gas balance in the discharge is also analyzed. The calculated rates of working gas deposition during each ELM and wall outgassing between ELMs are compared to the ELM particle losses from the pedestal and neutral-beam-injection fueling rate, correspondingly. A sensitivity study of the pedestal and divertor plasmas to model assumptions for gas deposition and release on material surfaces is presented. The performed simulations show that the dynamics of pedestal particle inventory is dominated by the transient intense gas deposition into the wall during each ELM followed by continuous gas release between ELMs at roughly a constant rate.

  4. Multi-fluid transport code modeling of time-dependent recycling in ELMy H-mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Rognlien, T. D.; Hollmann, E. M.; Lasnier, C. J.; Unterberg, Ezekial A

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of a high-confinement-mode (H-mode) tokamak discharge with infrequent giant type-I ELMs are performed by the multi-fluid, multi-species, two-dimensional transport code UEDGE-MB, which incorporates the Macro-Blob approach for intermittent non-diffusive transport due to filamentary coherent structures observed during the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and simple time-dependent multi-parametric models for cross-field plasma transport coefficients and working gas inventory in material surfaces. Temporal evolutions of pedestal plasma profiles, divertor recycling, and wall inventory in a sequence of ELMs are studied and compared to the experimental time-dependent data. Short- and long-time-scale variations of the pedestal and divertor plasmas where the ELM is described as a sequence of macro-blobs are discussed. It is shown that the ELM recovery includes the phase of relatively dense and cold post-ELM divertor plasma evolving on a several ms scale, which is set by the transport properties of H-mode barrier. The global gas balance in the discharge is also analyzed. The calculated rates of working gas deposition during each ELM and wall outgassing between ELMs are compared to the ELM particle losses from the pedestal and neutral-beam-injection fueling rate, correspondingly. A sensitivity study of the pedestal and divertor plasmas to model assumptions for gas deposition and release on material surfaces is presented. The performed simulations show that the dynamics of pedestal particle inventory is dominated by the transient intense gas deposition into the wall during each ELM followed by continuous gas release between ELMs at roughly a constant rate.

  5. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattson, Earl; Smith, Robert; Fujita, Yoshiko; McLing, Travis; Neupane, Ghanashyam; Palmer, Carl; Reed, David; Thompson, Vicki

    2015-03-01

    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within 30 C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  6. Comparing three vegetation monoterpene emission models to measured gas concentrations with a model of meteorology, air chemistry and chemical transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolander, S.; He, Q.; Mogensen, Ditte; Zhou, L.; Back, J.; Ruuskanen, T.; Noe, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Aaltonen, H.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, Michael

    2014-10-07

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are essential in atmospheric chemistry because of their chemical reactions that produce and destroy tropospheric ozone, their effects on aerosol formation and growth, and their potential influence on global warming. As one of the important BVOC groups, monoterpenes have been a focus of scientific attention in atmospheric research. Detailed regional measurements and model estimates are needed to study emission potential and the monoterpene budget on a global scale. Since the use of empirical measurements for upscaling is limited by many physical and biological factors such as genetic variation, temperature and light, water availability, seasonal changes, and environmental stresses, comprehensive inventories over larger areas are difficult to obtain.

  7. Multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model of the ventilation experiment in Opalinus clay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Major, J.C.

    2008-10-15

    During the construction and operational phases of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository constructed in a clay formation, ventilation of underground drifts will cause desaturation and oxidation of the rock. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) was performed in a 1.3 m diameter unlined horizontal microtunnel on Opalinus clay at Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland to evaluate the impact of desaturation on rock properties. A multiphase flow and reactive transport model of VE is presented here. The model accounts for liquid, vapor and air flow, evaporation/condensation and multicomponent reactive solute transport with kinetic dissolution of pyrite and siderite and local-equilibrium dissolution/precipitation of calcite, ferrihydrite, dolomite, gypsum and quartz. Model results reproduce measured vapor flow, liquid pressure and hydrochemical data and capture the trends of measured relative humidities, although such data are slightly overestimated near the rock interface due to uncertainties in the turbulence factor. Rock desaturation allows oxygen to diffuse into the rock and triggers pyrite oxidation, dissolution of calcite and siderite, precipitation of ferrihydrite, dolomite and gypsum and cation exchange. pH in the unsaturated rock varies from 7.8 to 8 and is buffered by calcite. Computed changes in the porosity and the permeability of Opalinus clay in the unsaturated zone caused by oxidation and mineral dissolution/precipitation are smaller than 5%. Therefore, rock properties are not expected to be affected significantly by ventilation of underground drifts during construction and operational phases of a HLW repository in clay.

  8. Monte Carlo modeling of transport in PbSe nanocrystal films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbone, I. Carter, S. A.; Zimanyi, G. T.

    2013-11-21

    A Monte Carlo hopping model was developed to simulate electron and hole transport in nanocrystalline PbSe films. Transport is carried out as a series of thermally activated hopping events between neighboring sites on a cubic lattice. Each site, representing an individual nanocrystal, is assigned a size-dependent electronic structure, and the effects of particle size, charging, interparticle coupling, and energetic disorder on electron and hole mobilities were investigated. Results of simulated field-effect measurements confirm that electron mobilities and conductivities at constant carrier densities increase with particle diameter by an order of magnitude up to 5?nm and begin to decrease above 6?nm. We find that as particle size increases, fewer hops are required to traverse the same distance and that site energy disorder significantly inhibits transport in films composed of smaller nanoparticles. The dip in mobilities and conductivities at larger particle sizes can be explained by a decrease in tunneling amplitudes and by charging penalties that are incurred more frequently when carriers are confined to fewer, larger nanoparticles. Using a nearly identical set of parameter values as the electron simulations, hole mobility simulations confirm measurements that increase monotonically with particle size over two orders of magnitude.

  9. Mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Qinjin; Wang, Moran; Mukherjee, Partha P; Lichtner, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    We present our recent progress on mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media based on the lattice Boltzmann method. Simulation examples include injection of CO{sub 2} saturated brine into a limestone rock, two-phase behavior and flooding phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and electroosmosis in homogeneously charged porous media. It is shown that the lattice Boltzmann method can account for multiple, coupled physicochemical processes in these systems and can shed some light on the underlying physics occuning at the fundamental scale. Therefore, it can be a potential powerful numerical tool to analyze multi-physicochemical processes in various energy, earth, and environmental systems.

  10. A New Correlation ECE Diagnostic for C-Mod and Progress on Transport Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Validation | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab August 5, 2013, 2:00pm to 3:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium A New Correlation ECE Diagnostic for C-Mod and Progress on Transport Model Validation Professor Anne White Massachusetts Institute of Technology Presentation: PDF icon COLL.08.05.13A.pdf CMOD Update Professor Anne White *** PLEASE NOTE SPECIAL DATE AND TIME *** Monday, August 5, 2013, 2:00pm to 3:30pm Colloquium Committee: The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 2015-2016 Colloquium Committee

  11. Constraint-Based Routing Models for the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Steven K

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a historic programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing, tracking, and transportation risk analysis of radiological materials in the United States. In order to address these program goals, DOE has funded the development of several tools and related systems designed to provide insight to planners and other professionals handling radioactive materials shipments. These systems include the WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System) platform. WebTRAGIS is a browser-based routing application developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focused primarily on the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel from US nuclear reactors via railway, highway, or waterway. It is also used for the transport planning of low-level radiological waste to depositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. One particular feature of WebTRAGIS is its coupling with high-resolution population data from ORNL s LandScan project. This allows users to obtain highly accurate population count and density information for use in route planning and risk analysis. To perform the routing and risk analysis WebTRAGIS incorporates a basic routing model methodology, with the additional application of various constraints designed to mimic US Department of Transportation (DOT), DOE, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Aside from the routing models available in WebTRAGIS, the system relies on detailed or specialized modal networks for the route solutions. These include a highly detailed network model of the US railroad system, the inland and coastal waterways, and a specialized highway network that focuses on the US interstate system and the designated hazardous materials and Highway Route Controlled Quantity (HRCQ) -designated roadways. The route constraints in WebTRAGIS rely upon a series of attributes assigned to the various components of the different modal networks. Routes are determined via a constrained shortest-path Dijkstra algorithm that has an assigned impedance factor. The route constraints modify the various impedance weights to bias or prefer particular network characteristics as desired by the user. Both the basic route model and the constrained impedance function calculations are determined by a series of network characteristics and shipment types. The study examines solutions under various constraints modeled by WebTRAGIS including possible routes from select shut-down reactor sites in the US to specific locations in the US. For purposes of illustration, the designated destinations are Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. To the degree that routes express sameness or variety under constraints serves to illustrate either a) the determinism of particular transport modes by either configuration or regulatory compliance, and/or b) the variety of constrained routes that are regulation compliant but may not be operationally feasible.

  12. Applying GIS characterizing and modeling contaminant transport in surface water at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.; Van Eeckhout, E.; David, N.A.; Irvine, J.M.

    1995-10-01

    During World War II, Los Alamos, New Mexico was chosen as the site for the secret development of the first atomic bomb. The remote location in the southwestern United States was ideal for such a project. After the war, research activities continued at the Los Alamos installation, focusing on new nuclear weapons models as well as greater effectiveness and reliability of existing weapons. Due to the emphasis on nuclear and non-nuclear weapons development as well as associated nuclear research, a large inventory of radionuclides and heavy metals have been tested, expended, and disposed of in the local environment, a high plateau of tuffaceous volcanic rocks incised by deep canyons in a semi-arid climate. In recent years an intensive evaluation of the environmental, impact of weapons testing at Los Alamos and elsewhere has been undertaken. GIS system utilization and image processing of past and current data has been an important part of this evaluation. Important problems can be more easily displayed and understood using this methodology. The main objective in this paper is to illustrate how transport of depleted uranium and associated heavy metals (copper in this case) used in dynamic testing of weapons components at open air firing sites can be evaluated and visualized. In our studies, surface water has been found to be the predominant transport mechanism. We have sampled soils, sediments, fallout, runoff water and snowmelt over a number of years in order to understand contaminant transport on- and offsite. Statistical analyses of these data have assisted in our characterization of issues such as contaminant variability, spatially and temporally, as well as in development of transport rates.

  13. Development of a Hydrodynamic and Transport model of Bellingham Bay in Support of Nearshore Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2010-04-22

    In this study, a hydrodynamic model based on the unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was developed for Bellingham Bay, Washington. The model simulates water surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity in a three-dimensional domain that covers the entire Bellingham Bay and adjacent water bodies, including Lummi Bay, Samish Bay, Padilla Bay, and Rosario Strait. The model was developed using Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys high-resolution Puget Sound and Northwest Straits circulation and transport model. A sub-model grid for Bellingham Bay and adjacent coastal waters was extracted from the Puget Sound model and refined in Bellingham Bay using bathymetric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and river channel cross-section data. The model uses tides, river inflows, and meteorological inputs to predict water surface elevations, currents, salinity, and temperature. A tidal open boundary condition was specified using standard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) predictions. Temperature and salinity open boundary conditions were specified based on observed data. Meteorological forcing (wind, solar radiation, and net surface heat flux) was obtained from NOAA real observations and National Center for Environmental Prediction North American Regional Analysis outputs. The model was run in parallel with 48 cores using a time step of 2.5 seconds. It took 18 hours of cpu time to complete 26 days of simulation. The model was calibrated with oceanographic field data for the period of 6/1/2009 to 6/26/2009. These data were collected specifically for the purpose of model development and calibration. They include time series of water-surface elevation, currents, temperature, and salinity as well as temperature and salinity profiles during instrument deployment and retrieval. Comparisons between model predictions and field observations show an overall reasonable agreement in both temporal and spatial scales. Comparisons of root mean square error values for surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity time series are 0.11 m, 0.10 m/s, 1.28oC, and 1.91 ppt, respectively. The model was able to reproduce the salinity and temperature stratifications inside Bellingham Bay. Wetting and drying processes in tidal flats in Bellingham Bay, Samish Bay, and Padilla Bay were also successfully simulated. Both model results and observed data indicated that water surface elevations inside Bellingham Bay are highly correlated to tides. Circulation inside the bay is weak and complex and is affected by various forcing mechanisms, including tides, winds, freshwater inflows, and other local forcing factors. The Bellingham Bay model solution was successfully linked to the NOAA oil spill trajectory simulation model General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME). Overall, the Bellingham Bay model has been calibrated reasonably well and can be used to provide detailed hydrodynamic information in the bay and adjacent water bodies. While there is room for further improvement with more available data, the calibrated hydrodynamic model provides useful hydrodynamic information in Bellingham Bay and can be used to support sediment transport and water quality modeling as well as assist in the design of nearshore restoration scenarios.

  14. A simple stochastic quadrant model for the transport and deposition of particles in turbulent boundary layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, C.; Potts, I.; Reeks, M. W.

    2015-05-15

    We present a simple stochastic quadrant model for calculating the transport and deposition of heavy particles in a fully developed turbulent boundary layer based on the statistics of wall-normal fluid velocity fluctuations obtained from a fully developed channel flow. Individual particles are tracked through the boundary layer via their interactions with a succession of random eddies found in each of the quadrants of the fluid Reynolds shear stress domain in a homogeneous Markov chain process. In this way, we are able to account directly for the influence of ejection and sweeping events as others have done but without resorting to the use of adjustable parameters. Deposition rate predictions for a wide range of heavy particles predicted by the model compare well with benchmark experimental measurements. In addition, deposition rates are compared with those obtained from continuous random walk models and Langevin equation based ejection and sweep models which noticeably give significantly lower deposition rates. Various statistics related to the particle near wall behavior are also presented. Finally, we consider the model limitations in using the model to calculate deposition in more complex flows where the near wall turbulence may be significantly different.

  15. AURORA: A FORTRAN program for modeling well stirred plasma and thermal reactors with gas and surface reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meeks, E.; Grcar, J.F.; Kee, R.J.; Moffat, H.K.

    1996-02-01

    The AURORA Software is a FORTRAN computer program that predicts the steady-state or time-averaged properties of a well mixed or perfectly stirred reactor for plasma or thermal chemistry systems. The software was based on the previously released software, SURFACE PSR which was written for application to thermal CVD reactor systems. AURORA allows modeling of non-thermal, plasma reactors with the determination of ion and electron concentrations and the electron temperature, in addition to the neutral radical species concentrations. Well stirred reactors are characterized by a reactor volume, residence time or mass flow rate, heat loss or gas temperature, surface area, surface temperature, the incoming temperature and mixture composition, as well as the power deposited into the plasma for non-thermal systems. The model described here accounts for finite-rate elementary chemical reactions both in the gas phase and on the surface. The governing equations are a system of nonlinear algebraic relations. The program solves these equations using a hybrid Newton/time-integration method embodied by the software package TWOPNT. The program runs in conjunction with the new CHEMKIN-III and SURFACE CHEMKIN-III packages, which handle the chemical reaction mechanisms for thermal and non-thermal systems. CHEMKIN-III allows for specification of electron-impact reactions, excitation losses, and elastic-collision losses for electrons.

  16. Modeling reactive transport in deformable porous media using the theory of interacting continua.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Daniel Zack

    2012-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the work done as part of an Early Career LDRD aimed at modeling flow induced damage of materials involving chemical reactions, deformation of the porous matrix, and complex flow phenomena. The numerical formulation is motivated by a mixture theory or theory of interacting continua type approach to coupling the behavior of the fluid and the porous matrix. Results for the proposed method are presented for several engineering problems of interest including carbon dioxide sequestration, hydraulic fracturing, and energetic materials applications. This work is intended to create a general framework for flow induced damage that can be further developed in each of the particular areas addressed below. The results show both convincing proof of the methodologies potential and the need for further validation of the models developed.

  17. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Rehfeldt

    2004-10-08

    This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for groundwater management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model and provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral groundwater flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment (TSPA).

  18. Uranium Fate and Transport Modeling, Guterl Specialty Steel Site, New York - 13545

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, Bill; Tandon, Vikas

    2013-07-01

    The Former Guterl Specialty Steel Corporation Site (Guterl Site) is located 32 kilometers (20 miles) northeast of Buffalo, New York, in Lockport, Niagara County, New York. Between 1948 and 1952, up to 15,875 metric tons (35 million pounds) of natural uranium metal (U) were processed at the former Guterl Specialty Steel Corporation site in Lockport, New York. The resulting dust, thermal scale, mill shavings and associated land disposal contaminated both the facility and on-site soils. Uranium subsequently impacted groundwater and a fully developed plume exists below the site. Uranium transport from the site involves legacy on-site pickling fluid handling, the leaching of uranium from soil to groundwater, and the groundwater transport of dissolved uranium to the Erie Canal. Groundwater fate and transport modeling was performed to assess the transfer of dissolved uranium from the contaminated soils and buildings to groundwater and subsequently to the nearby Erie Canal. The modeling provides a tool to determine if the uranium contamination could potentially affect human receptors in the vicinity of the site. Groundwater underlying the site and in the surrounding area generally flows southeasterly towards the Erie Canal; locally, groundwater is not used as a drinking water resource. The risk to human health was evaluated outside the Guterl Site boundary from the possibility of impacted groundwater discharging to and mixing with the Erie Canal waters. This condition was evaluated because canal water is infrequently used as an emergency water supply for the City of Lockport via an intake located approximately 122 meters (m) (400 feet [ft]) southeast of the Guterl Site. Modeling was performed to assess whether mixing of groundwater with surface water in the Erie Canal could result in levels of uranium exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) established drinking water standard for total uranium; the Maximum Concentration Limit (MCL). Geotechnical test data indicate that the major portion of uranium in the soil will adsorb or remain bound to soil, yet leaching to groundwater appears as an on-site source. Soil leaching was modeled using low adsorption factors to replicate worst-case conditions where the uranium leaches to the groundwater. Results indicate that even after several decades, which is the period of time since uranium was processed at the Guterl Site, leaching from soil does not fully account for the currently observed levels of groundwater contamination. Modeling results suggest that there were historic releases of uranium from processing operations directly to the shallow fractured rock and possibly other geochemical conditions that have produced the current groundwater contamination. Groundwater data collected at the site between 1997 and 2011 do not indicate an increasing level of uranium in the main plume, thus the uranium adsorbed to the soil is in equilibrium with the groundwater geochemistry and transport conditions. Consequently, increases in the overall plume concentration or size are not expected. Groundwater flowing through fractures under the Guterl Site transports dissolved uranium from the site to the Erie Canal, where the groundwater has been observed to seep from the northern canal wall at some locations. The seeps discharge uranium at concentrations near or below the MCL to the Erie Canal. Conservative mixing calculations were performed using two worst-case assumptions: 1) the seeps were calculated as contiguous discharges from the Erie Canal wall and 2) the uranium concentration of the seepage is 274 micrograms per liter (?g/L) of uranium, which is the highest on-site uranium concentration in groundwater and nearly ten-fold the actual seep concentrations. The results indicate that uranium concentrations in the seep water would have to be more than 200 times greater than the highest observed on-site groundwater concentrations (or nearly 55,000 ?g/L) to potentially exceed the drinking water standard (the MCL) for total uranium in the Erie Canal. (authors)

  19. Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

  20. Mesoscale Phase-Field Modeling of Charge Transport in Nanocomposite Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sushko, Maria L.

    2013-01-10

    A phase-field model is developed to investigate the influence of microstructure, thermodynamic and kinetic properties, and charging conditions on charged particle transport in nanocomposite electrodes. Two sets of field variables are used to describe the microstructure. One is comprised of the order parameters describing size, orientation and spatial distributions of nanoparticles, and the other is comprised of the concentrations of mobile species. A porous nanoparticle microstructure filled with electrolyte is taken as a model system to test the phase-field model. Inhomogeneous and anisotropic dielectric constants and mobilities of charged particles, and stresses associated with lattice deformation due to Li-ion insertion/extraction are considered in the model. Iteration methods are used to find the elastic and electric fields in an elastically and electrically inhomogeneous medium. The results demonstrate that the model is capable of predicting charge separation associated with the formation of a double layer at the electrochemical interface between solid and electrolyte, and the effect of microstructure, inhomogeneous and anisotropic thermodynamic and kinetic properties, charge rates, and stresses on voltage versus current density and capacity during charging and discharging.

  1. Three-dimensional transport and concentration of SF{sub 6} - a model intercomparison study (transcom 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denning, A.S.; Holzer, M.; Burney, K.R.; Heimann, M.; Law, R.M.; Rayner, P.J.; Fund, I.Y.; Fan, S.M.; Taguchi, S.; Friedlingstein, P.; Balkanski, Y.; Taylor, J.; Maiss, M.; Levin, I.

    1999-01-02

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an excellent tracer of large-scale atmospheric transport, because it has slowly increasing sources mostly confined to northern midlatitudes, and has a lifetime of thousands of years. We have simulated the emissions, transport, and concentration of SF, for a 5-year period, and compared the results with atmospheric observations. In addition, we have performed an intercomparison of interhemispheric transport among 11 models to investigate the reasons for the differences among the simulations. Most of the models are reasonably successful at simulating the observed meridional gradient of SF6 in the remote marine boundary layer, though there is less agreement at continental sites. Models that compare well to observations in the remote marine boundary layer tend to systematically overestimate SF6 at continental locations in source regions, suggesting that vertical trapping rather than meridional transport may be a dominant control on the simulated meridional gradient. The vertical structure of simulated SF6 in the models supports this interpretation. Some of the models perform quite well in terms of the simulated seasonal cycle at remote locations, while others do not. Interhemispheric exchange time varies by a factor of 2 when estimated from 1-dimensional meridional profiles at the surface, as has been done for observations. The agreement among models is better when the global surface mean mole fraction is used, and better still when the full 3-dimensional mean mixing ratio is used. The ranking of the interhemispheric exchange time among the models is not sensitive to the change From station values to surface means, but is very sensitive to the change from surface means to the full 3-dimensional tracer fields. This strengthens the argument that vertical redistribution dominates over interhemispheric transport in determining the meridional gradient at the surface. Vertically integrated meridional transport in the models is divided roughly equally into transport by the mean motion, the standing eddies, and the transient eddies. The vertically integrated mass flux is a good index of the degree to which resolved advection vs. parameterized diffusion accomplishes the meridional transport of SF6. Observational programs could provide a much better constraint on simulated chemical tracer transport if they included regular sampling of vertical profiles of nonreactive trace gases over source regions and meridional profiles in the middle to upper troposphere. Further analysis of the SF6 simulations will focus on the subgrid-scale parameterized transports.

  2. Non-equilibrium STLS approach to transport properties of single impurity Anderson model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezai, Raheleh Ebrahimi, Farshad

    2014-04-15

    In this work, using the non-equilibrium Keldysh formalism, we study the effects of the electronelectron interaction and the electron-spin correlation on the non-equilibrium Kondo effect and the transport properties of the symmetric single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) at zero temperature by generalizing the self-consistent method of Singwi, Tosi, Land, and Sjolander (STLS) for a single-band tight-binding model with Hubbard type interaction to out of equilibrium steady-states. We at first determine in a self-consistent manner the non-equilibrium spin correlation function, the effective Hubbard interaction, and the double-occupancy at the impurity site. Then, using the non-equilibrium STLS spin polarization function in the non-equilibrium formalism of the iterative perturbation theory (IPT) of Yosida and Yamada, and Horvatic and Zlatic, we compute the spectral density, the currentvoltage characteristics and the differential conductance as functions of the applied bias and the strength of on-site Hubbard interaction. We compare our spectral densities at zero bias with the results of numerical renormalization group (NRG) and depict the effects of the electronelectron interaction and electron-spin correlation at the impurity site on the aforementioned properties by comparing our numerical result with the order U{sup 2} IPT. Finally, we show that the obtained numerical results on the differential conductance have a quadratic universal scaling behavior and the resulting Kondo temperature shows an exponential behavior. -- Highlights: We introduce for the first time the non-equilibrium method of STLS for Hubbard type models. We determine the transport properties of SIAM using the non-equilibrium STLS method. We compare our results with order-U2 IPT and NRG. We show that non-equilibrium STLS, contrary to the GW and self-consistent RPA, produces the two Hubbard peaks in DOS. We show that the method keeps the universal scaling behavior and correct exponential behavior of Kondo temperature.

  3. ACCELERATION OF LOW-ENERGY IONS AT PARALLEL SHOCKS WITH A FOCUSED TRANSPORT MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Pingbing; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2013-04-10

    We present a test particle simulation on the injection and acceleration of low-energy suprathermal particles by parallel shocks with a focused transport model. The focused transport equation contains all necessary physics of shock acceleration, but avoids the limitation of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) that requires a small pitch angle anisotropy. This simulation verifies that the particles with speeds of a fraction of to a few times the shock speed can indeed be directly injected and accelerated into the DSA regime by parallel shocks. At higher energies starting from a few times the shock speed, the energy spectrum of accelerated particles is a power law with the same spectral index as the solution of standard DSA theory, although the particles are highly anisotropic in the upstream region. The intensity, however, is different from that predicted by DSA theory, indicating a different level of injection efficiency. It is found that the shock strength, the injection speed, and the intensity of an electric cross-shock potential (CSP) jump can affect the injection efficiency of the low-energy particles. A stronger shock has a higher injection efficiency. In addition, if the speed of injected particles is above a few times the shock speed, the produced power-law spectrum is consistent with the prediction of standard DSA theory in both its intensity and spectrum index with an injection efficiency of 1. CSP can increase the injection efficiency through direct particle reflection back upstream, but it has little effect on the energetic particle acceleration once the speed of injected particles is beyond a few times the shock speed. This test particle simulation proves that the focused transport theory is an extension of DSA theory with the capability of predicting the efficiency of particle injection.

  4. Re-evaluation of a subsurface injection experiment for testing flow and transport models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, M.J.; Lewis, R.E.; Engelman, R.E.; Pearson, A.L.; Murray, C.J.; Smoot, J.L. Lu, A.H.; Randall, P.R.; Wegener, W.H.

    1995-12-01

    The current preferred method for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Hanford Site is to vitrify the wastes so they can be stored in a near-surface, shallow-land burial facility (Shord 1995). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) managed the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a disposal facility for the vitrified LLW. Vadose zone flow and transport models are recognized as necessary tools for baseline risk assessments of stored waste forms. The objective of the Controlled Field Testing task of the PVTD Project is to perform and analyze field experiments to demonstrate the appropriateness of conceptual models for the performance assessment. The most convincing way to demonstrate appropriateness is to show that the model can reproduce the movement of water and contaminants in the field. Before expensive new experiments are initiated, an injection experiment conducted at the Hanford Site in 1980 (designated the ``Sisson and the Lu experiment``) should be completely analyzed and understood. Briefly, in that test, a solution containing multiple tracers was injected at a single point into the subsurface sediments. The resulting spread of the water and tracers was monitored in wells surrounding the injection point. Given the advances in knowledge, computational capabilities, and models over the last 15 years, it is important to re-analyze the data before proceeding to other experiments and history-matching exercises.

  5. Coupling a Reactive Transport Code with a Global Land Surface Model for Mechanistic Biogeochemistry Representation: 1. Addressing the Challenge of Nonnegativity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tang, Guoping; Yuan, Fengming; Bisht, Gautam; Hammond, Glenn E.; Lichtner, Peter C.; Collier, Nathaniel O; Kumar, Jitendra; Mills, Richard T; Xu, Xiaofeng; Andre, Ben; et al

    2016-01-01

    Reactive transport codes (e.g., PFLOTRAN) are increasingly used to improve the representation of biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystem models (e.g., the Community Land Model, CLM). As CLM and PFLOTRAN use explicit and implicit time stepping, implementation of CLM biogeochemical reactions in PFLOTRAN can result in negative concentration, which is not physical and can cause numerical instability and errors. The objective of this work is to address the nonnegativity challenge to obtain accurate, efficient, and robust solutions. We illustrate the implementation of a reaction network with the CLM-CN decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and plant nitrogen uptake reactions and test the implementation atmore » arctic, temperate, and tropical sites. We examine use of scaling back the update during each iteration (SU), log transformation (LT), and downregulating the reaction rate to account for reactant availability limitation to enforce nonnegativity. Both SU and LT guarantee nonnegativity but with implications. When a very small scaling factor occurs due to either consumption or numerical overshoot, and the iterations are deemed converged because of too small an update, SU can introduce excessive numerical error. LT involves multiplication of the Jacobian matrix by the concentration vector, which increases the condition number, decreases the time step size, and increases the computational cost. Neither SU nor SE prevents zero concentration. When the concentration is close to machine precision or 0, a small positive update stops all reactions for SU, and LT can fail due to a singular Jacobian matrix. The consumption rate has to be downregulated such that the solution to the mathematical representation is positive. A first-order rate downregulates consumption and is nonnegative, and adding a residual concentration makes it positive. For zero-order rate or when the reaction rate is not a function of a reactant, representing the availability limitation of each reactant with a Monod substrate limiting function provides a smooth transition between a zero-order rate when the reactant is abundant and first-order rate when the reactant becomes limiting. When the half saturation is small, marching through the transition may require small time step sizes to resolve the sharp change within a small range of concentration values. Our results from simple tests and CLM-PFLOTRAN simulations caution against use of SU and indicate that accurate, stable, and relatively efficient solutions can be achieved with LT and downregulation with Monod substrate limiting function and residual concentration.« less

  6. Object Modeling for Transport of Physical Objects or Substances Across a Geograc

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-02-12

    TRANSPORTNET, a suite of object classes, addresses the general problem of simulating transport of objects or substances across a geographically distributed network. This highly abstract concept supports subclassed networks of many types, including road, rail, air, and navigation transportation networks, drainage (hydrological) networks, and utility networks of various sorts, such as pipelines, transmission lines, etc. In TRANSPORTNET, transport occurs along transport links which are connected by transport nodes. The concepts of link and node aremore » also highly abstracted and subject to several topological variants (subclasses), subject to the constraint that all transport takes place along links, and links are connected at the nodes.« less

  7. Heavy-quark production in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions within a partonic transport model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uphoff, Jan; Fochler, Oliver; Greiner, Carsten; Xu Zhe

    2010-10-15

    The production and space-time evolution of charm and bottom quarks in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are investigated with the partonic transport model BAMPS (Boltzmann approach of multiparton scatterings). Heavy quarks, produced in primary hard parton scatterings during nucleon-nucleon collisions, are sampled using the Monte Carlo event generator pythia or the leading-order minijet model in conjunction with the Glauber model, revealing a strong sensitivity on the parton distribution functions, scales, and heavy-quark mass. In a comprehensive study exploring different charm masses, K factors, and possible initial gluon conditions, secondary production and the evolution of heavy quarks are examined within a fully dynamic BAMPS simulation for central heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Although charm production in the quark-gluon plasma can be neglected at RHIC, it is significant at LHC but very sensitive to the initial conditions and the charm mass. Bottom production in the quark-gluon plasma, however, is negligible both at RHIC and LHC.

  8. Laboratory And Lysimeter Experimentation And Transport Modeling Of Neptunium And Strontium In Savannah River Site Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Powell, B. A.; Miller, Todd J.

    2012-09-24

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the appropriate amount of low-level radiological waste that can be safely disposed on site. Parameters are included in these calculations that account for the interaction between the immobile solid phase and the mobile aqueous phase. These parameters are either the distribution coefficient (K{sub d} value) or the apparent solubility value (K{sub sp}). These parameters are readily found in the literature and are used throughout the DOE complex. One shortcoming of K{sub d} values is that they are only applicable to a given set of solid and aqueous phase conditions. Therefore, a given radionuclide may have several K{sub d} values as it moves between formations and comes into contact with different solids and different aqueous phases. It is expected that the K{sub d} construct will be appropriate to use for a majority of the PA and for a majority of the radionuclides. However, semi-mechanistic models would be more representative in isolated cases where the chemistry is especially transitory or the radionuclide chemistry is especially complex, bringing to bear multiple species of varying sorption tendencies to the sediment. Semi-mechanistic models explicitly accommodate the dependency of K{sub d} values, or other sorption parameters, on contaminant concentration, competing ion concentrations, pH-dependent surface charge on the adsorbent, and solute species distribution. Incorporating semi-mechanistic concepts into geochemical models is desirable to make the models more robust and technically defensible. Furthermore, these alternative models could be used to augment or validate a Kd?based DOE Order 435.1 Performance Assessment. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a quantitative thermodynamically-based model for neptunium sorption to SRS sediments, and 2) determine a sorption constant from an SRS 11-year lysimeter study. The modeling studies were conducted with existing data sets. The first data set used laboratory generated Np sorption data as a function of concentration (three orders of magnitude) and as a function of pH (four orders of magnitude of proton concentration). In this modeling exercise, a very simple solution was identified by assuming that all sorption occurred only to the iron oxides in the sediment and that all the added NpO{sub 4}{sup -} remained in the oxidized state and was not reduced to the Np(IV) state (as occurs rapidly with Pu(V)). With rather limited input data, very good agreement between experimental and modeling results was observed. This modeling approach would be easy to add to the PA with little additional data requirements. This model would be useful in a system where pH is expected to change greatly, such as directly beneath a grout or concrete structure. The second model discussed in the report was to derive strontium K{sub d} values from data collected in an 11-year-old field transport study. In this controlled lysimeter study, a sensitivity analysis was conducted of hydrological and chemical processes that influence contaminant transport, including diffusion coefficients, seepage velocity, and K{sub d} value. The best overall K{sub d} derived from the model fit to the data was 32 L kg{sup -1}, which was the same value that was previously measured in traditional laboratory batch sorption studies. This was an unexpected result given the differences in experimental conditions between the batch test and the lysimeter flow through test, in particular the differences between strontium adsorption and desorption processes occurring in the latter test and not in the former. There were some trends in the lysimeter strontium data that were not predicted by the K{sub d} model, which suggest that other geochemical processes are likely also controlling strontium transport. Strontium release and cation exchange are being evaluated. These results suggest that future modeling efforts (e.g., PAs) could be improved by employing a more robust semi-empirical modeling approach to transient or complex conditio

  9. MELTER: A model of the thermal response of cargos transported in the Safe-Secure Trailer subject to fire environments for risk assessment applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    MELTER is an analysis of cargo responses inside a fire-threatened Safe-Secure Trailer (SST) developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA). Many simplifying assumptions are required to make the subject problem tractable. MELTER incorporates modeling which balances the competing requirements of execution speed, generality, completeness of essential physics, and robustness. Input parameters affecting the analysis include those defining the fire scenario, those defining the cargo loaded in the SST, and those defining properties of the SST. For a specified fire, SST, and cargo geometry MELTER predicts the critical fire duration that will lead to a failure. The principal features of the analysis include: (a) Geometric considerations to interpret fire-scenario descriptors in terms of a thermal radiation boundary condition, (b) a simple model of the SST`s wall combining the diffusion model for radiation through optically-thick media with an endothermic reaction front to describe the charring of dimensional, rigid foam in the SST wall, (c) a transient radiation enclosure model, (d) a one-dimensional, spherical idealization of the shipped cargos providing modularity so that cargos of interest can be inserted into the model, and (e) associated numerical methods to integrate coupled, differential equations and find roots.

  10. Application of Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging to Groundwater Flow and Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2008-06-01

    A methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess model predictive uncertainty was applied to saturated zone uranium transport at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. The methodology extends Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging (MLBMA) to account jointly for uncertainties due to the conceptual-mathematical basis of models, model parameters, and the scenarios to which the models are applied. Conceptual uncertainty was represented by postulating four alternative models of hydrogeology and uranium adsorption. Parameter uncertainties were represented by estimation covariances resulting from the joint calibration of each model to observed heads and uranium concentration. Posterior model probability was dominated by one model. Results demonstrated the role of model complexity and fidelity to observed system behavior in determining model probabilities, as well as the impact of prior information. Two scenarios representing alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. Predictive simulations carried out with the calibrated models illustrated the computation of model- and scenario-averaged predictions and how results can be displayed to clearly indicate the individual contributions to predictive uncertainty of the model, parameter, and scenario uncertainties. The application demonstrated the practicability of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modelling.

  11. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-world Data for Planning, Modeling, and Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC) at www.nrel.gov/tsdc provides free, web-based access to detailed transportation data from a variety of travel surveys conducted across the nation. While preserving the privacy of survey participants, this online repository makes vital transportation data broadly available to users from the comfort of their own desks via a secure online connection.

  12. Numerical Modeling of 90Sr and 137Cs Transport from a Spill in the B-Cell of the 324 Building, Hanford Site 300 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Bacon, Diana H.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2012-03-19

    To characterize the extent of contamination under the 324 Building, a pit was excavated on the north side of the building in 2010 by Washington Closure Hanford LLC (WCH). Horizontal closed-end steel access pipes were installed under the foundation of the building from this pit and were used for measuring temperatures and exposure rates under the B-Cell. The deployed sensors measured elevated temperatures of up to 61 C (142 F) and exposure rates of up to 8,900 R/hr. WCH suspended deactivation of the facility because it recognized that building safety systems and additional characterization data might be needed for remediation of the contaminated material. The characterization work included additional field sampling, laboratory measurements, and numerical flow and transport modeling. Laboratory measurements of sediment physical, hydraulic, and geochemical properties were performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and others. Geochemical modeling and subsurface flow and transport modeling also were performed by PNNL to evaluate the possible extent of contamination in the unsaturated sand and gravel sediments underlying the building. Historical records suggest that the concentrated 137Cs- and 90Sr-bearing liquid wastes that were spilled in B-Cell were likely from a glass-waste repository testing program associated with the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Incomplete estimates of the aqueous chemical composition (no anion data provided) of the FRG waste solutions were entered into a geochemical speciation model and were charge balanced with nitrate to estimate waste composition. Additional geochemical modeling was performed to evaluate reactions of the waste stream with the concrete foundation of the building prior to the stream entering the subsurface.

  13. Transportation Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Transportation Energyadmin2015-05-14T22:34:50+00:00 Transportation Energy The national-level objective for the future is to create a carbon-neutral fleet that is powered by low-carbon US sources. Sandia delivers advanced technologies and design tools to the broad transportation sector in the following areas: Predictive Simulation of Engines Fuel sprays and their transition from the liquid to gas phase and computationally tractable models that capture the physics of combustion. Convergence of

  14. The H2O2+OH ? HO2+H2O reaction in aqueous solution from a charge-dependent continuum model of solvation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginovska, Bojana; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dupuis, Michel

    2008-07-07

    We applied our recently developed protocol of the conductor-like continuum model of solvation to describe the title reaction in aqueous solution. The model has the unique feature of the molecular cavity being dependent on the atomic charges in the solute, and can be extended naturally to transition states and reaction pathways. It was used to calculate the reaction energetics and reaction rate in solution for the title reaction. The rate of reaction calculated using canonical variational transition state theory CVT in the context of the equilibrium solvation path (ESP) approximation, and including correction for tunneling through the small curvature approximation (SCT) was found to be 3.6 106 M-1 s-1, in very good agreement with experiment, These results suggest that the present protocol of the conductor-like continuum model of solvation with the charge-dependent cavity definition captures accurately the solvation effects at transition states and allows for quantitative estimates of reaction rates in solutions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  15. Final Technical Report - Stochastic Analysis of Advection-Diffusion-reaction Systems with Applications to Reactive Transport in Porous Media - DE-FG02-07ER24818

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karniadakis, George Em

    2014-03-11

    The main objective of this project is to develop new computational tools for uncertainty quantifica- tion (UQ) of systems governed by stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) with applications to advection-diffusion-reaction systems. We pursue two complementary approaches: (1) generalized polynomial chaos and its extensions and (2) a new theory on deriving PDF equations for systems subject to color noise. The focus of the current work is on high-dimensional systems involving tens or hundreds of uncertain parameters.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Transportation Energy Transition Modeling and Analysis: the LAVE-Trans Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about transportation...

  17. Phase transitions in a reaction-diffusion model on a line with boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khorrami, Mohammad Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2014-03-15

    A one-dimensional model on a line of length L is investigated, which involves particle diffusion as well as single particle annihilation. There are also creation and annihilation at the boundaries. The static and dynamical behaviors of the system are studied. It is seen that the system could exhibit a dynamical phase transition. For small drift velocities, the relaxation time does not depend on the absorption rates at the boundaries. This is the fast phase. For large velocities, the smaller of the absorption rates at boundaries enter the relaxation rate and makes it longer. This is the slow phase. Finally, the effect of a random particle creation in the bulk is also investigated.

  18. NUMERICAL MODELING OF CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT IN FRACTURED POROUS MEDIA USING MIXED FINITE ELEMENT AND FINITE VOLUME METHODS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, G.; Dong, C.; Sun, S.

    2010-03-18

    A mathematical model for contaminant species passing through fractured porous media is presented. In the numerical model, we combine two locally conservative methods, i.e. mixed finite element (MFE) and the finite volume methods. Adaptive triangle mesh is used for effective treatment of the fractures. A hybrid MFE method is employed to provide an accurate approximation of velocities field for both the fractures and matrix which are crucial to the convection part of the transport equation. The finite volume method and the standard MFE method are used to approximate the convection and dispersion terms respectively. The model is used to investigate the interaction of adsorption with transport and to extract information on effective adsorption distribution coefficients. Numerical examples in different fractured media illustrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed numerical model.

  19. Mathematical modeling of positron emission tomography (PET) data to assess radiofluoride transport in living plants following petiolar administration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Converse, Alexander K.; Ahlers, Elizabeth O.; Bryan, Tom W.; Hetue, Jackson D.; Lake, Katherine A.; Ellison, Paul A.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Williams, Paul H.; et al

    2015-03-15

    Background: Ion transport is a fundamental physiological process that can be studied non-invasively in living plants with radiotracer imaging methods. Fluoride is a known phytotoxic pollutant and understanding its transport in plants after leaf absorption is of interest to those in agricultural areas near industrial sources of airborne fluoride. Here we report the novel use of a commercial, high-resolution, animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner to trace a bolus of [¹⁸F]fluoride administered via bisected petioles of Brassica oleracea, an established model species, to simulate whole plant uptake of atmospheric fluoride. This methodology allows for the first time mathematical compartmental modelingmore » of fluoride transport in the living plant. Radiotracer kinetics in the stem were described with a single-parameter free- and trapped-compartment model and mean arrival times at different stem positions were calculated from the free-compartment time-activity curves. Results: After initiation of administration at the bisected leaf stalk, [¹⁸F] radioactivity climbed for approximately 10 minutes followed by rapid washout from the stem and equilibration within leaves. Kinetic modeling of transport in the stem yielded a trapping rate of 1.5 +/- 0.3%/min (mean +/- s.d., n = 3), velocity of 2.2 +/- 1.1 cm/min, and trapping fraction of 0.8 +/- 0.5%/cm. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of physiologically meaningful transport parameters of fluoride in living plants is possible using standard positron emission tomography in combination with petiolar radiotracer administration. Movement of free fluoride was observed to be consistent with bulk flow in xylem, namely a rapid and linear change in position with respect to time. Trapping, likely in the apoplast, was observed. Future applications of the methods described here include studies of transport of other ions and molecules of interest in plant physiology.« less

  20. Phase I Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan Bryant

    2008-05-01

    This document presents a summary and framework of available transport data and other information directly relevant to the development of the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RMSM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 99 groundwater transport model. Where appropriate, data and information documented elsewhere are briefly summarized with reference to the complete documentation.

  1. Hadron Cancer Therapy: Role of Nuclear Reactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Chadwick, M. B.

    2000-06-20

    Recently it has become feasible to calculate energy deposition and particle transport in the body by proton and neutron radiotherapy beams, using Monte Carlo transport methods. A number of advances have made this possible, including dramatic increases in computer speeds, a better understanding of the microscopic nuclear reaction cross sections, and the development of methods to model the characteristics of the radiation emerging from the accelerator treatment unit. This paper describes the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved, and how the cross sections have been evaluated from theory and experiment, for use in computer simulations of radiation therapy. The simulations will allow the dose delivered to a tumor to be optimized, whilst minimizing the dos given to nearby organs at risk.

  2. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Planning, Modeling, and Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC) - an NREL-operated resource that provides secure access to detailed GPS travel data for valuable research purposes in a way that protects original participant privacy.

  3. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Planning, Modeling and Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database gives, metropolitan planning organizations, universities, national laboratories, air quality management districts, disaster planning agencies and auto manufacturers free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

  4. Cosmic ray transport in heliospheric magnetic structures. I. Modeling background solar wind using the CRONOS magnetohydrodynamic code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiengarten, T.; Kleimann, J.; Fichtner, H.; Kühl, P.; Kopp, A.; Heber, B.; Kissmann, R.

    2014-06-10

    The transport of energetic particles such as cosmic rays is governed by the properties of the plasma being traversed. While these properties are rather poorly known for galactic and interstellar plasmas due to the lack of in situ measurements, the heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric transport of energetic particles are structures such as corotating interaction regions, which, due to strongly enhanced magnetic field strengths, turbulence, and associated shocks, can act as diffusion barriers on the one hand, but also as accelerators of low energy CRs on the other hand as well. In a two-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with a numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) setup (this paper), which will serve as an input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (second paper). In this first paper, we present results from 3D MHD simulations with our code CRONOS: for validation purposes we use analytic boundary conditions and compare with similar work by Pizzo. For a more realistic modeling of solar wind conditions, boundary conditions derived from synoptic magnetograms via the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model are utilized, where the potential field modeling is performed with a finite-difference approach in contrast to the traditional spherical harmonics expansion often utilized in the WSA model. Our results are validated by comparing with multi-spacecraft data for ecliptical (STEREO-A/B) and out-of-ecliptic (Ulysses) regions.

  5. A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, F.

    1995-07-01

    The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

  6. Developing a robust geochemical and reactive transport model to evaluate possible sources of arsenic at the CO[subscript 2] sequestration natural analog site in Chimayo, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Hari; Dai, Zhenxue; Lopano, Christina; Keating, Elizabeth; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Zheng, Liange; Gutherie, George D.; Pawar, Rajesh

    2012-10-24

    Migration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from deep storage formations into shallow drinking water aquifers is a possible system failure related to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration. A CO{sub 2} leak may cause mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions, changes in aqueous speciation, and alteration of pH and redox conditions leading to potential increases of trace metal concentrations above EPA National Primary Drinking Water Standards. In this study, the Chimayo site (NM) was examined for site-specific impacts of shallow groundwater interacting with CO{sub 2} from deep storage formations. Major ion and trace element chemistry for the site have been previously studied. This work focuses on arsenic (As), which is regulated by the EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act and for which some wells in the Chimayo area have concentrations higher than the maximum contaminant level (MCL). Statistical analysis of the existing Chimayo groundwater data indicates that As is strongly correlated with trace metals U and Pb indicating that their source may be from the same deep subsurface water. Batch experiments and materials characterization, such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF), were used to identify As association with Fe-rich phases, such as clays or oxides, in the Chimayo sediments as the major factor controlling As fate in the subsurface. Batch laboratory experiments with Chimayo sediments and groundwater show that pH decreases as CO{sub 2} is introduced into the system and buffered by calcite. The introduction of CO{sub 2} causes an immediate increase in As solution concentration, which then decreases over time. A geochemical model was developed to simulate these batch experiments and successfully predicted the pH drop once CO{sub 2} was introduced into the experiment. In the model, sorption of As to illite, kaolinite and smectite through surface complexation proved to be the key reactions in simulating the drop in As concentration as a function of time in the batch experiments. Based on modeling, kaolinite precipitation is anticipated to occur during the experiment, which allows for additional sorption sites to form with time resulting in the slow decrease in As concentration. This mechanism can be viewed as trace metal 'scavenging' due to sorption caused secondary mineral precipitation. Since deep geologic transport of these trace metals to the shallow subsurface by brine or CO{sub 2} intrusion is critical to assessing environmental impacts, the effective retardation of trace metal transport is an important parameter to estimate and it is dependent on multiple coupled reactions. At the field scale, As mobility is retarded due to the influence of sorption reactions, which can affect environmental performance assessment studies of a sequestration site.

  7. Numerical modeling of the groundwater contaminant transport for the Lake Karachai Area: The methodological approach and the basic two- dimensional regional model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, A.V.; Samsonova, L.M.; Vasil`kova, N.A.; Zinin, A.I.; Zinina, G.A. |

    1994-06-01

    Methodological aspects of the numerical modeling of the groundwater contaminant transport for the Lake Karachay area are discussed. Main features of conditions of the task are the high grade of non-uniformity of the aquifer in the fractured rock massif and the high density of the waste solutions, and also the high volume of the input data: both on the part of parameters of the aquifer (number of pump tests) and on the part of observations of functions of processes (long-time observations by the monitoring well grid). The modeling process for constructing the two dimensional regional model is described, and this model is presented as the basic model for subsequent full three-dimensional modeling in sub-areas of interest. Original powerful mathematical apparatus and computer codes for finite-difference numerical modeling are used.

  8. Evaluation of the Atmospheric Transport Model in the MACCS2 Code and its Impact on Decision Making at DOE Sites

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the Atmospheric Transport Model in the MACCS2 Code and its Impact on Decision Making at Department of Energy Sites John E. Till and Arthur S. Rood June 5, 2012 RAC Historical Dose Reconstruction Projects Environmental Risk Assessment "Understanding and communicating the movement of radionuclides and chemicals released to the environment, resulting exposure to humans, and the subsequent dose or risk from exposure." Types of Dose/Risk  Medical  Occupational  Public Dose/Risk Can

  9. CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response): A Generic Transportation Network Model for the Calculation of Evacuation Time Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, M. P.; Urbanik, II, T.; Desrosiers, A. E.

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the methodology and application of the computer model CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response) which estimates the time required for a specific population density and distribution to evacuate an area using a specific transportation network. The CLEAR model simulates vehicle departure and movement on a transportation network according to the conditions and consequences of traffic flow. These include handling vehicles at intersecting road segments, calculating the velocity of travel on a road segment as a function of its vehicle density, and accounting for the delay of vehicles in traffic queues. The program also models the distribution of times required by individuals to prepare for an evacuation. In order to test its accuracy, the CLEAR model was used to estimate evacuatlon tlmes for the emergency planning zone surrounding the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Plant. The Beaver Valley site was selected because evacuation time estimates had previously been prepared by the licensee, Duquesne Light, as well as by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. A lack of documentation prevented a detailed comparison of the estimates based on the CLEAR model and those obtained by Duquesne Light. However, the CLEAR model results compared favorably with the estimates prepared by the other two agencies.

  10. BETR-world: A geographically explicit model of chemical fate: Application to transport of a-HCH to the arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toose, Liisa; Woodfine, David G.; MacLeod, Matthew; Mackay, Don; Gouin, Jenn

    2003-12-01

    The Berkeley Trent (BETR)-World model, a 25 compartment, geographically explicit fugacity-based model is described and applied to evaluate the transport of chemicals from temperate source regions to receptor regions (such as the Arctic). The model was parameterized using GIS and an array of digital data on weather, oceans, freshwater, vegetation and geo-political boundaries. This version of the BETR model framework includes modification of atmospheric degradation rates by seasonally variable hydroxyl radical concentrations and temperature. Degradation rates in all other compartments vary with seasonally changing temperature. Deposition to the deep ocean has been included as a loss mechanism. A case study was undertaken for a-HCH. Dynamic emission scenarios were estimated for each of the 25 regions. Predicted environmental concentrations showed good agreement with measured values for the northern regions in air , and fresh and oceanic water and with the results from a previous model of global chemical fate. Potential for long-range transport and deposition to the Arctic region was assessed using a Transfer Efficiency combined with estimated emissions. European regions and the Orient including China have a high potential to contribute a-HCH contamination in the Arctic due to high rates of emission in these regions despite low Transfer Efficiencies. Sensitivity analyses reveal that the performance and reliability of the model is strongly in sequenced by parameters controlling degradation rates.

  11. Phase II Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg Ruskuaff

    2010-01-01

    This document, the Phase II Frenchman Flat transport report, presents the results of radionuclide transport simulations that incorporate groundwater radionuclide transport model statistical and structural uncertainty, and lead to forecasts of the contaminant boundary (CB) for a set of representative models from an ensemble of possible models. This work, as described in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) strategy (FFACO, 1996; amended 2010), forms an essential part of the technical basis for subsequent negotiation of the compliance boundary of the Frenchman Flat corrective action unit (CAU) by Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Underground nuclear testing via deep vertical shafts was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1951 until 1992. The Frenchman Flat area, the subject of this report, was used for seven years, with 10 underground nuclear tests being conducted. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NNSA/NSO initiated the UGTA Project to assess and evaluate the effects of underground nuclear tests on groundwater at the NTS and vicinity through the FFACO (1996, amended 2010). The processes that will be used to complete UGTA corrective actions are described in the Corrective Action Strategy in the FFACO Appendix VI, Revision No. 2 (February 20, 2008).

  12. Simulation of oil-slick transport in Great Lakes connecting channels. Volume 1. Theory and model formulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, H.T.; Yapa, P.D.; Petroski, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    In this study, two computer models named as ROSS and LROSS are developed for simulating oil-slick transport in rivers and lakes, respectively. The oil slick transformation processes considered in these models include advection, spreading, evaporation, and dissolution. These models can be used for slicks of any shape originated from instantaneous or continuous spills in rivers and lakes with or without ice covers. Although developed for the need of the connecting channels in the upper Great Lakes, including the Detroit River, Lake St. Clair, St. Clair River, and St. Marys River, these models are site independent and can be used to other rivers and lakes. The programs are written in FORTRAN programming language to be compatible with FORTRAN77 compiler. The models are designed to be used on both mainframe and microcomputers.

  13. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: Groundwater contaminant transport. Final project report 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    The over-reaching goal of the Groundwater Grand Challenge component of the Partnership in Computational Science (PICS) was to develop and establish the massively parallel approach for the description of groundwater flow and transport and to address the problem of uncertainties in the data and its interpretation. This necessitated the development of innovative algorithms and the implementation of massively parallel computational tools to provide a suite of simulators for groundwater flow and transport in heterogeneous media. This report summarizes the activities and deliverables of the Groundwater Grand Challenge project funded through the High Performance Computing grand challenge program of the Department of Energy from 1995 through 1997.

  14. Subsurface Uranium Fate and Transport: Integrated Experiments and Modeling of Coupled Biogeochemical Mechanisms of Nanocrystalline Uraninite Oxidation by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides - Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peyton, Brent M. [Montana State University; Timothy, Ginn R. [University of California Davis; Sani, Rajesh K. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology

    2013-08-14

    Subsurface bacteria including sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) with subsequent precipitation of UO2. We have shown that SRB reduce U(VI) to nanometer-sized UO2 particles (1-5 nm) which are both intra- and extracellular, with UO2 inside the cell likely physically shielded from subsequent oxidation processes. We evaluated the UO2 nanoparticles produced by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 under growth and non-growth conditions in the presence of lactate or pyruvate and sulfate, thiosulfate, or fumarate, using ultrafiltration and HR-TEM. Results showed that a significant mass fraction of bioreduced U (35-60%) existed as a mobile phase when the initial concentration of U(VI) was 160 M. Further experiments with different initial U(VI) concentrations (25 - 900 ?M) in MTM with PIPES or bicarbonate buffers indicated that aggregation of uraninite depended on the initial concentrations of U(VI) and type of buffer. It is known that under some conditions SRB-mediated UO2 nanocrystals can be reoxidized (and thus remobilized) by Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides, common constituents of soils and sediments. To elucidate the mechanism of UO2 reoxidation by Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, we studied the impact of Fe and U chelating compounds (citrate, NTA, and EDTA) on reoxidation rates. Experiments were conducted in anaerobic batch systems in PIPES buffer. Results showed EDTA significantly accelerated UO2 reoxidation with an initial rate of 9.5?M day-1 for ferrihydrite. In all cases, bicarbonate increased the rate and extent of UO2 reoxidation with ferrihydrite. The highest rate of UO2 reoxidation occurred when the chelator promoted UO2 and Fe(III) (hydr)oxide dissolution as demonstrated with EDTA. When UO2 dissolution did not occur, UO2 reoxidation likely proceeded through an aqueous Fe(III) intermediate as observed for both NTA and citrate. To complement to these laboratory studies, we collected U-bearing samples from a surface seep at the Rifle field site and have measured elevated U concentrations in oxic iron-rich sediments. To translate experimental results into numerical analysis of U fate and transport, a reaction network was developed based on Sani et al. (2004) to simulate U(VI) bioreduction with concomitant UO2 reoxidation in the presence of hematite or ferrihydrite. The reduction phase considers SRB reduction (using lactate) with the reductive dissolution of Fe(III) solids, which is set to be microbially mediated as well as abiotically driven by sulfide. Model results show the oxidation of HS by Fe(III) directly competes with UO2 reoxidation as Fe(III) oxidizes HS preferentially over UO2. The majority of Fe reduction is predicted to be abiotic, with ferrihydrite becoming fully consumed by reaction with sulfide. Predicted total dissolved carbonate concentrations from the degradation of lactate are elevated (log(pCO2) ~ 1) and, in the hematite system, yield close to two orders-of-magnitude higher U(VI) concentrations than under initial carbonate concentrations of 3 mM. Modeling of U(VI) bioreduction with concomitant reoxidation of UO2 in the presence of ferrihydrite was also extended to a two-dimensional field-scale groundwater flow and biogeochemically reactive transport model for the South Oyster site in eastern Virginia. This model was developed to simulate the field-scale immobilization and subsequent reoxidation of U by a biologically mediated reaction network.

  15. Phase I Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John McCord

    2007-09-01

    This report documents transport data and data analyses for Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU 97. The purpose of the data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support parameterization of the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU transport model. Specific task objectives were as follows: Identify and compile currently available transport parameter data and supporting information that may be relevant to the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU. Assess the level of quality of the data and associated documentation. Analyze the data to derive expected values and estimates of the associated uncertainty and variability. The scope of this document includes the compilation and assessment of data and information relevant to transport parameters for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU subsurface within the context of unclassified source-term contamination. Data types of interest include mineralogy, aqueous chemistry, matrix and effective porosity, dispersivity, matrix diffusion, matrix and fracture sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport parameters.

  16. Naturally fractured reservoirs: Optimized E and P strategies using a reaction-transport-mechanical simulator in an integrated approach. Annual report, 1996--1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoak, T.; Jenkins, R.; Ortoleva, P.; Ozkan, G.; Shebl, M.; Sibo, W.; Tuncay, K.; Sundberg, K.

    1998-07-01

    The methodology and results of this project are being tested using the Andector-Goldsmith Field in the Permian Basin, West Texas. The study area includes the Central Basin Platform and the Midland Basin. The Andector-Goldsmith Field lies at the juncture of these two zones in the greater West Texas Permian Basin. Although the modeling is being conducted in this area, the results have widespread applicability to other fractured carbonate and other reservoirs throughout the world.

  17. DFNWorks. A discrete fracture network framework for modeling subsurface flow and transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Gable, Carl W.; Painter, Scott L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-08-10

    DFNWorks is a parallalized computational suite to generate three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFN) and simulate flow and transport. Developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past five years, it has been used to study flow and transport in fractured media at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. The networks are created and meshed using dfnGen, which combines fram (the feature rejection algorithm for meshing) methodology to stochastically generate three-dimensional DFNs on the basis of site specific data with the LaGriT meshing toolbox to create a high-quality computational mesh representation, specifically a conforming Delaunay triangulation suitable for high performance computingmore » finite volume solvers, of the DFN in an intrinsically parallel fashion. Flow through the network is simulated in dfnFlow, which utilizes the massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport finite volume code pflotran. A Lagrangian approach to simulating transport through the DFN is adopted within dfnTrans, which is an extension of the walkabout particle tracking method to determine pathlines through the DFN. Example applications of this suite in the areas of nuclear waste repository science, hydraulic fracturing and CO2 sequestration are also included.« less

  18. DFNWorks. A discrete fracture network framework for modeling subsurface flow and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Gable, Carl W.; Painter, Scott L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-08-10

    DFNWorks is a parallalized computational suite to generate three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFN) and simulate flow and transport. Developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past five years, it has been used to study flow and transport in fractured media at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. The networks are created and meshed using dfnGen, which combines fram (the feature rejection algorithm for meshing) methodology to stochastically generate three-dimensional DFNs on the basis of site specific data with the LaGriT meshing toolbox to create a high-quality computational mesh representation, specifically a conforming Delaunay triangulation suitable for high performance computing finite volume solvers, of the DFN in an intrinsically parallel fashion. Flow through the network is simulated in dfnFlow, which utilizes the massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport finite volume code pflotran. A Lagrangian approach to simulating transport through the DFN is adopted within dfnTrans, which is an extension of the walkabout particle tracking method to determine pathlines through the DFN. Example applications of this suite in the areas of nuclear waste repository science, hydraulic fracturing and CO2 sequestration are also included.

  19. Reaction coordinates for electron transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasaiah, Jayendran C.; Zhu Jianjun

    2008-12-07

    The polarization fluctuation and energy gap formulations of the reaction coordinate for outer sphere electron transfer are linearly related to the constant energy constraint Lagrangian multiplier m in Marcus' theory of electron transfer. The quadratic dependence of the free energies of the reactant and product intermediates on m and m+1, respectively, leads to similar dependence of the free energies on the reaction coordinates and to the same dependence of the activation energy on the reorganization energy and the standard reaction free energy. Within the approximations of a continuum model of the solvent and linear response of the longitudinal polarization to the electric field in Marcus' theory, both formulations of the reaction coordinate are expected to lead to the same results.

  20. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-28

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  1. Validation of the thermal transport model used for ITER startup scenario predictions with DIII-D experimental data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Casper, T. A.; Meyer, W. H.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Hyatt, A. W.; Humphreys, D. A.; Turco, F.

    2010-12-08

    We are exploring characteristics of ITER startup scenarios in similarity experiments conducted on the DIII-D Tokamak. In these experiments, we have validated scenarios for the ITER current ramp up to full current and developed methods to control the plasma parameters to achieve stability. Predictive simulations of ITER startup using 2D free-boundary equilibrium and 1D transport codes rely on accurate estimates of the electron and ion temperature profiles that determine the electrical conductivity and pressure profiles during the current rise. Here we present results of validation studies that apply the transport model used by the ITER team to DIII-D discharge evolutionmore » and comparisons with data from our similarity experiments.« less

  2. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of 137Cs in Fracture-Fill Material. Experiments and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dittrich, Timothy M.; Reimus, Paul William

    2015-10-29

    In this study, we demonstrate how a combination of batch sorption/desorption experiments and column transport experiments were used to effectively parameterize a model describing the colloid-facilitated transport of Cs in the Grimsel granodiorite/FFM system. Cs partition coefficient estimates onto both the colloids and the stationary media obtained from the batch experiments were used as initial estimates of partition coefficients in the column experiments, and then the column experiment results were used to obtain refined estimates of the number of different sorption sites and the adsorption and desorption rate constants of the sites. The desorption portion of the column breakthrough curves highlighted the importance of accounting for adsorption-desorption hysteresis (or a very nonlinear adsorption isotherm) of the Cs on the FFM in the model, and this portion of the breakthrough curves also dictated that there be at least two different types of sorption sites on the FFM. In the end, the two-site model parameters estimated from the column experiments provided excellent matches to the batch adsorption/desorption data, which provided a measure of assurance in the validity of the model.

  3. Three-dimensional fully-coupled electrical and thermal transport model of dynamic switching in oxide memristors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Xujiao; Mamaluy, Denis; Mickel, Patrick R.; Marinella, Matthew

    2015-09-08

    In this paper, we present a fully-coupled electrical and thermal transport model for oxide memristors that solves simultaneously the time-dependent continuity equations for all relevant carriers, together with the time-dependent heat equation including Joule heating sources. The model captures all the important processes that drive memristive switching and is applicable to simulate switching behavior in a wide range of oxide memristors. The model is applied to simulate the ON switching in a 3D filamentary TaOx memristor. Simulation results show that, for uniform vacancy density in the OFF state, vacancies fill in the conduction filament till saturation, and then fill outmore » a gap formed in the Ta electrode during ON switching; furthermore, ON-switching time strongly depends on applied voltage and the ON-to-OFF current ratio is sensitive to the filament vacancy density in the OFF state.« less

  4. co2-transport | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transport Cost Model FENETL CO2 Transport Cost Model About the model: This model was developed to estimate the cost of transporting a user-specified mass rate of CO2 by pipeline...

  5. Upscaling of U(VI) Desorption and Transport from Decimeter-Scale Heterogeneity to Plume-Scale Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Gary P; Kohler, Matthias; Kannappan, Ramakrishnan; Briggs, Martin; Day-Lewis, Fred

    2015-02-24

    Reactive solute transport in aquifers is commonly affected by rate limited mass transfer. This slow mass transfer can exhibit significant control on the times required to restore contaminated aquifers to near-pristine conditions under both ambient and forced-gradient flow systems and is therefore important to understand. Both nonreactive and reactive tracer experiments provide valuable insight into the exchange of solute between mobile and immobile porosity. At the grain scale and column scale, mass transfer limitations were manifested as a concentration rebound when contaminated sediments were contacted with pristine groundwater. This behavior was successfully modeled using the multirate mass transfer model. Mass transfer observed in a 2 m long intermediate laboratory scale experiment showed significant concentration rebound in the first half meter along a flowpath through the tank and negligible rebound near the exit of the tank. Experimental observations and model simulations show that although concentration rebound was small at the end of the tank, the overall elution of uranium from of the tank was still controlled by mass transfer which was manifested by a long tail. At the field scale, mass transfer parameters inferred from geo-electrical measurements of bulk conductivity and traditional conductivity measurements of fluid samples showed significant spatial variability. Overall the improved understanding of mass transfer across multiple scales should lead to more robust reactive transport simulations and site management.

  6. Time-dependent behavior in a transport-barrier model for the quasi-single helcity state

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics and Controlled Fusion Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 (2014) 094002 (7pp) doi:10.1088/0741-3335/56/9/094002 Time-dependent behavior in a transport-barrier model for the quasi-single helcity state P W Terry and G G Whelan Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 Received 13 January 2014, revised 17 March 2014 Accepted for publication 4 April 2014 Published 13 August 2014 Abstract Time-dependent behavior that follows from a recent theory of the

  7. CASCADER: An M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. Volume 4 -- Users guide to CASCADR9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and/or dispersion. Additionally during the transport of parent and daughter radionuclides in soil, radionuclide decay may occur. This version of CASCADER called CASCADR9 starts with the concepts presented in volumes one and three of this series. For a proper understanding of how the model works, the reader should read volume one first. Also presented in this volume is a set of realistic scenarios for buried sources of radon gas, and the input and output file structure for CASCADER9.

  8. Hybrid multiscale simulation of a mixing-controlled reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Agarwal, Khushbu; Chase, Jared M.; Yang, Xiaofan; Palmer, Bruce J.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Redden, George D.

    2015-09-01

    Continuum-scale models have been used to study subsurface flow, transport, and reactions for many years but lack the capability to resolve fine-grained processes. Recently, pore-scale models, which operate at scales of individual soil grains, have been developed to more accurately model and study pore-scale phenomena, such as mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, microbially-mediated surface reactions, and other complex processes. However, these highly-resolved models are prohibitively expensive for modeling domains of sizes relevant to practical problems. To broaden the utility of pore-scale models for larger domains, we developed a hybrid multiscale model that initially simulates the full domain at the continuum scale and applies a pore-scale model only to areas of high reactivity. Since the location and number of pore-scale model regions in the model varies as the reactions proceed, an adaptive script defines the number and location of pore regions within each continuum iteration and initializes pore-scale simulations from macroscale information. Another script communicates information from the pore-scale simulation results back to the continuum scale. These components provide loose coupling between the pore- and continuum-scale codes into a single hybrid multiscale model implemented within the SWIFT workflow environment. In this paper, we consider an irreversible homogenous bimolecular reaction (two solutes reacting to form a third solute) in a 2D test problem. This paper is focused on the approach used for multiscale coupling between pore- and continuum-scale models, application to a realistic test problem, and implications of the results for predictive simulation of mixing-controlled reactions in porous media. Our results and analysis demonstrate that loose coupling provides a feasible, efficient and scalable approach for multiscale subsurface simulations.

  9. A Geographic Information System approach to modeling nutrient and sediment transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, D.A.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Timmins, S.P.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a water quality model to quantify nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution that uses a geographic information system (GIS) to link statistical modeling of nutrient and sediment delivery with the spatial arrangement of the parameters that drive the model. The model predicts annual nutrient and sediment loading and was developed, calibrated, and tested on 12 watersheds within the Lake Ray Roberts drainage basin in north Texas. Three physiographic regions are represented by these watersheds, and model success, as measured by the accuracy of load estimates, was compared within and across these regions.

  10. Simple Model Representations of Transport in a Complex Fracture and Their Effects on Long-Term Predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, Christine; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine; Uchida, Masahiro

    2007-11-07

    A complex fracture model for fluid flow and tracer transport was previously developed that incorporates many of the important physical effects of a realistic fracture, including advection through a heterogeneous fracture plane, partitioning of flow into multiple subfractures in the third dimension, and diffusion and sorption into fracture-filling gouge, small altered rock matrix blocks within the fracture zone, and the unaltered semi-infinite rock matrix on both sides of the fracture zone (Tsang and Doughty, 2003). It is common, however, to represent the complex fracture by much simpler models consisting of a single fracture, with a uniform or heterogeneous transmissivity distribution over its plane and bounded on both sides by a homogeneous semi-infinite matrix. Simple-model properties are often inferred from the analysis of short-term (one to a few days) site characterization (SC) tracer-test data. The question addressed in this paper is: How reliable is the temporal upscaling of these simplified models? Are they adequate are for long-term calculations that cover thousands of years? In this study, a particle-tracking approach is used to calculate tracer-test breakthrough curves (BTCs) in a complex fracture model, incorporating all the features described above, for both a short-term SC tracer test and a 10,000-year calculation. The results are considered the 'real-world'. Next, two simple fracture models, one uniform and the other heterogeneous, are introduced. Properties for these simple models are taken either from laboratory data or found by calibration to the short-term SC tracer-test BTCs obtained with the complex fracture model. Then the simple models are used to simulate tracer transport at the long-term time scale. Results show that for the short-term SC tracer test, the BTCs calculated using simple models with laboratory-measured parameters differ significantly from the BTCs obtained with the complex fracture model. By adjusting model properties, the simple models can be calibrated to reproduce the peak arrival time and height of the complex-fracture-model BTCs, but the overall match remains quite poor. Using simple models with short-term SC-calibrated parameters for long-term calculations causes order-of-magnitude errors in tracer BTCs: peak arrival time is 10-100 times too late, and peak height is 50-300 times too small. On the other hand, using simple models with laboratory-measured properties of unfractured rock samples for 10,000-year calculations results in peak arrivals and heights up to a factor of 50 too early and large, respectively. The actual magnitudes of the errors made by using the simple models depend on the parameter values assumed for the complex fracture model, but in general, simple models are not expected to provide reliable long-term predictions. The paper concludes with some suggestions on how to improve long-term prediction calculations.

  11. A groundwater flow and transport model of long-term radionuclide migration in central Frenchman flat, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Becker, Naomi M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruskauff, Gregory [NAVARRO-INTERA, LLC.; De Novio, Nicole [GOLDER AND ASSOC.; Wilborn, Bill [US DOE NNSA NSO

    2010-11-10

    A set of groundwater flow and transport models were created for the Central Testing Area of Frenchman Flat at the former Nevada Test Site to investigate the long-term consequences of a radionuclide migration experiment that was done between 1975 and 1990. In this experiment, radionuclide migration was induced from a small nuclear test conducted below the water table by pumping a well 91 m away. After radionuclides arrived at the pumping well, the contaminated effluent was discharged to an unlined ditch leading to a playa where it was expected to evaporate. However, recent data from a well near the ditch and results from detailed models of the experiment by LLNL personnel have convincingly demonstrated that radionuclides from the ditch eventually reached the water table some 220 m below land surface. The models presented in this paper combine aspects of these detailed models with concepts of basin-scale flow to estimate the likely extent of contamination resulting from this experiment over the next 1,000 years. The models demonstrate that because regulatory limits for radionuclide concentrations are exceeded only by tritium and the half-life of tritium is relatively short (12.3 years), the maximum extent of contaminated groundwater has or will soon be reached, after which time the contaminated plume will begin to shrink because of radioactive decay. The models also show that past and future groundwater pumping from water supply wells within Frenchman Flat basin will have negligible effects on the extent of the plume.

  12. Modeling of Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Transport at the Climax Mine sub-CAU, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Pohlmann; M. Ye; D. Reeves; M. Zavarin; D. Decker; J. Chapman

    2007-09-28

    The Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU) on the Nevada Test Site comprises 747 underground nuclear detonations, all but three of which were conducted in alluvial, volcanic, and carbonate rocks in Yucca Flat. The remaining three tests were conducted in the very different hydrogeologic setting of the Climax Mine granite stock located in Area 15 at the northern end of Yucca Flat. As part of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU, models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport will be developed for Yucca Flat. However, two aspects of these CAU-scale models require focused modeling at the northern end of Yucca Flat beyond the capability of these large models. First, boundary conditions and boundary flows along the northern reaches of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU require evaluation to a higher level of detail than the CAU-scale Yucca Flat model can efficiently provide. Second, radionuclide fluxes from the Climax tests require analysis of flow and transport in fractured granite, a unique hydrologic environment as compared to Yucca Flat proper. This report describes the Climax Mine sub-CAU modeling studies conducted to address these issues, with the results providing a direct feed into the CAI for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU. Three underground nuclear detonations were conducted for weapons effects testing in the Climax stock between 1962 and 1966: Hard Hat, Pile Driver, and Tiny Tot. Though there is uncertainty regarding the position of the water table in the stock, it is likely that all three tests were conducted in the unsaturated zone. In the early 1980s, the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) was constructed to evaluate the feasibility of retrievable, deep geologic storage of commercial nuclear reactor wastes. Detailed mapping of fractures and faults carried out for the SFT-C studies greatly expanded earlier data sets collected in association with the nuclear tests and provided invaluable information for subsequent modeling studies at Climax. The objectives of the Climax Mine sub-CAU work are to (1) provide simulated heads and groundwater flows for the northern boundaries of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU model, while incorporating alternative conceptualizations of the hydrogeologic system with their associated uncertainty, and (2) provide radionuclide fluxes from the three tests in the Climax stock using modeling techniques that account for groundwater flow in fractured granite. Meeting these two objectives required two different model scales. The northern boundary groundwater fluxes were addressed using the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model (Belcher, 2004) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey as a modeling framework, with refined hydrostratigraphy in a zone north of Yucca Flat and including Climax stock. Radionuclide transport was simulated using a separate model confined to the granite stock itself, but linked to regional groundwater flow through boundary conditions and calibration targets.

  13. Model Development and Analysis of the Fate and Transport of Water...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    summarizes the initial work on numerical modeling, simulations, and experimental results related to nuclear waste storage in a salt repository. The study reflects the project's...

  14. Emergency evacuation/transportation plan update: Traffic model development and evaluation of early closure procedures. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-10-28

    Prolonged delays in traffic experienced by Laboratory personnel during a recent early dismissal in inclement weather, coupled with reconstruction efforts along NM 502 east of the White Rock Wye for the next 1 to 2 years, has prompted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to re-evaluate and improve the present transportation plan and its integration with contingency plans maintained in other organizations. Facilities planners and emergency operations staff need to evaluate the transportation system`s capability to inefficiently and safely evacuate LANL under different low-level emergency conditions. A variety of potential procedures governing the release of employees from the different technical areas (TAs) requires evaluation, perhaps with regard to multiple emergency-condition scenarios, with one or more optimal procedures ultimately presented for adoption by Lab Management. The work undertaken in this project will hopefully lay a foundation for an on-going, progressive transportation system analysis capability. It utilizes microscale simulation techniques to affirm, reassess and validate the Laboratory`s Early Dismissal/Closure/Delayed Opening Plan. The Laboratory is required by Federal guidelines, and compelled by prudent practice and conscientious regard for the welfare of employees and nearby residents, to maintain plans and operating procedures for evacuation if the need arises. The tools developed during this process can be used outside of contingency planning. It is anticipated that the traffic models developed will allow site planners to evaluate changes to the traffic network which could better serve the normal traffic levels. Changes in roadway configuration, control strategies (signalization and signing), response strategies to traffic accidents, and patterns of demand can be modelled using the analysis tools developed during this project. Such scenarios typically are important considerations in master planning and facilities programming.

  15. Building Conceptual Models of Field-Scale Uranium Reactive Transport in a Dynamic Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.

    2008-12-04

    Subsurface simulation is being used to build, test, and couple conceptual process models to better understand controls on a 0.4 km by 1.0 km uranium plume that has persisted above the drinking water standard in the groundwater of the Hanford 300 Area over the last 15 years. At this site, uranium-contaminated sediments in the vadose zone and aquifer are subject to significant variations in water levels and velocities driven by the diurnal, weekly, seasonal, and episodic Columbia River stage dynamics. Groundwater flow reversals typically occur twice a day with significant exchange of river water and groundwater in the near-river aquifer. Mixing of the dilute solution chemistry of the river with the groundwater complicates the uranium sorption behavior as the mobility of U(VI) has been shown experimentally to be a function of pH, carbonate, calcium, and uranium. Furthermore, uranium mass transfer between solid and aqueous phases has been observed to be rate-limited in the context of the high groundwater velocities resulting from the river stage fluctuations and the highly transmissive sediments (hydraulic conductivities ~1500 m/d). One- and two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional simulations of variably-saturated flow and reactive transport, based on laboratory-derived models of distributed rate mass transfer and equilibrium multicomponent surface complexation, are used to assess uranium transport at the dynamic vadose zone aquifer interface as well as changes to uranium mobility due to incursions of river water into the aquifer.

  16. Hydrogen transport membranes for dehydrogenation reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran; Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

    2008-02-12

    A method of converting C.sub.2 and/or higher alkanes to olefins by contacting a feedstock containing C.sub.2 and/or higher alkanes with a first surface of a metal composite membrane of a sintered homogenous mixture of an Al oxide or stabilized or partially stabilized Zr oxide ceramic powder and a metal powder of one or more of Pd, Nb, V, Zr, Ta and/or alloys or mixtures thereof. The alkanes dehydrogenate to olefins by contact with the first surface with substantially only atomic hydrogen from the dehydrogenation of the alkanes passing through the metal composite membrane. Apparatus for effecting the conversion and separation is also disclosed.

  17. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Perspectives Nonlinear optical approaches for elucidating interfacial fluid and sorbed species structures and dynamics pdf Structural and Dynamic Properties of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids Confined within Hierarchical Porous Materials pdf Structure and Dynamics of Electrical Double Layer Using Integrated Scanning Probe Microscopy and Molecular Simulations pdf Effects of Nano-Confinement on the Fluid Interfacial Structure, Dynamics and Thermodynamic behavior pdf Molecular Insights into

  18. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steering Committee David J. Wesolowski FIRST Center Director, ORNL Ph: (865) 574-6903 Email: wesolowskid@ornl.gov Peter T. Cummings Thrust 1 Leader, Vanderbilt University Ph: (615) 322 8129 Email: peter.cummings@vanderbilt.edu Sheng Dai FIRST Center Deputy Director Thrust 2 Leader, ORNL Ph: (865) 576-7307 Email: dais@ornl.gov Steven H. Overbury Thrust 3 Leader, ORNL Ph: (865) 574-5040 Email: overburysh@ornl.gov Phillip F. Britt Chemical Sciences Division Director, ORNL Ph: (865) 574-4986 Email:

  19. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    External Advisory Board: Dr. John R. Miller is President of JME, Inc., a service company he founded 22 years having specialization in reversible energy storage technology, particularly electrochemical capacitors. He recently accepted the part time position of Research Professor at the Great Lakes Energy Institute, Case Western Reserve University. Dr. Royce Murray is the Kenan Professor of Chemistry at the University of North Carolina and member of the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Alexandra

  20. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Management Organizational Structure, Roles, and Responsibilities: The FIRST Center management structure, outlined in our organizational chart, has been designed to accomplish the scientific goals of the Center, while providing synergy between the thrusts, educational outreach, oversight, operational support, and integration with DOE's core science and technology programs. The Director (David J.Wesolowski) is responsible for the overall scientific direction and management of the Center,

  1. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FIRST Center Video Home CS Division PS Directorate ORNL Disclaimer

  2. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in his native Australia. After post-doctoral work in Physics (University of Guelph), and Chemistry and Mechanical Engineering (SUNY Stony Book), he began his teaching career in...

  3. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the bulk properties of the juxtaposed fluid and solid phases? How do altered interfacial fluid properties couple with complex substrate nanogeometries and functionalities to...

  4. Heat Transfer and Fluid Transport of Supercritical CO2 in Enhanced Geothermal System with Local Thermal Non-equilibrium Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Le; Luo, Feng; Xu, Ruina; Jiang, Peixue; Liu, Huihai

    2014-12-31

    The heat transfer and fluid transport of supercritical CO2 in enhanced geothermal system (EGS) is studied numerically with local thermal non-equilibrium model, which accounts for the temperature difference between solid matrix and fluid components in porous media and uses two energy equations to describe heat transfer in the solid matrix and in the fluid, respectively. As compared with the previous results of our research group, the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium mainly depends on the volumetric heat transfer coefficient ah, which has a significant effect on the production temperature at reservoir outlet and thermal breakthrough time. The uniformity of volumetricmore » heat transfer coefficient ah has little influence on the thermal breakthrough time, but the temperature difference become more obvious with time after thermal breakthrough with this simulation model. The thermal breakthrough time reduces and the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium becomes significant with decreasing ah.« less

  5. Macro-System Model for Hydrogen Energy Systems Analysis in Transportation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, V.; Ruth, M.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M. E.

    2012-06-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  6. Simulation of oil-slick transport in Great Lakes connecting channels. Theory and model formulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, H.T.; Yapa, P.D.; Petroski, M.E.

    1990-02-01

    Two-dimensional computer models for simulating oil slick movement in rivers and lakes were developed and then applied to the connecting channels of the upper Great Lakes. In these models the oil slick is considered to be a collection of discrete oil patches. The transformation of an oil slick due to advection, spreading, evaporation and dissolution are considered. In open-water regions the advection of oil patches in the slick are determined by the water current and wind using the drifting factor formulation. Formulas consider the balance of inertia, gravity, viscous and surface tension forces. The oil slick transformation model developed in this study contains as many processes as can be effectively and analytically modeled. The model has several special features, including the ability to model instantaneous and continuous spills, the ability to realistically describe the irregular shapes of an oil slick and the ability to account for the time-dependent variation of the flow conditions. The computer programs are designed so that it will be easy to refine the model elements and expand the model to include additional slick transformation processes.

  7. Understanding composite explosive energetics: 4. Reactive flow modeling of aluminum reaction kinetics in PETN and TNT using normalized product equation of state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, W.C.; Tarver, C.M.; Kury, J.W.; Lee, C.G.; Ornellas, D.L.

    1993-07-01

    Using Fabry-Perot interferometry techniques, we have determined the early time rate of energy release from detonating PETN and TNT explosives filled with 5 to 20 wt % of either 5 {mu}m or 18 {mu}m spherical aluminum with the detonation products, and calculate the extent of reaction at 1--3 {mu}s after the detonation. All of the metal in PETN formulations filled with 5 wt % and 10 wt % of either 5 {mu}m or 18 {mu}m aluminum reacted within 1.5 {mu}s, resulting in an increase of 18--22% in energy compared to pure PETN. For TNT formulations, between 5 to 10 wt % aluminum reacts completely with the same timeframe. A reactive flow hydrodynamic code model based on the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) description of the reaction zone and subsequent reaction product expansion (Taylor wave) is used to address the reaction rate of the aluminum particles with detonation product gases. The detonation product JWL equation of state is derived from that of pure PETN using a parametric normalization methodology.

  8. Recent Advances in Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models for Large Hydrocarbon and Biodiesel Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Herbinet, O; Mehl, M

    2009-03-30

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for these two primary reference fuels for diesel, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Also, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. Methyl decanoate and methyl stearate are large methyl esters that are closely related to biodiesel fuels, and kinetic models for these molecules have also been developed. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the fuel molecule size and structure on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  9. Development of Alternate Soil Clean-Up Goals for Hanford Waste Sites Using Fate and Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, J.D. [Fluor Hanford, Inc. (United States); McMahon, W.J. [CH2M Hill Hanford Group (United States); Leary, K.D. [DOE/RL (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Remedial Action Goals (RAGs) for soil contaminant levels that are protective of groundwater have been determined for the Removal/Treatment/Disposal (RTD) sites at the 200-UW-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site. The RAG values were determined using a methodology involving the back-calculation of soil contaminant levels protective of groundwater (i.e., resulting groundwater concentrations are {<=} MCLs) in conjunction with the fate and transport modeling as a risk-based alternative to the currently prescribed use of background or detection limit default values. This methodology is important for waste management activities at the Hanford Site because it provides risk-based metrics and a technical basis for determining the levels of contamination 'left in place' in the Hanford Site vadose zone that are protective of human health and the environment. The methodology and the use of fate and transport modeling described here comply with federal guidelines for the use of environmental models. This approach is also consistent with one of several allowable methods identified in State guidelines for deriving soil concentrations for ground water protection. Federal and state guidelines recommend the use of site-specific information and data in risk-based assessments of risk and/or protectiveness. The site-specific characteristics of the Hanford Site, which include consideration of the semi-arid climate, an unsaturated zone thickness of over 80 m (262 feet), and associated/other site features and processes, are integral for the risk-based assessments associated with the protection of groundwater pathway. This methodology yields soil cleanup values (RAGs) for the 200-UW-1 OU waste sites selected for the removal/treatment/disposal (RTD) remedy. These proposed RAGs for uranium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are derived from soil concentrations calculated not to cause contamination of groundwater at levels that exceed the ground water MCLs, and are 40 to 200 times greater than currently prescribed default values. The proposed RAG soil concentration values derive from the results of the fate and transport modeling for a reference volume of contaminated soil extending to a depth of 15 feet, and also for a depth extending from 15 feet to 30 feet. The site-specific parameters for the 200-UW-1 OU RTD waste sites used to calculate the proposed RAG values, and the fate and transport modeling are also described. The assessment of uncertainties, assumptions, and model limitations indicate that the model is capable of adequately representing the Hanford vadose zone system and that the estimated soil cleanup levels are conservatively biased toward over-estimation of groundwater impacts. The risk-based metrics provided by this methodology can potentially greatly reduce the amount of excavation needed at the hundreds of RTD waste sites, and also have significant implications for deeper vadose zone applications. These implications include an improved technical basis for remedy selection, decisions, characterization, and stakeholder communication and cost savings in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars. (authors)

  10. Electron collisions in the trapped gyro-Landau fluid transport model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staebler, G. M.; Kinsey, J. E.

    2010-12-15

    Accurately modeling electron collisions in the trapped gyro-Landau fluid (TGLF) equations has been a major challenge. Insights gained from numerically solving the gyrokinetic equation have lead to a significant improvement of the low order TGLF model. The theoretical motivation and verification of this model with the velocity-space gyrokinetic code GYRO[J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] will be presented. The improvement in the fidelity of TGLF to GYRO is shown to also lead to better prediction of experimental temperature profiles by TGLF for a dedicated collision frequency scan.

  11. Upscaling of Long-Term U9VI) Desorption from Pore Scale Kinetics to Field-Scale Reactive Transport Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andy Miller

    2009-01-25

    Environmental systems exhibit a range of complexities which exist at a range of length and mass scales. Within the realm of radionuclide fate and transport, much work has been focused on understanding pore scale processes where complexity can be reduced to a simplified system. In describing larger scale behavior, the results from these simplified systems must be combined to create a theory of the whole. This process can be quite complex, and lead to models which lack transparency. The underlying assumption of this approach is that complex systems will exhibit complex behavior, requiring a complex system of equations to describe behavior. This assumption has never been tested. The goal of the experiments presented is to ask the question: Do increasingly complex systems show increasingly complex behavior? Three experimental tanks at the intermediate scale (Tank 1: 2.4m x 1.2m x 7.6cm, Tank 2: 2.4m x 0.61m x 7.6cm, Tank 3: 2.4m x 0.61m x 0.61m (LxHxW)) have been completed. These tanks were packed with various physical orientations of different particle sizes of a uranium contaminated sediment from a former uranium mill near Naturita, Colorado. Steady state water flow was induced across the tanks using constant head boundaries. Pore water was removed from within the flow domain through sampling ports/wells; effluent samples were also taken. Each sample was analyzed for a variety of analytes relating to the solubility and transport of uranium. Flow fields were characterized using inert tracers and direct measurements of pressure head. The results show that although there is a wide range of chemical variability within the flow domain of the tank, the effluent uranium behavior is simple enough to be described using a variety of conceptual models. Thus, although there is a wide range in variability caused by pore scale behaviors, these behaviors appear to be smoothed out as uranium is transported through the tank. This smoothing of uranium transport behavior transcends many of the physical and chemical heterogeneities added to the tank experiments.

  12. MELCOR 1.8.5 modeling aspects of fission product release, transport and deposition an assessment with recommendations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.

    2010-04-01

    The Phebus and VERCORS data have played an important role in contemporary understanding and modeling of fission product release and transport from damaged light water reactor fuel. The data from these test programs have allowed improvement of MELCOR modeling of release and transport processes for both low enrichment uranium fuel as well as high burnup and mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. This paper discusses the synthesis of these findings in the MELCOR severe accident code. Based on recent assessments of MELCOR 1.8.5 fission product release modeling against the Phebus FPT-1 test and on observations from the ISP-46 exercise, modifications to the default MELCOR 1.8.5 release models are recommended. The assessments identified an alternative set of Booth diffusion parameters recommended by ORNL (ORNL-Booth), which produced significantly improved release predictions for cesium and other fission product groups. Some adjustments to the scaling factors in the ORNL-Booth model were made for selected fission product groups, including UO{sub 2}, Mo and Ru in order to obtain better comparisons with the FPT-1 data. The adjusted model, referred to as 'Modified ORNL-Booth,' was subsequently compared to original ORNL VI fission product release experiments and to more recently performed French VERCORS tests, and the comparisons was as favorable or better than the original CORSOR-M MELCOR default release model. These modified ORNL-Booth parameters, input to MELCOR 1.8.5 as 'sensitivity coefficients' (i.e. user input that over-rides the code defaults) are recommended for the interim period until improved release models can be implemented into MELCOR. For the case of ruthenium release in air-oxidizing conditions, some additional modifications to the Ru class vapor pressure are recommended based on estimates of the RuO{sub 2} vapor pressure over mildly hyperstoichiometric UO{sub 2}. The increased vapor pressure for this class significantly increases the net transport of Ru from the fuel to the gas stream. A formal model is needed. Deposition patterns in the Phebus FPT-1 circuit were also significantly improved by using the modified ORNL-Booth parameters, where retention of lower volatile Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is now predicted in the heated exit regions of the FPT-1 test, bringing down depositions in the FPT-1 steam generator tube to be in closer alignment with the experimental data. This improvement in 'RCS' deposition behavior preserves the overall correct release of cesium to the containment that was observed even with the default CORSOR-M model. Not correctly treated however is the release and transport of Ag to the FPT-1 containment. A model for Ag release from control rods is presently not available in MELCOR. Lack of this model is thought to be responsible for the underprediction by a factor of two of the total aerosol mass to the FPT-1 containment. It is suggested that this underprediction of airborne mass led to an underprediction of the aerosol agglomeration rate. Underprediction of the agglomeration rate leads to low predictions of the aerosol particle size in comparison to experimentally measured ones. Small particle size leads low predictions of the gravitational settling rate relative to the experimental data. This error, however, is a conservative one in that too-low settling rate would result in a larger source term to the environment. Implementation of an interim Ag release model is currently under study. In the course of this assessment, a review of MELCOR release models was performed and led to the identification of several areas for future improvements to MELCOR. These include upgrading the Booth release model to account for changes in local oxidizing/reducing conditions and including a fuel oxidation model to accommodate effects of fuel stoichiometry. Models such as implemented in the French ELSA code and described by Lewis are considered appropriate for MELCOR. A model for ruthenium release under air oxidizing conditions is also needed and should be included as part of a fuel oxidation model since fuel stoichiometry is a fundamen

  13. Model Development and Analysis of the Fate and Transport of Water in a Salt Based Repository

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The study summarizes the initial work on numerical modeling, simulations, and experimental results related to nuclear waste storage in a salt repository.  The study reflects the project's...

  14. Modeling transport and dilution of produced water and the resulting uptake and biomagnification in marine biota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rye, H.; Reed, M.; Slagstad, D.

    1996-12-31

    The paper explains the numerical modelling efforts undertaken in order to study possible marine biological impacts caused by releases of produced water from the Haltenbanken area outside the western coast of Norway. Acute effects on marine life from releases of produced water appear to be relatively small and confined to areas rather lose to the release site. Biomagnification may however be experienced for relatively low concentrations at larger distances from the release point. Such effects can he modeled by performing a step-wise approach which includes: The use of 3-D hydrodynamic models to determine the ocean current fields; The use of 3-D multi-source numerical models to determine the concentration fields from the produced water releases, given the current field; and The use of biologic models to simulate the behavior of and larvae (passive marine biota) and fish (active marine biota) and their interaction with the concentration field. The paper explains the experiences gained by using this approach for the calculation of possible influences on marine life below the EC{sub 50} or LC{sub 50} concentration levels. The models are used for simulating concentration fields from 5 simultaneous sources at the Haltenbank area and simulation of magnification in some marine species from 2 simultaneous sources in the same area. Naphthalenes and phenols, which are both present in the produced water, were used as the chemical substances in the simulations.

  15. End-Member Formulation of Solid Solutions and Reactive Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichtner, Peter C.

    2015-09-01

    A model for incorporating solid solutions into reactive transport equations is presented based on an end-member representation. Reactive transport equations are solved directly for the composition and bulk concentration of the solid solution. Reactions of a solid solution with an aqueous solution are formulated in terms of an overall stoichiometric reaction corresponding to a time-varying composition and exchange reactions, equivalent to reaction end-members. Reaction rates are treated kinetically using a transition state rate law for the overall reaction and a pseudo-kinetic rate law for exchange reactions. The composition of the solid solution at the onset of precipitation is assumed to correspond to the least soluble composition, equivalent to the composition at equilibrium. The stoichiometric saturation determines if the solid solution is super-saturated with respect to the aqueous solution. The method is implemented for a simple prototype batch reactor using Mathematica for a binary solid solution. Finally, the sensitivity of the results on the kinetic rate constant for a binary solid solution is investigated for reaction of an initially stoichiometric solid phase with an undersaturated aqueous solution.

  16. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D. D.; et al

    2014-12-17

    Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity. In this study, emission inventories for 8 elements, which are primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si were determined based on a global mineral dataset and a soils dataset. Datasets of elemental fractions were used to drive the desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions was evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Camore » / Al ratio, which typically ranged from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soil sources, were consistent with observations, suggesting this ratio to be a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different that estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observational elemental aerosol concentration data from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 except for 3.4 and 3.5 for Mg and Mn, respectivly. Using the soil data base improved the correspondence of the spatial hetereogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust associated element fluxes into different ocean basins and ice sheets regions have been estimated, based on the model results. Annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using mineral dataset were 0.28 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.« less

  17. Computational Nanophotonics: modeling optical interactions and transport in tailored nanosystem architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, George; Ratner, Mark

    2014-02-27

    This report describes research by George Schatz and Mark Ratner that was done over the period 10/03-5/09 at Northwestern University. This research project was part of a larger research project with the same title led by Stephen Gray at Argonne. A significant amount of our work involved collaborations with Gray, and there were many joint publications as summarized later. In addition, a lot of this work involved collaborations with experimental groups at Northwestern, Argonne, and elsewhere. The research was primarily concerned with developing theory and computational methods that can be used to describe the interaction of light with noble metal nanoparticles (especially silver) that are capable of plasmon excitation. Classical electrodynamics provides a powerful approach for performing these studies, so much of this research project involved the development of methods for solving Maxwell’s equations, including both linear and nonlinear effects, and examining a wide range of nanostructures, including particles, particle arrays, metal films, films with holes, and combinations of metal nanostructures with polymers and other dielectrics. In addition, our work broke new ground in the development of quantum mechanical methods to describe plasmonic effects based on the use of time dependent density functional theory, and we developed new theory concerned with the coupling of plasmons to electrical transport in molecular wire structures. Applications of our technology were aimed at the development of plasmonic devices as components of optoelectronic circuits, plasmons for spectroscopy applications, and plasmons for energy-related applications.

  18. A Reduced-Order Model of Transport Phenomena for Power Plant Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Cizmas; Brian Richardson; Thomas Brenner; Raymond Fontenot

    2009-09-30

    A reduced-order model based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been developed to simulate transient two- and three-dimensional isothermal and non-isothermal flows in a fluidized bed. Reduced-order models of void fraction, gas and solids temperatures, granular energy, and z-direction gas and solids velocity have been added to the previous version of the code. These algorithms are presented and their implementation is discussed. Verification studies are presented for each algorithm. A number of methods to accelerate the computations performed by the reduced-order model are presented. The errors associated with each acceleration method are computed and discussed. Using a combination of acceleration methods, a two-dimensional isothermal simulation using the reduced-order model is shown to be 114 times faster than using the full-order model. In the pursue of achieving the objectives of the project and completing the tasks planned for this program, several unplanned and unforeseen results, methods and studies have been generated. These additional accomplishments are also presented and they include: (1) a study of the effect of snapshot sampling time on the computation of the POD basis functions, (2) an investigation of different strategies for generating the autocorrelation matrix used to find the POD basis functions, (3) the development and implementation of a bubble detection and tracking algorithm based on mathematical morphology, (4) a method for augmenting the proper orthogonal decomposition to better capture flows with discontinuities, such as bubbles, and (5) a mixed reduced-order/full-order model, called point-mode proper orthogonal decomposition, designed to avoid unphysical due to approximation errors. The limitations of the proper orthogonal decomposition method in simulating transient flows with moving discontinuities, such as bubbling flows, are discussed and several methods are proposed to adapt the method for future use.

  19. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of solute transport in heterogeneous porous media with conduits to estimate macroscopic continuous time random walk model parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anwar, S.; Cortis, A.; Sukop, M.

    2008-10-20

    Lattice Boltzmann models simulate solute transport in porous media traversed by conduits. Resulting solute breakthrough curves are fitted with Continuous Time Random Walk models. Porous media are simulated by damping flow inertia and, when the damping is large enough, a Darcy's Law solution instead of the Navier-Stokes solution normally provided by the lattice Boltzmann model is obtained. Anisotropic dispersion is incorporated using a direction-dependent relaxation time. Our particular interest is to simulate transport processes outside the applicability of the standard Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) including eddy mixing in conduits. The ADE fails to adequately fit any of these breakthrough curves.

  20. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R. A.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J. F.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D. D.; et al

    2015-10-12

    Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity, the quantification of which could be useful in determining the magnitude and sign of the biogeochemical feedback on radiative forcing. However, the impact of elemental deposition to remote ocean regions is not well understood and is not currently included in global climate models. In this study, emission inventories for eight elements primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si are determined based on a global mineral data set and a soil data set. The resulting elemental fractions are used to drive themore » desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions is evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Ca / Al ratio, which typically range from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soils, are consistent with observations, suggesting that this ratio is a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different; estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observations of elemental aerosol concentrations from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions range from 0.7 to 1.6, except for Mg and Mn (3.4 and 3.5, respectively). Using the soil database improves the correspondence of the spatial heterogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust element fluxes to different ocean basins and ice sheet regions have been estimated, based on the model results. The annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using the mineral data set are 0.30 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.« less

  1. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model, Parameter, and Scenario Uncertainty with Application to Uranium Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Rockhold, Mark L.; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2007-07-30

    This report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) describes the development and application of a methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess predictive uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport modeling that considers the combined impact of hydrogeologic uncertainties associated with the conceptual-mathematical basis of a model, model parameters, and the scenario to which the model is applied. The methodology is based on a n extension of a Maximum Likelihood implementation of Bayesian Model Averaging. Model uncertainty is represented by postulating a discrete set of alternative conceptual models for a site with associated prior model probabilities that reflect a belief about the relative plausibility of each model based on its apparent consistency with available knowledge and data. Posterior model probabilities are computed and parameter uncertainty is estimated by calibrating each model to observed system behavior; prior parameter estimates are optionally included. Scenario uncertainty is represented as a discrete set of alternative future conditions affecting boundary conditions, source/sink terms, or other aspects of the models, with associated prior scenario probabilities. A joint assessment of uncertainty results from combining model predictions computed under each scenario using as weight the posterior model and prior scenario probabilities. The uncertainty methodology was applied to modeling of groundwater flow and uranium transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area. Eight alternative models representing uncertainty in the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties as well as the temporal variability were considered. Two scenarios represent alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. The scenario alternatives were implemented in the models through the boundary conditions. Results demonstrate the feasibility of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modeling and illustrate the benefits of the methodology I providing better estimates of predictive uncertiay8, quantitative results for use in assessing risk, and an improved understanding of the system behavior and the limitations of the models.

  2. A CFD-based wind solver for a fast response transport and dispersion model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gowardhan, Akshay A; Brown, Michael J; Pardyjak, Eric R; Senocak, Inanc

    2010-01-01

    In many cities, ambient air quality is deteriorating leading to concerns about the health of city inhabitants. In urban areas with narrow streets surrounded by clusters of tall buildings, called street canyons, air pollution from traffic emissions and other sources is difficult to disperse and may accumulate resulting in high pollutant concentrations. For various situations, including the evacuation of populated areas in the event of an accidental or deliberate release of chemical, biological and radiological agents, it is important that models should be developed that produce urban flow fields quickly. For these reasons it has become important to predict the flow field in urban street canyons. Various computational techniques have been used to calculate these flow fields, but these techniques are often computationally intensive. Most fast response models currently in use are at a disadvantage in these cases as they are unable to correlate highly heterogeneous urban structures with the diagnostic parameterizations on which they are based. In this paper, a fast and reasonably accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique that solves the Navier-Stokes equations for complex urban areas has been developed called QUIC-CFD (Q-CFD). This technique represents an intermediate balance between fast (on the order of minutes for a several block problem) and reasonably accurate solutions. The paper details the solution procedure and validates this model for various simple and complex urban geometries.

  3. WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle; Hari Dahr; Sanjiv Kumar; Kunal Jain; Ned Djilai

    2012-10-02

    Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion paths for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the associated costs and weight of blowers and pumps to force air and hydrogen gas through the fuel cell. Promising improvements to materials structure and surface treatments that can potentially aid in managing the distribution and removal of liquid water were developed; and improved steady-state and freeze-thaw performance was demonstrated for a fuel cell stack under the self-humidified operating conditions that are promising for stationary power generation with reduced operating costs.

  4. Lipid-Based Nanodiscs as Models for Studying Mesoscale Coalescence A Transport Limited Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Andrew; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Katsaras, John; Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lipid-based nanodiscs (bicelles) are able to form in mixtures of long- and short-chain lipids. Initially, they are of uniform size but grow upon dilution. Previously, nanodisc growth kinetics have been studied using time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (SANS), a technique which is not well suited for probing their change in size immediately after dilution. To address this, we have used dynamic light scattering (DLS), a technique which permits the collection of useful data in a short span of time after dilution of the system. The DLS data indicate that the negatively charged lipids in nanodiscs play a significant role in disc stability and growth. Specifically, the charged lipids are most likely drawn out from the nanodiscs into solution, thereby reducing interparticle repulsion and enabling the discs to grow. We describe a population balance model, which takes into account Coulombic interactions and adequately predicts the initial growth of nanodiscs with a single parameter i.e., surface potential. The results presented here strongly support the notion that the disc coalescence rate strongly depends on nanoparticle charge density. The present system containing low-polydispersity lipid nanodiscs serves as a good model for understanding how charged discoidal micelles coalesce.

  5. A Uranium Bioremediation Reactive Transport Benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Sengor, Sevinc; Fang, Yilin

    2015-06-01

    A reactive transport benchmark problem set has been developed based on in situ uranium bio-immobilization experiments that have been performed at a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado, USA. Acetate-amended groundwater stimulates indigenous microorganisms to catalyze the reduction of U(VI) to a sparingly soluble U(IV) mineral. The interplay between the flow, acetate loading periods and rates, microbially-mediated and geochemical reactions leads to dynamic behavior in metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, pH, alkalinity, and reactive mineral surfaces. The benchmark is based on an 8.5 m long one-dimensional model domain with constant saturated flow and uniform porosity. The 159-day simulation introduces acetate and bromide through the upgradient boundary in 14-day and 85-day pulses separated by a 10 day interruption. Acetate loading is tripled during the second pulse, which is followed by a 50 day recovery period. Terminal electron accepting processes for goethite, phyllosilicate Fe(III), U(VI), and sulfate are modeled using Monod-type rate laws. Major ion geochemistry modeled includes mineral reactions, as well as aqueous and surface complexation reactions for UO2++, Fe++, and H+. In addition to the dynamics imparted by the transport of the acetate pulses, U(VI) behavior involves the interplay between bioreduction, which is dependent on acetate availability, and speciation-controlled surface complexation, which is dependent on pH, alkalinity and available surface complexation sites. The general difficulty of this benchmark is the large number of reactions (74), multiple rate law formulations, a multisite uranium surface complexation model, and the strong interdependency and sensitivity of the reaction processes. Results are presented for three simulators: HYDROGEOCHEM, PHT3D, and PHREEQC.

  6. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  7. A Radiative Transport Model for Heating Paints using High Density Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Duty, Chad E; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Nichols, Mark; Blue, Craig A; Ott, Ronald D

    2009-01-01

    The energy distribution and ensuing temperature evolution within paint-like systems under the influence of infrared radiation was studied. Thermal radiation effects as well as those due to heat conduction were considered. A complete set of material properties was derived and discussed. Infrared measurements were conducted to obtain experimental data for the temperature in the paint film. The heat flux of the incident radiation from the plasma arc lamp was measured using a heat flux sensor with a very short response time. The comparison between the computed and experimental results for temperature show that the models that are based on spectral four-flux RTE and accurate optical properties yield accurate results for the black paint systems.

  8. Modeling of coupled heat transfer and reactive transport processesin porous media: Application to seepage studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Spycher, Nicolas

    2007-01-15

    When hot radioactive waste is placed in subsurface tunnels, a series of complex changes occurs in the surrounding medium. The water in the pore space of the medium undergoes vaporization and boiling. Subsequently, vapor migrates out of the matrix pore space, moving away from the tunnel through the permeable fracture network. This migration is propelled by buoyancy, by the increased vapor pressure caused by heating and boiling, and through local convection. In cooler regions, the vapor condenses on fracture walls, where it drains through the fracture network. Slow imbibition of water thereafter leads to gradual rewetting of the rock matrix. These thermal and hydrological processes also bring about chemical changes in the medium. Amorphous silica precipitates from boiling and evaporation, and calcite from heating and CO2 volatilization. The precipitation of amorphous silica, and to a much lesser extent calcite, results in long-term permeability reduction. Evaporative concentration also results in the precipitation of gypsum (or anhydrite), halite, fluorite and other salts. These evaporative minerals eventually redissolve after the boiling period is over, however, their precipitation results in a significant temporary decrease in permeability. Reduction of permeability is also associated with changes in fracture capillary characteristics. In short, the coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes dynamically alter the hydrological properties of the rock. A model based on the TOUGHREACT reactive transport software is presented here to investigate the impact of THC processes on flow near an emplacement tunnel at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We show how transient changes in hydrological properties caused by THC processes often lead to local flow channeling and saturation increases above the tunnel. For models that include only permeability changes to fractures, such local flow channeling may lead to seepage relative to models where THC effects are ignored. However, coupled THC seepage models that include both permeability and capillary changes to fractures may not show this additional seepage.

  9. Measurements and modeling of HO2 formation in the reactions of n-C3H7 and i-C3H7 radicals with O2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Estupinan, Edgar Garcia; Klippenstein, Stephen J.

    2004-08-01

    The formation of HO{sub 2} in the reactions of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, n-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}, and i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7} radicals with O{sub 2} is investigated using the technique of laser photolysis/long-path frequency-modulation spectroscopy. The alkyl radicals are formed by 266 nm photolysis of alkyl iodides. The formation of HO{sub 2} from the subsequent reaction of the alkyl radicals with O{sub 2} is followed by infrared frequency-modulation spectroscopy. The concentration of I atoms is simultaneously monitored by direct absorption of a second laser probe on the spin?orbit transition. The measured profiles are compared to a kinetic model taken from time-resolved master-equation results based on previously published ab initio characterizations of the relevant stationary points on the potential-energy surface. The ab initio energies are adjusted to produce agreement with the present experimental data and with available literature studies. The isomer specificity of the present results enables refinement of the model for i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7} + O{sub 2} and improved agreement with experimental measurements of HO{sub 2} production in propane oxidation.

  10. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Widespread Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Is the Goal of H2FIRST Project Capabilities, Center for Infrastructure Research and Innovation (CIRI), Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems, Facilities, Infrastructure Security, Materials Science, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Partnership, Research & Capabilities, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering, Transportation Energy Widespread Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Is

  11. Transportation Sector Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model.

  12. Steric Effect for Proton, Hydrogen-Atom, andHydride Transfer Reactions with Geometric Isomers of NADH-Model Ruthenium Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita E.; Cohen, B.W.; Polyansky, D.E.; Achord, P.; Cabelli, D.; Muckerman, J.T.; Tanaka, K.; Thummel, R.P.; Zong, R.

    2012-01-01

    Two isomers, [Ru(1)]{sup 2+} (Ru = Ru(bpy){sub 2}, bpy = 2,2{prime}-bipyridine, 1 = 2-(pyrid-2{prime}-yl)-1-azaacridine) and [Ru(2)]{sup 2+} (2 = 3-(pyrid-2{prime}-yl)-4-azaacridine), are bio-inspired model compounds containing the nicotinamide functionality and can serve as precursors for the photogeneration of C-H hydrides for studying reactions pertinent to the photochemical reduction of metal-C{sub 1} complexes and/or carbon dioxide. While it has been shown that the structural differences between the azaacridine ligands of [Ru(1)]{sup 2+} and [Ru(2)]{sup 2+} have a significant effect on the mechanism of formation of the hydride donors, [Ru(1HH)]{sup 2+} and [Ru(2HH)]{sup 2+}, in aqueous solution, we describe the steric implications for proton, net-hydrogen-atom and net-hydride transfer reactions in this work. Protonation of [Ru(2{sup {sm_bullet}-})]{sup +} in aprotic and even protic media is slow compared to that of [Ru(1{sup {sm_bullet}-})]{sup +}. The net hydrogen-atom transfer between *[Ru(1)]{sup 2+} and hydroquinone (H{sub 2}Q) proceeds by one-step EPT, rather than stepwise electron-proton transfer. Such a reaction was not observed for *[Ru(2)]{sup 2+} because the non-coordinated N atom is not easily available for an interaction with H{sub 2}Q. Finally, the rate of the net hydride ion transfer from [Ru(1HH)]{sup 2+} to [Ph{sub 3}C]{sup +} is significantly slower than that of [Ru(2HH)]{sup 2+} owing to steric congestion at the donor site.

  13. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  14. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.81014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.21016 to 2.51016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.11013 to 3.61014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  15. BEST (Battery Economics for more Sustainable Transportation)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    Computer software for the simulation of battery economics based on various transportation business models.

  16. Gamma Reaction History ablator areal density constraints upon correlated diagnostic modeling of National Ignition Facility implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerjan, C. Sayre, D. B.; Landen, O. L.; Church, J. A.; Stoeffl, W.; Grafil, E. M.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kim, Y.

    2015-03-15

    The inelastic neutron scattering induced γ-ray signal from {sup 12}C in an Inertial Confinement Fusion capsule is demonstrated to be an effective and general diagnostic for shell ablator areal density. Experimental acquisition of the time-integrated signal at 4.4 MeV using threshold detection from four gas Čerenkov cells provides a direct measurement of the {sup 12}C areal density near stagnation. Application of a three-dimensional isobaric static model of data acquired in a recent high neutron yield National Ignition Facility experimental campaign reveals two general trends: smaller remaining ablator mass at stagnation and higher shell density with increasing laser drive.

  17. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reacting Flow/Modeling - Modelingadmin2015-10-28T02:39:13+00:00 Turbulence models typically involve coarse-graining and/or time averaging. Though adequate for modeling mean transport, this approach does not address turbulence-microphysics interactions that are important in combustion processes. Subgrid models are developed to represent these interactions. The CRF has developed a fundamentally different representation of these interactions that does not involve distinct coarse-grained and subgrid

  18. Full-f Neoclassical Simulations toward a Predictive Model for H-mode Pedestal Ion Energy, Particle and Momentum Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaglia, D. J.; Boedo, J. A.; Burrell, K. H.; Chang, C. S.; Canik, J. M.; deGrassie, J. S.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Grierson, B. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Maingi, Rajesh; Smith, S. P.

    2014-09-01

    Energy and particle transport rates are decoupled in the H-mode edge since the ion thermal transport rate is primarily set by the neoclassical transport of the deuterium ions in the tail of the thermal energy distribution, while the net particle transport rate is set by anomalous transport of the colder bulk ions. Ion orbit loss drives the energy distributions away from Maxwellian, and describes the anisotropy, poloidal asymmetry and local minimum near the separatrix observed in the Ti profile. Non-Maxwellian distributions also drive large intrinsic edge flows, and the interaction of turbulence at the top of the pedestal with the intrinsic edge flow can generate an intrinsic core torque. The primary driver of the radial electric field (Er) in the pedestal and scrapeoff layer (SOL) are kinetic neoclassical effects, such as ion orbit loss of tail ions and parallel electron loss to the divertor. This paper describes the first multi-species kinetic neoclassical transport calculations for ELM-free H-mode pedestal and scrape-off layer on DIII-D using XGC0, a 5D full-f particle-in-cell drift-kinetic solver with self-consistent neutral recycling and sheath potentials. Quantitative agreement between the flux-driven simulation and the experimental electron density, impurity density and orthogonal measurements of impurity temperature and flow profiles is achieved by adding random-walk particle diffusion to the guiding-center drift motion. This interpretative technique quantifies the role of neoclassical, anomalous and neutral transport to the overall pedestal structure, and consequently illustrates the importance of including kinetic effects self-consistently in transport calculations around transport barriers.

  19. Towards quantifying the reaction network around the sulfate–methane-transition-zone in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, with a kinetic modeling approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Wei-Li; Torres, Marta E.; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Jiyoung; Bahk, Jang-Jun

    2014-09-01

    We present a kinetic model based upon pore water data collected from eight sites drilled during the second Ulleung Basin gas hydrate drilling expedition (UBGH2) in 2010. Three sites were drilled at locations where acoustic chimneys were identified in seismic data, and the rest were drilled on non-chimney (i.e. background) environments. Our model, coupled a comprehensive compositional and isotopic data set, is used to illustrate the different biogeochemical processes at play in those two environments, in terms of reactions around the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ). Organic matter decomposition is an important process for production of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and consumption of sulfate in the non-chimney sites, whereas anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) dominates both carbon and sulfur cycles in the chimney environment. Different sources of methane mediate AOM in the two settings. Internally produced methane through CO₂ reduction (CR) and methanogenesis fuels AOM in the non-chimney sites, whereas AOM is sustained by methane from external sources in the chimney sites. We also simulate the system evolution from non-chimney to chimney conditions by increasing the bottom methane supply to a non-chimney setting. We show that the higher CH₄ flux leads to a higher microbial activity of AOM, and more organic matter decomposition through methanogenesis. A higher methanogenesis rate and a smaller CR contribution relative to AOM in the chimney sites is responsible for the isotopically light DIC and heavy methane in this environment, relative to the non-chimney sites.

  20. Evaluation of atmospheric transport models for use in Phase II of the historical public exposures studies at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; Killough, G.G.; Till, J.E.

    1999-08-01

    Five atmospheric transport models were evaluated for use in Phase II of the Historical Public Exposures Studies at the Rocky Flats Plant. Models included a simple straight-line Gaussian plume model (ISCST2), several integrated puff models (RATCHET, TRIAD, and INPUFF2), and a complex terrain model (TRAC). Evaluations were based on how well model predictions compared with sulfur hexafluoride tracer measurements taken in the vicinity of Rocky Flats in February 1991. Twelve separate tracer experiments were conducted, each lasting 9 hr and measured at 140 samplers in arcs 8 and 16 km from the release point at Rocky Flats. Four modeling objectives were defined based on the endpoints of the overall study: (1) the unpaired maximum hourly average concentration, (2) paired time-averaged concentration, (3) unpaired time-averaged concentration, and (4) arc-integrated concentration. Performance measures were used to evaluate models and focused on the geometric mean and standard deviation of the predicted-to-observed ratio and the correlation coefficient between predicted and observed concentrations. No one model consistently outperformed the others in all modeling objectives and performance measures. The overall performance of the RATCHET model was somewhat better than the other models.

  1. Beam Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam Transport Beam Transport A simplified drawing of the beam transport system from the linac to Target-1 (Lujan Center), Target-2 (Blue Room) and Target-4 is shown below. In usual operation beam is transported from the linac through the pulsed Ring Injection Kicker (RIKI) magnet. When RIKI is switched on, the beam is injected into the storage ring with the time structure shown here. The beam is accumulated in the PSR and then transported to Target-1. beam_transport1 Simplified drawing of the

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

  3. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A rail tank car of the type used to transport crude oil across North America. Recent incidents have raised concerns about the safety of this practice, which the DOE-DOT-sponsored team is investigating. (photo credit: Harvey Henkelmann) Permalink Gallery Expansion of DOE-DOT Tight Oil Research Work Capabilities, Carbon Capture & Storage, Carbon Storage, Energy, Energy Assurance, Energy Assurance, Fuel Options, Infrastructure Assurance, Infrastructure Security, Modeling, Modeling, Modeling

  4. Simulation of oil-slick transport in Great Lakes connecting channels. Volume 3. User's manual for the lake-river oil-spill simulation model. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, H.T.; Yapa, P.D.; Petroski, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    In this study, two computer models named as ROSS and LROSS are developed for simulating oil-slick transport in rivers and lakes, respectively. The oil-slick transformation processes considered in these models include advection, spreading, evaporation, and dissolution. These models can be used for slicks of any shape originated from instantaneous or continuous spills in rivers and lakes with or without ice covers. Although developed for the need of the connecting channels in the upper Great Lakes, including the Detroit RIver, Lake St. Clair, St. Clair River, and St. Marys River, these models are site independent and can be used for others rivers and lakes. The programs are written in FORTRAN language to be compatible with FORTRAN77 compiler. The models are designed to be used on both mainframe and microcomputers.

  5. Simulation of oil-slick transport in Great Lakes connecting channels. User's manual for the River Spill Simulation Model (ROSS). Special report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, H.T.; Yapa, P.D.; Petroski, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Two computer models, named ROSS and LROSS, have been developed for simulating oil slick transport in rivers and lakes, respectively. The oil slick transformation processes considered in these models include advection, spreading, evaporation and dissolution. These models can be used for slicks of any shape originating from instantaneous or continuous spills in rivers and lakes with or without ice covers. Although developed for the connecting channels in the upper Great Lakes, including the Detroit River, Lake St. Clair, the St. Clair River and the St. Marys River, these models are site independent and can be used for other rivers and lakes. The programs are written in FORTRAN programming language to be compatible with the FORTRAN77 compiler. In addition, a user-friendly, menu-driven program with graphics capability was developed for the IBM-PC AT computer, so that these models can be easily used to assist the cleanup action in the connecting channels should an oil spill occur.

  6. Simulation of oil-slick transport in Great Lakes connecting channels. Volume 2. User's manual for the river oil-spill simulation model. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, H.T.; Yapa, P.D.; Petroski, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    In this study, two computer models named as ROSS and LROSS are developed for simulating oil-slick transport in rivers and lakes, respectively. The oil slick transformation processes considered in these models include advection, spreading, evaporation, and dissolution. These models can be used for slicks of any shape originated from instantaneous or continuous spills in rivers and lakes with or without ice covers. Although developed for the need of the connecting channels in the upper Great Lakes, including the Detroit River, Lake St. Clair, St. Clair River, and St. Marys River, these models are site independent and can be used for other rivers and lakes. The programs are written in FORTRAN programing language to be compatible with FORTRAN77 compiler. The models are designed to be used on both mainframe and microcomputers.

  7. WIPP Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transuranic Waste Transportation Container Documents Documents related to transuranic waste containers and packages. CBFO Tribal Program Information about WIPP shipments across tribal lands. Transportation Centralized Procurement Program - The Centralized Procurement Program provides a common method to procure standard items used in the packaging and handling of transuranic wasted destined for WIPP. Transuranic Waste Transportation Routes - A map showing transuranic waste generator sites and

  8. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-04-01

    Under current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation, it is not sufficient for used nuclear fuel (UNF) to simply maintain its integrity during the storage period, it must maintain its integrity in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and moving it to treatment or recycling facilities, or a geologic repository. Hence it is necessary to understand the performance characteristics of aged UNF cladding and ancillary components under loadings stemming from transport initiatives. Researchers would like to demonstrate that enough information, including experimental support and modeling and simulation capabilities, exists to establish a preliminary determination of UNF structural performance under normal conditions of transport (NCT). This research, development and demonstration (RD&D) plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. This methodology will be used to provide a preliminary assessment of the performance characteristics of UNF cladding and ancillary components under rail-related NCT loading. The methodology couples modeling and simulation and experimental efforts currently under way within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC). The methodology will involve limited uncertainty quantification in the form of sensitivity evaluations focused around available fuel and ancillary fuel structure properties exclusively. The work includes collecting information via literature review, soliciting input/guidance from subject matter experts, performing computational analyses, planning experimental measurement and possible execution (depending on timing), and preparing a variety of supporting documents that will feed into and provide the basis for future initiatives. The methodology demonstration will focus on structural performance evaluation of Westinghouse WE 1717 pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies with a discharge burnup range of 30-58 GWd/MTU (assembly average), loaded in a representative high-capacity (?32 fuel rod assemblies) transportation package. Evaluations will be performed for representative normal conditions of rail transport involving a rail conveyance capable of meeting the Association of American Railroads (AAR) S-2043 specification. UNF modeling is anticipated to be defined to the pellet-cladding level and take in to account influences associated with spacer grids, intermediate fluid mixers, and control components. The influence of common degradation issues such as ductile-to-brittle-transition will also be accounted for. All model development and analysis will be performed with commercially available software packages exclusively. Inputs and analyses will be completely documented, all supporting information will be traceable, and bases will be defendable so as to be most useful to the U.S. Department of Energy community and mission. The expected completion date is the end of fiscal year (FY) 2013.

  9. Transportation Fuel Supply | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SheetsTransportation Fuel Supply content top Transportation Fuel Supply

  10. Towards quantifying the reaction network around the sulfate–methane-transition-zone in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, with a kinetic modeling approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hong, Wei-Li; Torres, Marta E.; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Jiyoung; Bahk, Jang-Jun

    2014-09-01

    We present a kinetic model based upon pore water data collected from eight sites drilled during the second Ulleung Basin gas hydrate drilling expedition (UBGH2) in 2010. Three sites were drilled at locations where acoustic chimneys were identified in seismic data, and the rest were drilled on non-chimney (i.e. background) environments. Our model, coupled a comprehensive compositional and isotopic data set, is used to illustrate the different biogeochemical processes at play in those two environments, in terms of reactions around the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ). Organic matter decomposition is an important process for production of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and consumptionmore » of sulfate in the non-chimney sites, whereas anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) dominates both carbon and sulfur cycles in the chimney environment. Different sources of methane mediate AOM in the two settings. Internally produced methane through CO₂ reduction (CR) and methanogenesis fuels AOM in the non-chimney sites, whereas AOM is sustained by methane from external sources in the chimney sites. We also simulate the system evolution from non-chimney to chimney conditions by increasing the bottom methane supply to a non-chimney setting. We show that the higher CH₄ flux leads to a higher microbial activity of AOM, and more organic matter decomposition through methanogenesis. A higher methanogenesis rate and a smaller CR contribution relative to AOM in the chimney sites is responsible for the isotopically light DIC and heavy methane in this environment, relative to the non-chimney sites.« less

  11. Modeling Aeolian Transport of Contaminated Sediments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Area G: Sensitivities to Succession, Disturbance, and Future Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Kirchner, Thomas B.; Breshears, David D.; Field, Jason P.

    2012-03-27

    The Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G disposal facility is used for the disposal of radioactive waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. In compliance with that requirement, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for facilities that receive waste after September 26, 1988. Sites are also required to conduct composite analyses for facilities that receive waste after this date; these analyses account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (and will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with these facilities. LANL issued Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis in 2008. In support of those analyses, vertical and horizontal sediment flux data were collected at two analog sites, each with different dominant vegetation characteristics, and used to estimate rates of vertical resuspension and wind erosion for Area G. The results of that investigation indicated that there was no net loss of soil at the disposal site due to wind erosion, and suggested minimal impacts of wind on the long-term performance of the facility. However, that study did not evaluate the potential for contaminant transport caused by the horizontal movement of soil particles over long time frames. Since that time, additional field data have been collected to estimate wind threshold velocities for initiating sediment transport due to saltation and rates of sediment transport once those thresholds are reached. Data such as these have been used in the development of the Vegetation Modified Transport (VMTran) model. This model is designed to estimate patterns and long-term rates of contaminant redistribution caused by winds at the site, taking into account the impacts of plant succession and environmental disturbance. Aeolian, or wind-driven, sediment transport drives soil erosion, affects biogeochemical cycles, and can lead to the transport of contaminants. Rates of aeolian sediment transport depend in large part on the type, amount, and spatial pattern of vegetation. In particular, the amount of cover from trees and shrubs, which act as roughness elements, alters rates of aeolian sediment transport. The degree to which the understory is disturbed and the associated spacing of bare soil gaps further influence sediment transport rates. Changes in vegetation structure and patterns over periods of years to centuries may have profound impacts on rates of wind-driven transport. For recently disturbed areas, succession is likely to occur through a series of vegetation communities. Area G currently exhibits a mosaic of vegetation cover, with patches of grass and forbs over closed disposal units, and bare ground in heavily used portions of the site. These areas are surrounded by less disturbed regions of shrubland and pinon-juniper woodland; some ponderosa pine forest is also visible in the canyon along the road. The successional trajectory for the disturbed portions of Area G is expected to proceed from grasses and forbs (which would be established during site closure), to shrubs such as chamisa, to a climax community of pinon-juniper woodland. Although unlikely under current conditions, a ponderosa pine forest could develop over the site if the future climate is wetter. In many ecosystems, substantial and often periodic disturbances such as fire or severe drought can rapidly alter vegetation patterns. Such disturbances are likely to increase in the southwestern US where projections call for a warmer and drier climate. With respect to Area G, the 3 most likely disturbance types are surface fire, crown fire, and drought-induced tree mortality. Each type of disturbance has a different frequency or likelihood of occurrence, but all 3 tend to reset the vegetation succession cycle to earlier stages. The Area G performance assessment and composite an

  12. Fate and Transport of Uranium (VI) in Weathered Saprolite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Brooks, Scott C; Zhang, Fan; Parker, Jack C.; Moon, Ji Won; Roh, Yul

    2015-01-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate sorption and transport of uranium (U) in the presence of saprolite derived from interbedded shale, limestone, and sandstone sequences. Sorption kinetics were measured at two initial concentrations (C0; 1, 10 mM) and three soil:solution ratios (Rs/w; 0.005, 0.25, 2 kg/L) at pH 4.5 (pH of the saprolite). The rate of U loss from solution (mmole/L/h) increased with increasing Rs/w. Uranium sorption exhibited a fast phase with 80% sorption in the first eight hours for all C0 and Rs/w values and a slow phase during which the reaction slowly approached (pseudo) equilibrium overmore » the next seven days. The pH-dependency of U sorption was apparent in pH sorption edges. U(VI) sorption increased over the pH range 4e6, then decreased sharply at pH > 7.5. U(VI) sorption edges were well described by a surface complexation model using calibrated parameters and the reaction network proposed by Waite et al. (1994). Sorption isotherms measured using the same Rs/w and pH values showed a solids concentration effect where U(VI) sorption capacity and affinity decreased with increasing solids concentration. This effect may have been due to either particle aggregation or competition between U(VI) and exchangeable cations for sorption sites. The surface complexation model with calibrated parameters was able to predict the general sorption behavior relatively well, but failed to reproduce solid concentration effects, implying the importance of appropriate design if batch experiments are to be utilized for dynamic systems. Transport of U(VI) through the packed column was significantly retarded. Transport simulations were conducted using the reactive transport model HydroGeoChem (HGC) v5.0 that incorporated the surface complexation reaction network used to model the batch data. Model parameters reported by Waite et al. (1994) provided a better prediction of U transport than optimized parameters derived from our sorption edges. The results presented in this study highlight the challenges in defining appropriate conditions for batch-type experiments used to extrapolate parameters for transport models, and also underline a gap in our ability to transfer batch results to transport simulations.« less

  13. Fate and Transport of Uranium (VI) in Weathered Saprolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Brooks, Scott C; Zhang, Fan; Parker, Jack C.; Moon, Ji Won; Roh, Yul

    2015-01-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate sorption and transport of uranium (U) in the presence of saprolite derived from interbedded shale, limestone, and sandstone sequences. Sorption kinetics were measured at two initial concentrations (C0; 1, 10 mM) and three soil:solution ratios (Rs/w; 0.005, 0.25, 2 kg/L) at pH 4.5 (pH of the saprolite). The rate of U loss from solution (mmole/L/h) increased with increasing Rs/w. Uranium sorption exhibited a fast phase with 80% sorption in the first eight hours for all C0 and Rs/w values and a slow phase during which the reaction slowly approached (pseudo) equilibrium over the next seven days. The pH-dependency of U sorption was apparent in pH sorption edges. U(VI) sorption increased over the pH range 4e6, then decreased sharply at pH > 7.5. U(VI) sorption edges were well described by a surface complexation model using calibrated parameters and the reaction network proposed by Waite et al. (1994). Sorption isotherms measured using the same Rs/w and pH values showed a solids concentration effect where U(VI) sorption capacity and affinity decreased with increasing solids concentration. This effect may have been due to either particle aggregation or competition between U(VI) and exchangeable cations for sorption sites. The surface complexation model with calibrated parameters was able to predict the general sorption behavior relatively well, but failed to reproduce solid concentration effects, implying the importance of appropriate design if batch experiments are to be utilized for dynamic systems. Transport of U(VI) through the packed column was significantly retarded. Transport simulations were conducted using the reactive transport model HydroGeoChem (HGC) v5.0 that incorporated the surface complexation reaction network used to model the batch data. Model parameters reported by Waite et al. (1994) provided a better prediction of U transport than optimized parameters derived from our sorption edges. The results presented in this study highlight the challenges in defining appropriate conditions for batch-type experiments used to extrapolate parameters for transport models, and also underline a gap in our ability to transfer batch results to transport simulations.

  14. Validation of in vitro cell models used in drug metabolism and transport studies; genotyping of cytochrome P450, phase II enzymes and drug transporter polymorphisms in the human hepatoma (HepG2), ovarian carcinoma (IGROV-1) and colon carcinoma (CaCo-2, LS180) cell lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon, Esther F.A.; Bosch, Tessa M.; Deenen, Maarten J.; Levink, Rianne; Wal, Everdina van der; Meerveld, Joyce B.M. van; Bijl, Monique; Beijnen, Jos H. |; Schellens, Jan H.M. |; Meijerman, Irma . E-mail: I.Meijerman@pharm.uu.nl

    2006-02-15

    Human cell lines are often used for in vitro biotransformation and transport studies of drugs. In vivo, genetic polymorphisms have been identified in drug-metabolizing enzymes and ABC-drug transporters leading to altered enzyme activity, or a change in the inducibility of these enzymes. These genetic polymorphisms could also influence the outcome of studies using human cell lines. Therefore, the aim of our study was to pharmacogenotype four cell lines frequently used in drug metabolism and transport studies, HepG2, IGROV-1, CaCo-2 and LS180, for genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes and drug transporters. The results indicate that, despite the presence of some genetic polymorphisms, no real effects influencing the activity of metabolizing enzymes or drug transporters in the investigated cell lines are expected. However, this characterization will be an aid in the interpretation of the results of biotransformation and transport studies using these in vitro cell models.

  15. Modeling the Energy Use of a Connected and Automated Transportation System (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Loop through time for both equipped and non-equipped vehicles Defining Inputs CAV Capabilities Behavior Modeling Fleet Makeup Fleet Usage Scenario Energy Impacts/Examples Urban Form Traffic Modeling Powertrain Modeling Infrastructure Characteristics Vehicle Design Standards/Regulations Estimating Effects Modeling Interactions Why: Foundational technology cases for potential impact scenarios Input assumptions:

  16. ACCELERATING FUSION REACTOR NEUTRONICS MODELING BY AUTOMATIC COUPLING OF HYBRID MONTE CARLO/DETERMINISTIC TRANSPORT ON CAD GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biondo, Elliott D; Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Mosher, Scott W; Grove, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Detailed radiation transport calculations are necessary for many aspects of the design of fusion energy systems (FES) such as ensuring occupational safety, assessing the activation of system components for waste disposal, and maintaining cryogenic temperatures within superconducting magnets. Hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/deterministic techniques are necessary for this analysis because FES are large, heavily shielded, and contain streaming paths that can only be resolved with MC. The tremendous complexity of FES necessitates the use of CAD geometry for design and analysis. Previous ITER analysis has required the translation of CAD geometry to MCNP5 form in order to use the AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) for hybrid MC/deterministic transport. In this work, ADVANTG was modified to support CAD geometry, allowing hybrid (MC)/deterministic transport to be done automatically and eliminating the need for this translation step. This was done by adding a new ray tracing routine to ADVANTG for CAD geometries using the Direct Accelerated Geometry Monte Carlo (DAGMC) software library. This new capability is demonstrated with a prompt dose rate calculation for an ITER computational benchmark problem using both the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method an the Forward Weighted (FW)-CADIS method. The variance reduction parameters produced by ADVANTG are shown to be the same using CAD geometry and standard MCNP5 geometry. Significant speedups were observed for both neutrons (as high as a factor of 7.1) and photons (as high as a factor of 59.6).

  17. Effect of burst and recombination models for Monte Carlo transport of interacting carriers in a-Se x-ray detectors on Swank noise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yuan; Karim, Karim S.; Badano, Aldo

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors describe the modification to a previously developed Monte Carlo model of semiconductor direct x-ray detector required for studying the effect of burst and recombination algorithms on detector performance. This work provides insight into the effect of different charge generation models for a-Se detectors on Swank noise and recombination fraction. Methods: The proposed burst and recombination models are implemented in the Monte Carlo simulation package, ARTEMIS, developed byFang et al. [Spatiotemporal Monte Carlo transport methods in x-ray semiconductor detectors: Application to pulse-height spectroscopy in a-Se, Med. Phys. 39(1), 308319 (2012)]. The burst model generates a cloud of electron-hole pairs based on electron velocity, energy deposition, and material parameters distributed within a spherical uniform volume (SUV) or on a spherical surface area (SSA). A simple first-hit (FH) and a more detailed but computationally expensive nearest-neighbor (NN) recombination algorithms are also described and compared. Results: Simulated recombination fractions for a single electron-hole pair show good agreement with Onsager model for a wide range of electric field, thermalization distance, and temperature. The recombination fraction and Swank noise exhibit a dependence on the burst model for generation of many electron-hole pairs from a single x ray. The Swank noise decreased for the SSA compared to the SUV model at 4 V/?m, while the recombination fraction decreased for SSA compared to the SUV model at 30 V/?m. The NN and FH recombination results were comparable. Conclusions: Results obtained with the ARTEMIS Monte Carlo transport model incorporating drift and diffusion are validated with the Onsager model for a single electron-hole pair as a function of electric field, thermalization distance, and temperature. For x-ray interactions, the authors demonstrate that the choice of burst model can affect the simulation results for the generation of many electron-hole pairs. The SSA model is more sensitive to the effect of electric field compared to the SUV model and that the NN and FH recombination algorithms did not significantly affect simulation results.

  18. Binding Behavior of Dopamine Transporter Key to Understanding Chemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactions in the Brain Binding Behavior of Dopamine Transporter Key to Understanding Chemical Reactions in the Brain Binding Behavior of Dopamine Transporter Key to Understanding Chemical Reactions in the Brain Print Wednesday, 09 December 2015 00:00 Most people have heard of adrenaline, the chemical that causes the "fight or flight" reaction in humans. Most people have also heard of the chemical substances cocaine and methamphetamine, which also elicit a particular (perhaps

  19. Oxygen reduction and transportation mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li YH, Gemmen R, Liu XB

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, various models have been developed for describing the reaction mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) especially for the cathode electrode. However, many fundamental issues regarding the transport of oxygen and electrode kinetics have not been fully understood. This review tried to summarize the present status of the SOFC cathode modeling efforts, and associated experimental approaches on this topic. In addition, unsolved problems and possible future research directions for SOFC cathode kinetics had been discussed

  20. Greening Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Goal 2: Greening Transportation LANL supports and encourages employees to reduce their personal greenhouse gas emissions by offering various commuting and work schedule options. Our goal is to reduce emissions related to employee travel and commuting to and from work by 13 percent. Energy Conservation» Efficient Water Use & Management» High Performance Sustainable Buildings» Greening Transportation» Green Purchasing & Green Technology» Pollution Prevention» Science

  1. Impact of the In-medium Nucleon-nucleon Cross Section Modification on Early-reaction-phase Dynamics Below 100 A MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basrak, Z.; Zoric, M.; Eudes, P.; Sebille, F.

    2009-08-26

    With a semi-classical transport model studied is the impact of the in-medium NN cross section modifications on the early energy transformation, dynamical emission and quasiprojectile properties of the Ar+Ni and Ni+Ni reactions at 52, 74 and 95(90) A MeV.

  2. Dissertation: Precompound Emission of Energetic Light Fragments in Spallation Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-08-04

    Emission of light fragments (LF) from nuclear reactions is an open question. Different reaction mechanisms contribute to their production; the relative roles of each, and how they change with incident energy, mass number of the target, and the type and emission energy of the fragments is not completely understood. None of the available models are able to accurately predict emission of LF from arbitrary reactions. However, the ability to describe production of LF (especially at energies ? 30 MeV) from many reactions is important for different applications, such as cosmic-ray-induced Single Event Upsets (SEUs), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and heavy-ion beams, to name just a few. The Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) version 03.03 and the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) version 03.03 event generators in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code version 6 (MCNP6) describe quite well the spectra of fragments with sizes up to ?He across a broad range of target masses and incident energies (up to ~ 5 GeV for CEM and up to ~ 1 TeV/A for LAQGSM). However, they do not predict the high energy tails of LF spectra heavier than ?He well. Most LF with energies above several tens of MeV are emitted during the precompound stage of a reaction. The current versions of the CEM and LAQGSM event generators do not account for precompound emission of LF larger than ?He. The aim of our work is to extend the precompound model in them to include such processes, leading to an increase of predictive power of LF-production in MCNP6. This entails upgrading the Modified Exciton Model currently used at the preequilibrium stage in CEM and LAQGSM. It also includes expansion and examination of the coalescence and Fermi break-up models used in the precompound stages of spallation reactions within CEM and LAQGSM. Extending our models to include emission of fragments heavier than ?He at the precompound stage has indeed provided results that have much better agreement with experimental data.

  3. Sustainable Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in transportation technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel cell technologies.

  4. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  5. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report Volume 2: Summary of Existing Knowledge of Geochemical Influences on the Fate and Transport of Contaminants in the Subsurface at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul L. Wichlacz; Robert C. Starr; Brennon Orr

    2003-09-01

    This document summarizes previous descriptions of geochemical system conceptual models for the vadose zone and groundwater zone (aquifer) beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The primary focus is on groundwater because contaminants derived from wastes disposed at INEEL are present in groundwater, groundwater provides a pathway for potential migration to receptors, and because geochemical characteristics in and processes in the aquifer can substantially affect the movement, attenuation, and toxicity of contaminants. The secondary emphasis is perched water bodies in the vadose zone. Perched water eventually reaches the regional groundwater system, and thus processes that affect contaminants in the perched water bodies are important relative to the migration of contaminants into groundwater. Similarly, processes that affect solutes during transport from nearsurface disposal facilities downward through the vadose zone to the aquifer are relevant. Sediments in the vadose zone can affect both water and solute transport by restricting the downward migration of water sufficiently that a perched water body forms, and by retarding solute migration via ion exchange. Geochemical conceptual models have been prepared by a variety of researchers for different purposes. They have been published in documents prepared by INEEL contractors, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), academic researchers, and others. The documents themselves are INEEL and USGS reports, and articles in technical journals. The documents reviewed were selected from citation lists generated by searching the INEEL Technical Library, the INEEL Environmental Restoration Optical Imaging System, and the ISI Web of Science databases. The citation lists were generated using the keywords ground water, groundwater, chemistry, geochemistry, contaminant, INEL, INEEL, and Idaho. In addition, a list of USGS documents that pertain to the INEEL was obtained and manually searched. The documents that appeared to be the most pertinent were selected from further review. These documents are tabulated in the citation list. This report summarizes existing geochemical conceptual models, but does not attempt to generate a new conceptual model or select the ''right'' model. This document is organized as follows. Geochemical models are described in general in Section 2. Geochemical processes that control the transport and fate of contaminants introduced into groundwater are described in Section 3. The natural geochemistry of the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA) is described in Section 4. The effect of waste disposal on the INEEL subsurface is described in Section 5. The geochemical behavior of the major contaminants is described in Section 6. Section 7 describes the site-specific geochemical models developed for various INEEL facilities.

  6. CASCADER: An m-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. Volume 2, User`s manual for CASCADR8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Been, K.B.; Emer, D.F.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-06-01

    Chemicals and radionuclides move either in the gas-phase, liquid-phase, or both phases in soils. They may be acted upon by either biological or abiotic processes through advection and/or diffusion. Furthermore, parent and daughter radionuclides may decay as they are transported in the soil. This is volume two to the CASCADER series, titled CASCADR8. It embodies the concepts presented in volume one of this series. To properly understand how the CASCADR8 model works, the reader should read volume one first. This volume presents the input and output file structure for CASCADR8, and a set of realistic scenarios for buried sources of radon gas.

  7. Predictive two-dimensional scrape-off layer plasma transport modeling of phase-I operations of tokamak SST-1 using SOLPS5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himabindu, M.; Tyagi, Anil; Sharma, Devendra; Deshpande, Shishir P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Bonnin, Xavier [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procds et des Matriaux, CNRS, Universit Paris13, Sorbonne Paris Cit, Villetaneuse 93430 (France)] [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procds et des Matriaux, CNRS, Universit Paris13, Sorbonne Paris Cit, Villetaneuse 93430 (France)

    2014-02-15

    Computational analysis of coupled plasma and neutral transport in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) region of the Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is done using SOLPS for Phase-I of double-null divertor plasma operations. An optimum set of plasma parameters is explored computationally for the first phase operations with the central objective of achieving an effective control over particle and power exhaust. While the transport of plasma species is treated using a fluid model in the B2.5 code, a full kinetic description is provided by the EIRENE code for the neutral particle transport in a realistic geometry. Cases with and without external gas puffing are analyzed for finding regimes where an effective control of plasma operations can be exercised by controlling the SOL plasma conditions over a range of heating powers. In the desired parameter range, a reasonable neutral penetration across the SOL is observed, capable of causing a variation of up to 15% of the total input power, in the power deposited on the divertors. Our computational characterization of the SOL plasma with input power 1 MW and lower hybrid current drive, for the separatrix density up to 10{sup 19}?m{sup ?3}, indicates that there will be access to high recycling operations producing reduction in the temperature and the peak heat flux at the divertor targets. This indicates that a control of the core plasma density and temperature would be achievable. A power balance analysis done using the kinetic neutral transport code EIRENE indicates about 60%-75% of the total power diverted to the targets, providing quantitative estimates for the relative power loading of the targets and the rest of the plasma facing components.

  8. Transportation Data Archiving

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Data Archiving This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - TRACC Director Background Urban and regional transportation planning and operations applications, (e.g. traffic modeling) require a large volume of accurate traffic-related data for a wide range of conditions. Significant real-time data on traffic volumes, highway construction, accidents, weather, airline flights, commuter and rail schedules, etc., are recorded each day by

  9. Heat Transfer and Fluid Transport of Supercritical CO2 in Enhanced Geothermal System with Local Thermal Non-equilibrium Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Le; Luo, Feng; Xu, Ruina; Jiang, Peixue; Liu, Huihai

    2014-12-31

    The heat transfer and fluid transport of supercritical CO2 in enhanced geothermal system (EGS) is studied numerically with local thermal non-equilibrium model, which accounts for the temperature difference between solid matrix and fluid components in porous media and uses two energy equations to describe heat transfer in the solid matrix and in the fluid, respectively. As compared with the previous results of our research group, the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium mainly depends on the volumetric heat transfer coefficient ah, which has a significant effect on the production temperature at reservoir outlet and thermal breakthrough time. The uniformity of volumetric heat transfer coefficient ah has little influence on the thermal breakthrough time, but the temperature difference become more obvious with time after thermal breakthrough with this simulation model. The thermal breakthrough time reduces and the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium becomes significant with decreasing ah.

  10. Comparison of parameter sensitivities between a laboratory and field scale model of uranium transport in a dual domain, distributed-rate reactive system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Liu, Chongxuan; Post, Vincent; Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.

    2010-09-16

    A laboratory-derived conceptual and numerical model for U(VI) transport at the Hanford 300A site, Washington, USA, was applied to a range of field-scale scenarios of different complexity to systematically evaluate model parameter sensitivities. The model, originally developed from column experiment data, included distributed-rate surface complexation kinetics of U(VI), aqueous speciation, and physical non-equilibrium transport processes. A rigorous parameter sensitivity analysis was carried out with respect to different state variables: concentrations, mass fluxes, total mass and spatial moments of dissolved U(VI) for laboratory systems, and various simulation scenarios that represented the field-scale characteristics at the Hanford 300A site. The field-scenarios accounted for transient groundwater flow and variable geochemical conditions driven by frequent water level changes of the nearby Columbia River. Simulations indicated that the transient conditions significantly affected U(VI) plume migration at the site. The parameter sensitivities were largely similar between the laboratory and field scale systems. Where differences existed, they were shown to result from differing degrees of U(VI) adsorption disequilibrium caused by hydraulic or hydrogeochemical conditions. Adorption disequilibrium was found to differ (i) between short duration peak flow events at the field scale and much longer flow events in the laboratory, (ii) for changing groundwater chemical compositions due to river water intrusion, and (iii) for different sampling locations at the field scale. Parameter sensitivities were also found to vary with respect to the different investigated state variables. An approach is demonstrated that elucidates the most important parameters of a laboratory-scale model that must constrained in both the laboratory and field for meaningful field application.

  11. ESTIMATING FATE AND TRANSPORT OF MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING A MULTI-LAYERED SOIL COLUMN AND THREE-PHASE EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucker, G

    2007-05-01

    Soils at waste sites must be evaluated for the potential of residual soil contamination to leach and migrate to the groundwater beneath the disposal area. If migration to the aquifer occurs, contaminants can travel vast distances and contaminate drinking water wells, thus exposing human receptors to harmful levels of toxins and carcinogens. To prevent groundwater contamination, a contaminant fate and transport analysis is necessary to assess the migration potential of residual soil contaminates. This type of migration analysis is usually performed using a vadose zone model to account for complex geotechnical and chemical variables including: contaminant decay, infiltration rate, soil properties, vadose zone thickness, and chemical behavior. The distinct advantage of using a complex model is that less restrictive, but still protective, soil threshold levels may be determined avoiding the unnecessary and costly remediation of marginally contaminated soils. However, the disadvantage of such modeling is the additional cost for data collection and labor required to apply these models. In order to allay these higher costs and to achieve a less restrictive but still protective clean-up level, a multiple contaminant and multi layered soil column equilibrium partitioning model was developed which is faster, simpler and less expensive to use.

  12. Estimating fate and transport of multiple contaminants in the vadose zone using a multi-layered soil column and three-phase equilibrium partitioning model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucker, Gregory G.

    2007-07-01

    Soils at waste sites must be evaluated for the potential of residual soil contamination to leach and migrate to the groundwater beneath the disposal area. If migration to the aquifer occurs, contaminants can travel vast distances and pollute drinking water wells, thus exposing human receptors to harmful levels of toxins and carcinogens. To prevent groundwater contamination, a contaminant fate and transport analysis is necessary to assess the migration potential of residual soil contaminants. This type of migration analysis is usually performed using a vadose zone model to account for complex geotechnical and chemical variables including: decay processes, infiltration rate, soil properties, vadose zone thickness, and chemical behavior. The distinct advantage of using a complex model is that less restrictive, but still protective, soil threshold levels may be determined avoiding the unnecessary and costly remediation of marginally contaminated soils. However, the disadvantage of such modeling is the additional cost for data collection and labor required to apply these models. In order to allay these higher costs and to achieve a less restrictive but still protective clean-up level, a multiple contaminant and multi layered soil column equilibrium partitioning model was developed which is faster, simpler and less expensive to use. (authors)

  13. Description and preliminary validation of a model for natural convection heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    We have proposed a transient, quasi-two-dimensional, numerical model for interzone heat flow and airflow in passive solar buildings. The paths for heat flow and airflow are through connecting apertures such as doorways, hallways, and stairways. The model includes the major features that influence interzone convection as determined from the results of our flow visualization tests and temperature and airflow measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes laminar and turbulent quasi-steady boundary-layer equations at vertical heated or cooled walls which are coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange air and energy through the aperture which is modelled by a Bernoulli equation. Preliminary results from the model are in general agreement with data obtained in full-scale buildings and laboratory experiments. The model predicts room-core temperature stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/ F/ft) and maximum aperture velocities of 0.08 m/s (15 ft/min.) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 1/sup 0/F.

  14. A Hydrostrat Model and Alternatives for Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainer Mesa-Shoshone Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Geotechnical Sciences Group

    2007-03-01

    The three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit was completed in Fiscal Year 2006. The model extends from eastern Pahute Mesa in the north to Mid Valley in the south and centers on the former nuclear testing areas at Rainier Mesa, Aqueduct Mesa, and Shoshone Mountain. The model area also includes an overlap with the existing Underground Test Area Corrective Action Unit models for Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa. The model area is geologically diverse and includes un-extended yet highly deformed Paleozoic terrain and high volcanic mesas between the Yucca Flat extensional basin on the east and caldera complexes of the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field on the west. The area also includes a hydrologic divide between two groundwater sub-basins of the Death Valley regional flow system. A diverse set of geological and geophysical data collected over the past 50 years was used to develop a structural model and hydrostratigraphic system for the model area. Three deep characterization wells, a magnetotelluric survey, and reprocessed gravity data were acquired specifically for this modeling initiative. These data and associated interpretive products were integrated using EarthVision{reg_sign} software to develop the three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model. Crucial steps in the model building process included establishing a fault model, developing a hydrostratigraphic scheme, compiling a drill-hole database, and constructing detailed geologic and hydrostratigraphic cross sections and subsurface maps. The more than 100 stratigraphic units in the model area were grouped into 43 hydrostratigraphic units based on each unit's propensity toward aquifer or aquitard characteristics. The authors organized the volcanic units in the model area into 35 hydrostratigraphic units that include 16 aquifers, 12 confining units, 2 composite units (a mixture of aquifer and confining units), and 5 intrusive confining units. The underlying pre-Tertiary rocks are divided into six hydrostratigraphic units, including three aquifers and three confining units. Other units include an alluvial aquifer and a Mesozoic-age granitic confining unit. The model depicts the thickness, extent, and geometric relationships of these hydrostratigraphic units ('layers' in the model). The model also incorporates 56 Tertiary normal faults and 4 Mesozoic thrust faults. The complexity of the model area and the non-uniqueness of some of the interpretations incorporated into the base model made it necessary to formulate alternative interpretations for some of the major features in the model. Four of these alternatives were developed so they can be modeled in the same fashion as the base model. This work was done for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Underground Test Area Subproject of the Environmental Restoration Project.

  15. Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian, a Two-Dimensional, and a Three-Dimensional Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) code for predicting off-siteconsequences, MACCS2 (Chanin, et al. 1998) (MELCOR Accident Consequence CodeSystem, Version 2), uses a simplified model for...

  16. Reactions of Ethyl Groups on a Model Chromia Surface: Ethyl Chloride on Stoichiometric Alpha-Cr2O3(1012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, J.; Ma, Q; Cox, D

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of CH3CH2Cl over the nearly-stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3 (1 0 View the MathML source 2) surface yields gas phase CH2double bond; length as m-dashCH2, CH3CH3, H2 and surface chlorine adatoms. The decomposition reaction is initiated via C-Cl bond cleavage to give a surface ethyl (CH3CH2-) intermediate. A rate-limiting ?-hydride elimination from the surface ethyl species produces gas phase CH2double bond; length as m-dashCH2 and surface hydrogen atoms. Two parallel competing reactions form CH3CH3, via ?-hydride addition to remaining surface ethyl species (reductive elimination), and H2, via the combination of two surface hydrogen atoms. The chlorine freed from the dissociation of CH3CH2Cl binds at the five-coordinate surface Cr3+ sites on the stoichiometric surface and inhibits the surface chemistry via simple site blocking. No surface carbon deposition is observed from the thermal reaction of ethyl chloride, suggesting that ethyl intermediates are not primary coke forming intermediates in the dehydrogenation of ethane over (1 0 View the MathML source 2) facets of ?-Cr2O3.

  17. Massively parallel computation of 3D flow and reactions in chemical vapor deposition reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Moffat, H.K.

    1997-12-01

    Computer modeling of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactors can greatly aid in the understanding, design, and optimization of these complex systems. Modeling is particularly attractive in these systems since the costs of experimentally evaluating many design alternatives can be prohibitively expensive, time consuming, and even dangerous, when working with toxic chemicals like Arsine (AsH{sub 3}): until now, predictive modeling has not been possible for most systems since the behavior is three-dimensional and governed by complex reaction mechanisms. In addition, CVD reactors often exhibit large thermal gradients, large changes in physical properties over regions of the domain, and significant thermal diffusion for gas mixtures with widely varying molecular weights. As a result, significant simplifications in the models have been made which erode the accuracy of the models` predictions. In this paper, the authors will demonstrate how the vast computational resources of massively parallel computers can be exploited to make possible the analysis of models that include coupled fluid flow and detailed chemistry in three-dimensional domains. For the most part, models have either simplified the reaction mechanisms and concentrated on the fluid flow, or have simplified the fluid flow and concentrated on rigorous reactions. An important CVD research thrust has been in detailed modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in the reactor vessel, treating transport and reaction of chemical species either very simply or as a totally decoupled problem. Using the analogy between heat transfer and mass transfer, and the fact that deposition is often diffusion limited, much can be learned from these calculations; however, the effects of thermal diffusion, the change in physical properties with composition, and the incorporation of surface reaction mechanisms are not included in this model, nor can transitions to three-dimensional flows be detected.

  18. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  19. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Chung-cheng (Irvine, CA); Sui, Guodong (Los Angeles, CA); Elizarov, Arkadij (Valley Village, CA); Kolb, Hartmuth C. (Playa del Rey, CA); Huang, Jiang (San Jose, CA); Heath, James R. (South Pasadena, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Los Angeles, CA); Quake, Stephen R. (Stanford, CA); Tseng, Hsian-rong (Los Angeles, CA); Wyatt, Paul (Tipperary, IE); Daridon, Antoine (Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH)

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  20. Modeling the Transport and Radiative Forcing of Taklimakan Dust over the Tibetan Plateau: A case study in the summer of 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, J.; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Ben

    2013-01-30

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate an intense dust storm event during 26 to 30 July 2006 that originated over the Taklimakan Desert (TD) and transported to the northern slope of Tibetan Plateau (TP). The dust storm is initiated by the approach of a strong cold frontal system over the TD. In summer, the meridional transport of TD dust to the TP is favored by the thermal effect of the TP and the weakening of the East Asian westerly winds. During this dust storm, the transport of TD dust over the TP is further enhanced by the passage of the cold front. As a result, TD dust breaks through the planetary boundary layer and extends to the upper troposphere over the northern TP. TD dust flux arrived at the TP with a value of 6.6 Gg/day in this 5 day event but decays quickly during the southward migration over the TP due to dry deposition. The simulations show that TD dust cools the atmosphere near the surface and heats the atmosphere above with a maximum heating rate of 0.11 K day-1 at ~7 km over the TP. The event-averaged net radiative forcings of TD dust over the TP are -3.97, 1.61, and -5.58 Wm-2 at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), in the atmosphere, and at the surface, respectively. The promising performance of WRF-Chem in simulating dust and its radiative forcing provides confidence for use in further investigation of climatic impact of TD dust over the TP.

  1. Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staebler, G. M.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P.; Kinsey, J. E.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.

    2014-05-15

    The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by EB velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high EB velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

  2. Multiple reaction fronts in the oxidation-reduction of iron-rich uranium ores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewynne, J.N. . Faculty of Mathematical Studies); Fowler, A.C. . Mathematical Inst.); Hagan, P.S. )

    1993-08-01

    When a container of radioactive waste is buried underground, it eventually corrodes, and leakage of radioactive material to the surrounding rock occurs. Depending on the chemistry of the rock, many different reactions may occur. A particular case concerns the oxidation and reduction of uranium ores by infiltrating groundwater, since UO[sub 3] is relatively soluble (and hence potentially transportable to the water supply), whereas UO[sub 2] is essentially insoluble. It is therefore of concern to those involved with radioactive waste disposal to understand the mechanics of uranium transport through reduction and oxidation reactions. This paper describes the oxidation of iron-rich uranium-bearing rocks by infiltration of groundwater. A reaction-diffusion model is set up to describe the sequence of reactions involving iron oxidation, uranium oxidation and reduction, sulfuric acid production, and dissolution of the host rock that occur. On a geological timescale of millions of years, the reactions occur very fast in very thin reaction fronts. It is shown that the redox front that separates oxidized (orange) rock from reduced (black) rock must actually consist of two separate fronts that move together, at which the two separate processes of uranium oxidation and iron reduction occur, respectively. Between these fronts, a high concentration of uranium is predicted. The mechanics of this process are not specific to uranium-mediated redox reactions, but apply generally and may be used to explain the formation of concentrated ore deposits in extended veins. On the long timescales of relevance, a quasi-static response results, and the problem can be solved explicitly in one dimension. This provides a framework for studying more realistic two-dimensional problems in fissured rocks and also for the future study of uraninite nodule formation.

  3. A Hydrostratigraphic Model and Alternatives for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat-Climax Mine, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geotechnical Sciences Group Bechtel Nevada

    2006-01-01

    A new three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit was completed in 2005. The model area includes Yucca Flat and Climax Mine, former nuclear testing areas at the Nevada Test Site, and proximal areas. The model area is approximately 1,250 square kilometers in size and is geologically complex. Yucca Flat is a topographically closed basin typical of many valleys in the Basin and Range province. Faulted and tilted blocks of Tertiary-age volcanic rocks and underlying Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks form low ranges around the structural basin. During the Cretaceous Period a granitic intrusive was emplaced at the north end of Yucca Flat. A diverse set of geological and geophysical data collected over the past 50 years was used to develop a structural model and hydrostratigraphic system for the basin. These were integrated using EarthVision? software to develop the 3-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model. Fifty-six stratigraphic units in the model area were grouped into 25 hydrostratigraphic units based on each unit's propensity toward aquifer or aquitard characteristics. The authors organized the alluvial section into 3 hydrostratigraphic units including 2 aquifers and 1 confining unit. The volcanic units in the model area are organized into 13 hydrostratigraphic units that include 8 aquifers and 5 confining units. The underlying pre-Tertiary rocks are divided into 7 hydrostratigraphic units, including 3 aquifers and 4 confining units. Other units include 1 Tertiary-age sedimentary confining unit and 1 Mesozoic-age granitic confining unit. The model depicts the thickness, extent, and geometric relationships of these hydrostratigraphic units (''layers'' in the model) along with the major structural features (i.e., faults). The model incorporates 178 high-angle normal faults of Tertiary age and 2 low-angle thrust faults of Mesozoic age. The complexity of the model area and the non-uniqueness of some of the interpretations incorporated into the base model made it necessary to formulate alternative interpretations for some of the major features in the model. Five of these alternatives were developed so they could be modeled in the same fashion as the base model. This work was done for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Underground Test Area subproject of the Environmental Restoration Project.

  4. Technical Note: Improvements in GEANT4 energy-loss model and the effect on low-energy electron transport in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyriakou, I.; Incerti, S.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The GEANT4-DNA physics models are upgraded by a more accurate set of electron cross sections for ionization and excitation in liquid water. The impact of the new developments on low-energy electron transport simulations by the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit is examined for improving its performance in dosimetry applications at the subcellular and nanometer level. Methods: The authors provide an algorithm for an improved implementation of the Emfietzoglou model dielectric response function of liquid water used in the GEANT4-DNA existing model. The algorithm redistributes the imaginary part of the dielectric function to ensure a physically motivated behavior at the binding energies, while retaining all the advantages of the original formulation, e.g., the analytic properties and the fulfillment of the f-sum-rule. In addition, refinements in the exchange and perturbation corrections to the Born approximation used in the GEANT4-DNA existing model are also made. Results: The new ionization and excitation cross sections are significantly different from those of the GEANT4-DNA existing model. In particular, excitations are strongly enhanced relative to ionizations, resulting in higher W-values and less diffusive dose-point-kernels at sub-keV electron energies. Conclusions: An improved energy-loss model for the excitation and ionization of liquid water by low-energy electrons has been implemented in GEANT4-DNA. The suspiciously low W-values and the unphysical long tail in the dose-point-kernel have been corrected owing to a different partitioning of the dielectric function.

  5. System-Scale Model of Aquifer, Vadose Zone, and River Interactions for the Hanford 300 Area - Application to Uranium Reactive Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Bacon, Diana H.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Parker, Kyle R.; Waichler, Scott R.; Williams, Mark D.

    2013-10-01

    This report represents a synthesis and integration of basic and applied research into a system-scale model of the Hanford 300 Area groundwater uranium plume, supported by the U.S. Department of Energys Richland Operations (DOE-RL) office. The report integrates research findings and data from DOE Office of Science (DOE-SC), Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), and DOE-RL projects, and from the site remediation and closure contractor, Washington Closure Hanford, LLC (WCH). The three-dimensional, system-scale model addresses water flow and reactive transport of uranium for the coupled vadose zone, unconfined aquifer, and Columbia River shoreline of the Hanford 300 Area. The system-scale model of the 300 Area was developed to be a decision-support tool to evaluate processes of the total system affecting the groundwater uranium plume. The model can also be used to address what if questions regarding different remediation endpoints, and to assist in design and evaluation of field remediation efforts. For example, the proposed cleanup plan for the Hanford 300 Area includes removal, treatment, and disposal of contaminated sediments from known waste sites, enhanced attenuation of uranium hot spots in the vadose and periodically rewetted zone, and continued monitoring of groundwater with institutional controls. Illustrative simulations of polyphosphate infiltration were performed to demonstrate the ability of the system-scale model to address these types of questions. The use of this model in conjunction with continued field monitoring is expected to provide a rigorous basis for developing operational strategies for field remediation and for defining defensible remediation endpoints.

  6. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Calcite Reactions with Saline Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, Brian P

    2015-09-02

    Project Description: The general objective of the proposed research is to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of calcite reactions with saline waters over a wide range of saline water composition, pCO2, and modest ranges in T and P. This will be accomplished by studying both reaction rates and solubility from changes in solution chemistry, and making nanoscale observations of calcite precipitate surface morphology and composition at the micro-to-nano-scale to provide an understanding of controlling reaction mechanisms and pathways. The specific objectives necessary to reach the general objective are: a) determination of how pCO2, Ca2+, ionic strength and foreign ions influence reaction rates; and b) investigate the influence of these parameters on apparent kinetic solubility from dissolution and precipitation reactions. This information will clearly be central to the construction of reliable reaction-transport models to predict reservoir and formation response to increased CO2 in saline waters. This program was initially collaborative with John Morse at Texas A&M, however his passing shortly after the beginning of this program resulted in abbreviated research time and effort. Summary of Results: Early studies using electron microscopy and spectroscopy indicated that carbonate precipitation from natural seawater (NSW) conditions onto aragonite substrates was mediated by a surface amorphous calcium carbonate layer. It was hypothesized that this ACC layer (observed after < 5days reaction time) was responsible for the abnormal reaction kinetics and also served as a metastable seed layer for growth of epitaxial aragonite. Further studies of the ACC formation mechanism indicated a strong dependence on the Mg concentration in solution. Subsequent studies at shorter times (10 hrs) on calcite substrates and in a wide range of supersaturation conditions did not indicate any ACC layer. Instead, an epitaxial layer by layer growth mechanism was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, -Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction. Extended time studies out to 45 days confirmed the epitaxial relationship of the overgrowth layer with the substrate. Under NSW conditions, overgrowths were found to have ~0.4 to 0.8 nm / hr growth rates and accommodating 4 at% Mg, resulting in a highly strained overgrowth layer. Following the initial layer by layer growth mechanism, the growth changes to Stranski-Krastanov type after a critical thickness of approximately 100 nm.

  7. Finite Volume schemes on unstructured grids for non-local models: Application to the simulation of heat transport in plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goudon, Thierry; Labo. J.A. Dieudonne CNRS and Univ. Nice-Sophia Antipolis , Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 02 ; Parisot, Martin

    2012-10-15

    In the so-called Spitzer-Haerm regime, equations of plasma physics reduce to a nonlinear parabolic equation for the electronic temperature. Coming back to the derivation of this limiting equation through hydrodynamic regime arguments, one is led to construct a hierarchy of models where the heat fluxes are defined through a non-local relation which can be reinterpreted as well by introducing coupled diffusion equations. We address the question of designing numerical methods to simulate these equations. The basic requirement for the scheme is to be asymptotically consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm regime. Furthermore, the constraints of physically realistic simulations make the use of unstructured meshes unavoidable. We develop a Finite Volume scheme, based on Vertex-Based discretization, which reaches these objectives. We discuss on numerical grounds the efficiency of the method, and the ability of the generalized models in capturing relevant phenomena missed by the asymptotic problem.

  8. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-05-14

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (50 MeV to 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used inmore » the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are now available. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results.« less

  9. Measurement of conversion electrons with the {sup 208}Pb(p,n){sup 208}Bi reaction and derivation of the shell model proton neutron hole interaction from the properties of {sup 208}Bi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maier, K. H.; Kibedi, T.; Dracoulis, G. D.; Davidson, P. M.; Lane, G. J.; Nieminen, P.; Watanabe, H.; Boutachkov, P.; Aprahamian, A.; Byrne, A. P.; Marie-Jeanne, M.

    2007-12-15

    Conversion electrons from {sup 208}Bi have been measured using singles and coincidence techniques with the {sup 208}Pb(p,n){sup 208}Bi reaction at 9 MeV. The new information on multipolarities and spins complements that available from recent {gamma}-{gamma}-coincidence studies with the same reaction [Boutachkov et al., Nucl. Phys. A768, 22 (2006)]. The results on electromagnetic decays taken together with information on spectroscopic factors from earlier single-particle transfer reaction measurements represent an extensive data set on the properties of the one-proton one-neutron-hole states below 3 MeV, a spectrum which is virtually complete. Comparison of the experimental observables, namely, energies, spectroscopic factors, and {gamma}-branching ratios, with those calculated within the shell model allows extraction of the matrix elements of the shell model residual interaction. More than 100 diagonal and nondiagonal elements can be determined in this way, through a least squares fit to the experimental data. This adjustment of the interaction significantly affects the calculated properties of the {gamma}-ray transitions. Nevertheless, the matrix elements thus obtained are remarkably similar to those of a realistic interaction calculated from free-nucleon scattering. Characteristic features of the interaction are discussed.

  10. Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Korpach, E.; Yi, Jing; Miley, Harry S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Ungar, R. Kurt; White, Brian; Woods, Vincent T.

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. Atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) of plumes of noble gases and particulates were performed soon after the accident to determine plausible detection locations of any radioactive releases to the atmosphere. We combine sampling data from multiple International Modeling System (IMS) locations in a new way to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of the releases. Dilution factors from the modeled plume at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of 133-Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This approach estimates that 59% of the 1.24×1019 Bq of 133-Xe present in the reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a three day period. Source term estimates from combinations of detection sites have lower spread than estimates based on measurements at single detection sites. Sensitivity cases based on data from four or more detection locations bound the source term between 35% and 255% of available xenon inventory.

  11. A Hydrostratigraphic Framework Model and Alternatives for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Clark, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-09-01

    A new, revised three-dimensional (3-D) hydrostratigraphic framework model for Frenchman Flat was completed in 2004. The area of interest includes Frenchman Flat, a former nuclear testing area at the Nevada Test Site, and proximal areas. Internal and external reviews of an earlier (Phase I) Frenchman Flat model recommended additional data collection to address uncertainties. Subsequently, additional data were collected for this Phase II initiative, including five new drill holes and a 3-D seismic survey.

  12. Determination of filter-cake thicknesses from on-line flow measurements and gas/particle transport modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Powell, V.; Ibrahim, E.; Ferer, M.; Ahmadi, G.

    1996-12-31

    The use of cylindrical candle filters to remove fine ({approx}0.005 mm) particles from hot ({approx}500- 900{degrees}C) gas streams currently is being developed for applications in advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technologies. Successfully deployed with hot-gas filtration, PFBC and IGCC technologies will allow the conversion of coal to electrical energy by direct passage of the filtered gases into non-ruggedized turbines and thus provide substantially greater conversion efficiencies with reduced environmental impacts. In the usual approach, one or more clusters of candle filters are suspended from a tubesheet in a pressurized (P {approx_lt}1 MPa) vessel into which hot gases and suspended particles enter, the gases pass through the walls of the cylindrical filters, and the filtered particles form a cake on the outside of each filter. The cake is then removed periodically by a backpulse of compressed air from inside the filter, which passes through the filter wall and filter cake. In various development or demonstration systems the thickness of the filter cake has proved to be an important, but unknown, process parameter. This paper describes a physical model for cake and pressure buildups between cleaning backpulses, and for longer term buildups of the ``baseline`` pressure drop, as caused by incomplete filter cleaning and/or re-entrainment. When combined with operating data and laboratory measurements of the cake porosity, the model may be used to calculate the (average) filter permeability, the filter-cake thickness and permeability, and the fraction of filter-cake left on the filter by the cleaning backpulse or re-entrained after the backpulse. When used for a variety of operating conditions (e.g., different coals, sorbents, temperatures, etc.), the model eventually may provide useful information on how the filter-cake properties depend on the various operating parameters.

  13. Efficient Energy Transport in Photosynthesis: Roles of Coherence and Entanglement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, Apoorva D.

    2011-09-23

    Recently it has been discovered - contrary to expectations of physicists as well as biologists - that the energy transport during photosynthesis, from the chlorophyll pigment that captures the photon to the reaction centre where glucose is synthesised from carbon dioxide and water, is highly coherent even at ambient temperature and in the cellular environment. This process and the key molecular ingredients that it depends on are described. By looking at the process from the computer science view-point, we can study what has been optimised and how. A spatial search algorithmic model based on robust features of wave dynamics is presented.

  14. Transportation Anslysis Simulation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-08-23

    TRANSIMS version 3.1 is an integrated set of analytical and simulation models and supporting databases. The system is designed to create a virtual metropolitan region with representation of each of the region’s individuals, their activities and the transportation infrastructure they use. TRANSIMS puts into practice a new, disaggregate approach to travel demand modeling using agent-based micro-simulation technology. TRANSIMS methodology creates a virtual metropolitan region with representation of the transportation infrastructure and the population, at themore » level of households and individual travelers. Trips a planned to satisfy the population’s activity pattems at the individual traveler level. TRANSIMS then simulates the movement of travelers and vehicles across the transportation network using multiple modes, including car, transit, bike and walk, on a second-by-second basis. Metropolitan planners must plan growth of their cities according to the stringent transportation system planning requirements of the Interniodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other similar laws and regulations. These require each state and its metropotitan regions to work together to develop short and long term transportation improvement plans. The plans must (1) estimate the future transportation needs for travelers and goods movements, (2) evaluate ways to manage and reduce congestion, (3) examine the effectiveness of building new roads and transit systems, and (4) limit the environmental impact of the various strategies. The needed consistent and accurate transportation improvement plans require an analytical capability that properly accounts for travel demand, human behavior, traffic and transit operations, major investments, and environmental effects. Other existing planning tools use aggregated information and representative behavior to predict average response and average use of transportation facilities. They do not account for individual traveler response to the dynamic transportation environment. In contrast, TRANSIMS provides disaggregated information that more explicitly represents the complex nature of humans interacting with the transportation system. It first generates a synthetic population that represents individuals and their households in the metropolitan region in a statistically valid way. The demographic makeup and spatial distribution of this synthetic population is derived from census data so that it matches that of the region’s real population. From survey data, a model is built of household and individual activities that may occur at home, in the workplace, school or shopping centers, for example. Trip plans including departure times, travel modes, and specific routes are created for each individual to get to his or her daily activities. TRANSIMS then simulates the movement of millions of individuals, following their trip plans throughout the transportation network, including their use of vehicles such as cars or buses, on a second-by-second basis. The virtual travel in TRANSIMS mimics the traveling and driving behavior of real people in the metropolitan region. The interactions of individual vehicles produce realistic traffic dynamics from which analysts can judge to performance of the transportation sysime and estimate vehicle emissions. Los Alamos, in cooperation with the Department of Transportation, Federal HIghway Administration and the local Metropolitan Planning Offices, has done TRANSIMS micro-simulations of auto traffic patterns in these two urban areas and completed associated scenario-based studies.« less

  15. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  16. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

  17. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Beeman, Barton V. (San Mateo, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Hadley, Dean R. (Manteca, CA); Landre, Phoebe (Livermore, CA); Lehew, Stacy L. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  18. Interfacial reactions in epitaxial Al/TiN(111) model diffusion barriers: Formation of an impervious self-limited wurtzite-structure AIN(0001) blocking layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, J.-S.; Desjardins, P.; Lavoie, C.; Shin, C.-S.; Cabral, C.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.

    2001-06-15

    Single-crystal TiN(111) layers, 45 nm thick, were grown on MgO(111) by ultrahigh vacuum reactive magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2} discharges at T{sub s}=700{degree}C. Epitaxial Al(111) overlayers, 160 nm thick, were then deposited at T{sub s}=100{degree}C in Ar without breaking vacuum. Interfacial reactions and changes in bilayer microstructure due to annealing at 620 and 650{degree}C were investigated using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The interfacial regions of samples annealed at 620{degree}C consist of continuous {approx_equal}7-nm-thick epitaxial wurtzite-structure AlN(0001) layers containing a high density of stacking faults, with {approx_equal}22 nm thick tetragonal Al{sub 3}Ti(112) overlayers. Surprisingly, samples annealed at the higher temperature are more stable against Al{sub 3}Ti formation. TEM analyses of bilayers annealed at 650{degree}C (10{degree}C below the Al melting point!) reveal only the self-limited growth of an {approx_equal}3-nm-thick interfacial layer of perfect smooth epitaxial wurtzite-structure AlN(0001) which serves as an extremely effective deterrent for preventing further interlayer reactions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Phase I Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada with Errata Sheet 1, 2, 3, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2009-02-01

    As prescribed in the Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE/NV, 1999) and Appendix VI of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008), the ultimate goal of transport analysis is to develop stochastic predictions of a contaminant boundary at a specified level of uncertainty. However, because of the significant uncertainty of the model results, the primary goal of this report was modified through mutual agreement between the DOE and the State of Nevada to assess the primary model components that contribute to this uncertainty and to postpone defining the contaminant boundary until additional model refinement is completed. Therefore, the role of this analysis has been to understand the behavior of radionuclide migration in the Pahute Mesa (PM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) model and to define, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the sensitivity of such behavior to (flow) model conceptualization and (flow and transport) parameterization.

  20. Accelerating Subsurface Transport Simulation on Heterogeneous Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa, Oreste; Gawande, Nitin A.; Tumeo, Antonino

    2013-09-23

    Reactive transport numerical models simulate chemical and microbiological reactions that occur along a flowpath. These models have to compute reactions for a large number of locations. They solve the set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that describes the reaction for each location through the Newton-Raphson technique. This technique involves computing a Jacobian matrix and a residual vector for each set of equation, and then solving iteratively the linearized system by performing Gaussian Elimination and LU decomposition until convergence. STOMP, a well known subsurface flow simulation tool, employs matrices with sizes in the order of 100x100 elements and, for numerical accuracy, LU factorization with full pivoting instead of the faster partial pivoting. Modern high performance computing systems are heterogeneous machines whose nodes integrate both CPUs and GPUs, exposing unprecedented amounts of parallelism. To exploit all their computational power, applications must use both the types of processing elements. For the case of subsurface flow simulation, this mainly requires implementing efficient batched LU-based solvers and identifying efficient solutions for enabling load balancing among the different processors of the system. In this paper we discuss two approaches that allows scaling STOMP's performance on heterogeneous clusters. We initially identify the challenges in implementing batched LU-based solvers for small matrices on GPUs, and propose an implementation that fulfills STOMP's requirements. We compare this implementation to other existing solutions. Then, we combine the batched GPU solver with an OpenMP-based CPU solver, and present an adaptive load balancer that dynamically distributes the linear systems to solve between the two components inside a node. We show how these approaches, integrated into the full application, provide speed ups from 6 to 7 times on large problems, executed on up to 16 nodes of a cluster with two AMD Opteron 6272 and a Tesla M2090 per node.

  1. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  2. Evaluation of conceptual, mathematical and physical-and-chemical models for describing subsurface radionuclide transport at the Lake Karachai Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rumynin, V.G.; Mironenko, V.A.; Sindalovsky, L.N.; Boronina, A.V.; Konosavsky, P.K.; Pozdniakov, S.P.

    1998-06-01

    The goal of this work was to develop the methodology and to improve understanding of subsurface radionuclide transport for application to the Lake Karachai Site and to identify the influence of the processes and interactions involved into transport and fate of the radionuclides. The report is focused on two sets of problems, which have to do both with, hydrodynamic and hydrogeochemical aspects of the contaminant transport.

  3. STOMP-ECKEChem: An Engineering Perspective on Reactive Transport in Geologic Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Fang, Yilin

    2012-04-04

    ECKEChem (Equilibrium, Conservation, Kinetic Equation Chemistry) is a reactive transport module for the STOMP suite of multifluid subsurface flow and transport simulators that was developed from an engineering perspective. STOMP comprises a suite of operational modes that are distinguished by the solved coupled conservation equations with capabilities for a variety of subsurface applications (e.g., environmental remediation and stewardship, geologic sequestration of greenhouse gases, gas hydrate production, and oil shale production). The ECKEChem module was designed to provide integrated reactive transport capabilities across the suite of STOMP simulator operational modes. The initial application for the ECKEChem module was in the simulation of the mineralization reactions that occurred with the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into deep Columbia River basalt formations, where it was implemented in the STOMP-CO2 simulator. The STOMP-ECKEChem solution approach to modeling reactive transport in multifluid geologic media is founded on an engineering perspective: (1) sequential non-iterative coupling between the flow and reactive transport is sufficient, (2) reactive transport can be modeled by operator splitting with local geochemistry and global transport, (3) geochemistry can be expressed as a system of coupled nonlinear equilibrium, conservation and kinetic equations, (4) a limited number of kinetic equation forms are used in geochemical practice. This chapter describes the conceptual approach to converting a geochemical reaction network into a series of equilibrium, conservation and kinetic equations, the implementation of ECKEChem in STOMP, the numerical solution approach, and a demonstration of the simulator on a complex application involving desorption of uranium from contaminated field-textured sediments.

  4. Framework Application for Core Edge Transport Simulation (FACETS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Pigarov, Alexander

    2011-10-15

    The FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations) project of Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program was aimed at providing a high-fidelity whole-tokamak modeling for the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program and ITER through coupling separate components for each of the core region, edge region, and wall, with realistic plasma particles and power sources and turbulent transport simulation. The project also aimed at developing advanced numerical algorithms, efficient implicit coupling methods, and software tools utilizing the leadership class computing facilities under Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR). The FACETS project was conducted by a multi-discipline, multi-institutional teams, the Lead PI was J.R. Cary (Tech-X Corp.). In the FACETS project, the Applied Plasma Theory Group at the MAE Department of UCSD developed the Wall and Plasma-Surface Interaction (WALLPSI) module, performed its validation against experimental data, and integrated it into the developed framework. WALLPSI is a one-dimensional, coarse grained, reaction/advection/diffusion code applied to each material boundary cell in the common modeling domain for a tokamak. It incorporates an advanced model for plasma particle transport and retention in the solid matter of plasma facing components, simulation of plasma heat power load handling, calculation of erosion/deposition, and simulation of synergistic effects in strong plasma-wall coupling.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office: Transportation System Analytical Tools |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Modeling, Testing, Data & Results » Vehicle Technologies Office: Transportation System Analytical Tools Vehicle Technologies Office: Transportation System Analytical Tools The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) has supported the development of a number of software packages and online tools to model individual vehicles and the overall transportation system. Most of these tools are available for free or a nominal charge. Modeling tools that simulate entire vehicles and

  6. Mass Transport within Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physic

  7. Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions In Coal Power Plant Plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Levin

    2005-12-31

    Recent field and pilot-scale results indicate that divalent mercury emitted from power plants may rapidly transform to elemental mercury within the power plant plumes. Simulations of mercury chemistry in plumes based on measured rates to date have improved regional model fits to Mercury Deposition Network wet deposition data for particular years, while not degrading model verification fits for remaining years of the ensemble. The years with improved fit are those with simulated deposition in grid cells in the State of Pennsylvania that have matching MDN station data significantly less than the model values. This project seeks to establish a full-scale data basis for whether or not significant reduction or oxidation reactions occur to mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants, and what numerical redox rate should apply for extension to other sources and for modeling of power plant mercury plumes locally, regionally, and nationally. Although in-stack mercury (Hg) speciation measurements are essential to the development of control technologies and to provide data for input into atmospheric fate and transport models, the determination of speciation in a cooling coal combustion plume is more relevant for use in estimating Hg fate and effects through the atmosphere. It is mercury transformations that may occur in the plume that determine the eventual rate and patterns of mercury deposited to the earth's surface. A necessary first step in developing a supportable approach to modeling any such transformations is to directly measure the forms and concentrations of mercury from the stack exit downwind to full dispersion in the atmosphere. As a result, a study was sponsored by EPRI and jointly funded by EPRI, the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), and the Wisconsin Department of Administration. The study was designed to further our understanding of plume chemistry. The study was carried out at the We Energies Pleasant Prairie Power Plant, Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin, just west of Kenosha. Aircraft and ground measurements support the occurrence of a reduction in the fraction of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) (with a corresponding increase in elemental mercury) as part of the Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) emitted from the Pleasant Prairie stack. This occurrence is based on comparison of the RGM concentrations in the plume (at standard conditions) compared to the RGM in the stack. There was found to be a 44% drop in the fraction of RGM between the stack exit and the first sampling arc and a 66% reduction from the stack to the 5-mile sampling arc, with no additional drop between the 5- and 10-mile arcs. Smaller-scale experiments in both test chambers and pilot-scale coal combustor exhaust streams have indicated the presence of rapid and relatively complete reduction reactions converting divalent into elemental mercury within power plant plumes prior to full dispersion in the atmosphere. These measurements, however, have been unable to identify whether the reactions occur during plume rise from physical to virtual stack height (during positive thermal buoyancy). The presence, rate, completeness, ubiquity, and dependence on source characteristics of these reactions, however, must be demonstrated in plume environments associated with fully operational power plants. That requirement, to capture either the reactions or the reaction products of chemistry that may be occurring very close to stack exits in highly turbulent environments, constrains the precision and reproducibility with which such full-scale experiments can be carried out. The work described here is one of several initial steps required to test whether, and in what direction, such rapid mercury redox reactions might be occurring in such plumes.

  8. Mapping pan-Arctic methane emissions at high spatial resolution using an adjoint atmospheric transport and inversion method and process-based wetland and lake biogeochemical models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Z.; Zhuang, Q.; Henze, D. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Dlugokencky, E.; Sweeney, C.; Turner, A. J.

    2015-11-18

    Understanding methane emissions from the Arctic, a fast warming carbon reservoir, is important for projecting changes in the global methane cycle under future climate scenarios. Here we optimize Arctic methane emissions with a nested-grid high-resolution inverse model by assimilating both high-precision surface measurements and column-average SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals of methane mole fraction. For the first time, methane emissions from lakes are integrated into an atmospheric transport and inversion estimate, together with prior wetland emissions estimated by six different biogeochemical models. We find that, the global methane emissions during July 2004June 2005 ranged from 496.4 to 511.5 Tg yr?1, with wetlandmoremethane emissions ranging from 130.0 to 203.3 Tg yr?1. The Arctic methane emissions during July 2004June 2005 were in the range of 14.630.4 Tg yr?1, with wetland and lake emissions ranging from 8.8 to 20.4 Tg yr?1 and from 5.4 to 7.9 Tg yr?1 respectively. Canadian and Siberian lakes contributed most of the estimated lake emissions. Due to insufficient measurements in the region, Arctic methane emissions are less constrained in northern Russia than in Alaska, northern Canada and Scandinavia. Comparison of different inversions indicates that the distribution of global and Arctic methane emissions is sensitive to prior wetland emissions. Evaluation with independent datasets shows that the global and Arctic inversions improve estimates of methane mixing ratios in boundary layer and free troposphere. The high-resolution inversions provide more details about the spatial distribution of methane emissions in the Arctic.less

  9. Heat transport system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, Samuel D. (McMurray, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A falling bed of ceramic particles receives neutron irradiation from a neutron-producing plasma and thereby transports energy as heat from the plasma to a heat exchange location where the ceramic particles are cooled by a gas flow. The cooled ceramic particles are elevated to a location from which they may again pass by gravity through the region where they are exposed to neutron radiation. Ceramic particles of alumina, magnesia, silica and combinations of these materials are contemplated as high-temperature materials that will accept energy from neutron irradiation. Separate containers of material incorporating lithium are exposed to the neutron flux for the breeding of tritium that may subsequently be used in neutron-producing reactions. The falling bed of ceramic particles includes velocity partitioning between compartments near to the neutron-producing plasma and compartments away from the plasma to moderate the maximum temperature in the bed.

  10. Used Fuel Testing Transportation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Maheras, Steven J.; Jensen, Philip J.; England, Jeffery L.; LeDuc, Dan

    2014-09-24

    This report identifies shipping packages/casks that might be used by the Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign Program (UFDC) to ship fuel rods and pieces of fuel rods taken from high-burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) assemblies to and between research facilities for purposes of evaluation and testing. Also identified are the actions that would need to be taken, if any, to obtain U.S. Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) or other regulatory authority approval to use each of the packages and/or shipping casks for this purpose.

  11. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  12. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  13. Final Project Report: Release of aged contaminants from weathered sediments: Effects of sorbate speciation on scaling of reactive transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon Chorover, University of Arizona; Peggy O'????Day, University of California, Merced; Karl Mueller, Penn State University; Wooyong Um, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Carl Steefel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2012-10-01

    Hanford sediments impacted by hyperalkaline high level radioactive waste have undergone incongruent silicate mineral weathering concurrent with contaminant uptake. In this project, we studied the impact of background pore water (BPW) on strontium, cesium and iodine desorption and transport in Hanford sediments that were experimentally weathered by contact with simulated hyperalkaline tank waste leachate (STWL) solutions. Using those lab-weathered Hanford sediments (HS) and model precipitates formed during nucleation from homogeneous STWL solutions (HN), we (i) provided detailed characterization of reaction products over a matrix of field-relevant gradients in contaminant concentration, PCO2, and reaction time; (ii) improved molecular-scale understanding of how sorbate speciation controls contaminant desorption from weathered sediments upon removal of caustic sources; and (iii) developed a mechanistic, predictive model of meso- to field-scale contaminant reactive transport under these conditions.

  14. Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct channels to validate statistical models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical simulations for...

  15. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report; Volume 1 - Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences Governing Subsurface Contaminant Transport in the INEEL Subregion of the Eastern Snake River Plain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichlacz, Paul Louis; Orr, Brennan

    2002-08-01

    The National Research Council has defined a conceptual model as ''an evolving hypothesis identifying the important features, processes, and events controlling fluid flow and contaminant transport of consequence at a specific field site in the context of a recognized problem''. Presently, several subregional conceptual models are under development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Additionally, facility-specific conceptual models have been described as part of INEEL environmental restoration activities. Compilation of these models is required to develop a comprehensive conceptual model that can be used to strategically plan for future groundwater research activities at the INEEL. Conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL include the description of the geologic framework, matrix hydraulic properties, and inflows and outflows. They also include definitions of the contaminant source term and contaminant transport mechanisms. The geologic framework of the INEEL subregion is described by the geometry of the system, stratigraphic units within the system, and structural features that affect groundwater flow and contaminant transport. These elements define geohydrologic units that make up the Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) conceptual model encompasses approximately 1,920 mi2 of the eastern Snake River Plain. The Waste Area Group (WAG)-10 model includes the USGS area and additional areas to the northeast and southeast. Both conceptual models are bounded to the northwest by the Pioneer Mountains, Lost River Range, and Lemhi Mountains. They are bounded to the southeast by groundwater flow paths determined from aquifer water-level contours. The upgradient extent of the USGS model is a water-level contour that includes the northeastern boundary of the INEEL. The WAG-10 model includes more of the Mud Lake area to utilize previous estimates of underflow into the subregion. Both conceptual models extend approximately 25 miles to the southwest of the INEEL, a distance sufficient to include known concentrations of contaminant tracers. Several hypotheses have been developed concerning the effective thickness of the SRPA at the INEEL. The USGS model has defined the effective thickness from electrical resistivity and borehole data to be as much as 2,500 ft in the eastern part of the subregion and as much as 4,000 ft in the southwestern part. The WAG-10 model has developed two alternatives using aquifer-temperature and electrical resistivity data. The ''thick'' aquifer interpretation utilizes colder temperature data and includes a northtrending zone in which the thickness exceeds 1,300 ft and with a maximum thickness of 1,700 ft. The ''thin'' aquifer interpretation minimizes aquifer thickness, with thickness ranging from 328 to 1,300 ft. Facility-specific models generally have focused efforts on the upper 250 ft of saturation. Conceptual models have utilized a stratigraphic data set to define geohydrologic units within the INEEL subregion. This data set, compiled from geophysical logs and cores from boreholes, correlates the thick, complex stack of basalt flows across the subregion. Conceptual models generally concur that the upper geohydrologic unit consists of a section of highly fractured, multiple, thin basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. Beneath this unit is an areally extensive, thick, unfractured basalt flow that rises above the water table southwest of the INEEL. The bottom unit consists of a thick section of slightly- to moderately-altered basalt. A key objective of the DOE water-integration project at the INEEL is to coordinate development of a subregional conceptual model of groundwater flow and contaminant transport that is based on the best available understanding of geologic and hydrologic features. The first step in this process is to compile and summarize the current conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL that have been developed from extensive geohydrologic studies con

  16. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly sorbed onto this fraction of colloids also transport without retardation. The transport times for these radionuclides will be the same as those for nonsorbing radionuclides. The fraction of nonretarding colloids developed in this analysis report is used in the abstraction of SZ and UZ transport models in support of the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This analysis report uses input from two Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) analysis reports. This analysis uses the assumption from ''Waste Form and In-Drift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary'' that plutonium and americium are irreversibly sorbed to colloids generated by the waste degradation processes (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025]). In addition, interpretations from RELAP analyses from ''Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170010]) are used to develop the retardation factor distributions in this analysis.

  17. Tool - Transportation System Simulation (POLARIS) | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Tool - Transportation System Simulation (POLARIS) Tool - Transportation System Simulation (POLARIS) POLARIS is a high-performance, open-source agent-based modeling framework designed for simulating large-scale transportation systems. The suite includes a discrete-event engine, memory management, visualization capabilities, and an extensible repository of common transportation objects which allows the rapid development of simulation software that satisfy individual project needs. A

  18. Water Transport Exploratory Studies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exploratory Studies Water Transport Exploratory Studies This presentation, which focuses on water transport exploratory studies, was given by Rod Borup of Los Alamos National laboratory at a DOE fuel cell meeting in February 2007. PDF icon new_fc_borup_lanl.pdf More Documents & Publications Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Characterization under Freezing Conditions Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization Water

  19. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  20. modeling-sediment-html

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling of Sediment Transport and Porous Medium Response Under Current ad Waves

  1. Thermal, chemical, and mass-transport processes induced in abyssal sediments by the emplacement of nuclear waste: experimental and modeling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McVey, D.F.; Erickson, K.L.; Seyfried, W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses heat and mass transport studies of marine red clay sediments being considered as a nuclear waste isolation medium. Numerical models indicate that for a maximum allowable sediment/canister interface temperature of 200 to 250/sup 0/C, the sediment can absorb about 1.5 kW initial power from waste in a 3 m long by 0.3 m dia canister buried 30 m in the sediment. Fluid displacement due to convection is found to be less than 1 m. Laboratory studies of the geochemical effects induced by heating sediment/seawater mixtures indicate that the canister and waste form must be designed to resist a hot, acid (pH 3 to 4) oxidizing environment. Since the thermally altered sediment volume of about 5.5 m/sup 3/ is small relative to the sediment volume overlying the canister, the acid and oxidizing conditions are not anticipated to effect the properties of the far field. Using sorption coefficient correlations, the migration of four nuclides /sup 239/Pu, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 129/I, and /sup 99/Tc were computer for a canister buried 30 m deep in a 60 m thick red clay sediment layer. It was found that the /sup 239/Pu and /sup 137/Cs are essentially completely contained in the sediments, while /sup 129/I and /sup 99/Tc broke through the 30 m of sediment in about 5000 years. The resultant peak injection rates of 4.6 x 10/sup -5/ ..mu..Ci/year-m/sup 2/ for /sup 129/I and 1.6 x 10/sup -2/ ..mu..Ci/year-m/sup 2/ for /sup 99/Tc were less than the natural radioactive flux of /sup 226/Ra (3.5 to 8.8 x 10/sup -4/ ..mu..Ci/year-m/sup 2/) and /sup 222/Rn (0.26 to 0.88 ..mu..Ci/year-m/sup 2/).

  2. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

  3. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower level descriptions. of subsystems and components, and the Transportation System Requirements Document. Other program and system documents, plans, instructions, and detailed designs will be consistent with and informed by the Transportation System Concept of Operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is a living document, enduring throughout the OCRWM systems engineering lifecycle. It will undergo formal approval and controlled revisions as appropriate while the Transportation System matures. Revisions will take into account new policy decisions, new information available through system modeling, engineering investigations, technical analyses and tests, and the introduction of new technologies that can demonstrably improve system performance.

  4. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  5. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  6. Polymerase chain reaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul L.; Hadley, Dean R.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Belgrader, Phil; Meyer, Peter L.

    2004-03-02

    A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample. Each module has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system is capable of being handheld.

  7. Method for predicting enzyme-catalyzed reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hlavacek, William S.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Mu, Fangping; Unkefer, Pat J.

    2013-03-19

    The reactivity of given metabolites is assessed using selected empirical atomic properties in the potential reaction center. Metabolic reactions are represented as biotransformation rules. These rules are generalized from the patterns in reactions. These patterns are not unique to reactants but are widely distributed among metabolites. Using a metabolite database, potential substructures are identified in the metabolites for a given biotransformation. These substructures are divided into reactants or non-reactants, depending on whether they participate in the biotransformation or not. Each potential substructure is then modeled using descriptors of the topological and electronic properties of atoms in the potential reaction center; molecular properties can also be used. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) or classifier is trained to classify a potential reactant as a true or false reactant using these properties.

  8. A sequential partly iterative approach for multicomponent reactive transport with CORE2D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samper, J.; Xu, T.; Yang, C.

    2008-11-01

    CORE{sup 2D} V4 is a finite element code for modeling partly or fully saturated water flow, heat transport and multicomponent reactive solute transport under both local chemical equilibrium and kinetic conditions. It can handle coupled microbial processes and geochemical reactions such as acid-base, aqueous complexation, redox, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/exsolution, ion exchange, sorption via linear and nonlinear isotherms, sorption via surface complexation. Hydraulic parameters may change due to mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. Coupled transport and chemical equations are solved by using sequential iterative approaches. A sequential partly-iterative approach (SPIA) is presented which improves the accuracy of the traditional sequential noniterative approach (SNIA) and is more efficient than the general sequential iterative approach (SIA). While SNIA leads to a substantial saving of computing time, it introduces numerical errors which are especially large for cation exchange reactions. SPIA improves the efficiency of SIA because the iteration between transport and chemical equations is only performed in nodes with a large mass transfer between solid and liquid phases. The efficiency and accuracy of SPIA are compared to those of SIA and SNIA using synthetic examples and a case study of reactive transport through the Llobregat Delta aquitard in Spain. SPIA is found to be as accurate as SIA while requiring significantly less CPU time. In addition, SPIA is much more accurate than SNIA with only a minor increase in computing time. A further enhancement of the efficiency of SPIA is achieved by improving the efficiency of the Newton-Raphson method used for solving chemical equations. Such an improvement is obtained by working with increments of log-concentrations and ignoring the terms of the Jacobian matrix containing derivatives of activity coefficients. A proof is given for the symmetry and non-singularity of the Jacobian matrix. Numerical analyses performed with synthetic examples confirm that these modifications improve the efficiency and convergence of the iterative algorithm.

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a part of this project, instrumentation was developed to monitor cuttings beds and characterize foams in the flow loop. An ultrasonic-based monitoring system was developed to measure cuttings bed thickness in the flow loop. Data acquisition software controls the system and processes the data. Two foam generating devices were designed and developed to produce foams with specified quality and texture. The devices are equipped with a bubble recognition system and an in-line viscometer to measure bubble size distribution and foam rheology, respectively. The 5-year project is completed. Future research activities will be under the umbrella of Tulsa University Drilling Research Projects. Currently the flow loop is being used for testing cuttings transport capacity of aqueous and polymer-based foams under elevated pressure and temperature conditions. Subsequently, the effect of viscous sweeps on cuttings transport under elevated pressure and temperature conditions will be investigated using the flow loop. Other projects will follow now that the ''steady state'' phase of the project has been achieved.

  10. Using an Explicit Emission Tagging Method in Global Modeling of Source-Receptor Relationships for Black Carbon in the Arctic: Variations, Sources and Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Singh, Balwinder; Zhang, Rudong; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Ghan, Steven J.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2014-11-27

    We introduce an explicit emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model to quantify source-region-resolved characteristics of black carbon (BC), focusing on the Arctic. Explicit tagging of BC source regions without perturbing the emissions makes it straightforward to establish source-receptor relationships and transport pathways, providing a physically consistent and computationally efficient approach to produce a detailed characterization of the destiny of regional BC emissions and the potential for mitigation actions. Our analysis shows that the contributions of major source regions to the global BC burden are not proportional to the respective emissions due to strong region-dependent removal rates and lifetimes, while the contributions to BC direct radiative forcing show a near-linear dependence on their respective contributions to the burden. Distant sources contribute to BC in remote regions mostly in the mid- and upper troposphere, having much less impact on lower-level concentrations (and deposition) than on burden. Arctic BC concentrations, deposition and source contributions all have strong seasonal variations. Eastern Asia contributes the most to the wintertime Arctic burden. Northern Europe emissions are more important to both surface concentration and deposition in winter than in summer. The largest contribution to Arctic BC in the summer is from Northern Asia. Although local emissions contribute less than 10% to the annual mean BC burden and deposition within the Arctic, the per-emission efficiency is much higher than for major non-Arctic sources. The interannual variability (1996-2005) due to meteorology is small in annual mean BC burden and radiative forcing but is significant in yearly seasonal means over the Arctic. When a slow aging treatment of BC is introduced, the increase of BC lifetime and burden is source-dependent. Global BC forcing-per-burden efficiency also increases primarily due to changes in BC vertical distributions. The relative contribution from major non-Arctic sources to the Arctic BC burden increases only slightly, although the contribution of Arctic local sources is reduced by a factor of 2 due to the slow aging treatment.

  11. Diagnostic Mass-Consistent Wind Field Monte Carlo Dispersion Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-01-01

    MATHEW generates a diagnostic mass-consistent, three-dimensional wind field based on point measurements of wind speed and direction. It accounts for changes in topography within its calculational domain. The modeled wind field is used by the Langrangian ADPIC dispersion model. This code is designed to predict the atmospheric boundary layer transport and diffusion of neutrally bouyant, non-reactive species as well as first-order chemical reactions and radioactive decay (including daughter products).

  12. Binding Behavior of Dopamine Transporter Key to Understanding Chemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactions in the Brain Binding Behavior of Dopamine Transporter Key to Understanding Chemical Reactions in the Brain Print Most people have heard of adrenaline, the chemical that causes the "fight or flight" reaction in humans. Most people have also heard of the chemical substances cocaine and methamphetamine, which also elicit a particular (perhaps desired) human response. What most people do not know is that the same receptors in the human brain recognize the natural, or

  13. Binding Behavior of Dopamine Transporter Key to Understanding Chemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactions in the Brain Binding Behavior of Dopamine Transporter Key to Understanding Chemical Reactions in the Brain Print Most people have heard of adrenaline, the chemical that causes the "fight or flight" reaction in humans. Most people have also heard of the chemical substances cocaine and methamphetamine, which also elicit a particular (perhaps desired) human response. What most people do not know is that the same receptors in the human brain recognize the natural, or

  14. Binding Behavior of Dopamine Transporter Key to Understanding Chemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactions in the Brain Binding Behavior of Dopamine Transporter Key to Understanding Chemical Reactions in the Brain Print Most people have heard of adrenaline, the chemical that causes the "fight or flight" reaction in humans. Most people have also heard of the chemical substances cocaine and methamphetamine, which also elicit a particular (perhaps desired) human response. What most people do not know is that the same receptors in the human brain recognize the natural, or

  15. Binding Behavior of Dopamine Transporter Key to Understanding Chemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactions in the Brain Binding Behavior of Dopamine Transporter Key to Understanding Chemical Reactions in the Brain Print Most people have heard of adrenaline, the chemical that causes the "fight or flight" reaction in humans. Most people have also heard of the chemical substances cocaine and methamphetamine, which also elicit a particular (perhaps desired) human response. What most people do not know is that the same receptors in the human brain recognize the natural, or

  16. Reaction chemistry of cerium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    It is truly ironic that a synthetic organic chemist likely has far greater knowledge of the reaction chemistry of cerium(IV) than an inorganic colleague. Cerium(IV) reagents have long since been employed as oxidants in effecting a wide variety of organic transformations. Conversely, prior to the late 1980s, the number of well characterized cerium(IV) complexes did not extend past a handful of known species. Though in many other areas, interest in the molecular chemistry of the 4f-elements has undergone an explosive growth over the last twenty years, the chemistry of cerium(IV) has for the most part been overlooked. This report describes reactions of cerium complexes and structure.

  17. NREL: Transportation Research - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    work on fuel cell electric vehicle technologies. Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter Stay up to date on NREL's RD&D of transportation and hydrogen technologies with this...

  18. Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Stakeholders Forum 1 Planning for a Shipment Campaign Identifying Responders Needs National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Tom Clawson US Department of Energy Transportation...

  19. Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John McCord

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project to assess and evaluate the effects of the underground nuclear weapons tests on groundwater beneath the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity. The framework for this evaluation is provided in Appendix VI, Revision No. 1 (December 7, 2000) of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Section 3.0 of Appendix VI ''Corrective Action Strategy'' of the FFACO describes the process that will be used to complete corrective actions specifically for the UGTA Project. The objective of the UGTA corrective action strategy is to define contaminant boundaries for each UGTA corrective action unit (CAU) where groundwater may have become contaminated from the underground nuclear weapons tests. The contaminant boundaries are determined based on modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport. A summary of the FFACO corrective action process and the UGTA corrective action strategy is provided in Section 1.5. The FFACO (1996) corrective action process for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU 97 was initiated with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE/NV, 2000a). The CAIP included a review of existing data on the CAU and proposed a set of data collection activities to collect additional characterization data. These recommendations were based on a value of information analysis (VOIA) (IT, 1999), which evaluated the value of different possible data collection activities, with respect to reduction in uncertainty of the contaminant boundary, through simplified transport modeling. The Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAIP identifies a three-step model development process to evaluate the impact of underground nuclear testing on groundwater to determine a contaminant boundary (DOE/NV, 2000a). The three steps are as follows: (1) Data compilation and analysis that provides the necessary modeling data that is completed in two parts: the first addressing the groundwater flow model, and the second the transport model. (2) Development of a groundwater flow model. (3) Development of a groundwater transport model. This report presents the results of the first part of the first step, documenting the data compilation, evaluation, and analysis for the groundwater flow model. The second part, documentation of transport model data will be the subject of a separate report. The purpose of this document is to present the compilation and evaluation of the available hydrologic data and information relevant to the development of the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU groundwater flow model, which is a fundamental tool in the prediction of the extent of contaminant migration. Where appropriate, data and information documented elsewhere are summarized with reference to the complete documentation. The specific task objectives for hydrologic data documentation are as follows: (1) Identify and compile available hydrologic data and supporting information required to develop and validate the groundwater flow model for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU. (2) Assess the quality of the data and associated documentation, and assign qualifiers to denote levels of quality. (3) Analyze the data to derive expected values or spatial distributions and estimates of the associated uncertainty and variability.

  20. Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2015-10-28

    The work presented in this report is a continuation of the work described in the May 2015 report, Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development. This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model aims to predict the temperature and bubble volume fraction in an aqueous solution of uranium. These values affect the reactivity of the fissile solution, so it is important to be able to calculate them and determine their effects on the reaction. Part A of this report describes some of the parameter comparisons performed on the CFD model using Fluent. Part B describes the coupling of the Fluent model with a Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) neutron transport model. The fuel tank geometry is the same as it was in the May 2015 report, annular with a thickness-to-height ratio of 0.16. An accelerator-driven neutron source provides the excitation for the reaction, and internal and external water cooling channels remove the heat. The model used in this work incorporates the Eulerian multiphase model with lift, wall lubrication, turbulent dispersion and turbulence interaction. The buoyancy-driven flow is modeled using the Boussinesq approximation, and the flow turbulence is determined using the k-? Shear-Stress-Transport (SST) model. The dispersed turbulence multiphase model is employed to capture the multiphase turbulence effects.

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  2. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction Path Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review Chemical Impact of Elevated CO2on Geothermal Energy Production track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review...

  3. Geochemical Reaction Mechanism Discovery from Molecular Simulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stack, Andrew G.; Kent, Paul R. C.

    2014-11-10

    Methods to explore reactions using computer simulation are becoming increasingly quantitative, versatile, and robust. In this review, a rationale for how molecular simulation can help build better geochemical kinetics models is first given. We summarize some common methods that geochemists use to simulate reaction mechanisms, specifically classical molecular dynamics and quantum chemical methods and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Useful tools such as umbrella sampling and metadynamics that enable one to explore reactions are discussed. Several case studies wherein geochemists have used these tools to understand reaction mechanisms are presented, including water exchange and sorption on aqueous species and mineralmore » surfaces, surface charging, crystal growth and dissolution, and electron transfer. The impact that molecular simulation has had on our understanding of geochemical reactivity are highlighted in each case. In the future, it is anticipated that molecular simulation of geochemical reaction mechanisms will become more commonplace as a tool to validate and interpret experimental data, and provide a check on the plausibility of geochemical kinetic models.« less

  4. Assessment of Controlling Processes for Field-Scale Uranium Reactive Transport under Highly Transient Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan; Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Zachara, John M.

    2014-02-13

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive model-based analysis of a uranium tracer test conducted at the U.S Department of Energy Hanford 300 Area (300A) IFRC site. A three-dimensional multi-component reactive transport model was employed to assess the key factors and processes that control the field-scale uranium reactive transport. Taking into consideration of relevant physical and chemical processes, the selected conceptual/numerical model replicates the spatial and temporal variations of the observed U(VI) concentrations reasonably well in spite of the highly complex field conditions. A sensitivity analysis was performed to interrogate the relative importance of various processes and factors for reactive transport of U(VI) at the field-scale. The results indicate that multi-rate U(VI) sorption/desorption, U(VI) surface complexation reactions, and initial U(VI) concentrations were the most important processes and factors controlling U(VI) migration. On the other hand, cation exchange reactions, the choice of the surface complexation model, and dual-domain mass transfer processes, which were previously identified to be important in laboratory experiments, played less important roles under the field-scale experimental condition at the 300A site. However, the model simulations also revealed that the groundwater chemistry was relatively stable during the uranium tracer experiment and therefore presumably not dynamic enough to appropriately assess the effects of ion exchange reaction and the choice of surface complexation models on U(VI) sorption and desorption. Furthermore, it also showed that the field experimental duration (16 days) was not sufficiently long to precisely assess the role of a majority of the sorption sites that were accessed by slow kinetic processes within the dual domain model. The sensitivity analysis revealed the crucial role of the intraborehole flow that occurred within the long-screened monitoring wells and thus significantly affected both field-scale measurements and simulated U(VI) concentrations as a combined effect of aquifer heterogeneity and highly dynamic flow conditions. Overall, this study, which provides one of the few detailed and highly data-constrained uranium transport simulations, highlights the difference in controlling processes between laboratory and field scale that prevent a simple direct upscaling of laboratory-scale models.

  5. Transportation Organization and Functions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Office of Packaging and Transportation list of organizations and functions, with a list of acronyms.

  6. Summary of Vadose -- Zone Conceptual Models for Flow and Contaminant Transport and 1999 - 2003 Progress on Resolving Deficiencies in Understanding the Vadose Zone at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Starr; Dana L. Dettmers; Brennon R. Orr; Thomas R. Wood

    2003-12-01

    The thick vadose zone that underlies the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been recognized both as an avenue through which contaminants disposed at or near the ground surface can migrate to groundwater in the underlying Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, and as a barrier to the movement of contaminants into the aquifer. Flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at the INEEL is complicated by the highly heterogeneous nature of the geologic framework and by the variations in the behavior of different contaminants in the subsurface. The state of knowledge concerning flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at and near the INEEL IN 1999 was summarized in Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (Wood et al., 2000). These authors identified deficiencies in knowledge of flow and contaminant transport processes in the vadose zone, and provided recommendations for additional work that should be conducted to address these deficiencies. In the period since (Wood et al., 2000) was prepared, research has been published that, to some degree, address these deficiencies. This document provides a bibliography of reports, journal articles, and conference proceedings published 1999 through mid-2003 that are relevant to the vadose zone at or near the INEEL and provides a brief description of each work. Publications that address specific deficiencies or recommendations are identified, and pertinent information from selected publications is presented.

  7. SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS Experimental Determination of the Symmetry Energy of a Low Density Nuclear Gas ...II-1 S....

  8. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter The Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter is a monthly electronic newsletter that provides information on NREL's research, development, and deployment of transportation and hydrogen technologies. Photo of a stack of newspapers January 2016 Issue Sustainable Mobility Read the latest issue of the newsletter. Subscribe: To receive new issues by email, subscribe to the newsletter. Archives: For past issues, read the newsletter archives. Printable Version

  9. Detonation Reaction Zones in Condensed Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarver, C M

    2005-07-14

    Experimental measurements using nanosecond time resolved embedded gauges and laser interferometric techniques, combined with Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich--von Neumann--Doring (NEZND) theory and Ignition and Growth reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling, have revealed the average pressure/particle velocity states attained in reaction zones of self-sustaining detonation waves in several solid and liquid explosives. The time durations of these reaction zone processes is discussed for explosives based on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitromethane, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), triaminitrinitrobenzene(TATB) and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  10. NREL: Transportation Research - Sustainable Transportation Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an introduction to sustainable transportation. NREL research supports development of electric, hybrid, hydrogen fuel cell, biofuel, natural gas, and propane vehicle technologies. ...

  11. Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    channels to validate statistical models (Conference) | SciTech Connect Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct channels to validate statistical models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct channels to validate statistical models Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-01-08 OSTI

  12. Quantum effects in unimolecular reaction dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gezelter, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    This work is primarily concerned with the development of models for the quantum dynamics of unimolecular isomerization and photodissociation reactions. We apply the rigorous quantum methodology of a Discrete Variable Representation (DVR) with Absorbing Boundary Conditions (ABC) to these models in an attempt to explain some very surprising results from a series of experiments on vibrationally excited ketene. Within the framework of these models, we are able to identify the experimental signatures of tunneling and dynamical resonances in the energy dependence of the rate of ketene isomerization. Additionally, we investigate the step-like features in the energy dependence of the rate of dissociation of triplet ketene to form {sup 3}B{sub 1} CH{sub 2} + {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} CO that have been observed experimentally. These calculations provide a link between ab initio calculations of the potential energy surfaces and the experimentally observed dynamics on these surfaces. Additionally, we develop an approximate model for the partitioning of energy in the products of photodissociation reactions of large molecules with appreciable barriers to recombination. In simple bond cleavage reactions like CH{sub 3}COCl {yields} CH{sub 3}CO + Cl, the model does considerably better than other impulsive and statistical models in predicting the energy distribution in the products. We also investigate ways of correcting classical mechanics to include the important quantum mechanical aspects of zero-point energy. The method we investigate is found to introduce a number of undesirable dynamical artifacts including a reduction in the above-threshold rates for simple reactions, and a strong mixing of the chaotic and regular energy domains for some model problems. We conclude by discussing some of the directions for future research in the field of theoretical chemical dynamics.

  13. A Many-Task Parallel Approach for Multiscale Simulations of Subsurface Flow and Reactive Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Yang, Xiaofan; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Agarwal, Khushbu; Chase, Jared M.; Palmer, Bruce J.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2014-12-16

    Continuum-scale models have long been used to study subsurface flow, transport, and reactions but lack the ability to resolve processes that are governed by pore-scale mixing. Recently, pore-scale models, which explicitly resolve individual pores and soil grains, have been developed to more accurately model pore-scale phenomena, particularly reaction processes that are controlled by local mixing. However, pore-scale models are prohibitively expensive for modeling application-scale domains. This motivates the use of a hybrid multiscale approach in which continuum- and pore-scale codes are coupled either hierarchically or concurrently within an overall simulation domain (time and space). This approach is naturally suited to an adaptive, loosely-coupled many-task methodology with three potential levels of concurrency. Each individual code (pore- and continuum-scale) can be implemented in parallel; multiple semi-independent instances of the pore-scale code are required at each time step providing a second level of concurrency; and Monte Carlo simulations of the overall system to represent uncertainty in material property distributions provide a third level of concurrency. We have developed a hybrid multiscale model of a mixing-controlled reaction in a porous medium wherein the reaction occurs only over a limited portion of the domain. Loose, minimally-invasive coupling of pre-existing parallel continuum- and pore-scale codes has been accomplished by an adaptive script-based workflow implemented in the Swift workflow system. We describe here the methods used to create the model system, adaptively control multiple coupled instances of pore- and continuum-scale simulations, and maximize the scalability of the overall system. We present results of numerical experiments conducted on NERSC supercomputing systems; our results demonstrate that loose many-task coupling provides a scalable solution for multiscale subsurface simulations with minimal overhead.

  14. Improved computer models support genetics research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February Simple computer models unravel genetic stress reactions in cells Simple computer models unravel genetic stress reactions in cells Integrated biological and...

  15. A simplified model of TiH1.65/KClO4 pyrotechnic ignition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ken Shuang

    2009-04-01

    A simplified model was developed and is presented in this report for simulating thermal transport coupled with chemical reactions that lead to the pyrotechnic ignition of TiH1.65/KClO4 powder. The model takes into account Joule heating via a bridgewire, thermal contact resistance at the wire/powder interface, convective heat loss to the surroundings, and heat released from the TiH1.65- and KClO4-decomposition and TiO2-oxidation reactions. Chemical kinetic sub-models were put forth to describe the chemical reaction rate(s) and quantify the resultant heat release. The simplified model predicts pyrotechnic ignition when heat from the pyrotechnic reactions is accounted for. Effects of six key parameters on ignition were examined. It was found that the two reaction-rate parameters and the thermal contact resistance significantly affect the dynamic ignition process whereas the convective heat transfer coefficient essentially has no effect on the ignition time. Effects of the initial/ambient temperature and electrical current load through the wire are as expected. Ignition time increases as the initial/ambient temperature is lowered or the wire current load is reduced. Lastly, critical needs such as experiments to determine reaction-rate and other model-input parameters and to measure temperature profiles, time to ignition and burn-rate data for model validation as well as efforts in incorporating reaction-rate dependency on pressure are pointed out.

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  17. Dynamical dipole mode in fusion reactions at 16 MeV/nucleon and beam energy dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Martin, B.; Inglima, G.; Commara, M. La; Parascandolo, C.; Sandoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Zoppo, A. Del; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Baran, V.; Cardella, G.; Filippo, E. De

    2009-08-15

    High-energy {gamma} rays and light charged particles from the {sup 36}Ar+{sup 96}Zr and {sup 40}Ar+{sup 92}Zr reactions at E{sub lab}=16 and 15.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively, were measured in coincidence with evaporation residues by means of the MEDEA multidetector array coupled to four parallel plate avalanche counters. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the prompt {gamma} radiation, emitted in the decay of the dynamical dipole mode, in the {approx}16 MeV/nucleon energy range and to map its beam energy dependence, comparing the present results with our previous ones obtained at lower energies. The studied reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, a compound nucleus in the region of Ce under the same conditions of excitation energy and spin. Light charged particle energy spectra were used to pin down the average excitation energy and the average mass of the system. By studying the {gamma}-ray spectra of the charge symmetric reaction {sup 40}Ar+{sup 92}Zr, the statistical giant dipole resonance (GDR) parameters and angular distribution were extracted, and a comparison of the linearized 90 deg. {gamma}-ray spectra of the two reactions revealed a 12% extra yield in the GDR energy region for the more charge asymmetric system. The center-of-mass angular distribution data of this extra {gamma} yield, compatible with a dipole oscillating along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system, support its dynamical nature. The experimental findings are compared with theoretical predictions performed within a Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov transport model and based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the entrance channel reaction dynamics. An interesting sensitivity to the symmetry term of the equation of state and to in-medium effects on nucleon-nucleon (nn) cross sections is finally discussed.

  18. Chemistry and Transport - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry and Transport Chemistry and Transport The overall goal of the flame chemistry working group is to obtain fundamental combustion and emission properties of low and high pressure flames, to validate kinetic and transport models, and to develop accurate and computationally efficient models capable of predicting turbulent combustion of future transportation fuels. Experimental data of laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame structures, extinction/ignition limits, and soot/NOx emissions

  19. Recent Developments on the Production of Transportation Fuels via Catalytic Conversion of Microalgae: Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Fan; Wang, Ping; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

    2012-08-02

    Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize food versus fuel concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

  20. Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Department of Physics, University of Shahrood, Shahrood ; Anta, Juan A.; Arzi, Ezatollah

    2014-04-07

    The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO{sub 2} show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 10{sup 11}10{sup 13} Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of electron acceptors.

  1. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  2. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  3. MICROSCALE METABOLIC, REDOX AND ABIOTIC REACTIONS IN HANFORD 300 AREA SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beyenal, Haluk; McLEan, Jeff; Majors, Paul; Fredrickson, Jim

    2013-11-14

    The Hanford 300 Area is a unique site due to periodic hydrologic influence of river water resulting in changes in groundwater elevation and flow direction. This area is also highly subject to uranium remobilization, the source of which is currently believed to be the region at the base of the vadose zone that is subject to period saturation due to the changes in the water levels in the Columbia River. We found that microbial processes and redox and abiotic reactions which operate at the microscale were critical to understanding factors controlling the macroscopic fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. The combined laboratory and field research showed how microscale conditions control uranium mobility and how biotic, abiotic and redox reactions relate to each other. Our findings extended the current knowledge to examine U(VI) reduction and immobilization using natural 300 Area communities as well as selected model organisms on redox-sensitive and redox-insensitive minerals. Using innovative techniques developed specifically to probe biogeochemical processes at the microscale, our research expanded our current understanding of the roles played by mineral surfaces, bacterial competition, and local biotic, abiotic and redox reaction rates on the reduction and immobilization of uranium.

  4. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

  5. Sustainable Transport Illustrative Scenarios Tool | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scenarios Tool has been developed as a high-level calculator (not an in-depth model) to help provide indicative estimates of the possible impacts of policy on transport...

  6. Cell Simulation Package for Reactions and Diffusion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-04-01

    ChemCell is a simulation package designed for modeling signalling, regulatory, and metabolic pathways in biological cells. It reads input flies that describe the geomeby of the cell and positions of particles that represent proteins, protein complexes, and other bio-molecules. It also reads in lists of reactions and associated rates and other boundary condition information. ChemCell then models the reaction and diffusion of these particles within the cellular geometry as they interact overtime. It produces statisticalmore » information about the state of the cell, as well as snapshots of the reaction network. We anticipate ChemCell will be useful to researchers who wish to perform spatio-temporal modeling of cellular processes and who wish to develop new models or algorithms to add to the code. Thus ChemCell is also designed to be easy to modify and extend. The ChemCell package includes auxiliary codes for setting up problems and analyzing output.« less

  7. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  8. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-27

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials andor modal transport. Cancels DOE 1540.2 and DOE 5480.3

  9. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-27

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Canceled by DOE 460.1A

  10. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-10-02

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1.

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation accounts for 71% of total U.S. petroleum consumption and 33% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) study examines underexplored oil-savings and...

  12. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-05-14

    The order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of DOE, including NNSA, offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials and for modal transportation. Supersedes DOE O 460.1B.

  13. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  14. Transportation Storage Interface

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Future Extended Storage and Transportation Transportation-Storage Interface James Rubenstone Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission National Transportation Stakeholders Forum May 2012 ♦ Knoxville, Tennessee Overview * Changing policy environment * Regulatory framework-current and future * Extended storage and transportation-technical information needs * Next Steps 2 Current Policy Environment * U.S. national policy for disposition of spent

  15. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  16. Mathematical modeling and computer simulation of processes in energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanjalic, K.C. )

    1990-01-01

    This book is divided into the following chapters. Modeling techniques and tools (fundamental concepts of modeling); 2. Fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and combustion; 3. Processes in energy equipment and plant components (boilers, steam and gas turbines, IC engines, heat exchangers, pumps and compressors, nuclear reactors, steam generators and separators, energy transport equipment, energy convertors, etc.); 4. New thermal energy conversion technologies (MHD, coal gasification and liquefaction fluidized-bed combustion, pulse-combustors, multistage combustion, etc.); 5. Combined cycles and plants, cogeneration; 6. Dynamics of energy systems and their components; 7. Integrated approach to energy systems modeling, and 8. Application of modeling in energy expert systems.

  17. Products of the Benzene + O(3P) Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Meloni, Giovanni; Trevitt, Adam J.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Krylov, Anna I.; Sirjean, Baptiste; Dames, Enoch; Wang, Hai

    2009-12-21

    The gas-phase reaction of benzene with O(3P) is of considerable interest for modeling of aromatic oxidation, and also because there exist fundamental questions concerning the prominence of intersystem crossing in the reaction. While its overall rate constant has been studied extensively, there are still significant uncertainties in the product distribution. The reaction proceeds mainly through the addition of the O atom to benzene, forming an initial triplet diradical adduct, which can either dissociate to form the phenoxy radical and H atom, or undergo intersystem crossing onto a singlet surface, followed by a multiplicity of internal isomerizations, leading to several possible reaction products. In this work, we examined the product branching ratios of the reaction between benzene and O(3P) over the temperature range of 300 to 1000 K and pressure range of 1 to 10 Torr. The reactions were initiated by pulsed-laser photolysis of NO2 in the presence of benzene and helium buffer in a slow-flow reactor, and reaction products were identified by using the multiplexed chemical kinetics photoionization mass spectrometer operating at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Phenol and phenoxy radical were detected and quantified. Cyclopentadiene and cyclopentadienyl radical were directly identified for the first time. Finally, ab initio calculations and master equation/RRKM modeling were used to reproduce the experimental branching ratios, yielding pressure-dependent rate expressions for the reaction channels, including phenoxy + H, phenol, cyclopentadiene + CO, which are proposed for kinetic modeling of benzene oxidation.

  18. Molecule-based approach for computing chemical-reaction rates in upper atmosphere hypersonic flows.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert

    2009-08-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2009 for the LDRD project 09-1332 'Molecule-Based Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction Rates in Upper-Atmosphere Hypersonic Flows'. The goal of this project was to apply a recently proposed approach for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to calculate chemical-reaction rates for high-temperature atmospheric species. The new DSMC model reproduces measured equilibrium reaction rates without using any macroscopic reaction-rate information. Since it uses only molecular properties, the new model is inherently able to predict reaction rates for arbitrary nonequilibrium conditions. DSMC non-equilibrium reaction rates are compared to Park's phenomenological non-equilibrium reaction-rate model, the predominant model for hypersonic-flow-field calculations. For near-equilibrium conditions, Park's model is in good agreement with the DSMC-calculated reaction rates. For far-from-equilibrium conditions, corresponding to a typical shock layer, the difference between the two models can exceed 10 orders of magnitude. The DSMC predictions are also found to be in very good agreement with measured and calculated non-equilibrium reaction rates. Extensions of the model to reactions typically found in combustion flows and ionizing reactions are also found to be in very good agreement with available measurements, offering strong evidence that this is a viable and reliable technique to predict chemical reaction rates.

  19. Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers from Patras (Greece), Nicosia (Cyprus), Karlsruhe (Germany), Zaragoza (Spain), and the ALS at Berkeley Lab have studied metal-ion-mediated reactions of...

  20. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation Deployment Support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Deployment Support Photo of a car parked in front of a monument. A plug-in electric vehicle charges near the Thomas Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C. Photo from...

  1. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage This is the November 2015 issue of the Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter. November 6, 2015 Photo of a light blue car with a pump nozzle in front of a fuel ...

  2. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

    1995-05-02

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

  3. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blanding highly enriched uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Miller, Philip E. (Livermore, CA); Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gasses into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gasses from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gasses into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell.

  4. Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drici, Warda

    2004-02-01

    This report documents the analysis of the available hydrologic data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  5. Pore-scale simulation of coupled reactive transport and dissolution in fractures and porous media using the level set interface tracking method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hai Huang; Xiaoyi Li

    2011-01-01

    A level set simulation methodology developed for modeling coupled reactive transport and structure evolution has been applied to dissolution in fracture apertures and porous media. The coupled processes such as fluid flow, reactant transport and dissolution at the solid-liquid interfaces are handled simultaneously. The reaction-induced evolution of solid-liquid interfaces is captured using the level set method, with the advantage of representing the interface with sub-grid scale resolution. The coupled processes are simulated for several geometric models of fractures and porous media under various flow conditions and reaction rates. Quantitative relationships between permeability and porosity are obtained from some of the simulation results and compared with analytical constitutive relations (i.e., the conventional cubic law and the Carman-Kozeny law) based on simplified pore space geometries and reaction induced geometric evolutions. The drastic deviation of the simulation results from these analytical theories is explained by the development of large local concentration gradients of reactants within fracture apertures and individual pores observed in the simulation results and consequently the complex geometric evolution patterns of fracture apertures and pores due to mineral dissolution. The simulation results support the argument that traditional constitutive relations based on simplified geometries and conditions have limited applicability in predicting field scale reactive transport and that incorporation of micro-scale physics is necessary.

  6. Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Chen, Zizhong; Kazemi, Hossein; Yin, Xiaolong; Pruess, Karsten; Oldenburg, Curt; Winterfeld, Philip; Zhang, Ronglei

    2014-09-30

    This report is the final scientific one for the award DE- FE0000988 entitled Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers. The work has been divided into six tasks. In task, Development of a Three-Phase Non-Isothermal CO2 Flow Module, we developed a fluid property module for brine-CO2 mixtures designed to handle all possible phase combinations of aqueous phase, sub-critical liquid and gaseous CO2, supercritical CO2, and solid salt. The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of brine-CO2 mixtures (density, viscosity, and specific enthalpy of fluid phases; partitioning of mass components among the different phases) use the same correlations as an earlier fluid property module that does not distinguish between gaseous and liquid CO2-rich phases. We verified the fluid property module using two leakage scenarios, one that involves CO2 migration up a blind fault and subsequent accumulation in a secondary parasitic reservoir at shallower depth, and another investigating leakage of CO2 from a deep storage reservoir along a vertical fault zone. In task, Development of a Rock Mechanical Module, we developed a massively parallel reservoir simulator for modeling THM processes in porous media brine aquifers. We derived, from the fundamental equations describing deformation of porous elastic media, a momentum conservation equation relating mean stress, pressure, and temperature, and incorporated it alongside the mass and energy conservation equations from the TOUGH2 formulation, the starting point for the simulator. In addition, rock properties, namely permeability and porosity, are functions of effective stress and other variables that are obtained from the literature. We verified the simulator formulation and numerical implementation using analytical solutions and example problems from the literature. For the former, we matched a one-dimensional consolidation problem and a two-dimensional simulation of the Mandel-Cryer effect. For the latter, we obtained a good match of temperature and gas saturation profiles, and surface uplift, after injection of hot fluid into a model of a caldera structure. In task, Incorporation of Geochemical Reactions of Selected Important Species, we developed a novel mathematical model of THMC processes in porous and fractured saline aquifers, simulating geo-chemical reactions associated with CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers. Two computational frameworks, sequentially coupled and fully coupled, were used to simulate the reactions and transport. We verified capabilities of the THMC model to treat complex THMC processes during CO2 sequestration by analytical solutions and we constructed reactive transport models to analyze the THMC process quantitatively. Three of these are 1D reactive transport under chemical equilibrium, a batch reaction model with equilibrium chemical reactions, and a THMC model with CO2 dissolution. In task Study of Instability in CO2 Dissolution-Diffusion-Convection Processes, We reviewed literature related to the study of density driven convective flows and on the instability of CO2 dissolution-diffusion-convection processes. We ran simulations that model the density-driven flow instability that would occur during CO2 sequestration. CO2 diffused through the top of the system and dissolved in the aqueous phase there, increasing its density. Density fingers formed along the top boundary, and coalesced into a few prominent ones, causing convective flow that forced the fluid to the system bottom. These simulations were in two and three dimensions. We ran additional simulations of convective mixing with density contrast caused by variable dissolved CO2 concentration in saline water, modeled after laboratory experiments in which supercritical CO2 was circulated in the headspace above a brine saturated packed sand in a pressure vessel. As CO2 dissolved into the upper part of the saturated sand, liquid phase density increases causing instability and setting off convective mixing. We obtained good agreement

  7. Performance modelling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, C.; Li, X.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a performance model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell that has sufficient accuracy for engineering applications with reduced computational requirements. The model includes electrochemical reaction in the catalyst layers and formulation for electrical resistance in the membrane, electrodes and bipolar plates, and employs engineering correlation for the reactant gas transport in the flow channels and through the electrodes. It is shown that the present model predictions are in reasonable agreement with known experimental observations, indicating that the present model can be employed for fuel cell stack and system modeling. The effect of various operating and design parameters on the cell performance has been investigated. It is found that mass transport limitations are the largest cause of performance loss in the cell when graphite is used as the material for bipolar plates and electrodes. If conducting polymers are substituted as construction materials, cell performance is expected to suffer considerably at high current densities due to their reduced electrical conductivity.

  8. Release of aged contaminants from weathered sediments: Effects of sorbate speciation on scaling of reactive transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chorover, Jon; Perdrial, Nico; Mueller, Karl; Strepka, Caleb; O???¢????????Day, Peggy; Rivera, Nelson; Um, Wooyong; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Steefel, Carl; Thompson, Aaron

    2012-11-05

    Hanford sediments impacted by hyperalkaline high level radioactive waste have undergone incongruent silicate mineral weathering concurrent with contaminant uptake. In this project, we studied the impact of background pore water (BPW) on strontium, cesium and iodine desorption and transport in Hanford sediments that were experimentally weathered by contact with simulated hyperalkaline tank waste leachate (STWL) solutions. Using those lab-weathered Hanford sediments (HS) and model precipitates formed during nucleation from homogeneous STWL solutions (HN), we (i) provided thorough characterization of reaction products over a matrix of field-relevant gradients in contaminant concentration, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and reaction time; (ii) improved molecular-scale understanding of how sorbate speciation controls contaminant desorption from weathered sediments upon removal of caustic sources; and (iii) developed a mechanistic, predictive model of meso- to field-scale contaminant reactive transport under these conditions. In this final report, we provide detailed descriptions of our results from this three-year study, completed in 2012 following a one-year no cost extension.

  9. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CX-002287: Categorical Exclusion Determination Progress and Status on Through-Plane Resistance and Conductivity Measurement of Fuel Cell Membranes Transport Modeling Working Group ...

  10. Non-equilibrium STLS approach to transport properties of single...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on the non-equilibrium Kondo effect and the transport properties of the symmetric single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) at zero temperature by generalizing the ...

  11. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies Fundamental Issues in Subzero PEMFC Startup and Operation Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization

  12. Phase II Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John McCord

    2004-12-01

    This report documents pertinent hydrologic data and data analyses as part of the Phase II Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) for Frenchman Flat (FF) Corrective Action Unit (CAU): CAU 98. The purpose of this data compilation and related analyses is to provide the primary reference to support the development of the Phase II FF CAU groundwater flow model.

  13. Final Report Coupled In Silico Microbial and Geochemical Reactive Transport Models: Extension to Multi-Organism Communities, Upscaling, and Experimental Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovley, Derek R.

    2014-03-05

    The project was highly successful in improving the understanding of physiological and ecological factors controlling the growth and interaction of subsurface microorganisms and in developing better strategies for in silico modeling of the interactions of subsurface microorganisms with other species and their environment.

  14. Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced ...

  15. The Complex Systems Landscape of Future Urban Transportation | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory The Complex Systems Landscape of Future Urban Transportation In an effort "to examine the nexus of energy and mobility for future transportation systems," the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has launched the Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility consortium. By studying mobility as a system researchers can predict future trends, an invaluable asset to policymakers as they prepare for the future of transportation. This

  16. Fokker–Planck kinetic modeling of suprathermal α-particles in a fusion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peigney, B.E.

    2014-12-01

    We present an ion kinetic model describing the transport of suprathermal α-particles in inertial fusion targets. The analysis of the underlying physical model enables us to develop efficient numerical methods to simulate the creation, transport and collisional relaxation of fusion reaction products (α-particles) at a kinetic level. The model assumes spherical symmetry in configuration space and axial symmetry in velocity space around the mean flow velocity. A two-energy-scale approach leads to a self-consistent modeling of the coupling between suprathermal α-particles and the thermal bulk of the imploding plasma. This method provides an accurate numerical treatment of energy deposition and transport processes involving suprathermal particles. The numerical tools presented here are then validated against known analytical results. This enables us to investigate the potential role of ion kinetic effects on the physics of ignition and thermonuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion schemes.

  17. Fuel Model | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Model This model informs analyses of the availability of transportation fuel in the event the fuel supply chain is disrupted. The portion of the fuel supply system...

  18. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical reaction media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramaniam, B.

    1995-05-01

    The goal of the proposed research is to develop novel reactor operating strategies for the catalytic conversion of syngas to transportation grade fuels and oxygenates using near-critical (nc) fluids as reaction media. This will be achieved through systematic investigations aimed at a better fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical rate processes underlying catalytic syngas conversion in nc reaction media. Syngas conversion to fuels and fuel additives on Fe catalysts (Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) was investigated. Specific objectives are to investigate the effects of various nc media, their flow rates and operating pressure on syngas conversion, reactor temperature profiles, product selectivity and catalyst activity in trickle-bed reactors. Solvents that exhibit gas to liquid-like densities with relatively moderate pressure changes (from 25 to 60 bars) at typical syngas conversion temperatures (in the 220-280{degree}C range) will be chosen as reaction media.

  19. Future of Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation In the coming decades, transportation in the U.S. is expected to change radically in response to environmental constraints, fluctuating oil availability and economic factors. Future Decision-Makers The transportation systems that emerge in the 21 st century will be defined largely by the choices, skills and imaginations of today's youth. Future Workforce As scientists and engineers, they will develop new vehicle and fuel technologies. As citizens, they will make decisions

  20. Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intelligent Transportation Systems This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - TRACC Director Background The development and deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in the United States is an effort of national importance. Through the use of advanced computing, control, and communication technologies, ITS promises to greatly improve the efficiency and safety of the existing surface transportation system and reduce the

  1. National Transportation Stakeholders Forum

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    N ti l T t ti National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Chicago, IL, May 26, 2010 Ahmad Al-Daouk Date and page number - 1 Director, National Security Department National Nuclear Security Administration Service Center - Albuquerque, NM National Transportation Stakeholders Forum OSRP * NNSA Contractors transporting in commerce, are required law to comply with applicable regulations required law to comply with applicable regulations (e.g. federal, local, tribal) * Great majority of NNSA shipments

  2. The Underground Test Area Project of the Nevada Test Site: Building Confidence in Groundwater Flow and Transport Models at Pahute Mesa Through Focused Characterization Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawloski, G A; Wurtz, J; Drellack, S L

    2009-12-29

    Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site contains about 8.0E+07 curies of radioactivity caused by underground nuclear testing. The Underground Test Area Subproject has entered Phase II of data acquisition, analysis, and modeling to determine the risk to receptors from radioactivity in the groundwater, establish a groundwater monitoring network, and provide regulatory closure. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination at Pahute Mesa is particularly difficult due to the complex stratigraphy and structure caused by multiple calderas in the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field and overprinting of Basin and Range faulting. Included in overall Phase II goals is the need to reduce the uncertainty and improve confidence in modeling results. New characterization efforts are underway, and results from the first year of a three-year well drilling plan are presented.

  3. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.; Buksa, J.J.; Creedson, R.L.; Erlandson, O.D.; Levine, H.E.; Roelant, D.F.; Sanchez, H.W.; Schrader, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li/sub 2/O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li/sub 2/O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li/sub 2/O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive.

  4. Methods and computer executable instructions for rapidly calculating simulated particle transport through geometrically modeled treatment volumes having uniform volume elements for use in radiotherapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frandsen, Michael W.; Wessol, Daniel E.; Wheeler, Floyd J.

    2001-01-16

    Methods and computer executable instructions are disclosed for ultimately developing a dosimetry plan for a treatment volume targeted for irradiation during cancer therapy. The dosimetry plan is available in "real-time" which especially enhances clinical use for in vivo applications. The real-time is achieved because of the novel geometric model constructed for the planned treatment volume which, in turn, allows for rapid calculations to be performed for simulated movements of particles along particle tracks there through. The particles are exemplary representations of neutrons emanating from a neutron source during BNCT. In a preferred embodiment, a medical image having a plurality of pixels of information representative of a treatment volume is obtained. The pixels are: (i) converted into a plurality of substantially uniform volume elements having substantially the same shape and volume of the pixels; and (ii) arranged into a geometric model of the treatment volume. An anatomical material associated with each uniform volume element is defined and stored. Thereafter, a movement of a particle along a particle track is defined through the geometric model along a primary direction of movement that begins in a starting element of the uniform volume elements and traverses to a next element of the uniform volume elements. The particle movement along the particle track is effectuated in integer based increments along the primary direction of movement until a position of intersection occurs that represents a condition where the anatomical material of the next element is substantially different from the anatomical material of the starting element. This position of intersection is then useful for indicating whether a neutron has been captured, scattered or exited from the geometric model. From this intersection, a distribution of radiation doses can be computed for use in the cancer therapy. The foregoing represents an advance in computational times by multiple factors of time magnitudes.

  5. Final Report: A Transport Phenomena Based Approach to Probe Evolution of Weld Macro and Microstructures and A Smart Bi-directional Model of Fusion Welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Tarasankar DebRoy

    2009-12-11

    In recent years, applications of numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models of fusion welding have resulted in improved understanding of both the welding processes and welded materials. They have been used to accurately calculate thermal cycles and fusion zone geometry in many cases. Here we report the following three major advancements from this project. First, we show how microstructures, grain size distribution and topology of welds of several important engineering alloys can be computed starting from better understanding of the fusion welding process through numerical heat transfer and fluid flow calculations. Second, we provide a conclusive proof that the reliability of numerical heat transfer and fluid flow calculations can be significantly improved by optimizing several uncertain model parameters. Third, we demonstrate how the numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models can be combined with a suitable global optimization program such as a genetic algorithm for the tailoring of weld attributes such as attaining a specified weld geometry or a weld thermal cycle. The results of the project have been published in many papers and a listing of these are included together with a list of the graduate thesis that resulted from this project. The work supported by the DOE award has resulted in several important national and international awards. A listing of these awards and the status of the graduate students are also presented in this report.

  6. Evaluation of impact limiter performance during end-on and slapdown drop tests of a one-third scale model storage/transport cask system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Bronowski, D.R.; Uncapher, W.L.; Attaway, S.W.; Bateman, V.I.; Carne, T.G.; Gregory, D.L. ); Huerta, M. )

    1990-12-01

    This report describes drop testing of a one-third scale model shipping cask system. Two casks were designed and fabricated by Transnuclear, Inc., to ship spent fuel from the former Nuclear Fuel Services West Valley reprocessing facility in New York to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for a long-term spent fuel dry storage demonstration project. As part of the NRC's regulatory certification process, one-third scale model tests were performed to obtain experimental data on impact limiter performance during impact testing. The objectives of the testing program were to (1) obtain deceleration and displacement information for the cask and impact limiter system, (2) obtain dynamic force-displacement data for the impact limiters, (3) verify the integrity of the impact limiter retention system, and (4) examine the crush behavior of the limiters. Two 30-ft (9-m) drop tests were conducted on a mass model of the cask body and scaled balsa and redwood-filled impact limiters. This report describes the results of both tests in terms of measured decelerations, posttest deformation measurements, and the general structural response of the system. 3 refs., 32 figs.

  7. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-09-23

    Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

  8. Sustainable Transportation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in transportation technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel cell technologies.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Snapshot

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This snapshot is a summary of the EERE reports that provide a detailed analysis of opportunities and challenges along the path to a more sustainable transportation energy future.

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Snapshot

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    modes, manage the demand for transportation, and shift the fuel mix to more sustainable sources necessary to reach these significant outcomes. Coordinating a...

  11. Natural Gas Transportation Resiliency

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Transportation Resiliency Anders Johnson Director Pipeline System Design April 29, 2014 Confidential and Illustrative for discussion purposes only. The views expressed in this...

  12. NREL: Transportation Research - Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities A Vision for Sustainable Transportation Line graph illustrating three pathways (biofuel, hydrogen, and electric vehicle) to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas ...

  13. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  14. Integrated Solar Thermochemical Reaction System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, is working to develop and demonstrate a high-performance solar thermochemical reaction system in an end-to-end demonstration that produces electricity. A highly efficient solar thermochemical reaction system would allow for 24-hour operation without the need for storage technology, and reductions in total system costs while providing a relatively low-risk deployment option for CSP systems.

  15. Influence of lithium hydroxide on alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulteel, D.; Garcia-Diaz, E.; Degrugilliers, P.

    2010-04-15

    Several papers show that the use of lithium limits the development of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of lithium's role on the alteration mechanism of ASR. The approach used is a chemical method which allowed a quantitative measurement of the specific degree of reaction of ASR. The chemical concrete sub-system used, called model reactor, is composed of the main ASR reagents: reactive aggregate, portlandite and alkaline solution. Different reaction degrees are measured and compared for different alkaline solutions: NaOH, KOH and LiOH. Alteration by ASR is observed with the same reaction degrees in the presence of NaOH and KOH, accompanied by the consumption of hydroxyl concentration. On the other hand with LiOH, ASR is very limited. Reaction degree values evolve little and the hydroxyl concentration remains about stable. These observations demonstrate that lithium ions have an inhibitor role on ASR.

  16. Scale-Dependent Rates of Uranyl Surface Complexation Reaction in Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Zachara, John M.; Zhu, Weihuang

    2013-03-15

    Scale-dependency of uranyl[U(VI)] surface complexation rates was investigated in stirred flow-cell and column systems using a U(VI)-contaminated sediment from the US Department of Energy, Hanford site, WA. The experimental results were used to estimate the apparent rate of U(VI) surface complexation at the grain-scale and in porous media. Numerical simulations using molecular, pore-scale, and continuum models were performed to provide insights into and to estimate the rate constants of U(VI) surface complexation at the different scales. The results showed that the grain-scale rate constant of U(VI) surface complexation was over 3 to 10 orders of magnitude smaller, dependent on the temporal scale, than the rate constant calculated using the molecular simulations. The grain-scale rate was faster initially and slower with time, showing the temporal scale-dependency. The largest rate constant at the grain-scale decreased additional 2 orders of magnitude when the rate was scaled to the porous media in the column. The scaling effect from the grain-scale to the porous media became less important for the slower sorption sites. Pore-scale simulations revealed the importance of coupled mass transport and reactions in both intragranular and inter-granular domains, which caused both spatial and temporal dependence of U(VI) surface complexation rates in the sediment. Pore-scale simulations also revealed a new rate-limiting mechanism in the intragranular porous domains that the rate of coupled diffusion and surface complexation reaction was slower than either process alone. The results provided important implications for developing models to scale geochemical/biogeochemical reactions.

  17. Method for conducting exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence (Bellaire, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  18. Method for conducting exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-01-05

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  19. Solar-thermal reaction processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W; Dahl, Jaimee K; Lewandowski, Allan A; Bingham, Carl; Raska Buechler, Karen J; Grothe, Willy

    2014-03-18

    In an embodiment, a method of conducting a high temperature chemical reaction that produces hydrogen or synthesis gas is described. The high temperature chemical reaction is conducted in a reactor having at least two reactor shells, including an inner shell and an outer shell. Heat absorbing particles are included in a gas stream flowing in the inner shell. The reactor is heated at least in part by a source of concentrated sunlight. The inner shell is heated by the concentrated sunlight. The inner shell re-radiates from the inner wall and heats the heat absorbing particles in the gas stream flowing through the inner shell, and heat transfers from the heat absorbing particles to the first gas stream, thereby heating the reactants in the gas stream to a sufficiently high temperature so that the first gas stream undergoes the desired reaction(s), thereby producing hydrogen or synthesis gas in the gas stream.

  20. Electroabsorption and transport measurements and modeling in amorphous-silicon-based solar cells: Phase I technical progress report, 24 March 1998--23 March 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiff, E. A.; Lyou, J.; Kopidakis, N.; Rao, P.; Yuan, Q.

    1999-12-17

    This report describes work done by the Syracuse University during Phase 1 of this subcontract. Researchers performed work in the following areas: (1) In ``Electroabsorption measurements and built-in potentials in a-Si:H-based solar cells and devices'', researchers obtained an estimate of Vbi = 1.17 V in cells with a-SiGe:H absorber layers from United Solar Systems Corp. (2) In ``Solar cell modeling employing the AMPS computer program'', researchers began operating a simple AMPS modeling site and explored the effect of conduction bandtail width on Voc computed analytical approximations and the AMPS program. The quantitative differences between the two procedures are discussed. (3) In ``Drift mobility measurements in a-Si:H made with high hydrogen dilution'', researchers measured electron and hole mobilities in several n/i/Ni (semitransparent) cells from Pennsylvania State University with a-Si absorber layers made under maximal hydrogen dilution and found a modest increase in hole mobility in these materials compared to conventional a-Si:H. (4) In ``Electroabsorption spectroscopy in solar cells'', researchers discovered and interpreted an infrared absorption band near 1.0 eV, which they believe is caused by dopants and defects at the n/i interface of cells, and which also has interesting implications for the nature of electroabsorption and for the doping mechanism in n-type material.

  1. Railroad transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooden, D.G.

    1986-03-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of rail operations that are important for assessing the risk of transporting high-level nuclear waste. The major emphasis of the discussion is towards ''general freight'' shipments of radioactive material. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for selecting models and parameters that are appropriate for assessing the risk of rail transportation of nuclear waste.

  2. Angular quadratures for improved transport computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abu-Shumays, I.K.

    1999-07-22

    This paper introduces new octant-range, composite-type Gauss and mid-point rule angular quadrature formulas for neutron and photon transport computations. A generalization to octant-range quadratures is also introduced in order to allow for discontinuities at material interfaces for two- and three-dimensional transport problems which can be modeled with 60-degree triangular or hexagonal mesh subdivisions in the x-y plane.

  3. Regional Transportation Simulation Tool for Emergency Planning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rtstep-diag TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling Regional Transportation Simulation Tool for Emergency Evacuation Planning (Click to play movie) Large-scale evacuations from major cities during no-notice events - such as chemical or radiological attacks, hazardous material spills, or earthquakes - have an obvious impact on large regions rather than on just the directly affected area. The scope of impact includes the

  4. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PVLibMatlab Permalink Gallery Sandia Labs Releases New Version of PVLib Toolbox Modeling, News, Photovoltaic, Solar Sandia Labs Releases New Version of PVLib Toolbox Sandia has released version 1.3 of PVLib, its widely used Matlab toolbox for modeling photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The version 1.3 release includes the following added functions: functions to estimate parameters for popular PV module models, including PVsyst and the CEC '5 parameter' model a new model of the effects of solar

  5. Transport Version 3

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-05-16

    The Transport version 3 (T3) system uses the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) to move data from sources to a Data Reporisoty (DR). Interested recipients subscribe to newsgroups to retrieve data. Data in transport is protected by AES-256 and RSA cryptographic services provided by the external OpenSSL cryptographic libraries.

  6. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-04-04

    To establish safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1A. Canceled by DOE O 460.1C.

  7. Reduction and carburization reactions in the iron bath smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uemura, Kenichiro

    1993-01-01

    Slag-metal-coal reactions in the iron-bath smelter were analyzed based on a reaction model. It was concluded that the productivity and carbon content of the hot metal produced in a smelter can be controlled by adjusting the slag volume and iron oxide content in slag. Furthermore, iron oxide content is determined by the slag volume and the stirring intensity of the slag.

  8. Heavy Element Synthesis Reaction Mechanisms W. Loveland Oregon State University

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reaction Mechanisms W. Loveland Oregon State University Production of Heavy Elements in Complete Fusion Reactions * We need to know three spin-dependent quantities: (a) the capture cross section, (b) the fusion probability and (c) the survival probability, and their isospin dependence where Examples of cold fusion predictions The problem Hot fusion examples "How good are the model predictions of cross sections" * Very controversial Zagrebaev and Greiner (2015) Zagrebaev et al. (2001)

  9. Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon acep_01_larson.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Chemical Kinetic Models for Lean NOx Traps Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled

  10. Reactive Transport and Coupled THM Processes in Engineering Barrier Systems (EBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steefel, Carl; Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Liu, Hui-Hai; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    Geological repositories for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The multi-barrier system typically consists of a natural barrier system, including repository host rock and its surrounding subsurface environment, and an engineering barrier system (EBS). EBS represents the man-made, engineered materials placed within a repository, including the waste form, waste canisters, buffer materials, backfill and seals (OECD, 2003). EBS plays a significant role in the containment and long-term retardation of radionuclide release. EBS is involved in complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical and biological processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow (including gas release due to canister corrosion), swelling of buffer materials, radionuclide diffusive transport, waste dissolution and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) for EBS and the entire repository. Within the EBS group of Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign, LBNL is currently focused on (1) thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in buffer materials (bentonite) and (2) diffusive transport in EBS associated with clay host rock, with a long-term goal to develop a full understanding of (and needed modeling capabilities to simulate) impacts of coupled processes on radionuclide transport in different components of EBS, as well as the interaction between near-field host rock (e.g., clay) and EBS and how they effect radionuclide release. This final report documents the progress that LBNL has made in its focus areas. Specifically, Section 2 summarizes progress on literature review for THMC processes and reactive-diffusive radionuclide transport in bentonite. The literature review provides a picture of the state-of-the-art of the relevant research areas addressed by LBNL. Section 3 documents the current modeling tools, available at LBNL, for the EBS study. This may be important for identifying future modeling activities within the EBS group with these current capabilities and needs for future EBS modeling development. Section 4 presents the results of geomechanical modeling using the Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) constitutive relationship for thermo-elasto-plastic media such as bentonite and an update on reactive-diffusive transport modeling approaches through bentonite in the EBS. Section 5 discusses identified knowledge gaps and technical issues as well as short- and long-term R&D plans.

  11. The reaction of acetylene with hydroxyl radicals.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Senosiain, Juan P.; Miller, James A.

    2005-02-01

    The potential energy surface for the reaction between OH and acetylene has been calculated using the RQCISD(T) method and extrapolated to the complete basis-set limit. Rate coefficients were determined for a wide range of temperatures and pressures, based on this surface and the solution of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional master equations. With a small adjustment to the association energy barrier (1.1 kcal/mol), agreement with experiments is good, considering the discrepancies in such data. The rate coefficient for direct hydrogen abstraction is significantly smaller than that commonly used in combustion models. Also in contrast to previous models, ketene + H is found to be the main product at normal combustion conditions. At low temperatures and high pressures, stabilization of the C{sub 2}H{sub 2}OH adduct is the dominant process. Rate coefficient expressions for use in modeling are provided.

  12. Phase I Flow and Transport Model Document for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1 with ROTCs 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Robert

    2013-09-01

    The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 97, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, in the northeast part of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) requires environmental corrective action activities to assess contamination resulting from underground nuclear testing. These activities are necessary to comply with the UGTA corrective action strategy (referred to as the UGTA strategy). The corrective action investigation phase of the UGTA strategy requires the development of groundwater flow and contaminant transport models whose purpose is to identify the lateral and vertical extent of contaminant migration over the next 1,000 years. In particular, the goal is to calculate the contaminant boundary, which is defined as a probabilistic model-forecast perimeter and a lower hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) boundary that delineate the possible extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear testing. Because of structural uncertainty in the contaminant boundary, a range of potential contaminant boundaries was forecast, resulting in an ensemble of contaminant boundaries. The contaminant boundary extent is determined by the volume of groundwater that has at least a 5 percent chance of exceeding the radiological standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (CFR, 2012).

  13. Will water act as a photocatalyst for cluster phase chemical reactions? Vibrational overtone-induced dehydration reaction of methanediol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Zeb C.; Takahashi, Kaito; Skodje, Rex T.; Vaida, Veronica

    2012-04-28

    The possibility of water catalysis in the vibrational overtone-induced dehydration reaction of methanediol is investigated using ab initio dynamical simulations of small methanediol-water clusters. Quantum chemistry calculations employing clusters with one or two water molecules reveal that the barrier to dehydration is lowered by over 20 kcal/mol because of hydrogen-bonding at the transition state. Nevertheless, the simulations of the reaction dynamics following OH-stretch excitation show little catalytic effect of water and, in some cases, even show an anticatalytic effect. The quantum yield for the dehydration reaction exhibits a delayed threshold effect where reaction does not occur until the photon energy is far above the barrier energy. Unlike thermally induced reactions, it is argued that competition between reaction and the irreversible dissipation of photon energy may be expected to raise the dynamical threshold for the reaction above the transition state energy. It is concluded that quantum chemistry calculations showing barrier lowering are not sufficient to infer water catalysis in photochemical reactions, which instead require dynamical modeling.

  14. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine Combustion/Modeling - Modelingadmin2015-10-28T01:54:52+00:00 Modelers at the CRF are developing high-fidelity simulation tools for engine combustion and detailed micro-kinetic, surface chemistry modeling tools for catalyst-based exhaust aftertreatment systems. The engine combustion modeling is focused on developing Large Eddy Simulation (LES). LES is being used with closely coupled key target experiments to reveal new understanding of the fundamental processes involved in engine

  15. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology This is the May 2015 issue of the Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter. May 28, 2015 Photo of a car refueling at a hydrogen dispensing station. DOE's H2FIRST project focuses on accelerating the acceptance of hydrogen infrastructure. Photo by John De La Rosa, NREL 33660 New H2FIRST Reports Detail Hydrogen Station Designs, Contaminant Detection Two new reports have been published by NREL and Sandia National Laboratories

  16. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sustainable Mobility Sustainable Mobility This is the January 2016 issue of the Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter. January 26, 2016 Photo of a red electric vehicle in front of ESIF A recent mobility workshop showcased an array of plug-in electric, hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Image by Ellen Jaskol/NREL 35097 Summit Explores the Future of Dynamic Mobility Systems NREL brought together local and national thought leaders to discuss the convergence of connectivity,

  17. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  18. Fermilab | Visit Fermilab | Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Transportation to and from Chicago O'Hare Airport or Midway Airport is available by limousine, taxi or car rental. Transportation to and from the Geneva local commuter Metra train station on the Union Pacific West line is available by taxi or Pace Call-n-Ride. Car rental All of the usual rental companies (such as Hertz, Avis, Budget and National) are located at the airports. For the best price, we recommend Ace Rent-a-Car at O'Hare Airport, telephone 1-800-243-3443 or

  19. National Transportation Stakeholders Forum

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transportation Stakeholders Forum May 14-16, 2013 Tuesday, May 14 7:00 am - 5:00 pm Registration Niagara Foyer 7:00 am - 7:45 am Breakfast and Networking Grand A 8:00 am - 10:00 am National Updates for Transportation Stakeholder Groups and Guests - Panel Grand BC Moderator: John Giarrusso Jr., MA Emergency Management Agency / Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Co-Chair US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management - Steve O'Connor, Director, Office of

  20. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Download presentation slides from the June 19,...